Учебник Английский язык 8 класс Комарова Ларионова Макбет

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ФГОС ИННОВАЦИОННАЯ ШКОЛА Ю. А. Комарова И. В. Ларионова К. Макбет АНГЛИИСКИИ ЯЗЫК Учебник для 8 класса общеобразовательных учреждений Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации (экспертное заключение РАН № 10106-5215/259 от 12.10.2011 г., экспертное заключение РАО №01 -5/7д-599 от 24.10.2011 г.) Учебник соответствует Федеральному государственному образовательному стандарту Москва «Русское слово» MACMILLAN 2013 УДК 373.167.1:811 ББК81.2АНГЛ-9 К63 111*08(075.3) Авторы: Комарова Юлия Александровна, доктор педагогических наук, профессор, зав. кафедрой интенсивного обучения иностранным языкам Российского государственного педагогического университета им. А.И. Герцена; Ларионова Ирина Владимировна, зав. кабинетом иностранных языков Санкт-Петербургской академии постдипломного образования; Макбет Кэтрин, преподаватель английского языка как иностранного, редактор учебно-методической литературы по английскому языку, автор учебных пособий по английскому языку для детей среднего школьного возраста Научный редактор: Александрова Ольга Викторовна, профессор, доктор филологических наук, зав. кафедрой английского языкознания МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова, председатель секции романо-германской филологии Совета по филологии Комарова Ю.А. К63 Английский язык: учебник для 8 класса обш,еобразовательных учреждений / Ю.А. Комарова, И.В. Ларионова, К. Макбет. — М.: ООО «Русское слово — учебник»: Макмиллан, 2013. — 160 с.: ил. — (ФГОС. Инновационная школа). ISBN 978-5-91218-280-8 Учебник «Английский язык» для учащихся 8 класса входит в комплект учебников по английскому языку для средней школы. Он соответствует Федеральному государственному образовательному стандарту общего образования. Учебник входит в новую систему учебников для средней школы «Инновационная школа». Учебник предназначен для общеобразовательных учреждений: школ, гимназий и лицеев. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 *08(075.3) ББК81.2АНГЛ-9 С- ISBN 978-5-91218-280-8 © Ю.А. Комарова, 2013 © И.В. Ларионова, 2013 ©К. Макбет, 2013 © ООО «Русское слово — учебник», Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2013 Student's Book contents Starter unit Unit 1 Interesting Lives 20iUnit2 Crime Units Money, Money, Money! REVISION 1 9liUnit4 Extreme! Units New Media Unite Final Frontiers REVISION 2 m Unit? Global Citizens eOi Unit 8 Rights and Responsibilities ^\Unit9 Body and Soul REVISION 3 Across the curriculum Dictionary Irregular verbs page 6 page 9 page 21 page 33 page 45 page 49 page 61 page 73 page 85 page 89 page 101 page 113 page 125 page 130 page 148 page 159 (D Unit Vocabulary Grammar Reading & Listening Starter Page 6 Interesting Lives Page 9 Crime Page 21 Money, Money, Money! Page 33 ♦ Verbs, nouns and adjectives ♦ Achievements ♦ Personal qualities: opposite adjectives ♦ Crime and criminals ♦ Phrasal verbs ♦ Verbs related to money ♦ Nouns related to money ♦ be, have got, can and there is / there are ♦ Question words ♦ Present simple and adverbs of frequency ♦ Present continuous ♦ Present simple and present continuous ♦ Adverbs of frequency ♦ be: past simple and there was / there were ♦ Past simple ♦ Past continuous ♦ Past simple and past continuous ♦ Comparatives and superlatives ♦ too and not enough ♦ Quantity: some, any, much, many and a lot of ♦ R: Take the Challenge! ♦ L: A presentation ♦ R: Vanished! The mystery of Dan Cooper ♦ L: A radio phone-in programme ♦ R: Qne Red Paperclip ♦ L: Adverts REVISION 1 Page 45 Review your progress Extreme! Page 49 ♦ Adventure sports ♦ -ed and -ing adjectives ♦ Present perfect: affirmative and negative ♦ Present perfect: questions and short answers ♦ R: It’s a Dog's Life! ♦ L: Radio news Ш New Media Page 61 ♦ Digital media ♦ Websites, newspapers and magazines ♦ Present perfect with for and since ♦ Present perfect with just ♦ Present perfect and past simple ♦ R: The Ringtone Revolution ♦ L: A questionnaire Final Frontiers Page 73 ♦ Prepositions of movement ♦ Extreme adjectives ♦ will and might ♦ be going to ♦ First conditional ♦ R: From Spain to Quter Space! ♦ L: Plans for a trip REVISION 2 Page 85 Global Citizens Page 89 Review your progress ♦ Global issues ♦ Second conditional ♦ get ♦ Adverbs of possibility and probability ♦ R: Please Help the Global Village Fund! ♦ L: Dilemmas Rights and Responsibilities Page 101 ♦ Household chores ♦ Words that are verbs and nouns ♦ Obligation: have to / don't have to ♦ Obligation and prohibition: must/ mustn't and have to / don't have to ♦ Permission: can, could and be allowed to ♦ R: Negotiate with Your Parents! ♦ L: Talking about rules in a cafd Body and Soul Page 113 ♦ Appearance ♦ Adjective prefixes ♦ The passive: present simple ♦ Active to passive ♦ The passive: past simple ♦ must / mustn’t ♦ R: Time for a Hair Cut! ♦ L: Describing a process REVISIONS Page 125 Review your progress Culture Speaking & Pronunciation Writing Dialogue builder Across the curriculum ♦ Describing people and places Culture today ♦ Winning Women Culture today ♦ Crime Prevention ♦ Guessing a famous person from the past ♦ Sentence stress ♦ Talking about money ♦ [d] [t] [id] ♦ A profile ♦ Introducing examples ♦ A report of an event ♦ Adverbs of degree ♦ Meeting people Thanks for coming to meet me. How was your journey? ♦Asking for directions I'm looking for... How far is it? (c^ History Page 130 (cLIL) Sodal Science Page 132 Culture today ♦ Saver or Spender? ♦ Talking about your daily routine ♦[Э] ♦ A thank-you letter ♦ Phrases for thank-you letters ♦ Shopping Can I try these on, please? Have you got a bigger size? (cLIL) Maths Page 134 0 Culture today ♦ Meet the Volunteers ♦ Talking about experiences ♦ Intonation ♦ A blog ♦ Sentence adverbs ♦ Giving advice You should... You shouldn't (CLIU Anatomy Page 136 Culture today ♦ Youth Media Culture today ♦ Antarctic Cruise ♦ Giving reasons ♦ [I] [ai] ♦ Talking about a future holiday ♦ [u:] [au] [o] [эи] ♦ A website review ♦ Linkers of addition and contrast ♦ A description of a place ♦ Linkers of reason and result ♦ Making arrangements |(j Are you doing anything this afternoon? Do you want to come? ♦ Travelling on public transport Can I have a ticket to ..., please? How many stops is it? Page 138 (c^ Science Page 140 Culture today ♦ The Global Village Fund Culture today ♦ When Is It Legal? ♦ Discussing gift ideas for friends and family ♦ -tion ♦ Talking about obligations at school and at home ♦ can / can't, could / couldn't, are / aren't, were / weren't ♦ A composition: my opinion ♦ Giving your opinion ♦ Writing rules ♦ Correcting errors ♦ Agreeing and disagreeing / agree. Neither do I. ♦ Giving advice and expressing obligation You shouldn't... You must... (qIU Science Page 142 (c^ Geography Page 144 [0 Culture today ♦ 'Cruel' to Teens ♦ Talking about body art and appearance ♦ un-, im-, in- ♦ A personal description ♦ Planing your writing ♦ Accepting and declining invitation Would you like to ...? Yes, I'd love to. (cLIl) Design Page 146 Starter unit 1 Read the text. Which facts are new for you? Welcome to the UK! There are four countries in the UK: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The capital cities are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast. London has got a population of 7.8 million. There are two official languages in the UK: English and Welsh. The UK is a monarchy. The Queen is the head of state, but she can't make political decisions. Nearly 61 million people live in the UK, and about 30 million tourists visit every year. The UK's highest mountain is Ben Nevis in Scotland. The longest river is the Severn. It's 354 km long. The UK hasn't got a football team because each country plays separately. О Recycle Verbs, nouns and adjectives 2 Check the meaning of these words. Are they verbs, nouns or adjectives? country speak visit far people eat play red live city food happy high sport long 3 Can you find all the words from exercise 2 in the text? О Recycle be, have got, can and there is / there are 4 Correct the errors in these sentences. 1 There is two official languages in Britain. 2 Buckingham Palace have got more than 200 bedrooms. ’ 3 About 600 000 people can to speak Welsh. 4 The UK's highest mountain are in Scotland. 5 There's 7.8 million people in London. 6 England, Scotland and Wales has got national football teams. 5 Find example sentences with be, have got, can and there is/there are In the text. О Recycle Question words 6 Complete the questions with these words. Then read the text in exercise 1 again and answer the questions. What How Where How many Who Why countries are there in the UK? is the head of state in the UK? is London’s population? is Ben Nevis? long is the River Severn? hasn’t the UK got a football team? о Recycle Present simple and adverbs of frequency 7 Look at the table. Which form is different? + I / You live, He / She / It lives ... - I / You don’t live, He / She / It doesn’t live ... Do I / you live. Does he / she / it live ...? We use the present simple to talk about habits and routines. Name Nikita Gogolev Age 14 Address ul. Kutuzova, Vladivostok Family mum, dad, a brother and a sister School school # 2 Subjects 15 (Favourite = PE) Languages Russian and English Sports (£) football, © swimming Hobbies (2) video games, © shopping Penfriend Chris Jones, London 8 Read Nikita’s profile. Then write sentences with the verbs in brackets. live Nikita lives in Vladivostok. 1 go 2 study 3 not like 4 speak 5 like 6 enjoy 9 Write questions for these answers. Nikita. What's his name? 1 14. 4 No, he doesn't. 2 A brother and a sister. 5 PE. 3 Yes, he does. 6 London. 10 Look at the adverbs of frequency and then write sentences. never sometimes often usually always □ □ □□ □□□ □□□□ We use adverbs of frequency to say how often we do things. Nikita / do / his English homework. (□□□□) Nikita a\\NQys does his English homework. 1 He / write / to his penfriend in English. (□□□) 2 Chris / reply / in Russian. (□) 3 Nikita / listen/to British or American music. (□□□) 4 He / play football / after school. (□□) 5 He / watch / films in English. (□) О Recycle Present continuous 11 Copy and complete the table below for these verbs. sit write + I’m studying. You’re studying. He / She’s studying ... - I’m not studying. You aren’t studying. He /She isn’t studying ...______________ ? Am I studying. Are you studying. Is he / she studying...?________________________________ We use the present continuous to talk about things that are happening at the moment. 12 Complete Chris’s email. Use the present continuous form of these verbs. write send not look do work cook tell A e Hi Nikita, I’m writing a very quick email because my sister Amy wants to use the computer. She (1) ... her homework and needs to use the Internet. Anyway, I (2) ... you these pictures so you can see my family. I (3) ... at the camera but it doesn’t matter because you already know me!! Well, Amy (4) ... me that it’s her turn now so I must go. My parents (5) ... this evening so I (6) ... dinner!! See you soon, Chris 13 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer. What are you doing at the moment? What are you wearing? © ♦V Recycle Describing people and places 14 Read the conversation and choose the correct words. Are they subject pronouns, object pronouns or possessive adjectives? 1 her - possessive adjective n r\ CJ r m 2 ii 2 f? ii 0 ii 0 ii & 0 ii & Nikita What’s your family like? Chris Well, yoLjjmow I’ve got one sister, Amy. She’s 14 and she’s OK. I sometimes go out with (1) his ytlT^friends. Amy’s best friend Tanya is always at our house too! My mum and dad both work. (2) They / Them aren’t very strict and we all get on OK. Nikita What’s your flat like? Chris (3) It / Its isn’t a flat - it’s a typical English house. It’s got four bedrooms, so you can have (4) you / your own room when you come. (That’s better for (5) your / you because my room isn’t very tidy!!) Nikita Where do you live exactly? Chris (6) Our / Us house is in North London, near Finsbury Park tube station. It’s about 15 minutes from the city centre. Nikita What’s it like where you live? Chris It’s nice. There are lots of shops and cafes near my house, and there’s a sports centre too. There’s a big park where you can go skateboarding and cycling. Nikita Do you go out a lot? Chris I usually go out with (7) my / me friends at the weekend. We usually go to parties or to the cinema. But I don’t often meet (8) their / them during the week when I’ve got school. 15 Copy and complete the table with pronouns and possessive adjectives. subject pronouns 1 he it you object pronouns you her it us them possessive adjectives my his your 16 Order the words to make questions. Then read the conversation again and answer the questions. old / Amy / is / How ? How old is Amy? She's 14. 1 Tanya / is / Who ? 2 work / parents / Do / Chris’s ? 3 live / Chris / Does / in / a / flat ? 4 are / there / bedrooms / How / many ? 5 can / Where / you / cycling / go ? 6 go / When / Chris / out / does ? О Recycle Speaking 17 Look at the questions. How do you say them in your language? --------------------------tes® Describing people and places What’s your family like? What’s your house like? What’s it like where you live? Ч_______________________________ 18 Work in pairs. Ask and answer Nikita’s questions. What's your family like? ^ I've got a big family. I've got... Michael Phelps was at the Olympics in Sydney, Athens and Beijing. How many gold medals has he got in total? a) 6 b) 8 c) 14 Shakira was born in Colombia in 1977. Where does she live now? a) Brazil b) the Bahamas c) Spain Edison Arantes do Nascimento is now FIFA’s world football ambassador. What do people usually call him? a) Garrincha b) Ronaldo c) Pele The bilingual actress Eva Green speaks French and English. Which James Bond film was she in? a) Die Another Day b) Casino Royale c) Quantum of Solace Vocabulary 1 Achievements 1 Which achievements can you see in the pictures? Write sentences using the present continuous. There are two achievements you don’t need. 1 - She's winning a prize. О Recycle Write the names of peopie that do these interesting jobs. novelist - Iris Murdoch novelist footballer scientist inventor explorer athlete actor / actress win a race score a goal pass an exam write a novel win a prize get a certificate invent something make a scientific discovery go on an expedition do voluntary work 2 Г^Го^ Listen and repeat. 3 Write sentences about the jobs in the Recycie section. Use the achievements in exercise 1. A novelist writes novels. Pronunciation: sentence stress a <3® Listen and repeat. Stress the underlined syllables. He’s getting a certificate. They’re going on an expedition. b Copy these sentences. Then listen and underline the two stressed syllables. 1 He’s scoring a goal. 2 They’re helping my brother. 3 He’s winning the race. Reading ^ Vocabulary plus -> Workbook p116~ > (3® Read the text and choose the best heading A-E for each paragraph. Then listen and check. A Where can you do it? В Who can do it? C What is The Duke of Edinburgh's Award? D Why should I do it? E How long does it take? Read the text again and choose the best summary; a or b. a) It’s about famous people who win bronze, silver or gold medals for their achievements or humanitarian work. b) It’s about a programme of activities for young people in Britain, including skills, voluntary work and sports. WORDS IN Match the words and phrases. Then (CONTEXT translate the expressions. 1 take a) your skills 2 help b) the challenge 3 improve c) personal goals 4 make d) your community 5 achieve e) the time of your life 6 have f) new friends TAKE THE CHALLENGE! 1 ... Anyone aged between 14 and 24 can start their DofE programme, completing a variety of activities in their free time. There are three progressive levels of Awards: Bronze, Silver and Gold. People usually start with the Bronze. You don’t have to pass any exams - you simply choose one activity for each of the four sections (except at Gold level where there is an additional section - Residential): Volunteering: Be a local hero - do voluntary work and help your community. Skills: Learn something new, from astronomy to zoology! Physical: Are you the next Lionel Messi? Or Justina Kowaiczyk? Any sport, dance or fitness activity can count. Expedition: Go on an expedition and find yourself! Plan an adventure on foot or horseback, by boat or bike. 2 ... Absolutely anyone! If you’re 14, you can do your Bronze programme. You can do your Silver when you’re 15, and your Gold when you’re 16. Just remember, you must complete all sections of your programme before you’re 25. 3 ... Your Bronze programme will take at least six months to complete and then at least 12 months at Silver then 18 months at Gold. You can work on all the sections at the same time (but one activity can’t count for two sections!). 4 ... Almost anywhere in Britain! Schools, youth clubs and Scout groups often run the DofE. Just find your nearest DofE centre! 5 ... First of all - it’s great fun! It’s all about trying something new, improving your skills, and making new friends. Also, you’ll discover how choosing and achieving personal goals can change your life! The DofE is also very popular - more than 275 000 young people in the UK are doing it, and you get a certificate when you finish. Go on, take the challenge - you’ll have the time of your life! Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 How many levels are there? 2 What are the four sections of a DofE programme? 3 At what age can you start your Bronze programme? 4 How long does it take to your Silver programme? Which places run the DofE? 6 What are the advantages of doing your DofE programme? 8 Your voice Imagine you’re doing your Bronze DofE programme at your school. Think of activities to do for each section. Volunteering • Skills • Physical • Expedition 9 Work in pairs. Ask and answer. What are you doing for your Volunteering? Grammar 1 Present simple and present continuous 1 Read the examples. Which are present simple and which are present continuous? actions that are happening now___ At the moment, John is doing the Silver Award. Thousands of people are doing the Awards now. habits and routines People usually start with the Bronze Award. It always takes at least six months. 2 Copy and complete the table with these time expressions. at the moment always now every day today twice a week present simple present continuous alv\/ays 3 Rewrite the sentences so they are true for you. Use adverbs of frequency. Adverbs of frequency 0% 100% sometimes often usually always Adverbs of frequency go before most verbs. They go after the verb be. hardly ever My friends forget my birthday. 1 I play football on Saturdays. 2 It snows in my town. 3 Our teacher gives us homework after every class. 4 I am late for school. 5 We go to school on Sundays. 6 I watch TV in the evening. 4 Correct the sentences. Write one negative and one affirmative sentence in the present continuous. We’re speaking French at the moment. (Л English) We aren't speaking French at the moment, we're speaking English. 1 I’m wearing jeans today. (/ trousers) 2 My parents are playing tennis now. (/ work) 3 Our teacher is sleeping at the moment, (x talk) 4 I’m sitting in the library now. (x classroom) 5 We’re listening to music. (X study grammar) 5 Choose the correct form of the verbs. Tim Hi! What (1) are you doing / do you do? Alex At the moment, I (2) wait /’m waiting for the bus. Tim (3) Are you wanting / Do you want to meet in town? Alex Sorry, I can’t. I (4) ’m going / go to the football ground. I (5) always help /’m always helping at the training session on Saturdays. Tim Oh. What time (6) is it finishing / does it finish? Alex Err... oh no! Tim What? Are you OK? Alex Yeah, it’s just that it (7) ’s raining / rains and I (8) get /’m getting very wet. This bus is always late! Complete the sentences. Use the present simple and present continuous in each pair. 1 a) He ... (not wear) a school uniform today, b) He always ... (wear) sports clothes. 2 a) Our teacher... (work) now. b) She ... (not work) at the weekends. 3 a) I ... (not use) a computer at the moment, b) We sometimes ... (use) computers. 4 a) We ... (study) English at the moment, b) We ... (not study) English every day. Order the words to make questions. Then answer the questions. 1 you / What / are / now / doing ? 2 do / Sundays / usually / What / do / you / on ? 3 today / you / What / wearing / are ? 4 do / usually / you / the / wear / at / weekend / What? 5 study / often / you / do / How / English ? 8 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions above. Language Guide p19 > Listening A presentation 1 Look at the information about Katie and John’s Awards. What voluntary work are they doing? Name Katie Wright Age 14 Award Bronze Service volunteer DJ for hospital radio Skill (1) .. Physical recreation (2) ............... Expedition (3) on.... Name John Burton Age 15 Award silver Service voluntary work as a lifeguard Skill (4) Physical recreation (5)................ Expedition (6) by 2 Listen to Katie and John’s presentation. Complete the forms with these words. aerobics photography bike cookery foot canoeing 3 (122J Listen again and choose the correct answers. 1 Katie is learning ... cookery. a) vegetarian b) Indian 2 Katie goes to aerobics with ... a) her sister. b) her friends. 3 Katie’s expedition is in ... a) North Wales. b) Scotland. 4 John does his voluntary work on ... a) Saturday mornings. b) Sunday afternoons. 5 John goes canoeing with ... a) his uncle. b) the Scouts. 6 John thinks ... is the best part of the Award, a) the expedition b) the service Vocabulary 2 Personal qualities: opposite adjectives 4 Match the adjectives with their opposites. Use a dictionary to help you. generous - mean generous confident hard-working caring easy-going sociable mean shy quiet selfish stressed lazy 5 Listen, check and repeat. 6 Complete the sentences with adjectives from exercise 4. 1 My aunt and uncle are very ... They always give me £50 for my birthday. 2 Paula is a very ... person. She always thinks about herself first. 3 My brother’s really ... He likes going to parties and meeting new people. 4 I don’t like exams. I always feel ... before a test. 5 Danny isn’t very ... He doesn’t believe in his abilities. 6 I like my friends because they’re ... They’re always relaxed. 7 Which adjectives from exercise 4 describe these people? 8 Your voice Complete the sentences with adjectives of character. 1 I’m usually ..., but I’m sometimes ... 2 Good role models are ... They’re never. 3 I like my best friend because he / she’s . @ Culture today ТОГппГпш mm Doris Lessing is a famous British writer. Her books include The Golden Notebook and The Grass is S'mg'mg. In 2007, she was the oldest person to win a Nobel Prize -at the age of 87! In addition to being a writer, Doris Lessing was also a campaigner against apartheid in South Africa. In 2004, Wangari Maathai was the first African woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize. Her great achievement was to plant trees in Kenya. When Wangari was young, there were a lot of trees in her country, but later there was a process of deforestation. As a result, there wasn't enough food and clean water. Wangari and her friends were very hard-working - they planted 30 million trees! DID YOU KNOW...? There are more than 770 Nobel Prize winners, but only 34 are women! Read the text quickly. Match paragraphs 1-4 with these Nobel Prize categories. peace medicine science literature (5^ Read and listen to the text. Look at these definitions and then find the words in the text. a substance that causes explosions a system of racism that existed in South Africa something successful that a person does when trees disappear Nobel Prize winners There are six Nobel Prizes every year, for literature, peace, economics, medicine, physics and chemistry. The first Nobel Prizes were in 1901. Their founder was Alfred Nobel, a Swedish scientist, inventor and author. Nobel was the inventor of dynamite, but he was also a pacifist. Gertrude Elion was an American biochemist. She was the winner of the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1988. When Gertrude was young, there weren't many opportunities for female scientists. But she was confident, and in the end her work was very important. Her inventions include drugs for diseases like malaria and leukemia. Marie Curie was a Polish scientist, and she was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. In fact, she was the winner of two Nobel Prizes - for physics (1903) and chemistry (1911). Marie Curie's great discovery was radium. In the family there were three Nobel Prize winners -Marie Curie, her husband Pierre and their daughter Irene. 5 illnesses, sicknesses 6 a science subject: physics, biology and Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 Who was the oldest woman to win a Nobel Prize? 2 Where was Wangari Maathai born? 3 What was her great achievement? 4 Was Gertrude Elion a writer? 5 Why is Marie Curie famous? 6 How many Nobel winners were there in her family? Your voice Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you think girls and boys are good at different things? 2 Have a class vote: do you prefer science or arts subjects? (S) the BIG DEBATE© Workbook p125 Grammar 2 be: past simple and there was / there were 1 Read the examples. What are the negative and question forms? was / were and there was / there were She was a scientist. They were Nobel prize winners. There was a problem. There were 34 female winners. 2 Match the questions and answers. 1 Was the first Nobel Prize ceremony in 1901 ? 2 Were there a lot of female winners last century? 3 Were Marie Curie and her husband American? 4 Were there other winners in Marie Curie’s family? 5 Was Gertrude Elion Spanish? 6 Was there an African winner in 2004? a) No, she wasn’t. b) Yes, there were. c) Yes, there was. d) Yes, it was. e) No, there weren’t. f) No, they weren’t. 3 Complete the text with was / were or there was / there were. Andrei Sakharov (1) ... the winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1975. He (2) ... an eminent nuclear physicist of the Soviet Union and a defender of human rights and democracy. (3) ... an atomic bomb project in the Soviet Union, which Sakharov joined in 1948. (4) ... plans to test a 100-megaton hydrogen bomb in the atmosphere in 1961. Sakharov (5) ... the only one who openly protested against that testing. It (6) ... Solzhenitsyn who nominated Sakharov for the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1973. Andrei Sakharov (7) ... one of the world’s great thinkers, who presented a vision for a peaceful society where (8) ... respect for human rights. Speaking Think of a famous person from the past. Work in pairs. Ask and answer to guess the famous person. Where was he / she from? What his / her job? When he / she born? Book comer О Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct answers to complete the text. Interesting lives: the Bronte sisters In our English class at the moment we (1)... 'Wuthering Heights' by Emily Bronte. People (2)... a classic, and i (3)... really enjoying it. It's a dramatic love story about two characters called Cathy and Heathcliff. Emily Bronte and her sisters Charlotte and Anne were born in England in the 19th century. Atthattime, there (4)... any opportunities for female writers and it (5)... possible \or women to publish books. But Emilyand her sisters (6)... determined, and they used men's names: Ellis, Currerand Acton Bell. 'Wuthering Heights' (7)... Emily's only novel, but I think it was a fantastic achievement. Now they (8)... a new film of the story. a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) reading b) often call it b) b) b) b) b) b) b) m wasn’t was are was make ’re reading call it often ’re weren’t wasn’t was were ’re making c) read c) call often c) ’s c) were c) weren’t c) were c) there was c) making 2 Listen and check. Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronti Language Guide p19 > Writing dossier A profile 1 Read the profile and answer the questions. 1 Why is Scarlett Johansson famous? 2 What does she do for Oxfam? 3 What is she doing at the moment? Scarlettjohansson Scarlettjohcmsson is cm American actress. She's famous for films like ‘The Nanny Diaries’ and ‘Vicky Cristina Barcelona’. Scarlettwas born in New York in 1984, and she was a drama student In л/ianhattan when she wasyounq. Now Scarlett works with famoas directors including Woody Allen and Brian de Palma, in addition to acting, she's also a global ambassador for Oxfam*. She visits a lot of different countries such as India and Sri tanka. At the moment Scarlett is making two new films. She's also promoting her first CD, ‘Anywhere I Lay my Head’. Oxfam is an international humanitarian agency. 2 Look at the Language focus. How do you say like, including and such as in your language? Language focus: introducing examples She’s famous for films like The Nanny Diaries and Girl with a Pearl Earring. She works with famous directors including Woody Allen and Brian de Palma. She visits a lot of different countries such as India and Sri Lanka. 3 Complete the sentences with your own ideas. 1 I study a lot of different subjects including ... 2 1 like films such as ... 3 My friends and I go to places like ... 4 At school we read books such as ... 5 I usually listen to bands like ... Writing plan фР1ап a profile about Yevgeny Mironov. Read the information and answer the questions. 1 Why is he famous? 2 When and where was he born? 3 Who does he work with now? 4 What humanitarian work does he do? 5 What is he doing at the moment? Yevgeny Mironov: Russian actor and Artistic Director of the State Theater of Nations Famous films - Dreaming of Space, The Idiot Born -1966, Saratov, Russia Works with - Peter Stein, Oleg Tabakov Humanitarian work - a founder and the president of the Artist Fund, supports retired actors Current projects - acting in plays, making films @ Write a first version. Organize the information into three paragraphs. > why famous? where / when born? ■f works with ...? humanitarian work? ■f current work? projects and plans? @ Check your writing. Use the checklist to help you. ✓ Check that you use the correct verb tenses. ✓ Use at least two different words for introducing examples. ✓ Write three paragraphs. ✓ Check that you spell the names and places correctly. ® Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. Dialogue builder Meeting people (c I liliiii X \ Match the words with the pictures. 1 meeting point 5 lift 2 arrivals 6 escalator 3 departures 7 bus station 4 toilets 8 car park ($3 Chris and Amy are meeting Nikita at the airport. Read and listen to the dialogue. Answer the questions. 1 Does Nikita like flying? 2 When did Nikita set off? 3 Where are Chris’s mum and dad? 4 Why is Nikita’s bag heavy? Chris Nikita Hello Nikita. It’s great to see you again!^ ^ Hi Chris. Thanks for coming to meet me. That’s OK. How was your journey? Oh, it was fine. I don’t mind flying! What time did you set off? We left the airport at about three o’clock. Shall we go? Mum and Dad are waiting in the car. OK. I’m looking forward to meeting them! Let me take your bag. Oh, thanks - it’s a bit heavy! Wow, what have you got in here?^ ^ Lots of presents! J 3 Listen again and repeat. 4 Imagine you are arriving in Britain. Prepare a new dialogue. Change the words in italics. 5 Practise your dialogue. Щ Hello Marta. It's great to see you again! ^ Hi Helen. Thanks for coming to meet me. Useful exprgsionsj It’s great to see you again! Thanks for coming to meet me. How was your journey? What time did you set off? I’m looking forward to meeting them. Let me take your bag. 6 m n Of Progress check Achievements 1 Choose the correct verb in each expression. 1 get / win / pass an exam 2 make / score / win a goal 3 win / pass / do a prize 4 get/make/go on an expedition 5 get / do / make voluntary work 6 get / pass / do a certificate 7 do / get / make a scientific discovery 8 pass / win / score a race Personal qualities: opposite adjectives 2 Complete the sentences with these words. sociable generous hard-working easy-going caring shy 1 Henry isn’t lazy. He’s very ... 2 Emma isn’t confident. She’s ... 3 My aunt and uncle aren’t mean. They’re ... 4 David isn’t selfish. He’s ... 5 My friends aren’t stressed. They’re ... 6 My best friend isn’t quiet. She’s ... Present simple and present continuous 3 Write sentences. Use the present simple or the present continuous. Look! It / rain. Look! It's raining. 1 It / not rain / every day. 2 She / speak English / at the moment. 3 She / study English / twice a week. 4 I / not watch TV / at the moment. 5 He / hardly ever / listen to the radio. 6 Goodbye! We / go now. 4 Complete the questions. Use the present simple or the present continuous. 1 ... (your mum / work) today? 2 How often ... (you / play) football? 3 ... (your classmates / write) now? 4 When ... (you / usually do) your homework? 5 ... (your teacher / talk) at the moment? 6 ... (you / always speak) English in class? 5 Answer the questions in exercise 4. be: past simple 6 Correct the sentences. Write one negative and one affirmative sentence. Emily Bront§ was American. (Л English) She wasn't American. She was English. 1 My grandad was an actor, (x teacher) 2 They were lazy, (x hard-working) 3 My first teacher was English, (x Spanish) 4 Gertrude Elion was a writer. (X scientist) 5 Marie Curie was from America. (X Poland) there was / there were 7 Write affirmative (/) or negative (X) sentences. At my primary school, ... there weren't any science laboratories, (x) about 150 students. (/) a swimming pool, (x) a library. (/) any French teachers. (X) eight classrooms. (/) some computers. (/) Cumulative grammar 11>2>3>4>5>6>7>8>9> 8 Choose the correct words. An Interesting Life: Mika One of my favourite singers is Mika. I (1) listen often / often listen to his songs when I (2) ’re / ’m feeling stressed. Mika (3) was / were born in Lebanon in 1983, but now he (4) live / lives in London. When Mika was young, (5) was / there was a war in Lebanon and his family moved to England. Mika (6) wasn’t/weren’t happy at school because he was very shy. Later, he (7) was / there was a student at the Royal College of Music. Before he was a pop star, Mika was an opera singer! Now he (8) makes / ’s making a new CD. Vocabulary 1 Crime and criminals 1 Match the pictures with these crimes. shoplifting armed robbery vandalism hacking hijacking theft murder jf Recycle Look at the crime verbs. Which are the criminars actions? Which are the detective’s actions? 2 Match these criminals with the crimes in exercise 1. thief hijacker armed robber hacker murderer shoplifter vandal thief-theft 3 Listen and repeat. 4 Now match the news headlines with crimes from exercise 1. ® Computer virus destroys government files @ BOEING 747 CHANGES ROUTE AND LANDS IN EGYPT @ Neighbours complain about graffiti in shopping centre ® Police question woman about missing diamonds 5 Your voice Complete the sentences with your opinions. Use words for crimes and criminals. 1 I think the most serious crime is ... 2 I think the least serious crime is ... 3 In my opinion, ... should go to prison. 4 I don’t think that... should go to prison. ^^2^ Vocabulary plus -» Workbook p117 )> commit a crime solve a crime chase someone go to prison catch a criminal escape Reading 6 Look at the picture on page 23. Which of these can you see? flight attendant bomb passenger suit briefcase parachute 7 (5Ц] Read and listen to the text and choose the correct answer. 1 The narrator was going to ... a) work in Mexico. b) visit his family. c) commit a crime. 2 Dan Cooper was a ... a) shoplifter. b) murderer. c) hijacker. 3 Dan Cooper said that he was carrying... a) a pistol. b) a bomb. c) some important documents. 4 One year after this crime, ... a) the police found Dan Cooper. b) airports began to use X-ray machines. c) Dan Cooper died. 8 WORDS IIV Find the adverbs for these CONTEXT adjectives in the text. Which one is irregular? strange quiet safe bad good strange - strangely c Read the text again and answer the questions. Where was the plane going? Where was the narrator sitting? What did the hijacker ask for? Where did the plane go after landing in Seattle? How did the hijacker escape? What happened to Dan Cooper in the end? 10 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 Do you think this type of crime is still possible today? 2 What security measures exist in airports now? Vanished! The mystery of Dan Cooper I’ll never forget that journey. It was a cold November day and I was flying from Portland to Seattle to visit my family. I was reading a magazine on the plane, so I didn’t speak to the businessman next to me. But I remember him very clearly. He was wearing a smart suit and dark sunglasses and he wasn’t acting strangely or doing anything unusual. After an hour, he called the flight attendant. He talked quietly to her and opened his briefcase, but I didn’t see what was inside. Next he got up and followed her to the front of the plane and he didn’t return to his seat for the rest of the journey. Anyway, we arrived safely in Seattle, and all the passengers got off the plane. At least, that is what we thought happened. I only learnt the truth the next day when I read the newspaper headlines. In fact, the plane didn’t stay in Seattle but it flew to Mexico. Apparently the man in the suit - Dan Cooper - was a hijacker! He told the flight attendant that he had a bomb in his briefcase, and he demanded S200000 and four parachutes. When the plane landed in Seattle, the pilot got the money and parachutes. Then the hijacker forced the plane to fly to Mexico. Suddenly, Dan Cooper put on his parachute and opened the door of the plane. Then he jumped - with all the money! What happened next? Nobody knows. Perhaps he landed badly and died. Perhaps he jumped well and survived. Dan Cooper simply disappeared. I Grammar 1 Past simple 1 Look at the example sentences. Which verbs are irregular? past simple Dan Cooper opened his briefcase. I thought it was strange. We didn’t get off immediately. He simply disappeared! Did he survive? 2 Complete the text. Use the past simple form of the verbs in brackets. Brian Ingram (1) ... (be) on holiday with his family when he (2)... (find) $5800 next to the river. He (3)... (not keep) the money. He (4)... (take) it to the police station when he (5)... (get) home. Brian and his parents (6) ... (not know) the story of Dan Cooper. But the police (7) ... (check) the numbers on the banknotes, and they (8) ... (discover) that the money was from the hijacking. Six years later, the FBI (9)... (give) Brian $2760 as a reward. But he (10)... (not spend) it. He (11)... (decide) to save it, so he (12)... (put) it in the bank. Speaking 3 Write questions about your last holiday. Use the past simple. 1 Where / you / go? 2 Who / you / go with? 3 How / you / travel? 4 What/you/do? 4 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 3. Pronunciation: [d] [t] [id] a (£11] Listen and repeat the past forms. [Id] [d] [t] refused asked inspired watched arrested decided b Look at some of the letters that come before the -ed endings. -s -y -n -r -I [d] -k -ch -ss -x [t] -t -d [id] c <£H] What sound do these past forms have? Listen and check. 1 continued 3 relaxed 5 ended 2 started 4 walked 6 called Past continuous 5 Read and complete the examples. past continuous | We use the past continuous to describe an action in progress in the past. past of be verb + -ing We (1)... flying to Seattle. - He (2)... acting strangely. ? Where (3)... the plane going? Write questions with the past continuous. Where / the plane / go? Where was the plane going? 1 How many people / travel / on the plane? 2 Where / the hijacker / sit? 3 What / he / wear? 4 What / the passengers / do / last night? 5 What / detectives / do? Read the newspaper article and answer the questions in exercise 6. Use the past continuous. Hijacked! A Northwest Orient Airlines plane was hijacked yesterday. The plane was travelling from Portland to Seattle with 36 passengers and six crew members. The hijacker, in seat 18C bought his plane ticket under the name'Dan Cooper! He was wearing a smart business suit and carrying a briefcase. Last night the passengers from flight 305 were helping police with their enquiries. Detectives were searching the area where the hijacker jumped from the plane. Language Guide p31 bre [id] ire? Vocabulary 2 Phrasal verbs The meaning of a verb sometimes changes when we use it with different prepositions. ■Осей 1 Find these verbs In a dictionary and translate them into your language. turn turn on turn off 2 Check the meaning of these verbs. sit down turn on get into take off pick up look for run after run away 3 Match the sentences with the pictures.. 1 The robber was running away. 2 The policeman was running after him. 3 The detective was looking for fingerprints. 4 The detective picked up a bag of money. 5 Take off your hatl’, said the policeman. 6 The robber got into the police car. 7 ‘Sit down’, said the inspector. 8 She turned on the tape recorder and began to question the suspect. 4 ФЗ Listen and repeat. 5 Complete the opposites with phrasal verbs from exercise 2. 1 stand up sit down 4 get out of 2 turn off 5 put down 3 put on Listening A radio phone-in programme 6 ФИ Listen to the radio phone-in programme. Which crimes do the people talk about? armed robbery theft hacking vandalism Radio London Wednesday 19.30 Talk About it! Tonight's programme looks at your experiences of crime. Have you been a victim of crime? Or a witness? Call us on 0800 234567 and tell us about it! 7 ФИ Listen again and choose the correct answers. 1 Vicky was celebrating her birthday ... a) at a friend’s house, c) at a disco. b) at a restaurant. 2 When she picked up her bag, her... was missing. a) money c) mobile phone b) MP3 player 3 When she got home, she phoned ... a) her friend. c) the restaurants. b) the police. 4 The vandals got into Richard’s school... a) at night. c) early in the morning. b) last weekend. 5 They destroyed ... a) tables and chairs. b) books in the library. c) the school computers. 6 The police caught the vandals because they found ... a) clothes. c) fingerprints. b) books. 8 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 Have you been a victim of crime? When? Where? What happened? 2 Have you witnessed a crime? Where? What did you see? Culture today Crime prevention There are more than four million CCTV cameras in the UK. One man tried to travel 80 km in the UK without a CCTV camera videoing his journey. But it was impossible! (3jZ1 Match the sounds with paragraphs 1-3 in the text. C^Hl Read and listen. Are the sentences true or false? 1 Someone was watching Pete on a CCTV camera. 2 Pete was a shoplifter. 3 People under 25 can’t hear the Mosquito sound. 4 Shopkeepers use the Mosquito to prevent anti-social behaviour. 5 PC Thorpe changed his car for a bike. 6 Someone stole PC Thorpe’s bike while he was shopping. Find these words in the text then match them with the correct definition. 1 litter BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU! Pete was waiting for a train when he " heard a voice. It said: 'Would the young man in the white T-shirt please pick up the litter he's Just dropped?' Pete looked around. There was no one there. But then he realized that someone was watching him on CCTV, and the voice was coming from a loudspeaker. CCTV cameras are common, but now they are really coming to life.There's no escape - Big Brother is watching YOU! |K ii ■ aei3 loudspeaker annoying behaviour a) a machine that emits sound b) rubbish c) police officers d) something that bothers you e) for walkers, not vehicles f) people’s actions TOWN SAYS'BUZZ OFF!' TO ANTI-SOCIAL YOUTHS Did you know there are sounds that young people can hear but adults can't? That's the technology behind a new machine called the 'Mosquito'. It emits a high-frequency sound like an insect buzz. After a couple of minutes, it becomes very annoying for people under 25. Some shopkeepers are using the Mosquito to prevent anti-social behaviour. Jim Shah, a shopkeeper in Swindon, says: 'Youths were always meeting outside my shop. But when we turned on the Mosquito, they left. Now we feel much safer.' 5 bobbies 6 pedestrian Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 Are there CCTV cameras in your street / school / town? 2 Does the Mosquito exist in your country? 3 What kind of transport do police officers use in your town? THE BOBBIES ARE BACK ON THEIR BIKES! Police officers in some Derbyshire towns are changing their vehicles for bikes.They found that while they were working in their cars, they couldn't get to places like parks, housing estates and pedestrian areas. PC Bill Thorpe says:'With our bikes, we can go to the places where young people meet. That's great because we can talk to them and get to know them more.' However, after a week, PC Thorpe had a problem. Someone stole his bicycle while he was chatting to some young people in the park! ...the BIG DEBATE MJt ler in jel Grammar 2 Past simple and past continuous 1 Read the examples and answer the questions. 1 Which was longer, action a or b? 2 Which tense usually comes after while? past simple and past continuous We often use the past continuous and past simple in the same sentence. a) He was waiting for a train. ----1---------------^---------------- b) He heard a voice. * He was waiting for a train when he heard a voice. = While he was waiting for a train, he heard a voice. 2 Choose the correct words. 1 They took CCTV pictures of the shoplifter while she stole / was stealing CDs. 2 While the hackers created / were creating a new virus, the FBI began an investigation. 3 The robbers were trying to steal an enormous diamond when the police arrived / were arriving. 4 He was walking in the forest when he found / was finding a gun. 5 While the vandals were breaking windows, someone called / was calling the police. 6 Thieves entered the house while everyone slept / was sleeping. 3 Complete the questions with the past simple or past continuous form of the verbs in brackets. What subject... (you, study) when school finished yesterday? What was your mum doing when you ... (get up) this morning? What... (you, wear) when you had breakfast today? ... (you, meet) your friends while you were coming to school this morning? What were you doing when your English teacher... (arrive) in the classroom? Did you use a computer while you ... (do) your homework last weekend? 1 4 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 3. Language Guide p31 Book comer Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct answers to complete the text. Sherlock Holmes Solves Another Crime! sir Arthur concm Doyle was a Scottish crime writer. He (1)... 56 short stories and four novels. Sherlock Holmes was his farr]ous fictional detective. He (2)... with his assistant Dr Watson. ‘The Hound of the Baskervilles’ is aboutthe mystenous death of Sir Charles Baskerville. When they (3)... his body, they also discovered the footprints of an enormous dog. Some local people (4)... Sherlock Holmes stories about this horrible hound of the Baskervilles. But Sherlock Holmes (5)... them, while he and Dr Watson (6)... the crime, they (7)... to suspect that there was another explanation. (8)... the hound really kill Sir Charles? Or was there a human murderer? 1 a) write b) wrote 2 a) worked b) work 3 a) found b) finds 4 a) tells b) told 5 a) don’t believe b) wasn’t believing 6 a) was investigating b) were investigating 7 a) began b) begins 8 a) Was b) Were Listen and check. c) was writing c) were working c) was finding c) was telling c) didn’t believe c) investigates c) was beginning c) Did The Hound of the Baskervilles by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Writing dossier A report of an event 1 Read Chris’s witness statement and match these headings with the gaps in the text. Describe the main suspect, and anyone else who looked suspicious. ^ Provide information about the time and place of the ^ crime. @ Describe the crime you witnessed in detail. Ш London Transport Section Witness statement Name Chris Jones Tel. 01768 34760 Crime number 23987 It was about eleven o'clock \n the morning on Saturday 15th October. I was travelling on the underqroundi - we were on the Piccadilly line just before King's Cross station, it wasn't very busy, so I sat down. I was listening to music when l saw the man. He looked a bit suspicious. 2... The man stood up and walked towards the doors. Then a woman started shouting ‘My purse! My purse!' While everyone was looking for the purse, the doors opened and the man ran away. It all happened really quickly. 3... He was quite tall, about 1.85 metres, and he had very short, fair hair. He was wearing jeans and a blue jacket, and he was carrying a newspaper. I think he was about25 years old. Look at the Language focus. Translate the bold words into your language. Language focus: adverbs of degree It wasn’t very busy. He looked a bit suspicious. He was quite tall. It all happened really quickly. He had very short hair. / // /// not very a bit really quite very 3 Your voice Complete the sentences with adverbs of degree. 1 My town is ... safe. 2 in my opinion, English is ... difficult. 3 Vandalism is ... common at my school. 4 My hair is ... long. 5 Our English classroom is ... big. 6 This exercise is ... boring. @ Writing plan (l) Plan to write a witness statement about the crime in the picture. Answer the questions. 1 When did it happen? 2 Where did it happen? 3 What were you doing at the time? 4 What happened next? 5 How did the suspect escape? 6 Describe the suspect. 7 What was she wearing? 8 How old was the suspect? @ Write a first version. Organize your statement into three paragraphs. Give information about the time, day, date and place. Describe what you were doing. ♦ Explain what happened, and how the suspect escaped. ♦ Describe the suspect’s physical appearance, clothes and age. (3) Check your writing. Use the checklist to help you. ✓ Use the past continuous and past simple correctly. ✓ Include at least two adverbs of degree. ✓ Use factual language and provide a complete description. @ Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. to Dialogue builder Asking for directions Nikita and Chris are going to the Chamber of Horrors at Madame Tussauds. Look at the map and answer the questions. What street is Madame Tussauds on? What is the nearest tube station? Which other places could Chris and Nikita visit nearby? 2 (illl Chris lives in London, but he’s a bit lost and is asking for directions. Listen and choose the correct answers. Chris Man Excuse me. I’m looking for Madame^ ^ Yes, it’s just down the road. N Tussauds. Is it near here? What’s the best way to go? Go straight on here for about (1) 100 / 200 metres, then turn left on to Marylebone Road. Straight on, then left? Yes, that’s right. Madame Tussauds is on the (2) right / left, just after the Planetarium. Great. How far is it? Oh, it isn’t far. It’ll take about (3) five / ten minutes to walk there. OK. Thanks very much.^ ^ No problem. J 3 (^m Listen again and repeat. 4 Prepare a new dialogue. Imagine you are going to one of these places. Oxford Street Sherlock Holmes Museum a well-known place in your city 5 Practise your dialogue. Excuse me. I'm looking for... Listen to Nikita asking for directions and answer the questions. 1 What is Nikita looking for? 2 Is it near? 3 How long will it take to walk there? iitpfurexpressionsj I’m looking for... It’s just down the road. Go straight on. / Turn left / right. Is it far? How far is it? Language Guide Vocabulary Crime and criminals shoplifting armed robbery shoplifter armed robber hijacking theft vandalism X" vandal hacker murder 16. X r'6 hijacker Phrasal verbs get into ф get out of pick up Ф put down put on It take off sit down ^ stand up turn on turn off thief murderer look for run after Dictionary extra! b annoying (adj) ★ litter (n) ★ briefcase (n) parachute (n) crew (n) ★ ★ passenger (n) ★ ★ disappear (v) ★ ★ ★ steal (v) ★ ★ flight attendant (n) suit (n) ★★ journey (n) ★ ★ ★ vehicle (n) ★ ★ ★ land (v) ★ ★ victim (n) ★ ★ ★ I’m looking for... It’s just down the road. Go straight on. Turn left / right. Is it far? How far is it? 30 щ I I I I » I в в в Grammar Past simple affirmative I / You / He / She / It / We / They went on holiday. negative I / You / Не / She / It / We / They didn’t escape. questions Did I / you / he / she / it / run away? we / they short answers Yes, I / you / he / she / it / we / they did. No, I / you / he / she / it / we / they didn’t. We use the past simple to talk about events in the past. All persons are the same. I / YOU / He / She / It / We / They disappeared. We make negative sentences in the past with didn't and the infinitive without to. He didn't return to his seat. We make questions in the past with did and the infinitive without to. Did he go on holiday with his family? In short answers we don’t repeat the main verb. spelling rules for past simple regular verbs Most regular verbs: add -ed return returned Regular verbs ending in -e: add -d arrive arrived Regular verbs ending in consonant + -y: change -y to -i and add -ed carry -¥ carried Regular verbs ending in consonant -I- vowel + consonant: double the final consonant and add -ed travel ^ travelled The pronunciation of past simple regular verbs changes, depending on the spelling of the verb; о when the verb ends in an unvoiced sound, the past simple is pronounced [t] help -♦ helped о when the verb ends in a voiced sound, the past simple is pronounced [d] return -» returned о when the verb ends in -t or -d, the past simple is pronounced [id] visit -♦ visited For irregular verbs, see Irregular Verbs list, p159. Past continuous о We use the past continuous to describe an action in progress in the past. Past simple and past continuous о We often use the past continuous and past simple in the same sentence, о We use the past simple for short actions. We use the past continuous for longer actions. The past simple describes an event that happens during a longer action in the past continuous. a) He was waiting for a train. ----------------------it------------------► b) He heard a voice. о We normally use when with the past simple and while with the past continuous. He was waiting for a train when he heard a voice. While he was waiting for a train, he heard a voice. Grammar bank-» Workbook p100 affirmative I / He / She / It was travelling to We / You / They were Seattle. negative I / He / She / It wasn’t carrying a We / You / They weren’t briefcase. questions Was I / he / she / it acting Were we / you / they strangely? short answers Yes, I / he / she / it was. No, I / he / she / it wasn’t. Yes, we / you / they were. No, we / you / they weren’t. Progress check Crime and criminals 1 Complete the sentences with words for crimes or criminals. ... is a criminal who kills someone. ... is a crime which involves taking control of an aeroplane. ... is a crime which involves stealing and using violence. ... is someone who steals things from shops. ... is a crime which involves stealing or destroying computer data. ... is a person who damages buildings, breaks windows, or paints graffiti. Past continuous 5 Write sentences with the past continuous. 1 We / have dinner / at nine o’clock. 2 I / not study / at midnight. 3 you/sleep? 4 My parents / not work / at that time. 5 My brother / watch / a crime programme. 6 Emma / wait / for the bus? Past simple and past continuous 6 Complete the sentences with the past simple or past continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Phrasal verbs 1 When Sam ... (arrive), I... (do) my homework. 2 Match the sentence halves. 2 We ... (have) a party when the neighbour 1 Please sit a) into the car. ... (phone) the police. 2 You can turn b) down on this chair. 3 Paul... (not sleep) when the alarm clock 3 Ana’s friends got c) for clues. (go off). 4 The men ran d) on the TV now. 4 What... (you, do) when you ... (see) the 5 The boy stood e) after the thief. robbery? 6 They’re looking f) up when the bell rang. 5 I... (not see) David Beckham while he ... Past simple 3 Write the past form of these verbs. begin open take disappear find write give discover turn (live) in Spain. 6 ... (it, rain) when you ... (leave) the house this morning? Cumulative grammar i 2>з>4>5>6)773^ 7 Choose the correct words. Complete the past simple questions for these answers. What time did you get up? I got up at half past seven. 1 How ...? I travelled to school by bus. 2 What...? I studied English, Maths and French. 3 Who... with? I had lunch with my friend. 4 Where ... after school? I went home. 5 What time...? I got home at half past five. Car clue helps solve crime! A few years ago, there (1) was / were a lot of armed robberies in the south of England. While detectives were looking (2) down / for clues, they (3) found / were finding some gold paint on a tree. They (4) discover / discovered that this colour (5) was / were common on Austin Allegro cars. When the police visited Malcolm Fairley’s house in London, he (6) was washing / washed his car. It was a gold Austin Allegro! The police arrested Malcolm, and he (7) goes / went to prison. Now he (8) is serving / serves a life sentence for armed! robbery. Vocabulary 1 Verbs related to money Recycle Look at the adjectives. Which thre< are for describing things? expensive cheap rich poor free 1 Check the meaning of these verbs in a dictionary. Which four can you see in the pictures? buy sell spend waste lose lend borrow swap save win earn advertise 2 (Зт Listen and repeat. 3 Translate the examples. Then complete the sentences with the red words. Teenagers earn £3.40 an hour in Britain. You can win £1 million on the lottery! Will you lend me some money? Can I borrow 10€? Teenagers spend about £150 on clothes every year. Don’t waste money on clothes you don’t wear! 1 You ... money when you buy things you don’t need or want. 2 You ... money when you buy things you need or want. 3 You ... a prize in a competition or on the lottery. 4 You ... money when you have a job. 5 You ... something to someone. 6 You ... something from someone. 4 Look at the past form of the verbs from exercise 1. Are they regular or irregular? bought sold spent wasted lost lent saved borrowed swapped won earned advertised 5 Complete the text with past forms from exercise 4. Last year I (1)... all my pocket money and I (2)... it on a new mountain bike. But I never really used the bike, so I decided to sell it. I (3)... the bike in my local newspaper, and a boy phoned me. He liked the bike, and I (4)... it for £60. Then I wanted to buy a computer games console, but I needed some more money! So I (5)... some money from my mum, and then I (6)... a Playstation. Reading 6 Match six of these words with the pictures. pen computer island van snowmobi paperclip barbecue doorknob Vocabulary plus Workbook pi 18 Л 7 Read and listen. Which things from exercise 6 did Kyle swap before he got the house? •Dbile This red paperclip is sitting on my desk next to my computer. I want to swap it with you for | something bigger or better. So, if you have j something more interesting than a paperclip, | email me with the details. | Kyle MacDonald 1 n s I want to make a series of swaps until I get i a house. Or an island. Or a house on an island! ^ One Red Paperclip Do you know a game called Bigger and Better, where you start with something small and swap it for bigger, more expensive things? The Canadian Kyle MacDonald did exactly that, and in the end he swapped a small red paperclip for a three-bedroom house! In July 2005, Kyle started his experiment on the Internet. First he swapped his paperclip for something bigger: a pen in the shape of a fish. Then he swapped the pen for an unusual doorknob. After 14 swaps - including a barbecue, a snowmobile, a van, an afternoon with the rock star Alice Cooper, and a role in a Hollywood film -Kyle finally got what he wanted. The mayor of Kipling, Saskatchewan, offered him a house. In addition, he promised to build the largest paperclip monument in the world there, in honour of Kyle’s incredible achievement. Kyle also wrote a book about his adventures. 1 always knew it was possible,’ he said on a British radio programme. ‘You can do anything if you put your mind to it.’ So, if you want something that’s too expensive and you haven’t got enough money, try following Kyle’s example. Nothing is impossible! P 8 Choose the correct answers. Kyle swapped things with ... a) his friends. b) people he met on the Internet. 2 In the end Kyle ... a) got a three-bedroom house. b) became a Hollywood actor. 3 The mayor of Kipling promised to ... a) lend Kyle some money. b) build a monument in the town. 4 Kyle believes that... a) anything is possible. b) money is the most important thing in life. Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 What is Bigger and Better? 2 Where is Kyle from? 3 What did he swap the paperclip for? 4 How many swaps did Kyle make? 5 Where does Kyle live now? 6 Did Kyle write a book about his experience? 10 WORDS Ш COISTKXT Find synonyms for these words in the text. 1 form 2 not common 3 a local official 4 construct 5 success 11 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 Have you ever swapped your possessions? 2 What would you swap for a red paperclip? 3 Do you think society can function with no money? Grammar 1 Comparatives and superlatives 1 Copy and complete the table. Check the spelling rules in the Language guide on page 43. adjective comparative superlative big (1)... biggest short adjectives large larger (2)... happy (3)... happiest long adjectives interesting (4)... most interesting expensive more expensive (5)... irregular adjectives good bad (6)... worse best worst 2 Look at the examples and complete the rules with these words. the superlative than comparative This coat is more expensive than that one. This coat is the most expensive one in the shop. 1 We use ... adjectives to compare two things. 2 We use ... adjectives to compare three or more things. 3 We use ... after comparative adjectives. 4 We use ... before superlative adjectives. 3 Write comparative sentences. Kipling / small / Vancouver. Kipling is smaller than Vancouver. 1 A house / expensive / a paperclip! 2 A van / big / a snowmobile. 3 Their new house / good / their old house. 4 The new neighbours / friendly / the old neighbours. 5 Friends / important / money. Pronunciation: [a] a (ЗЮ Listen to these words. Can you hear the final -r? richer poorer happier taller smaller b Listen and repeat. She’s poorer than a princess, but she’s happier than a queen! 4 Complete the questions with superlative adjectives and do the quiz. Check the answers at the bottom of the page. Money quiz 1 What is... (small) coin in Britain? a) Ip b) 2p c) 5p 2 What is ... (big) banknote? a) £10 b) £20 c) £50 3 What is ... (common) image on banknotes? a) Charles Darwin b) the Queen c) Adam Smith 4 Which of these is... (old) currency? a) pounds b) dollars c) euros 5 What is ... (expensive) city in the world? a) Luanda b) Tokyo c) Moscow too and not enough 5 Translate the sentences into your language. How do you say too and not enough? New houses are too expensive. We aren’t rich enough. 6 Write sentences. Use too or not enough and the adjectives in brackets. This room is too cold, (warm) This room isn'twarm enough. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I’m not rich enough, (poor) This car is too slow, (fast) These shoes aren’t big enough, (small) Her skirt is too short, (long) My mobile phone is too old. (new) This exercise is not easy enough, (difficult) Language Guide p43 > qg Etr qg oz oi sjaMsue zmb Aeuo|/\| ge. Id 3 01. DkM Listening Adverts 1 Look at the pictures. What products can you see? 2 (31Z) Listen to six adverts. Which products from the pictures do they advertise? 3 (5И] Listen again and choose the correct answers. 1 The compilation CD contains 30 / 40 of the year’s best dance hits. 2 You can buy Snax in three / four different flavours. 3 You get a 5% /10% discount if you buy a mobile phone before Christmas. 4 If you buy two bottles of perfume, you save £5/£10. 5 The toy costs £24.99 / £34.99. 6 The Big Quiz costs £29.99 / £39.99. Vocabulary 2 Nouns related to money 4 Can you guess the meaning of these words? coin credit card purse exchange rate bonus banknote currency change salary cash cost wallet cheque price 5 Now check the words in a dictionary. Did you guess the correct meaning? 6 (ЗЖ) Listen and repeat. 7 Match each sentence with the correct word. currency / cash 1 The ... of New Zealand is the New Zealand dollar. 2 Do you want to pay in ... or by credit card? banknote / coin 1 Flip a ... to decide who goes first. 2 The £5 ... , with a portrait of Elizabeth Fry on the back, is the smallest in size. cheque / credit card 1 You use a ... to buy things now and pay for them later. 2 You can use a ... instead of money to pay for things. wallet / purse 1 ... is a small flat case that people keep money, bank cards, and small documents in and usually carry in their pocket or bag. 2 ... is a small case in which women carry coins, paper money, credit cards etc. change / exchange rate 1 Do you know where the best... is? 2 They told the driver to keep the .... cost / price 1 They have the same ... in all their restaurants. 2 We need money to cover the ... of heating. bonus / salary 1 Customers will receive a free tape as a ... with any order over £30. 2 This film will give you examples of negotiating your.... Culture today Are a Young people and money The average pocket money for British teenagers is about £10 per week. A lot of young people also get money for doing jobs in the house. The average is £2.77 for cleaning the house, and £3.50 for washing the car. Imagine you win £100. What do you do? a) I go shopping and spend it all! b) I save it all to buy something big later. c) I save £50 and then buy presents for my family. Do you ever borrow money? a) No, never. But I sometimes lend it to my friends! b) Yes, I do. I often borrow money from my parents and friends. c) Sometimes, but I always return it quickly. How much money do you usually spend every week? a) It depends. Some weeks I spend a lot, but other weeks I save money. b) Too much! I always spend all my pocket money - it’s never enough! c) I don’t spend much -1 usually save all my pocket money. Have you got a bank account? a) Yes, I have. I always put my birthday and Christmas money in there. b) Yes, I have - but I haven’t got much money in it! c) No, I haven’t. But I know I should open one soon. How many times a month do you go shopping? a) Probably about once or twice a month. I buy clothes or CDs. b) Too many times! I love going shopping and I buy too many things! c) I usually just go ‘window shopping’ -1 look but I don’t buy! What are your hopes for the future? a) I want to travel round the world and have an interesting life! b) I want to buy a nice house and a car, and have enough money to be comfortable. c) I just want to be happy - money isn’t really important. 1 Read about young people and money. 4 Do British teenagers get more pocket money than you? 1 2 Read and listen to the text. Do the 2 quiz. 3 3 Check your score. Are you a saver or a spender? (38) • • Scores 1 a: 3 b; 1 2 a: 1 b: 3 3 a: 2 b: 3 c: 1 4 a: 1 b; 2 c: 3 5 a: 2 b: 3 c; 1 6 a: 3 b: 1 c: 2 6-9 You’re a saver. You’re good with money, but don’t forget to have some fun tool 10-14 You’ve got a healthy attitude to money. You’re generous and balanced. 15-18 You’re a big spenderl You enjoy life to the maximum, but just remember; money doesn’t grow on treesi Your voice Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. How much pocket money do you think young people should get? Do you think young people should do jobs in the house in exchange for pocket money? Do you ever have arguments with your family about money? ...the BIG DEBATE Workbook p127 hs. Grammar 2 Quantity: some, any, much, many and a lot of 1 Translate the sentences into your language. How do you say too much and too many? countable nouns How many shoes she got? 1 She’s got too many shoes. has 2 She’s got a lot of shoes. msm 3 She’s got some new shoes. 4 She hasn’t got many shoes. 4^-------Ш She hasn’t got any shoes. uncountable nouns How much money has he got? 1 He’s got too much money. «» 2 He’s got a lot of money. 3 He’s got some foreign money. 4 He hasn’t got much money. 5 He hasn’t got any money. Out 2 Choose the correct words. 1 How much / many pocket money do people get in your country? 2 Do you get some / much pocket money? 3 Have you got many / a lot clothes? 4 How many / much pairs of shoes have you got? 5 Do you think footballers have got too much / many money? Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 2. Language Guide p43 > Book comer Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct words. A Hard Life: Oliver Twist The last book we read at school was 'Oliver Twist'. It's about a boy called Oliver. He was an orphan - he didn't have (l) some / any parents or relatives. He lived in a special place for poor people, and he had a terrible life there. I liked the story, but (thought the book was (2) too / much long and there were too (3) much / many different characters. In class, we also watched a film of the story. That was (4) easier / more easy to understand than the book! The (5) more / most famous part of the story is when Oliver hasn't got enough food. He holds his bowl and says, 'Please, Sir, can I have some more?' The authorofthis book was Charles Dickens. He understood the situation of poor people because his family didn't have (6) much / many money. Charles Dickens worked in a factory when he was 12 years old. But in the end he found success as an author. He wrote (7) a lot of / too famous novels, including 'Great Expectations' and 'A Christmas Carol'. 2 (ЛЮ Listen and check. Oliver Twist g by Charles Dickens Writing dossier A thank-you letter 1 Read Mark’s letter and answer the questions. 1 What three things did Aunt Jane give Mark? 2 How did Mark celebrate his birthday? Dear Aunt jane. Thcinkyou so much for the lovely birthday card, the present and the money. The jumper is great. Don't worry - it isn’t too small! Did you make it? It was very generous of you to send me £50. I'm planning to spend it on a new MP3 player because I lost my old one. I want to buy an iPod, which is much better than the one I had before. I had a great birthday! Mum made the most fantastic coke, and some of my friends came round for a party. Hope to see you soon. Lots of love, Mark 2 Look at the letter then copy and complete the table with the bold expressions. Language focus: phrases for thank-you letters at the beginning at the end 3 Add these expressions to the table in exercise 2. Best wishes, Thanks very much for... I’m writing to thank you for... All the best, @ Writing plan Ф Plan a thank-you letter. Invent the following information to complete the model below. 1 What’s your relative’s name? 2 What present did you receive? 3 How much money did you receive? 4 What are you planning to buy? 5 What’s your name? Dear (1)____, Thanks very much for the birthday gifts. The (2)_____is great. I really like it! -> Thanks for giving me (3)_____ I'm planning to spend it on (4) --^ I had a great birthday. ^ see you soon. All the best, (5) — Write a first version. Use the model above to help you and add one more sentence each time you see Include this information. ♦ opening greeting / name ♦ Thank you ... ■f about the present ♦ about the money >■ about your birthday > closing greeting / name (3) Check your writing. Use the checklist to help you. / Use the correct greetings to start and close the letter. / Be polite even if you didn’t like the present! / Try to include one comparative and one superlative adjective. @ Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. г № Dialogue builder Shopping 1 Look at the information about sizes. Which size would you need for clothes and shoes in the UK? © О О Men's suits / jackets UK 32 34 Russia 44 46 Women's clothes UK 8 10 Russia 42 44 Shoes UK 5 6 Russia 37 38 36 48 12 46 7 41 38 50 14 48 8 42 40 52 16 50 9 43 42 54 18 52 10 44.5 < Cdl] Amy is shopping with Nikita and Tanya. Read and listen to the dialogue. Answer the questions. 1 What size does Amy buy in the end? 2 What colour does she like? 3 How much money does she spend? Amy Can I try these on in a five, please? Er, I prefer yellow, I think. Thanks. No, they’re too small. Have you got a bigger size? Yes, they’re much better. How much are they? OK, I’ll take them, thanks. 3 (^Ц] Listen again and repeat. 4 Prepare a new dialogue. Imagine you’re trying on a pair of these shoes. A 1 £32.30 5 Practise your dialogue. Can I try these on in an eight, please? f» Sure, I'll Just get them for you. Shop assistant Sure, I’ll just get them for you. Do you want them in blue or yellow? OK. Here you are. How are they? Do they fit OK? Oh. Here, try them in a six. They’re £24.99. Great. Just come over to the till when you’re ready, 6 ССзГ) Listen to Nikita buying a T-shirt. Choose the correct words. 1 Nikita buys the small / medium / large T-shirt. 2 He prefers the red / white / black T-shirt. 3 The T-shirt costs £5.99 / £9.99 / £19.99. Usefui^PiS2Sj222 Can I try these on, please? Do they fit? / Does it fit? They’re / It’s too big / small. Have you got a bigger / smaller size? j I f i 1 I I I a I I s ■ a Grammar Comparatives and superlatives adjective comparative superlative short adjectives cheap cheaper cheapest big bigger biggest large larger largest happy happier happiest long adjectives interesting more interesting most interesting irregular good better best adjectives bad worse worst о We use comparative adjectives to compare two items and superlative adjectives to compare three or more items. 0 We use them after comparative adjectives'. My house is bigger them hers. 0 We use the before superlative adjectives. Tokyo Is the most expensive city in the worlel. Spelling rules: short adjectives о We form the comparative by adding -er and the superlative by adding -est. small - smaller- smallest 0 We add -r to short adjectives ending in -e to make the comparative or -st to make the superlative: wide - wider - widest о With adjectives that end in a vowel + consonant, we double the consonant and add -er to make the comparative or -est to make the superlative: big - bigger - biggest о With adjectives that end in -y, we delete the -y and add -ier to make the comparative or -lest to make the superlative; easy - easier - easiest Long adjectives о We form the comparative of long adjectives by adding more and the superlative by adding most in front of the adjective: attractive - more attractive -most attractive Quantity: some, any, much, many and a lot of countable nouns uncountable nouns affirmative She’s got too many CDs. She’s got a lot of CDs. She’s got some CDs. He's got too much free time. He's got a lot of free time. He’s got some free time. negative She hasn’t got many CDs. She hasn’t got any CDs. She hasn’t got much free time. She hasn’t got any free time. questions and short answers Has she got any CDs? Has he got any free time? We use too many or too much to say something is more than sufficient. We use many with countable nouns and much with uncountable nouns. We use some in affirmative sentences, and any in negative sentences and questions. too and not enough о We use too + adjective to say something is excessive. It's too hot. о We use not + adjective + enough to say something is insufficient. CP? It isn't cold enough. Grammar bank-» Workbook pi 02 )) Progress check Verbs related to money 1 Complete the sentences with these verbs. sell buy borrow win earn lose 1 Can I... your dictionary for a minute? 2 How much did she ... in the lottery? 3 My parents are going to ... a new car. 4 Pilots ... a higher salary than teachers. 5 Do they ... clothes at the supermarket? 6 Here’s £10. Be careful - don’t... it! Nouns related to money 2 Complete the sentences with these words. cash credit card currency exchange rate coins 1 The Canadian dollar is the ... of Canada. 2 I use a ... to buy things online. 3 The ... at the airport was lower than in our hotel. 4 He has a large collection of foreign .... 5 Some small shops only take .... Comparatives and superlatives 3 Copy and complete the table with comparative and superlative adjectives. adjective comparative superlative cheap expensive good happy interesting 4 Correct one error in each sentence. 1 This CD is more cheap than that one. 2 I think Maths is the most bad subject. 3 I’m more taller than my brother. 4 Teresa is youngest person in our class. 5 Friends are more important that money. too and not enough 5 Complete the sentences with these expressions. too expensive good enough too difficult not big enough not old enough 1 You can’t go to the disco. You’re ... 2 These jeans cost £300! They’re ... 3 They didn’t win the match. They weren’t... 4 We bought a new house. The old one was ... 5 I can’t do this exercise. It’s ... Quantity: some, any, much, many and a lot of 6 Make the sentences negative. Use the words in brackets. There are a lot of students in my class, (many) There aren't many students in my class. 1 He’s got a lot of money, (much) 2 She’s got some new clothes, (any) 3 There were a lot of people at the party, (many) 4 I’ve got too much free time, (much) 5 The teacher gave us some homework, (any) Cumulative grammar 1>2>з;^5>б)778^ 7 Choose the correct answers. John Freyer is an artist from Iowa, USA. One day he decided that he had too (1)... things. He had (2)... books and clothes and furniture, and his house wasn’t (3)... to keep all these things. So he (4)... photographs of all his possessions, and then he (5)... them on the Internet. He (6)... his shoes, his bed, and his winter coat. The (7)... thing he sold was his false teeth! John also wrote a book about the project, and now he (8)... a documentary film. 1 a) much 5 a) advertised b) many b) advertise c) a lot of c) were advertising a) a lot of 6 a) sold b) any b) selling c) much c) sell a) big enough 7 a) most strange b) enough big b) strangest c) too big c) stranger a) take 8 a) is making b) took b) makes c) were taking c) was making Reading 1 Read the text. Where is Alcatraz? Alcatraz: from Prison to Peace Centre? Alcatraz was probably America’s most famous prison. Its convicts included the notorious gangster Al Capone. Now, the island of Alcatraz is a national park, but the Global Peace Foundation is trying to change the old prison into a Peace Centre. However, many people think that Alcatraz is too important in American history to destroy. Alcatraz was a prison for 29 years. When it opened, people said that it was impossible to escape from. There were 14 escape attempts, but most of the criminals that ran away did not survive. In 1962, three prisoners escaped through a tunnel. They were wearing their blue prison uniforms, and they made a small boat to cross the water. Alcatraz is only one mile from San Francisco, but the water is very cold and there are sharks. Did the prisoners escape? Nobody knows. They simply disappeared. The following year, the prison closed. Native Americans went to live on the island, and they stayed there for two years. Now, Native Americans sometimes celebrate special days on the island of Alcatraz, including Thanksgiving. But most people will always remember Alcatraz as America’s most high-security prison. Read the text again and answer the questions. Speaking 1 Which famous person was a prisoner in Alcatraz? What does the Global Peace Foundation want to do? How many escape attempts were there? What happened in 1962? Do you think the three prisoners survived? Why? / Why not? Do Native Americans live on the island now? Work in pairs. Ask and answer. Do you ever watch gangster films? How often do you watch American films? When did you last watch an American film? Who are the most famous criminals in your country? What other famous places do you know in the USA? Listening CCiil Listen to the biography of the American gangster Al Capone. Choose the correct words in the summary. Al Capone was born in (1) Italy / New York. In 1920, he moved to (2) New York / Chicago with his wife and (3) daughter / son. He became involved in gangs and he began to sell (4) cigarettes / alcohol illegally. Eventually Al Capone went to prison. He spent (5) four /14 years at Alcatraz. Al Capone died when he was (6) 48 / 78. Project You’re going to do a project about the USA. Listen to your teacher’s instructions. Grammar Present simple and present continuous 1 Write one negative and one affirmative sentence. Use the information in brackets. We’re learning about the UK now. (the USA) We aren't learning aboutthe UK now. We're learning about the USA. 1 My friends go to the USA twice a year, (once a year) They’re visiting Dallas at the moment. (Houston) It’s hot in New York in winter, (cold) It’s raining there today, (snow) I watch American films. (Russian) 1700 1800 1900 2000 Quantity: some, any, much, many and a lot of 4 Choose the correct words. Past simple and past continuous 2 Complete the text with the past simple or the past continuous form of the verbs in brackets. History of the USA In 1783, the USA (1)... (gain) independence from Britain. In 1789, George Washington (2)... (become) the first president of the USA. In 1865, the American Civil War (3)... (end). After that, slavery (4)... (be) illegal. In 1929, the USA (5)... (suffer) a terrible economic crisis called The Great Depression. In 2001, terrorists (6)... (destroy) the World Trade Center in New York. Many people (7)... (work) there when that happened. In 2008, Barack Obama (8)... (win) the presidential elections and (9)... (become) the first black president of the USA. Comparatives and superlatives 3 Complete the questions with comparative or superlative adjectives. Can you guess the answers? USA Quiz 1 Which is ... (large) state: Florida, Alaska or Hawaii? 2 Which city is ... (big): New York or LA? 3 What’s ... (valuable) coin: a cent, a dime or a dollar? 4 Which sport is ... (popular): soccer or baseball? 5 What is ... (tall): the Empire State or the Statue of Liberty? Hello from New York! studying English here, тие^ time "ymt^dov we -eft English classes every day. I’ll s^end you (6) some / any pictures, see you soon, Lisa X Error correction 5 Find and correct one error in each sentence. How many does it cost? The T-shirt isn’t enough big. Americans are speaking English with an American accent. He went to New York ago two years. While he was visiting Hollywood, he was meeting a famous actor. I meet hardly ever Americans in my city. The smaller US state is Hawaii. J.F. Kennedy were a president. English sketches (Cm] Listen and read. Then act out the sketch in groups. Units 1-3 Characters Alfie A teenage boy Sam Alfie’s sibling Carl Dana A man in the lift A student Biiiie A visitor to the flats Voice The caretaker In the lift on Friday afternoon Sam What’s happening? What was that? Carl We aren’t moving. Dana Oh dear. What time is it? I don’t have much time ... Billie It’s about one o’clock. Sam Oh no -1 don’t believe it! I get stressed in small spaces. I don’t like lifts. Alfie Don’t worry. Is there an alarm? Sam Here it is. Billie Someone’s coming. Hello? We’re in here! Alfie Hello! The lift isn’t working. Voice Yes, we know. We’re looking for someone to fix it. Don’t worry. Stay calm. Billie Oh well... let’s sit down. It’ll be more comfortable. Dana Good idea. Five minutes later Billie Dana Sam Alfie Carl Alfie Carl Alfie Carl Billie Alfie Sam Billie My name’s Billie. I’m visiting my sister. She lives in this building. How about you? I’m Dana. I’m a student and I do voluntary work. In fact, I was visiting Mrs Peters when this happened! And I’m Sam. Nice to meet you. This is my brother Alfie. Hi. Hey, what’s your name? Me? Yes. What’s your name? Why do you want to know? Urn ... well... it’s just that this is Billie, and this is Dana ... and Sam ... and ... er... I’m Alfie! So you know everybody’s name? Lucky you! I’m not telling you mine. Oh dear! You’re not very sociable! Never mind. So, what are you doing here, Alfie? Do you live here? No, I’ve got to pass a piano exam next week. I was practising with a friend. We study together every Friday. Sam met me half an hour ago, and now we’re going home for lunch. We’re having a special lunch today - our mum wrote a novel and they’re giving her a prize, so we’re celebrating! Oh, congratulations! I was collecting some letters from my sister’s flat this morning. We swapped flats a year ago, so I call round each week. Sam Billie Dana Billie Dana Alfie Dana Sam Why did you swap flats? Well, I think we both wanted a change. I didn’t like the city, and she didn’t like the country. And are you happy now? Yes, I think we are. I’m lucky, because my sister is a very generous person, and the flat I live in now is bigger than the one she lives in. But she’s fine about it - she’s very easy-going! How about you? Well, I was visiting my grandma’s friend today. She doesn’t have many visitors. I brought her some books and read to her for about an hour. It wasn’t long enough, though. Next time I want to stay longer, or she won’t think I’m very caring! Oh, I see. What are you studying? Well, actually. I’m studying advertising! Oh, I got a certificate in advertising last year! I can lend you my notes. What’s your phone number? A few minutes later Alfie You’re very quiet. Carl I don’t like people I don’t know. Sam Oh, come on. Tell us! What were you doing when this happened? Carl You don’t want to know. Billie Well, no, not really! But we’re just passing the time. Invent something, if you want. Carl Hm ... well, if you must know ... I was running away! Dana Really? Was somebody following you? Are you feeling depressed? Carl No. I was feeling OK until the lift stopped. And now I’m standing in a broken lift, wasting time, listening to you! And there are people waiting for me ... Alfie Oh, sorry! Sam People are waiting for us, too, you know! Carl The people waiting for me are more important. Billie Why are you so confident? Do you think you’re better than us? Alfie I suppose you’re famous, or rich, or something! Who’s waiting for you? Carl The police. Dana The police? Carl Yes. I was robbing a flat just now. I’m a thief! xtremel > «Е contents: Adventure sports; -ed and -ing adjectives ^resent perfect: affirmative and negative; present perfect: questions and short answers about an extremely adventurous dog ^^s:en to a news feature about an adventurer 'iVnie a blog about a sports camp Sv'e advice the curriculum Anatomy today Meet the Volunteers w! Ik Which of these sports is not in the Olympics? 5* mountain biking b) skateboarding c) BMX Who was the youngest world champion in Formula 1? a) Michael Schumacher c) Fernando Alonso b) Lewis Hamilton Which of these became a Winter Olympic sport In 1998? a) snowboarding b) skiing c) ice hockey In which sport would you talk about turtle rolls, rip currents and beach breaks? a) volleyball b) golf c) surfing I ■ A* * Vocabulary 1 Adventure sports 1 Match the pictures with these sports. surfing snowboarding rock climbing caving motor racing parachuting kayaking roller skating mountain biking ice climbing О Recycle Look at the action verbs. Write sentences with can or can't. run jump cycle climb fly swim I can run 5 km. r : V i 'Z '- (Sm Listen and repeat. What clothes and equipment do you need for these sports? Use a dictionary and write sentences. surfing rock climbing parachuting snowboarding motor racing kayaking For surfing, you need a wetsuit and a surfboard. YourToice Ask and answer about the sports in exercise 1. 1 In your opinion, which of these sports is the most dangerous? 2 Are any of these sports not dangerous? 3 Which of these are Olympic sports? 4 Do you participate in any of these sports? 5 Which of these sports can you do in your town? Vocabulary plus-» Workbook p119 у Reading (Сзб1 Read the text quickly. Match these headings with the correct paragraph. Then listen and check. a) From coasteering to kayaking b) The record-breaking terrier c) Dogs can fly! d) Part-Ex’s first adventure Which sports does Part-Ex do? Write a list. WORDS Ш CONTEXT Find words 1-6 in the text and match them with the correct definition. 1 terrier a) 2 owner b) 3 van c) 4 refuse d) 5 alone e) 6 path f) solitary Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 Why is the dog called Part-Ex? 2 What was Part-Ex’s first experience of adventure sports? 3 In John-Paul’s opinion, why does Part-Ex like doing sport? 4 What is coasteering? 5 Where are Part-Ex and John-Paul going kayaking next month? 6 Is Part-Ex going to try parachuting? Шш % ■ X in ^*ie adventures of a Jack Russell 3Tier called Part-Ex have put im in the Guinness World -ecords^^ book: he is the dog Tax has participated in the most srtreme sports. The dog is called =^art-Ex because his owner, -ohn-Paul Eatock, got him in rart-exchange for a vehicle. ^art-Ex is very adventurous - he -as accompanied John-Paul on ximerous adventures during the ast five years, including surfing, ^ayaking and rock climbing. 2... ^art-Ex entered the world of extreme sports when he was 18 months old. He climbed onto John-Paul’s surfboard while he was going out to sea! Every time John-Paul put the surfboard on his van, Part-Ex jumped in and refused to move. ‘At first I was surprised’, said John-Paul, ‘but now I realize that he doesn’t like being alone. He wants to be with me - on the sofa or on the surfboard!’ Since then, they haven’t missed any opportunities for adventure. 3 ... Now Part-Ex has become famous in his hometown, St David’s. The local children love him and they always want to hear about his latest adventures. Recently, he’s enjoyed a new sport called coasteering: you run along the coast and then jump into the sea when the path disappears! Next month he and John-Paul are going kayaking across the Irish Sea. 4 ... Parachuting is one of the extreme sports that Part-Ex hasn’t done, but he’s going to try it soon. So if you’ve never seen a flying dog, keep your eye on the sky! L\ let Past participles Regular past participles end in -ed. Irregular past participles are all different. You can see them in the list on page 159. Века 9 Find these past participles in the text. Which ones are irregular? put participated accompanied missed become enjoyed done seen 10 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 In your opinion, what was the most dangerous sport that Part-Ex did? 2 Do you think it’s a good idea for animals to do adventure sports? Why? / Why not? 3 Would you like to do any of these sports? Why? / Why not? like Across the curriculum Anatomy-» pise Grammar 1 Present perfect: affirmative and negative 1 Read the examples. Which past participles are Irregular? present perfect: affirmative and negative We use the present perfect to talk about experiences in the past, when we don’t mention the exact time. subject + have/has + past participle I’ve tried rock climbing. He’s run a marathon. They’ve become famous. I haven’t seen a flying dog! He hasn’t tried parachuting. They haven’t missed an opportunity for adventure. 4 Write sentences. Use the affirmative or negative present perfect. ’ve = have ’s = has haven’t = have not hasn’t = has not Complete the sentences with the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. My uncle has jumped (jump) out of a plane! 1 My parents ... (climb) a lot of mountains. 2 David Beckham ... (play) for Manchester United and Real Madrid. 3 I ... (do) yoga. It’s very relaxing. 4 Misha ... (try) snowboarding. He loves it! 5 A 12-year-old boy ... (swim) from England to France. Complete the text with the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. Judy Climbs High! 18-year-old Judy Green has won (win) the American Bouldering* Championships. Judy (1) ... (enjoy) climbing since she was six years old, and she (2)... (compete) in national and international competitions. Judy (3)... (climb) in France, Britain and Italy with her adventurous family. Her parents (4) ... (support) her climbing career, and they (5) ... (take) her skiing and snowboarding. Judy (6) ... (not finish) her education, but she combines school and climbing. And future plans? She (7)... (not decide) what to do for a job, but she can’t imagine life without sport. ‘I (8)... (not try) surfing - I’d love to do that,’ says Judy. We wish her luck! * Bouldering is similar to rock climbing, but you don’t use ropes. Jordi Font / compete / World Snowboarding Championships. (/) jordi Font has competed in the World Snowboarding Championships. 1 My parents / try / snowboarding, (x) 2 Fernando Alonso / win / lots of Grand Prix races. (/) 3 I / run / a marathon. (/) 4 My dog / do / extreme sports. (/) 5 I / watch / the Olympics on TV. (/) 6 My teacher / try / ice climbing, (x) never have/has + never I’ve never been skiing. -I- past participle Your voice Write sentences about your experiences with I’ve ... and I’ve never Use these expressions. climb a mountain swim in the sea run 10 km play in a school team Language Guide p59 > Vocabulary 2 -Bd and -ing adjectives ' choose the best adjective for each picture. annoyed bored embarrassed excited *nghtened interested worried surprised w 'Ж 2 Listen and repeat. j Read the ruies. Then copy and compiete the tabie with the adjectives from exercise 1 and their -ing forms. -ed and -ing adjectives We use -ed adjectives to say how we feel. We use -ing adjectives to talk about the thing or person that causes the feeling. He was frightened when he had the accident. The accident was frightening. I felt... It was... frightened frightening Your voice Compiete the sentences with your ideas. 1 I think that... is boring. 2 I felt frightened when ... 3 My friends and I are worried about... 4 It’s really annoying when ... 5 I’m not really interested in ... 6 I was so embarrassed when ... Listening Radio news 5 (OH Listen to the radio news. Which three types of transport did Jason use? bike aeroplane roller skates pedal boat ferry helicopter 6 (OH Listen again. Put the sentences in the correct order to describe Jason’s adventure. 1 Then he travelled by pedal boat to France. 2 He finally continued his journey through Australia, Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. 3 First Jason cycled from London to the south coast. 4 After that he took the pedal boat across the Atlantic to Miami. 5 Next he cycled across Spain and Portugal. 6 While he was roller-skating across the USA, he had a terrible accident. 7 Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences. 1 Jason has spent 13 years travelling around the world. 2 He’s travelled by car and motorboat. 3 Jason has travelled more than 74000 km. 4 He hasn’t visited the USA. 5 He’s met a lot of interesting people. 6 He’s written a book about his experiences. ■ Tb:fd‘> ' Culture today .1 1 Look at the information about rescue services in the UK and -'1^ then read the text quickly. Which one does Glen volunteer i» for? The rescue services In the UK, all the rescue services are free Trained volunteers work for Mountain Rescue, Cave Rescue and the RNLI (Royal National Lifeboat Institution). Evei year they rescue thousands of people. If you need their help, just call 999! (ЗШ Read and listen to the profile. Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 What inspired Glen to become an RNLI volunteer? 2 What is ‘a shout’? 3 What was the 14-year-old girl doing when Glen rescued her? 4 How do Glen’s family feel about him being an RNLI volunteer? 5 Does Glen get any money when he goes on rescue missions? 6 When does Glen get annoyed? Your voice Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Which of these emergency services are free in your country? police fire service mountain rescue ambulance lifeboats cave rescue 2 How do you contact them? 3 Do you know anyone who has used these services? Meet the Volunteers Glen Marsh is a volunteer at a lifeboat station in Cornwall in the southwest of England. Here he tells us more about his experiences ... Q How old were you when you became a volunteer? A I started when I was 17 - you can’t join before then - but I’ve always wanted to be in the RNLI. I saw one/^i rescue on TV when I was a boy and that was it! ^ Q How many times have you been out on a rescue? A During the last year. I’ve been on three rescue missions - we call them ‘shouts’. Q What happens if you’re at work when you get a shout? A Well, I’m still at college so it isn’t a problem. I work part-time in a shop but I’ve been lucky - I’ve never had a shout while I was working! Q Have you ever saved someone’s life? A Yes, I have. On one rescue, there was a 14-year-old girl who \л windsurfing with her dad. A storm started, and she went under the water. She was suffering from hypothermia. Q Has the lifeboat ever been in serious danger? A No, it hasn’t - these boats are designed for bad conditions anc the crew is very well trained. Q How do you and the team keep fit? A We usually train twice a week - we often go swimming or surfir I also enjoy mountain biking in my free time. Q What does your family think about you being a volunteer? A My mum sometimes gets worried, but in general they’re all ven supportive. Q Would you like to get paid for this job? A No, I do this because I love it. Everyone at the RNLI is a volunte Q Do you ever get annoyed with people who put their lives at risk A I’m usually quite patient, but sometimes it’s a bit annoying whei people do stupid things, like not wearing a lifejacket or going oi to sea in bad weather conditions. ...theBIG DEBATE Workbook pi 28 tfreeJ Id mg Grammar 2 “resent perfect: questions and short answers ' Translate the examples. Then answer the questions below. present perfect: questions and short answers Have you (ever) saved someone’s life? Has the lifeboat (ever) been in danger? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. Yes, it has. / No, it hasn’t. 1 How do you say ever in your language? 2 Do we put ever before or after the past participle in English? 2 Look at the picture and write present perfect questions. Then write short answers. the girl / have an accident? Has the girl had an accident? Yes, she has. 1 her friend / bring a mobile phone? 2 he / call Mountain Rescue? 3 the helicopter / arrive? 4 they / have a hot drink? 5 she / break her leg? Pronunciation: intonation (ЗИ Listen and repeat. Check your intonation. Have you ever had an accident? a ^ Has your teacher ever climbed a mountain? (ЗИ Say these questions. Then listen and check. 1 Have you ever swum in a lake? 2 Have you ever tried snowboarding? 3 Have you ever been in a cave? Speaking Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions from the Pronunciation section. ^ Have you ever had an accident? ^ Yes, I have. Tell the class about your partner’s experiences. ^ Ana has climbed a mountain, but she hasn't visited a cave. Language Guide p59 > Book comer ^ Unit grammar check 1 Complete the dialogue with the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. Alice I’ve got this book called The Perfect Storm. (1)... (you, read) it? Bob No, I haven’t. I (2)... (never, hear) of it! Alice It’s a true story by an American writer called Sebastian Junger. It’s about a fishing boat that disappears in a hurricane. They send a rescue helicopter, but it crashes. And do they rescue the boat in the end? Alice No, they don’t. In real life, they (3)... (never, find) any of the bodies. And the ship (4) ... (disappear) in the ocean. Bob It sounds interesting. Can I borrow it? Alice Sure. You know, they (5)... (make) a film of the story too. Really? I (6)... (not see) it. Have you? Alice Yes, I have. George Clooney plays the captain. 2 (ЗНЮ Listen and check. Bob Bob The PerfectStorm by Sebastian Junger Writing dossier A blog 1 Complete Pete’s blog with these words. Robert rock climbing computer Wales kayaking f\rsr\ Saturday 09.30 Well, I’ve spent my first night here at the Xtreme Camp in (1)... Fortunately, my room mate doesn’t snore and I’ve slept really well! Obviously, I was a bit worried before I arrived because I didn’t know anyone. But everyone’s really nice! I share my room with someone called (2) ... He’s from Scotland and he’s really good at mountain biking and kayaking. Saturday 18.50 Today has been an amazing day - I’ve been (3)... for the first time ever. It was great! (Well, actually, I fell in the river, but it was fine. Luckily, an instructor helped me!) I’ve also tried (4) ... It was a bit frightening at first. But in the end I was surprised because I arrived at the top! It’s great here The instructors are cool and the food isn’t too bad. The only annoying thing is that there’s only one (5)... so I can’t write this blog very often. Bye for now! Look at the Language focus. How do you say the bold words in your language? Language focus: sentence adverbs We use sentence adverbs at the beginning of a sentence to introduce someone’s opinion or clarify information. Fortunately, my room mate doesn’t snore. Obviously, I was a bit worried. Actually, I fell in the river. Luckily, an instructor helped me. 3 Invent endings for these sentences. 1 My brother had a skiing accident. Fortunately,... 2 I’ve been snowboarding lots of times. Well, actually, ... 3 My best friend is going to a summer camp. Unfortunately, 4 We went out on our bikes, but it started raining. Obviously,, 5 My friends had a problem while they were sailing. Luckily, Writing plan 0 Plan a blog. Imagine you’re staying at an adventure camp in your country. Write answers for these questions. 1 Where is the camp? 2 Who are your room mates? 3 Have you slept well? Why? / Why not? 4 Which sports have you tried? 5 Have you had any accidents or embarrassing moments? 6 Where can you write your blog? (2) Write a first version of your blog for the first day. Organize your work as follows. Saturday morning information about your first night -f information about your room mates Saturday evening ■f activities you’ve done ■f accidents or embarrassing moments 4- information about writing your blog (3) Check your writing. Use the checklist to help you. ✓ Check you use tenses correctly. ✓ Check the forms of past participles. ✓ Use at least three sentence adverbs. ✓ Use at least two -ed / -ing adjectives. ✓ Use at least three sports words. @ Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. Л (§) dialogue builder ‘^ccidents and emergencies: giving advice •'e witnessed ' accident someone an ^Jiance. You’ve had an accident and need to see a doctor immediately. © Your grandma has been ill and is in hospital. © You’ve got a throat infection and feel sick. © You need to buy some plasters. Uatch the situations with the advice. * You should go to the chemist’s. 2 You should call 999. 3 You should go to the doctor’s surgery. You should go to Accident & Emergency. 5 You should visit the hospital. Chris and Nikita were skateboarding in the park when Chris had an accident. Listen and complete the dialogue with these words. painkillers skateboarding careful bandage Doctor Oh dear, what has happened here? How did you do it? No, don’t worry. It should be OK. I’m going to put a (2) ... on it. Yes, I’ll give you some (3) ... to take. You should take them for three days. No, you shouldn’t go skateboarding for a few days! And you should make an appointment to see your doctor next week. ___________________________Be (4) ... next time! 3 Listen again and repeat. 4 Imagine you’ve had a sporting accident. Prepare a new dialogue using some of these Chris I’ve cut my leg! I was (1)... and I fell off. Is it serious? It hurts quite a lot. Can I go skateboarding again? OK. Yeah, thanks. ideas. Practise your dialogue. ^Oh dear, what has happened here? ^ I've bruised my leg. Listen to Chris talking to his sister Amy. Are these sentences true or false? 1 Chris’s leg doesn’t hurt now. 2 His dad took him to hospital. 3 He must wear the bandage for a week. > Useful'expre«ionsj I’ve cut / bruised / broken my arm / leg / finger. It hurts a bit / quite a lot. You should make an appointment to see your doctor. You shouldn’t... @ :. L Language Guide Vocabulary Adventure sports snowboarding rock climbing caving motor racing parachuting kayaking roller skating mountain biking ice climbing -ed and -ing adjectives frightened / frightening excited / exciting bored / boring surprised / surprising interested / interesting embarrassed / annoyed / annoying worried / worrying embarrassing Dictionary extra! ^ coast (n) ★ ★ owner (n) ★ ★ ★ fit (adj) ★ part exchange (n) join (v) ★ ★ ★ rescue service (n) lifeboat (n) storm (n) ★ ★ lifejacket (n) suffer (v) ★ ★ ★ lucky (adj) ★ ★ to train (v) ★ ★ ★ miss (v) ★ ★ ★ Usefurexpr«|ion|j I’ve cut / bruised / broken my arm / leg / finger. It hurts a bit / quite a lot. You should make an appointment to see your doctor. You shouldn’t... rammar ^’esent perfect: affirmative and ii=egative »“rmative You’ve (have) 1 She / It’s (has) i / You / They’ve (have) run. I “egative You haven’t (have not) n -e She / It hasn’t (has not) 1 ' You / They haven’t (have not) tried. One of the uses of the present perfect !S to talk about experiences in the past, when we don’t mention the exact time. In affirmative sentences the order is subject + have / has + past participle. I've tried rock climbing. He's run a marathon. In negative sentences the order is subject + have / has + not + past participle. I haven'ttried rollerskating. He hasn't played in the school team. The past participle of regular verbs is the same as the past simple of regular verbs - they end in -ed. jump -jumped play - played miss - missed The past participles of irregular verbs are all different and you have to learn them. See Irregular Verbs list, p159. Present perfect with never о We often use never with the present perfect to talk about things we haven’t done or experienced in the past. He's never played in the school team, о We use has / have + never + past participle. I've never tried rollerskating. He's never played in the school team. Present perfect: questions and short answers questions Have I / you (ever) visited a cave? Has he / she / it (ever) had an accident? Have we / you / they / (ever) seen a ferry? short answers Yes, I / you / we / they have. No, I / you / we / they haven’t. Yes, he / she / it has. No, he / she / it hasn’t. о We often use ever to ask questions about experiences in the past. The order is Has / Have + subject + ever + past participle. Have you ever tried snowboarding? Has your teacher ever climbed a mountain? Grammar bank Workbook pi 04 > (g) Progress check Adventure sports 1 Write the adventure sports. ©/2>з>4>5>бТ77в: 7 Choose the correct answers. Run for iti Jimmy loves running. He’s (1)... a lot of races but he (2)... a marathon before. It’s (3)... thing he (4)... While he (5)..., he (6)... to feel very tired. He felt (7)... that he wouldn’t finish. But he did it. Jimmy thinks he was (8)..., and he’s going to try again next year. Next time he’s going to run (9) ...I a) run a) never has run a) the most difficult a) ever has done a) was running a) began a) worrying a) slow enough a) faster b) ran b) ’s never run b) the more difficult b) ’s ever done b) ran b) begun b) worried b) too slow b) more fast --■Л и > , Unit contents: Vocabulary Digital media; websites, newspapers and magazines Grammar Present perfect with for, since, just; present perfect and past simple Skills Read about the ringtone revolution Listen to a media questionnaire Write a website review Make arrangements Across the curriculum ICT Culture today Youth Media ^ ’ ^ t. * > r —— 1 When was the Internet invented? a) 1970s b) 1990s c) 1950s 2 What do the letters DVD mean? a) Digital Video Download b) Digital Versatile Disc c) Digital Vision Disk 3 What is the most popular search engine in the world? a) Google b) Yahoo c) Yandex 4 How many songs can you store on a 1GB MP3 player? a) about 500 b) about 250 c) about 1500 '■Ti-.Vj Vocabulary 1 Digital media 1 Match the words with the pictures. There are three extra words. interactive TV mobile phone wireless broadband MP3 player instant messaging text message social networking site e-book online gaming World Wide Web О Recycle Which verbs can we use with these nouns? nouns the radio an email television a newspaper the Internet a magazine verbs watch listen to send read surf © □ 2 C5M] Listen and repeat. 3 Complete the sentences with words from exercise 1. 1 My sister likes Facebook, but my favourite ... is VKontakte. 2 I’ve got about 350 songs on my ... 3 Send me a ... if you’re going to be late. 4 I use ... to communicate with my penfriend in France. 5 Games consoles are popular in Europe, but ... is more popular in Korea. 6 I sometimes use the ... when I’m doing a school project. 7 Have you ever read an ...? 8 They’ve got... in some cafes, so you can send emails from your laptop. Pronunciation: [i] [ai] a (^461 Listen and repeat. [I] interactive instant messaging Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer. 1 How many text messages do you usually send everyday? 2 Which social networking sites have you visited? 3 Have you ever played online games? 4 Has your school got wireless broadband? 5 Have you got interactive TV at home? © Vocabulary plus -> Workbook pi 20_______ Reading 5 (GH Listen to three ringtones and match them with these titles. Have you heard them before? a) Tarzan b) Crazy Frog c) Homer Simpson’s ringtone song 6 (ЗИ Read and listen. Which two ringtones are mentioned in the text? [ai] wireless online WORDS Ш COiXTEXT b (ЗИ Add these words to the lists above. Then listen and check. I’ve sister fine finish Find these words or expressions in the text. to get a song from the Internet a list of the most popular songs or ringtones a period of ten years a vehicle similar to a motorbike the past simple form of draw a song that becomes number one to have value for a long time THE RINGTONE REVOLUTION Which ringtone have you got on your mobile? I've just downloaded Homer Simpson - it's number one in the ringtone chart at the moment. There's been a special chart for ringtones for a few years now. Over the last decade, the ringtone industry has grown from nothing into a massive international business. So, how did it all begin? Well, do you remember that really annoying Crazy Frog? It was the first ringtone to achieve massive popularity. Since its creation in 2005, more than 11 million people have bought it. But do you know who invented it? It was a 17-year-old student in Sweden who created the original sound, by imitating his friend's moped. Then a graphic designer drew the frog, and the ringtone company Jamster began to sell it. Finally, a German band made a record based on the ringtone, and it reached number one in the UK singles chart. So, what does it mean for real music when a mobile ringtone becomes the nation's favourite song? Since the invention of the Crazy Frog, people have realized that you don't ^ need talented musicians.to make a hit single. And the music industry has realized that ringtones are worth a lot of money. In fact, record companies have Just announced that they make more money from the sale of ringtones than from CD singles. Now, what about my Homer Simpson ringtone? I've only had it for a few hours but I think I feel like a change. How about that Crazy Frog? I haven't heard it for ages ... 8 Read the text again and choose the correct sentence in each pair. 1 a) The writer has got a Homer Simpson ringtone at the moment, b) The writer’s ringtone isn’t very popular. 2 a) The ringtone chart started last year. b) There are different charts for ringtones and CD singles. 3 a) The writer thinks the Crazy Frog is annoying. b) The writer invented the Crazy Frog. 4 a) The Crazy Frog ringtone wasn’t very popular. b) Millions of people bought the Crazy Frog ringtone. 5 a) For record companies, ringtones are worth more than CD singles, b) Record companies aren’t interested in selling ringtones. 6 a) The writer is thinking of changing his ringtone. b) The writer plans to keep his ringtone for a long time. 9 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 What ringtone do you and your friends have on your mobile phones? 2 Which ringtones do you find really annoying? 3 How often do you download ringtones? 4 How much do ringtones cost in your country? 5 What is number one in the ringtone chart at the moment? And in the music chart? Across the curriculum ICT piss Grammar 1 Present perfect with for and since 1 Translate the examples in red and answer the questions below. for and since We use for with a period of time. We use since with a point in time. How long have you had that ringtone? I’ve had it for a week. How many people have bought the Crazy Frog? 11 million people have bought it since 2005. 1 How do you say for and since in your language? 2 Which tense do you use for these sentences in your language? 2 Copy and complete the table with these time expressions. I was 12 ten minutes 2006 an hour two weeks last summer Tuesday September three months ten o’clock a long time for since ten minutes 3 Complete the text with for or since. Oliver has played with his Xbox (1)... two hours. His mum isn’t happy because he’s playing games again. But he’s only had this new game (2)... last week and he’s still trying to learn the rules. He’s been a fan of gaming (3)... he was young, but this is the best game he’s played (4) ... a long time! It’s only been in the shops (5)... a week, and he’s played it every day (6) ... he bought it. 4 Write questions using How long ...? and the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. Then write answers using for or since. This game arrived in the shops three days ago. (be) How long has it been in the shops? It's been in the shops for three days. 1 I bought this new phone last weekend, (have) 2 Our teacher came to this school in 2004. (work) 3 We arrived at school at half past eight, (be) 4 My sister met her boyfriend a year ago. (know) 5 My parents moved here in 1990. (live) Present perfect with just 5 Look at the table. What expression do you use to translate Just into your language? Just “T- We use just with the present perfect to talk about very recent actions. subject + past participle He’s just downloaded a new ringtone. We’ve just started this exercise. 6 Look at the picture and write sentences using Just and the present perfect. She / turn on / the computer. She's just turned on the computer. 1 She / buy / a coffee. 2 He / receive / an email. 3 He / play / a video game. 4 She / pay / £3. 5 We / finish / this exercise. Speaking 7 Invent reasons for these situations. Use the present perfect with Just. I’m happy. I'm happy today. I'vejustwon a prize! 1 I’m tired. 3 We’re laughing. 2 My friend is sad. 4 I’m frightened. 8 Work in pairs. Ask and answer about the situations in exercise 7. ^ Why are you happy today? ^ Because I've just won a prize! Language Guide p71 > on Vocabulary 2 Websites, newspapers and magazines 1 Tsoi Match the words and pictures. Then listen and repeat. TV guide interview problem page weather forecast video clip headlines home page sports section blog podcast horoscopes crossword •OTllfB" I СЛТП01И TXCTJLY TODAY 1S.4S Well today was a геаНу fantastic day. We went to the beach as it was swwy and hot. Played voHeybali with my friends Q & A Page Q. What do you like about... A. Well, I really like... TUESDAY 1st JULY WlOO News Report It JO A writer^ йе-dociananiaiy following ■wdaSyOieofabest-scOIng author, to JO Sports today. <£b Complete the sentences with words from exercise 1. 1 I’ve just seen the ... . It’s raining in Pskov! 2 My dad’s good at puzzles. He’s just finished the ... 3 I’ve just downloaded a ... on to my MP3 player. 4 I’ve just watched my friend’s ... on her MySpace page. 5 David wants to watch a programme at nine o’clock. He’s just read about it in the ... 6 I’ve just read my ... It says that today is a lucky day for Sagittarius! Do you usually find the things from exercise 1 in a newspaper or magazine, or on the Internet? Copy and complete the diagram. Listening A questionnaire 4 (ПИ Listen and complete the questionnaire. New media questionnaire Name Chris jones_____ 1 Which of these products have you got? И mobile phone И games console 0 MP3 player 2 How long have you had these products? mobile phone since I was (a)...__ games console since I was (b). MP3 player for (c) years Have you got a computer at home? 0 Yes - go to question 4 □ No - go to question 5 How long have you had internet access at home? I’ve had internet access (d)...__________ Which forms of communication do you use with your friends? 0 instant messaging 0 text messages 0 social networking sites □ emails 5 (ЛИ Listen again. Are the sentences true or false? 1 Chris has got two games consoles. 2 His parents gave him a mobile on his 11*^ birthday. 3 Chris has got a computer at home. 4 Chris’s family have had wireless broadband for three years, 5 Chris sends more than ten text messages every day. 6 YourToice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in the questionnaire. @ I Culture today Find the names of nine magazines in the text. What type of magazines are they? music magazines digital magazines celebrity magazines sports magazines girls’ magazines Teen magazines More than 80% of under 16s in the UK read teenage magazines. The most popular ones sell more than 250000 copies a month. Teen magazines are more popular among girls, but boys often buy sports, music or computer magazines. 2 (^fsTl Read and listen. Match the words with the definitions. nowadays advantages disadvantages gossip set up a) good points b) information about famous people c) today d) establish e) bad points THE CHANGING FACE OF YOUTH MEDIA What do young people in Britain read nowadays? Ten years ago, teen magazines were really popular. But now, lots of young people have turned to digital media. So, what are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Magazines / Sugar and Bliss have been Britain’s most popular teen magazines for the last few years. These are girls’ magazines with articles about boys and fashion, and interviews with famous people. They also have problem pages, horoscopes and competitions. The music magazine Top of the Pops is also popular, and there are several football magazines like Match. Celebrity gossip magazines like Heaf and OK! have also been popular since the late 1990s. ^Advantages You can read magazines anywhere. You often get free posters. ^ Disadvantages Printed magazines are not free. They often only come out once a month. 3 Read the text again and answer the questions. Online Magazines Now, most magazines have set up websites too. A lot of young people have stopped buying magazines -they just read them online. Some famous magazines have disappeared altogether. Just 17 closed a few years ago, and the music magazine Smash Hits closed in 2006, after 28 years. Last year there was an experiment to produce a completely digital magazine called Jellyfish, but it didn’t work. Maybe people will always prefer real magazines? ^^Advantages Online magazines are sometimes free. You can see video clips and listen to podcasts. They don’t use paper so they’re better for the environment. ^ Disadvantages You need a computer or an expensive mobile phone. What are the most popular girls’ magazines in Britain? What kind of information do they contain? When did celebrity gossip magazines become popular? Which famous magazines have disappeared? Was the Jellyfish experiment successful? What’s the disadvantage of online magazines? r- Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 How often do you buy magazines? 2 Have you ever read magazines online? 3 What kind of teen magazines do you prefer? 4 How much do your favourite magazines cost? 5 Do you think print magazines will disappear completely in the future? the BIG DEBATE -♦ Workbook pi 29 Grammar 2 -'-esent perfect and past simple ^ead the examples and answer the questions below. present perfect and past simple a) Have you ever read magazines online? b) Sugar and Bliss have been popular for years. c) Gossip magazines have been popular since the 1990s. d) Magazines were more popular ten years ago. e) Smash Hits closed in 2006. 0 Jellyfish closed last year. 1 Which sentences are past simple and which are present perfect? 2 Which sentences are about a completed action in the past? ^ I Copy and complete the table with the red time expressions in exercise 1. with the present with the past simple perfect (the time (the time period is period is not finished) finished) ever Choose the correct tense. The Internet existed / has existed for more than 20 years. 20 years ago, it was / has been much slower. People designed / have designed millions of websites since the Internet was invented. Our school has designed / designed a website in 2007. I used /’ve used the Internet since I was about six. I got /’ve got my own email address when I was ten. 4 Complete the questions with the past simple or present perfect form of the verbs In brackets. 1 a) ... you ever... (use) Google? b) When ... you first... (go) on the Internet? 2 a) ... you always ... (be) a student at this school? b) Which school ... you ... (go) to when you were little? 3 a) ... you ... (study) English all your life? b) When ... you ... (start) to learn English? 5 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 4. I Language Guide p71 Book comer Unit grammar check 1 Complete the dialogue with the past simple or present perfect form of the verbs In brackets. Ann > I (1)... (just, finish) my book. Can you recommend a new one? Well, I (2)... (just, start) an e-book. My uncle (3) ... (give) it to me for my birthday last week. Which one is it? It’s Moby Dick, by Herman Melville. It’s quite old - he (4) ... (write) it in 1851. Yes, I (5)... (read) it years ago. (6)... (you, like) it? Yes, it (7) ... (be) good. I (8)... (never, see) an e-book. Have you got it with you? No, I haven’t. It’s at home - I’ll bring it in and show you tomorrow. (3H1 Listen and check. Ben Ann Ben Ann Ben Ann Ben Moby Dick by Herman Melville Writing dossier A website review 1 Look at the sentences about social networking sites. Are they advantages or disadvantages? Read the review and check your answers. 1 I spend too much time on the computer! 2 You can talk to all your friends at the same time. 3 Some people have had problems with security. 4 It’s free to use. 5 It’s very easy to use. Website review: Bebo One of my favourite websites is a social networking site called Bebo. I've used it since I was 13, and I've had my own page for about a year. I use this site to communicate with all my friends. One advantage of Bebo is that you can talk to all your friends at the same time. Moreover, it's free to use so it's cheaper than using the mobile phone. In^iddition, this site is very easy to use and everyone can be creative. I've put a lot of pictures and drawings on my page, and some of my friends have uploaded videos too. However, there are also some disadvantages with this kind of website. Some people have had problems with security. For example, there was a girl who invited her friends to a party and then hundreds of people arrived and destroyed her parents'house. Bebo has helped me keep in touch with people, but sometimes I think I spend too much time on the computer! 2 Look at the Language focus. How do you say the bold words in your language? Which linkers do we use for addition and which for contrast? Language focus: linkers of addition and contrast Moreover, it’s free to use. In addition, this site is very easy to use and everyone can be creative. However, there are also some disadvantages, Bebo has helped me keep in touch with people, but sometimes I think I spend too much time on the computer! 3 Choose the correct linkers. 1 Hotmail is one of the biggest email sites. However / Moreover, I haven’t got a hotmail address. 2 You can search for articles on Google. In addition / However, you can also search for images. 3 Dad sometimes reads the news online, but / and he prefers to buy a newspaper. 4 Sometimes it’s cheaper to buy things online. Moreover / However, you can go shopping at any time of night or day! 5 You can watch video clips on YouTube, and / but you can also listen to music. Writing plan Ф Plan a review of one of your favourite websites. First, make notes for the different paragraphs. Introduction name / type of website? how long have you used it? what do you use it for? Advantages Disadvantages (2) Write a first version. Organize your work into four paragraphs. ♦ introduction 4- advantages > disadvantages 4 conclusion @ Check your writing. Use the checklist to help you. ✓ I’ve included the advantages and disadvantages from my notes. ✓ I’ve used the present perfect correctly. ✓ I’ve included some of the linkers of addition and contrast. ✓ I’ve checked my work for errors. @ Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. Dialogue builder Vaking arrangements i>ook at these slang words. Are they positive or negative? Are there slang words like this in your language? S Tanya calls Nikita and invites him out. Read and listen lo the dialogue. Where are they going this afternoon? Why? Tanya Nikita Hi Nikita, it’s Tanya. How’s things? Yeah, cool. Listen, are you doing anything this afternoon? Well, have you heard of a band called Mighty Boosh? "Tiey rock! The singer’s fit and the music’s awesome! Well, I’ve just heard that they’re playing some songs at the Megastore later. Do you want to come? Oh ... OK. See you later then. Listen again and repeat. Imagine you’re going to see a band or a film. Prepare a new dialogue. Try to include some slang words. Practise your dialogue. ^ Hi Ivan, it's Olga. How's things? I'm fine, thanks. And you? I’m fine, thanks. And you? No, I’m not. Why? No, I haven’t. What are they like? I’ve never heard of them. Yes, that sounds great. I’ll ask Chris and Amy. Bye! Making arrangements Remember we use the present continuous to talk about arrangements. Are you doing anything this afternoon? They're playing at the Megastore later. 6 (£H] Listen to Nikita talking to Chris and Amy. Choose the correct answers. 1 Chris and Amy are watching television / having lunch. 2 Amy is meeting friends / going to the library this afternoon. 3 Chris is helping his dad / doing his homework this afternoon. Useful Are you doing anything this afternoon?"' They’re playing at the Megastore later. Do you want to come? Yes, that sounds great. OK. See you later then. > Language Guide Vocabulary Digital media interactive TV mobile phone wireless broadband MP3 player f Щ'Лтт. instant messaging text message social networking online gaming World Wide Web site Websites, newspapers and magazines e-book TUESDAY 1st JULY 18.00 News Report 18.30Awritef^liit-docurtiefiUry loHowing №e daily life of a bestselling author. 19.30 Sports today. TV guide [Юдштт Q & A Page Q. What do you like about... A. Well, I really like... interview problem page TIGERULY TODAY 18.45 Well today was a realty fantastic day. We went to the beach as it was sunny and hot. Played volleyball with my friends home page sports section blog Dictionary extra! ^ celebrity (n) ★ hit single (n) create (v) ★ ★ ★ invention (n) ★ download (v) realize (v) ★ ★ ★ environment (n) ringtone (n) ★ ★ ★ set up (v) ★ ★ ★ fashion (n) ★ ★ worth (adj) ★ ★ ★ ИИРШйУ weather forecast video clip headlines podcast horoscopes crossword Usefurexpiession^ Are you doing anything this afternoon? They’re playing at the Megastore later. Do you want to come? Yes, that sounds great. OK. See you later then. Grammar -resent perfect with for and snce • iVe use the present perfect with for when we mention the period or length of time of a situation. fVe had the ringtone for two weeks. • We use the present perfect with since when we mention the point of time when a situation started. My friend has been at school since 8.30 this morning. • We use How long with the present perfect to ask about the duration of an action or situation. How long have you had the. ringtone? How long has your friend been at school? Present perfect with just 1 / You / We / They’ve (have) just sent an He / She / It’s (has) email. о We use just with the present perfect to talk about very recent actions, о We use subject + have / has + just + past participle. I've just bought a new MP3 player. My brother has just started a blog. Present perfect and past simpie о We use the present perfect for situations when the time period is not finished. I've had this computer for five years. (I’ve got the same computer now.) о We use the past simple for completed actions in the past, when the time period is finished. I sent my first email six years ago. Time expressions о We use ever, for and since with the present perfect (when the time period we are talking about is not finished). Have you ever read Emma by jane Austen? The game has been In the shops for two weeks. OK! magazine has been popular since the late 1990s. о We use ago, in (+ year / month / season / year), last week / month / year, etc, when I was a child / ten, etc with the past simple (when the time period is finished). Magazines were more popular ten years ago. They set up the website In 2006. The magazine closed lastyear. Which school did you go to when you were little? Grammar bank -» Workbook p106 © Progress check Digital media 1 Match the two parts of each word. mobile interactive online instant wireless social a) TV b) messaging c) phone d) networking site e) gaming f) broadband Websites, newspapers and magazines 2 Write the words. Present perfect with just 5 Rewrite the sentences using just. I sent you a text message a minute ago. I've just sent you a text message. 1 He bought a new phone this morning. 2 I read my horoscope a moment ago. 3 We got wireless broadband yesterday. 4 He finished the crossword a minute ago. 5 I turned the computer off a moment ago. Present perfect and past simple 6 Complete the sentences with the present perfect or past simple form of the verbs in brackets. 1 I ... (start) at this school three years ago. 2 She ... (study) English since she was five. 3 They ... (go) to London in 2006. 4 We ... (be) in this room for half an hour. 5 I was ten when I ... (meet) my best friend. 6 My grandmother... (never, use) the Internet, but she’s got a mobile phone. Cumulative grammar 11>2>з>4>5>бУтУУ/^ 7 Choose the correct words. Present perfect with for and since 3 Complete the sentences with for or since. 1 We’ve been here ... an hour. 2 I’ve studied English ... I was six. 3 We’ve been at school... nine o’clock. 4 I’ve known my best friend ... two years. 5 We’ve used this book ... September. 6 Our teacher has worked here ... a long time. 4 Make questions using How long ...? and the present perfect. Then write answers with for or since. They’re fans of online gaming, (two years) How long have they been fans of online gaming? They’ve been fans of online gaming for two years. 1 He studies English. (2002) 2 She designs websites, (a long time) 3 I live in Russia. (I was born) 4 They are friends, (three years) 5 He works in a shop, (he left school) Listen to this (1) Have / Has you ever listened to a podcast? I (2) ’ve /’s listened to a lot of them since I’ve had my new MP3 player. They (3) helps / help to pass the time while I’m (4) travel / travelling to school. I (5) always download / download always them from the Internet. This one’s about new technology. But the (6) most / more interesting one I heard was an interview with my favourite singer. While I (7) was / were listening to it, I missed my stop and I (8) forget / forgot to get off the bus! ШЕОйецШав I Unit contents Vocabulary Prepositions of movement; extreme adjectives Grammar will and might, be going to; first conditional Skills Read about space tourism Listen to plans for a trip Write a description of a place Ask for information while travelling on public transport Across the curriculum Science Culture today Antarctic Cruise Which of these planets is the nearest to Earth? a) Saturn b) Jupiter c) Venus Which is the largest desert? a) The Gobi Desert in Asia b) The Sahara Desert in Africa c) The Atacama Desert in South America Which of these is not a continent? a) The Arctic b) Antarctica c) Australia What’s the world’s biggest ocean? a) The Atlantic b) The Arctic c) The Pacific 'ч 4^ fm 73 Vocabulary 1 Prepositions of movement 1 Look at the prepositions. How do you say them In your language? Then match the pictures with the prepositions. Recycle Look at the types of transport. Write a sentence for each one. car boat ship spaceship plane bus I travel by car every day. I've never travelled by spaceship. towards out of away from into over across along under 2 (Зт Listen and repeat. 3 Choose the correct words. 1 My aunt and uncle travelled across / under the Pacific on a cruise ship. 2 Some people climb out of / up Everest, but then they disappear. 3 The astronauts took pictures when they got out of / through their spaceship. 4 Would you like to travel round / along the world? 5 We were driving down / towards the city centre when we had an accident. 6 Our plane flew over / into the Pyrenees before arriving in Paris. Pronunciation: [ui] [au] [d] [эи] a (Зт Listen and repeat the different sounds. [ui] [au] [o] [эи] into down along over b (Ли Listen and add these words to the table. round boat through across the scene - you’re on holiday, and you’re looking out of the hotel window at an r^ng view: planet Earth! Soon, this idea might not be science fiction. A company iSarcelona has got plans for the world’s first space hotel. According to the director, if Claramunt, the Galactic Suite hotel is not just fantasy - it’s going to open, and Six lucky millionaires will have the opportunity to be the first guests. This will be most expensive hotel in the galaxy - $4 million for a three-day holiday! 3sts will get into a spaceship on the ground which will bring them up to the space tei. in orbit around the Earth. Then they’ll go round the Earth every 80 minutes, and 15 sunrises every day. They won’t be able to walk around - they’ll wear special bicro suits, and climb up the walls like Spiderman. They won’t be able to have a bath itii they get home, and using the toilet in zero gravity will be quite a challenge! how many people are going to have enough money to visit the Galactic Suite? ut 40000 people in the world are rich enough, but they won’t all want to go. ramunt insists that it’s the holiday of a lifetime. The e includes an eight-week training course on a tropical nd, where galactic tourists will learn everything they ;ed to know. That’ll be more luxurious than life with ro gravity! Barcelona is not the only contender in the race for space IpDurism. Russian, British and American companies [are also going to offer space tourism before the end of [the decade. And it might not be a reality by 2020, but [perhaps one day Mars will be more popular than spa I resorts! w Read the text again. Put these events in the correct order. 1 The tourists travel into space. 2 They return to Earth. 3 They get into a spaceship. 4 The tourists go on a training course. Are the sentences true or faise? Find evidence in the text. 1 The Galactic Suite hotel is going to open soon. 2 It won’t be expensive to visit the Galactic Suite hotel. 3 It will take a day for the space hotel to travel round the Earth. 4 Visitors can wear their own clothes in space. 5 The price of the holiday includes eight weeks on a tropical island. 6 All the European countries are planning to have space hotels in the future. Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 Do you think there will be space hotels soon? 2 Would you like to be a space tourist? 3 What else could you do with $4 million? 4 In your opinion, will humans colonize other planets in the future? PM Across the curriculum Sciencepi4o Grammar 1 will and might 1 Read the rules on page 83, then complete the sentences with will / won't or might / might not. definite possible + The Galactic Suite (1)... be expensive. People (2)... go on holiday to space in the future. - Some people (3)... want to go. It (4) ... be science fiction in the future. Complete the sentences with will / won't or might / might not and the verbs in brackets. 1 Someone from my school... (become) an astronaut in the future. 2 I’m sure that someone ... (walk) on the moon again one day. 3 I ... (go) on holiday to the Galactic Suite hotel because it’s too expensive. 4 People ... (buy) CDs in future, because digital music is becoming more popular. 5 In 2018, the World Cup ... (be) in Russia. Your voice Write sentences using will / won't or might/might not and words from A, В and C. I might go to England one day. be going to 4 Translate the examples into your language. Then write the he / she / it forms. be going to We use be going to to talk about plans and intentions. They’re going to open the hotel in 2020. I’m not going to work there Are you going to stay there? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. Complete the dialogue with the correct form of be going to. i Congratulations! You’ve won a holiday at the Galactic Suite space hotel for you and a friendJ] Tom Hi, guess what? I’ve won a galactic holiday - I’m going to travel to space! Amy Wow! That’s amazing! When (1) ... (you, go)? Tom Soon. When the Galactic Suite hotel opens. Amy Who (2)... (you, take) with you? What about me?! Tom Er, actually, I (3)... (ask) my cousin. He’s very interested in outer space. Amy Oh. That’s a shame. How long (4)... (you, stay) in space? Tom Only three days. But I (5)... (spend) eight weeks on a tropical island before that. We (6)... (prepare) for the space trip there. Amy That sounds fantastic! Speaking 6 Imagine you’ve won one of these holidays. Work in pairs. Ask and answer about the holiday using the prompts. Remember to use the question form of be going to. A В C 1 We My teacher My parents go to England buy me a car travel round the world get married have an exam give us homework today soon next year in 15 years one day ЯЮвййг!» t rial Who / take with you? How long / stay? When / go? How / prepare for the trip? What / do there? What / wear? i Listening ^lans for a trip ^ Listen to Chris telling his mum about a trip. Are the sentences true or false? 1 It’s a school trip. 2 They’re going to go to France. 3 They’re going to stay at a campsite. 4 The trip will cost £80. 5 They’re going to go in January. 2 Listen again and choose the correct answers. 1 Where are they going to be? a) in a city b) in the mountains 2 What are they going to do? a) go skiing b) study geography 3 How many teachers will be there? a) one b) three 4 What are the optional excursions going to be? a) trip to the Ice Factor and Glasgow b) rock climbing and kayaking 5 What will the weather be like? a) wet b) freezing Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 Have you ever been on a school trip? 2 Where did you go? 3 What did you do there? Vocabulary 2 Extreme adjectives 4 Match the normal and extreme adjectives. Use a dictionary to help you. normal adjectives hot cold big small nice bad interesting extreme adjectives awful tiny huge boiling freezing fascinating amazing 5 (?ГбТ1 Listen, check and repeat. 6 Write answers to the questions using extreme adjectives. Are the exam results bad? Yes, they are. They're awful! 1 Is it cold in the Arctic in winter? 2 Is it hot in the desert in summer? 3 Is Russia a big country? 4 Is Luxembourg a small country? 5 Are the beaches in Hawaii nice? 6 Was the exhibition interesting? 7 Rewrite Chris’s postcard with extreme adjectives. Hi Mum! I'm having a (1) nice time here in Scotland. Yesterday we skied down a (2) big mountain. The youth hostel is OK, but the showers are (3) cold! The nearest village is (4) small but it's got a shop, so I bought you this postcard! See you soon, Chris PS I miss your cooking - the food here is (5) bad! ШШ: Culture today 1 What do you know about Antarctica? Look at the quiz opposite and choose the correct answers. 2 (СбП Read and listen to the text and check your answers. 3 Find these adjectives in the text then match them with the correct synonym. 1 remote a) once-in-a-lifetime 2 amazing b) isolated 3 unique c) spectacular Adventure tourism 1 Antarctica is ... a) an ocean. b) a continent. c) a country. 2 What percentage of Antarctica is ice? a) 50% b) 85% c) 98% Antarctica is in the a) north. b) south. c) east. Antarctica is becoming the m tourist destinatic Last year, over 30( people visited the W| coldest continent it's 98% ice! ADVENTURE TRIPS Antarctic Cruise see huge icebergs watch penguins and whales Join us on a fascinating trip to the world’s most remote continent. We’ll travel on a special ship called the Polar Star. First, your guide will meet you at the airport in Buenos Aires. Then you’ll board the ship in Ushuaia, the world’s most southern city. The Polar Star has got a gym, restaurant and shop. It carries about 100 passengers, so you’ll make lots of new friends. During your journey to the South Pole you’ll see some amazing scenery. If you’re lucky, you’ll also see whales, seals and sea birds. If you’ve got any questions, our team of experts will be there to help you. Every day we’ll go on excursions if the weather isn’t too bad. One of our most popular trips is a visit to the penguin colonies on Half Moon .nd. You’ll see the tiny penguin chicks if you visit in February. You can also and an afternoon at the boiling hot springs of Pendulum Cove. If you’re ive, you’ll be able to go for a swim! There’s lots of time to enjoy the trip jecause it’s light for 20 hours a day during the Antarctic summer. If you choose this holiday, you won’t be disappointed. It’s a unique opportunity to visit the Earth’s final frontier, and a once-in-a-lifetime experience for lovers of adventure! Read the text again. Are the sentences true or false? Find evidence in the text. 1 The Polar Star is an aeroplane. 2 The tour begins in Buenos Aires. 3 There are penguins on Half Moon Island. 4 Penguin chicks are born in April. 5 You can swim at Pendulum Cove. 6 It’s dark for four hours a night during the Antarctic summer. 5 Your voice Work in pairs. Read the opinions and discuss the questions. If tourism becomes more popular in Antarctica, people will destroy the fragile environment forever. If people visit Antarctica, they'll see how beautiful it is and they'll want to protect it. 1 Which opinion do you agree with? 2 Would you like to go on this trip? Why? / Why not? ...the BIG DEBATE -» Workbook p13f Grammar 2 tm- ^irst conditional Read the examples and answer the questions below. first conditional If you are lucky, you'll see wliules. If you choose this holiday, you won't be disappointed. You'll see the penguins if you visit in February. We'll go on excursion if the weather isn't bad. 1 Is if always at the start of the sentence? 2 Which tense do we use in the if part? 3 Which tense do we use for the consequence? 4 Do we always use a comma between the two parts of the sentence? 2 Choose the correct words. 1 You’ll be cold if you don’t / won’t take a lot of clothes. 2 We send / ’ll send you a postcard if we find a post box! 3 If you haven’t got / won’t have much money, you won’t be able to come. 4 The environment will suffer if too many people go / will go to Antarctica. If you go on this holiday, you forget / won’t forget it! Your voice Write consequences for these situations. Book corner ^ Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct words. Surviving in the Mountains 'Touching the Void' is a true story about two friends called Joe and Simon. They (1) 're /'s going to climb a huge mountain In Peru. Joe and Simon reach the top of the mountain, hut then joe has an accident and breaks his leg. If they (2) don't / doesn't get down quickly, they (3) don't / won't survive. They might (4) die / to die in the mountains. The two friends decide to stay together, and they hold the same rope. Then, something terrible happens, joe falls and pulls the rope. Simon must make a rapid decision. If he cuts the rope, Joe (5) falls / will fall further, if he (6) doesn't I won't cut the rope, they will both fall. Simon cuts the rope, and he returns to the camp alone. He feels terrible. A couple of days later, he (7) 's /'m going to leave the camp when he sees a figure in the distance, will joe (8) return I to return? (?ГбГ| Listen and check. Touching the void by Joe Simpson Writing dossier A description of a place 1 Guess words 1-4 in the text. Compare with a partner. An amazing place in my country Death Valley, USA Death Valley is a national park in the states of California and Nevada. It's the (1) hottest / coldest place in the USA. It's a great place to visit because the landscape is fascinating. The best time to visit Death Valley is in spring or autumn because it isn't too hot. In summer it's boiling - the highest recorded temperature was (2) 25°C / 54®C! The best way to get there is by car. There's a road that goes through the park, so you can drive dr cycle there. The most famous place to see is Badwater. That's the lowest point in the whole country - it's 86 m below sea level. If you go (3) up / down to the top of Dante's View, you'll have a great view of Badwater. You should also visit the village of Furnace Creek. There's a hotel there, so you can stay the night if you want to. If you visit Death Valley, you'll need a sunhat and some suncream. It's very dry, so remember to take lots of (4) food / water with you too. And don't forget your camera because the scenery is amazing! 2 Read the Language focus and complete the rules with because and so. Language focus: linkers of reason and result It’s a great place to visit because the landscape is fascinating. The best time to visit is in spring because it isn’t too hot. There’s a road that goes through the park, so you can drive there. There’s a hotel there, so you can stay the night if you want to. V_____________________________________________________ 1 We use ... to introduce a result or consequence. 2 We use ... to give a reason. 3 Join the two sentences with because or so. Remember that we don’t use a comma before because. Meshchera is a national park. You can’t camp there. Л/leshchera is a national park, so you caY\'tcamp there. 1 Paustovsky wrote about Meshchera. He admired its splendour. 2 Meshchera is a wetland area. Boating and fishing are popular there. 3 Meshchera’s lakes are shallow. They are of glacial origin. 4 There are lots of wetlands. Tourists have to be careful. 5 Many tourists visit Meshchera’s Bird World museum. It is very interesting. Writing plan 0 Plan a text about an amazing place in your country or find out about a new place on the Internet. Make notes. Name of place? Where is it? Why is it special? Best time to visit? (Why?) How to travel there? What to see? Where to stay? What to take? (Why?) (2) Write a first version. Organize your information into four paragraphs. ■f introduction to the place ■f how and when to go there best places to visit and stay >■ what you’ll need to take Check your writing. Use the checklist to help you. / I’ve written four paragraphs. / I’ve included the linkers so and because. У I’ve used prepositions of movement and extreme adjectives. / I’ve included at least one example of the first conditional. / I’ve found a picture of the place. 0 Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. к Dialogue builder Ravelling on public transport * What do Londoners call the underground? a) the metro b) the Tube c) the subway 2 Teil Nikita is going to meet Tanya at the Megastore in Piccadilly Circus. Read and listen to the dialogue. Which tube line does Nikita take? Nikita l4 f Hello, can I have a ticket to Piccadilly Circus, please? Return, please. Sorry, how much? Here you are. Can you tell me which way to go, please? How many stops is it? ^__________________________________Thanks, bye. 3 515 Listen again and repeat. 4 Prepare a new dialogue. Imagine you’re going to one of these places. Man Single or return? OK, that’s £4.00, please. £4.00. Thanks. Here is your ticket, and your change. Yes, it’s the Piccadilly line. Over there, and down the escalator. Nine stops to Piccadilly Circus. > Tate Modern (nearest tube Blackfriars, Circle or District Line) Practise your dialogue. Hello, can I have a ticket to ..., please? Single or return? (5Ц] The next day Nikita buys a one-day travelcard because he’s going sightseeing. Listen and choose the correct answers. 1 Nikita buys a travelcard for peak / off-peak times. 2 The travelcard is valid for zones 1-6 /1-9. 3 It costs £2.00 / £2.60. London Zoo (nearest tube Camden Town, Northern Line) : ГЩ lupfulexp^ressions: Can I have a ticket to ..., please? Single or return? Can you tell me which way to go, please? It’s the ... line. How many stops is it? Language Guide Vocabulary Prepositions of movement towards away from A’ down along across out of Extreme adjectives through normal adjectives extreme bad awful big huge cold freezing hot boiling interesting fascinatir nice amazing small tiny Dictionary extra! brave (adj) ★★ opportunity (n) cruise (n) ★ ★ ★ outer space (n) disappointed (adj) ★ spaceship (n) gravity (n) sunrise (n) guest (n) ★★ trip(n) ★★ guide (n) ★★ view(n) ★★★ iceberg (n) under over Useful'exgressions Can I have a ticket to please? Single or return? Can you tell me which way to go, please? It’s the ... line. How many stops is it? Grammar will and might sffirmative You / He / She / ' We / They will see the sunrise. You / He / She / t' We / They might climb up walls. negative You / He / She / * We / They won’t walk around. ’ You / He / She / t We/They might not travel to space. We use will or won't when we’re sure about something in the future - it’s definite. We use might or might not when we aren’t sure about something in the future - it’s possible. To form sentences we use will / won't / might / might not + infinitive without to. People might go on holiday in space. I won't book a room in that hotel. The form is the same for all persons. We don’t use -s in the third person. He might open a hotel. They won't all want to go. We normally use contractions ('ll not will, and won't not will not) when we speak. be going to affirmative I’m (am) You’re (are) He / She / It’s (is) We / You / They’re (are) negative I’m not (am not) You aren’t (are not) He / She / It isn’t (is not) We / You / They aren’t (are not) questions going to ask going to work Am I Are you Is he / she / it Are we / you / they going to stay there? short answers Yes, I am. / No, I’m not. Yes, you are. / No, you aren’t Yes, he / she / it is. / No, he / she / it isn’t. Yes, we / you / they are. / No, we / you / they aren’t. We use he going to to talk about plans and intentions for the future. To form sentences we use: subject + he + going to + infinitive without to. She's going to spend six weeks in space. First conditional situation consequence If 1 get rich one day, I’ll go to Antarctica. consequence situation I'll go to Antarctica if 1 get rich one day. We use the first conditional to talk about possible situations and their consequences. To form sentences we use: If + subject + present simple for the situation, subject + 'II / won't + infinitive without to for the consequence. Grammar bank Workbook p108 > - Progress check Prepositions of movement 1 Match the prepositions with the pictures. 1 round 2 down 3 through ®A ® 4 towards 5 up 6 along © © / Extreme adjectives 2 Rewrite the sentences with these extreme adjectives. amazing freezing boiling tiny awful huge 1 We stayed at a big hotel. 2 Our room was small. 3 The views were nice. 4 The food was bad. 5 It was cold at night. 6 It was hot in the afternoon. will and might 3 Choose the correct words. 1 More tourists will / won’t go to Antarctica in the future. It’s becoming very popular. 2 People won’t / might go on holiday in space. It’s possible! 3 I know I won’t / will become an astronaut. I don’t like flying. 4 I might not / will stay at this school. It depends if my dad gets a new job. 5 I’m sure I might / will pass the test because I studied a lot. England will / might win the next World Cup. Who knows? be going to 4 Order the words to make sentences. 1 visit / I’m / to / London / going 2 going / study / We / to / aren’t 3 English / Are / going / you / to / speak ? 4 not / stay / I’m / to / going / hotel / in / a 5 cold / going / be / to / It’s 6 it / Is / rain / going / to ? First conditional 5 Correct the sentences. If he invites me, I go to the party. If he invites me, I'll go to the party. We won’t play tennis if it rain. If I get some money for my birthday, I buy that jacket. My brother will learn English if he will move to London. If the bus won’t come soon, I’ll walk home. If you have a problem, your teacher will to help you. I’m happy if I pass the test. Cumulative grammar | i>2>3>4>5>6>7>8>! 6 Choose the correct words. Hi! It’s Bert here. Hello! How’s your trip? How (1) much / many planets have you (2) visit / visited? Bert Well, first we (3) went / been to Venus and Mars. We’ve been on planet Earth (4) for / since Tuesday. We (5) just have / have just arrived in London today. Bart Really? What’s it like? Bert (6) Is / It’s great - it’s more interesting (7) than / that Mars and Venus! Bart What are you going (8) do / to do tomorrow? Bert Well, I think we (9) ’ll visit / visit Buckingham Palace in the morning. We might (10) to meet / meet the Queen! Bart Have fun! Don’t forget to send me a postcard!