Учебник Английский язык 11 класс Комарова Ларионова

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-fr.i^atv:,'V---.'!^^'>5t''i-'3'V“ r^^.-- I.: .,.•■"-i •:■•■ • .-~.-.-:гЧ w:~ ■■<' , ->-•■-•** -- Л ИННОВАиИОННАЯ ШКОЛА ■1.- ^ Ю.А. КОМАРОВА, И.В. ЛАРИОНОВА Р. АРАВАНИС. С. КОКРЕЙН Г-" ИННОВАЦИОННАЯ ШКОЛА Ю. А. Комарова И. В. Ларионова Р. Араванис С. Кокрейн АНГЛИИСКИИ язык Учебник для 11 класса общеобразовательных организаций Базовый уровень Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации Экспертное заключение № 10106-5215/514 от 12.10.2012г. (научная экспертиза) Экспертное заключение № 001449 от 25.01.2014 г. (педагогическая экспертиза) Экспертное заключение № 787 от 10.02.2014 г./общественная экспертиза) Учебник соответствует Федеральному государственному образовательному стандарту Москва «Русское слово» ЯЙ MACMILLAN 2014 Student's Book contents ^•v.. . ...л-.-лГ': What's my line? A place to call home Learn about geography Culture today... Progress check 1 Learning for life The world of science and technology Learn about chemistry Culture today... Progress check 2 Holidays with a difference! Serious fun Learn about history of art Culture today... Progress check 3 pages page 18 page 28 page 30 page 32 page 34 page 44 page 54 page 56 page 58 page 60 page 70 page 80 page 82 page 84 Turn on, tune in The world of sport and leisure Learn about PE Culture today... Progress check 4 It's a weird, wonderful world Food for thought Learn about biology Culture today... Progress check 5 Vanished without a trace! Big spender Learn about science Culture today... Progress check 6 Grammar reference Speaking database Pairwork Writing database page 164 page 180 page 183 page 184 Pairwork Essential tips for the Unified State Exam in English language Dictionary page 86 page 96 page 106 page 108 page 110 page 112 page 122 page 132 page 134 page 136 page 138 page 148 page 158 page 160 page 162 page 193 page 194 page 199 Contents •'• .•?»'■ v-:.-.■ --гт^^ • -9- 31;^ • : r-.-^SoTie Unit What’s my line? page 8 s'iWir •:-''У'-:'.. ■■-ji.. Reading ^Reading for gist text cohesion Spotting key words Grammar II Present simple and continuous Qbeusedto ilStative verbs Vocabulary || Appearance and personality i| Family, friends and relationships Listening ^ Predicting content .# Listening for details A place to call home page 18 a Predicting content gj Reading for gist and details ^ Spotting key words Learn about geography page 28 Culture today ... page 30 Progress check 1 page 32 Learning for 1; HReading for gist life Й page 34 pfS •' .A text cohesion 0 Spotting key words Past simple and continuous giTime expressions a used to and would ^ Possessive adjectives and pronouns /Д ' *Ti Q Present perfect simple and continuous H Present perfect and past simple expressions „^Town and village > House and home ^ Phrasal verbs School collocations Q Phrasal verbs Listening for gist sf Listening for gist II Expressing ideas in different ways \ The world of science and technology page 44 yi Reading for gist and specific information Spotting key words Past perfect simple and continuous ^ Computer Comparatives and technology superlatives Phrasal verbs 4 Predicting content 4 Listening for specific information 4 Learn about chemistry page 54 Culture today ... page 56 Progress check 2 page 58 Holidays with a difference! page 60 ^Reading for gist and details ^Spotting key words ft Serious fun page 70 4 Reading for gist and specific information Spotting key words Learn about history of art page 80 Culture today ... page 82 Progress check 3 page 84 II Expressing the future 4|Time clauses tags questions Ч» Reported speech 4 Reporting verbs 4 Sights 4 Accommodation ^Transport I^Travel ' 1% .* ■4 Phrasal verbs for main ideas Listening for gist and details ■ - -H Ы Practise your English Speaking Writing Unified State Exam 1 Ч Word formation Sentence transformations 1 ^Multiple choice text completion li» Multiple choice sentence completion :,i>. -Л ■. p Asking for and giving personal information H Expanding when answering questions Silent h # Comparing pictures impressions [t], [d], [id] Writing an informal letter: register points Writing an article: 4 organization and paragraphing layout features linking words Listening A8-A14 0 Reading B3 Grammar and Vocabulary B11-B16 Writing C1 4^ Listening A1-A7 Reading A15-A21 gsGrammar and Vocabulary A22-A28 I i Grammar transformations 1,1 Expressing opinion Inviting others to take part Ч-. Intonation in question tags Writing an informal letter: organization points iigiving advice jQ Listening B1 Reading B3 II Grammar and Vocabulary B4-B10 Writing C1 -.a Word formation Sentence transformations «!> Multiple choice sentence completion ^ Suggesting ideas Ф Expressing agreement Final [r] Writing an essay: ^^forming and developing ideas ^ Listening A1-A7 gj Reading B2 Grammar and Vocabulary B4-B10 > Writing C2 j Grammar transformations ,# Multiple choice sentence completion 4 Word formation Sentence transformations a Multiple choice sentence completion opinions Writing a formal letter politely , 0formal register tentative „Й ||content language for suggestions " Words rhyming with ; S ; coach j* Asking polite questions Saying yes and no in polite ways [d3], [tЛ, Ш, [s] Writing a story: 4 narrative tenses 4 creating interesting content UListening A8-A14 ^Reading B2 ^Reading A15-A21 ^Grammar and Vocabulary B4-B10 Listening A8-A14 ^ Reading B2 4 Grammar and Vocabulary B11-B16 5 Contents Unit Turn on, tune in page 86 *. ’■ /*! i>.T ' - . и - >• 7". The world of sport... and leisure page 96 Reading ^ Reading for gist and details Understanding implied information H Spotting key words Reading for gist and specific information a Spotting key words Vocabulary Media and communications , watch, took, listen, hear Sport and leisure ^come and go •Л Phrasal verbs Grammar Passive voice H Causative form ,i Conditionals ^Conditional links ^ like and as Listening d Listening for gist and specific information ^ Listening for gist and specific information Learn about PE page 106 Culture today ... page 108 Progress check 4 page 110 It’s a weird, wonderful world page 112 Food for thought page 122 ■T../Г» ' f.*. *1 »4. Jrr '-и“ I'. v>: ■ ■C»-' ; -,r- ■ '■•'i ^Reading for specific information and details •rf Identifying the writer’s opinion .# Spotting key words fd/Щ ing for gist and specific information J4i text cohesion key words # Environment a Weather d Weather idioms Health and diet ilFood and drinks ■' Уц 'у • Modals Third conditional .'2^’ clauses past a Listening for gist ^ Predicting content Identifying speakers and topics ,i Listening for gist and details P -tf “• Г» >'Г. - '.i L " ‘ '' 1 ' *- i ' i 6 Learn about biology page 132 Culture today ... page 134 Progress check 5 page 136 Vanished without a trace! page 138 for specific information and details Big spender page 148 k Reading for gist i Understanding text cohesion Learn about science page 158 Culture today ... page 160 Progress check 6 page 162 ,> People and crime Ij Crime and mystery IJWord building prepositions ^ Clothes and accessories j Shopping and money d Money idioms -d, Modal perfect and -ing forms make, let, allow ^ Countable and uncountable nouns ijso and such .# foo and enough ^both... and, neither... nor, each, every, all, none # Indefinite pronouns >> Listening for gist and details a Spotting key words ^Grammar transformations > Sentence transformations Multiple choice sentence completion Practise your English Multiple choice text completion Speaking transformations communication strategies [a:], [ae] and [л] '€Ш ^ Multiple choice sentence completion Open cloze text completion ^ Interrupting politely Word stress Writing Writing a film review: ^content vtorganization language for reviews Writing an article: ^creating interest developing ideas Unified State Exam <1 Listening A8-A14 4>Reading A15-A21 ^Grammar and Vocabulary ’ A22-A28 Listening A1-A7 Reading B2 Grammar and Vocabulary A22-A28 Multiple choice text completion 4> Sentence transformations Supporting opinions ^ Reacting to opinions Sentence stress Silent letters Writing a formal letter to a newspaper: a getting ideas ^ linking ideas v> paragraphing Listening B1 ^ Reading A15-A21 Grammar and Vocabulary A22-A28 ft ^Multiple choice text completion •ii- ' transformations .^Multiple choice sentence completion Word formation transformations i^Multiple choice sentence completion Listening for details ^Expressing preference Writing an informal letter Sentence stress 5„,,, lof advice Asking for clarification ^ Expressing agreement Sentence stress Filling pauses Expressing interest Vowels [i:l and [i] making a good impression on the reader ^giving advice 3 organization Writing a story: ^describing characters padding drama Writing a formal letter of application: content a paragraphing 13 Listening A1-A7 ^Reading B3 iitGrammar and Vocabulary A22-A28 3lListening A8-A14 ^Reading A15-A21 SjiGrammar and Vocabulary B11-B16 ^Listening A8-A14 4^ Reading B3 Grammar and vocabulary B4-B10 7 1 What 's my line? Skills aims Ф Predicting content of short listening texts; listening for details ^Asking for and giving personal information; expanding when answering questions 0 Reading short texts for gist; understanding text cohesion Writing an informal letter/email to practise informal register usage, punctuation and organizing and developing points ■ Ч----—-L- — Ш ^ A Work in pairs. What job do these people do? interpreter ,СГ- Зйа'-: smf -л. т5-с -75^.- _s- S.9- zoo-keeper i •■"•CMYK's ''' ?\5s£z2Spr^. ‘ § - . -X ‘M- Confused about a career? You're not alone. Few young people know what they want to do when they leave school. Three teenagers wrote in and told us how they made up their minds. V чиа ** A Jim - Si В Which adjectives for describing people are important for the jobs In A? ^ ^ ■: ■w-:rv. hard-working • imaginative • organized^ outgoing patient • responsible • sociable •Ы!ис: y:V" A 1 ■ C Use a prefix, un-, im-, in-, ir-, dis-, to make the negative form of these words. 1 ...ambitious 2 ...attractive 3 ...considerate 4 ...imaginative 5 ...polite 6 ...responsible 7 ...organized D Complete the sentences with the words from C. 1 Alex is so .... He never thinks of anyone except himself. 2 Isn’t it... to let your dog walk around the streets on its own? 3 I think too much make-up is very .... 4 Laura’s clever, but she’s very .... Her room is a terrible mess. 5 My dad thinks it’s ... to start eating before everyone is sitting at the table. 6 My grandpa was a great footballer, but he was .... He never wanted fame and fortune. 7 This writer is very .... There’s nothing different or unusual about her books. E Match the adjectives with the nouns. Some adjectives can match with more than one noun. curly • dark • fair • long • pointed thick • thin • turned-up ■■ ■ .1 I'l.e f ^ round • straight wavy 1 hair 2 skin 3 face 4 lips 5 nose 6 legs / arms F Work in pairs. Use the words from this page to describe a friend or a member of your family. Talk about their physical appearance and their character. My best friend isn’t very tail. She’s got a very | round face and dark, wavy hair. I like her because she’s a very cheedul and energetic person. For example, she... , Quick chat What kind of person do you need to be to do these jobs? Tell a partner your opinion f nursery school teacher • police officer I receptionist • soldier 11 Listening A These pictures show a girl called Mina with different people in her life. Choose the word that best describes how the other people are feeling in each picture. 1 tired / annoyed / pleased ^ frightened / jealous / sorry •■.Ч mm ^ 3 irritated / helpful / proud 4 confused / excited / upset angry / embarrassed / anxious В Now listen. What relationship does each person have to Mina? You do not need all the words. "• V- - ■ 'j 'lrma .' ' • H' . ■ l.'»> ■.lUr-'ilCmlii „ - «Ц Jail. OJWMWn"."»»' . p**.-Ч.- »- J % aunt • brother • father • friend • mother • neighbour sister • teacher • uncle r 's < Steps to success The questions in Listening A8-A14 will give you some clues about what you will hear. Always read them carefully before listening and try to guess what the conversation will be about. Listening A8-A14 C Read these questions Ф carefully. Then listen again and choose the best answer 1 Mina is talking to a woman. What does Mina offer to help her with? A preparing a meal В going shopping C tidying the house What What 2 Mina is talking to a boy. has the boy done? A broken something В lost something C given something to someone else 3 Mina is talking to a man. are they talking about? A history В geography C maths 4 Mina is talking to another boy. Why is the boy sad? A His pet has died. В He has lost something valuable. C He has fallen out with his friends. 5 Mina is talking to another man What does he think about Mina? A She has hurt herself. В She is in trouble at school. C She has got a tattoo. Quick chat Parents sometimes get annoyed with their children. What makes your parents annoyed? 12 Speaking A Sort the questions for getting to know someone into the categories beiow. a Likes and dislikes b Family and friends c Home d Free time e Education f Work g Holidays and travel like living'in a city? 2 Does your family go away 1^^ summer? ^ of fodd^do you like? iU / ' > ' 9/' ^/Г 'Zi\^RC^Sr'->f- луА».' < t V ’^*i. '/•»*.. .. **.*:ч *4: ::': С i-*: ......................... 'хЬ 4 Where dp you usually go on holiday? 5 Have you got any brothers or sisters'? К lo IT гч944ш^ш ilx X* I . , ^ fc. ' "Ж** '"Л*. . •;. .»^4 'f ^foult to find.wdrk'whe're yoi] live^l j >■ лЛ -- * ^ I i ■* T- ......r--'^'-v ' p ’ : " 7 ^ •.-..д-.-х.;, :.,2t’?'''' •> .^e^^^w..« . г...-«, ^J» n < - • ^ • V * »• AV/ V«AV ^ i^ir^ 'iL.-'- й:'1Л^223: Д i ' W'AX -» r, * * • 4^*>**'Л k-»*WWA»'- '•.rr t ^T1 jWx tl Г-"» T ^ ............ ^ ^ w , -tvxv -J 11 Do you enjoy reading? - :/=r'" - X..,. t 12 What IS Jejhing you like mosCabou school В (^Ж1 Listen to Maria and Victor. Find the questions from A that they answer. C Compiete these questions with a question word. 1 ... do you do at the weekend? 2 ... do you go to school? 3 ... is your birthday? 4 ... is your favourite singer? 5 ... do you spell your surname? ✓ 6 ... do you want to be a pilot? D Take turns asking and answering some of the questions from A and C. I I 1 ■ ч-#?ЧН||»; BL HINTS ’ eeUiw.ys fei Does... ? / Yes, she does, and she's... / No, фе doesn t, and the reason is that... Have you ever... ? , .,,, x Yes, I have. It was... / No, i haven't, hut I d love to because... l?3ii>V' У V ifjm. ...v^ Siient h F Find and copy down the words that have a siient h. 1 head 2 hour 3 hear 4 horrible 5 honest 6 have 7 honour 8 hourly 9 happy 10 honestly G 4^ 04 Now listen and check. Grammar 2 (Sksik stative verbs See pages 164 and 165 for information about stative verbs My dog hasn’t got a nose. 4№Si ■ C«| iilr-'’ isi, Terrible! f v; Really! How does he smell? 'ill- " - Ii-V' / --.4ГТ' •• -г.»-Чт( ^'4-■’;• к.-йг.-; •L-<^ r i. Л ......_ r.'v^ . I ;s^” ЙЙЙ Ш1 Match each example of a stative verb with a category. 1 I iove you. 2 I hate Monday mornings. 3 This tastes delicious. a feelings b senses 4 Does this contain meat? 5 She doesn’t beiieve you. 6 Don’t you remember me? 7 This beiongs to you. 8 There appears to be a problem. 9 You don’t seem very well. c mental processes d relationships e appearance Щ- 10 You sound strange. A Find the sentences where the underiined verb has a stative meaning. 1 That pie smells delicious. 2 The room was so dark I had to f^ my way to the light switch. 3 The chef always tastes the food before he sends it out to customers. 4 Do you know how much a whale weighs? 5 You have to think very carefully when you play chess. 6 That looks like a very interesting book. 7 This material feels like wool. 8 If you look through this window, there is a beautiful view. В Two of the sentences are correct. Which ones? Find and correct the mistakes in the other sentences. 1 I’m not wanting any more tea, thanks. 2 Did you hear that Duffy is appearing at the Odeon theatre next week? 3 Aren’t you recognizing me? 4 Your piano is sounding awful. 5 My dog’s smelling your bag. What have you got in there? 6 I’m not needing this anymore. You can have it. 7 The radio is seeming to work OK now. C Use the notes to make dialogues. Use the present simple or continuous. 1 A: This milk / smell bad B: Yes, /1 / think / it’s gone off 2 A: Why / you / taste / the soup? B: I / think / it / need / some more salt 3 A: This / material / look / like wool B: Yes, / but / it / not / feel / like wool . 4 A: What / make / that strange noise? B: I / not / know 5 A: you / believe / in ghosts? B: No. /1 / think / that’s nonsense 6 A: Why / you / weigh / those apples? B: I / make / a pie D Put the verb Into the correct form. Use either the present simple or continuous. 1 Please turn off the radio. I... (study). 2 How many languages ... (you speak)? 3 George says he got all the questions right, but I... (not / believe) him. 4 Hurry! The movie ... (start). I... (not / want) to miss it. 5 You can borrow my bicycle, at the moment. 6 I am glad we invited Grandpa to the birthday party. He ... (really enjoy) himself. 7 ... (you come) to the party tonight? 8 Megan ... (write) a composition for her class tomorrow. 9 Robert... (play) guitar in a rock band every weekend. I 10 ... (you think) Dynamo will win the championship this year? 11 Matt can’t come to the phone right now. He ... (work) in the garden at the moment. ... (not / need) it III , k: г Practise your English A Read the text quickly and answer these questions. 1 What is physiognomy? 2 Why are long heads good? 3 What do thin lips mean? 4 What is the philtrum? Steps to success For Grammar and Vocabulary B11-B16 make sure that you: • read the whole text so that you understand the gist; • think about the meaning of the whole sentence with the gap; • identify the part of speech of the missing word; • check whether the missing word should be in the plural or singular form; • check whether the missing word should be in the negative form. Grammar and Vocabulary B11-B16 В Read and complete the text using the correct form of the words in capitals. coven br Should we form an opinion about someone's personality only from their looks? They say that you can't judge a book by its cover. Weil, apparently .you can! In fact, the art of judging character from a person's ’... has been practised for over 3000 years. It's called physiognomy or 'face reading' and, according to the experts, it's as ^... as any science. So what can physiognomy tell us? Let's start with the shape of the head. People with wide heads are generally T.. and want to achieve a lot. Long-headed people are careful and trustworthy, and those with short heads can be '*.... They don't do things properly. What about the eyes, nose or mouth? What do they reveal? Well, .. - people who want everything just right - tend to have eyes that are close together. Pointed noses can show intelligence, while «... people, those who think only of themselves, sometimes have small mouths and thin lips. Even that little square below the nose, the philtrum, has a meaning. Lively, T.. people have.a strong, thick philtrum. People with a weaker philtrum are sometimes ®... or depressed. But is this just a lot of nonsense? Well, think about the people in your life and judge for yourself аЧ - ; Vii ,• ■w APPEAR .--.Аж .. ' RELY r- % 'I ft' AMBITION RESPONSE PERFECT CONSIDER •■or.- . 4»^'* W Шу ENERGY MOOD - - r-< < *’* • 'Jsi i.i **,*.*.•*• * ' *f* A'.'. • aweg» "T~- Give a 2-minute talk on your best friend. Remember to say: • what your best friend looks like • why you like him / her A 1 ■ C Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given 1 You never remember your pencil case. ALWAYS You’re ... pencil case. 2 I don’t really want to be a doctor. APPEAL Being a doctor... me. 3 I don’t normally get up early and I find it difficult. USED I... up early. 4 We’ve decided to spend next weekend in Paris. SPENDING We ... weekend in Paris. 5 Is this yours? BELONG ... to you? 6 Jane’s been living on her own for years now. It’s not a problem for her. USED Jane ... on her own. 7 My mum isn’t a very organized person. IS . My mum ... person. 8 Why don’t you like swimming so much? HATE Why... swimming? 9 That wasn’t a very polite thing to say. WAS That... thing to say. 10 Alison has a bad habit of leaving the bathroom light on. IS Alison ... the bathroom light on. Your voice when and how you met what you have in common with him / her nil 15 ‘«.“К*- ) т Writing: Informal letter/embil^Al^^ A These photos show jobs that young people sometimes do in the summer holidays. Match the words with the photos. shop assistant summer camp leader ; tour guide waiter / waitress ; \ ^ J^- . - L«r „ .. Чв1 Quick chat Would you like to do any of these jobs in your summer holiday? Why / Why not? What sort of people would be good at jobs like these? >1 ■:i В You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Sven who writes: ...\л/в ГВ dll OK. Нвгв iti SfockholfTi, olfhou^h if s nof os worm as w/iere you are! I m interested in working this summer, and I m wondering what kind of job would suit me. I thought you could help me. I know you're at a summer camp, but where is it, exactly? How many hours do you work each day and what sort of things do you do? \/\/hat sort of person do they want? In other news, I recently got my driving licence ... - ,-1' C Read Maria’s reply to Sven’s letter. There are some problems with it, but don’t worry about those now. Did she enjoy her summer job? A Dear Sven, В D - H / am most grateful for your letter. Naturally. I am pleased to be of assistance to you. The camp is on the island of Sardinia. I work about five hours a day. with an hours lunch break, we do all sorts of things, such as help in the kitchen? we also organize activities for the children. You need guite good English because that's how everyone communicates. You also need to be sociable because you work with children all day. Thafs great that you recently got your driving licence. Was the driving test difficult? Are you going to buy a car soon? What will you use it for? E Let me know what you decide about working this summer. ^ Bye for now. /Лапа — . a ^Г'1Ь L - l6 ^ I Skills development Organization D Match each paragraph in Maria's ietter with its function. Answers to Sven's first and second questions Finishing off Three questions to Sven regarding his news Introduction Answer to Sven's third question Conclusion Register When we write to a friend, we use informal register. Register is shown through the vocabulary, r . grammar and punctuation that we use. For example: Formal Informal register register Punctuation Your help is not Your help Isn’t L?*' r ' required. required. Grammar Your help Is not 1 don’t require - required. your help. 1 t Vocabulary Your help is not 1 don’t need your 1 required. help. E Read paragraph A again. What’s wrong with it? F Rewrite paragraph A of Maria’s letter in a more informal style. Use the phrases in the box. It was nice to hear from you again. Just ask! Of course, I'm happy to help you with anything you need. Thanks for your letter. !e Punctuation ДУ ■>!■»* All your writing must be punctuated correctly This is true for formal and informal writing. G Paragraph В has a number of mistakes with punctuation. Find the mistakes and rewrite the whole paragraph correctly in your notebook. Planning and writing Steps to success • Use the three questions in the prompt letter to organize your reply. • Remember to ask three questions about the last line in the prompt letter. • Try to think of something you would personally like to know about the topic introduced in the last line. f 1 1 to О H Now write your own reply to Sven. Write between 100 and 140 words. Use the Language chunks and the Planner to help organize your work. I Paragraph 1: Thank Sven for his letter. Paragraph 2: What is your job? What does the job involve? Do you enjoy it? Paragraph 3: What special skills do you need? What sort of person could do the job? Paragraph 4: Ask three questions about Sven's news. Paragraph 5: Conclude with a closing expression. Paragraph 6: Finish off. Lan ua chunks Ш i.== № Starting an informal letter / email......... Thanks for your message. How are things? Great to hear from you. Finishing off an informal letter / email Take care, Bye for now. , .^>.4. -- Let me know... Well, got to go now. Say hello to... !V ■■■ 17 2 А place to call home Skills aims 4# Listening to a radio programme for gist 4# Comparing pictures; expressing opinions and observations while speaking Predicting content of a long text; reading for gist, key words and details IT. •nt / Writing an article to practise organizjng ideas, formation, layout features and linking words paragraph 1— - % A Work in pairs. Which of the following things could you not live without for a week? chocolate hairdryer TV "ДД mobile phone bathroom wvv’- electricity Reading В Read the advertisement. What do you think happens on wilderness survival camps? hunting sleeping in tents staying in a hotel learning to cook sports sightseeing C You are going to read about a camping experience. Read the article quickly to check your predictions in B. Steps to success • To answer multiple choice questions in Reading A15-A21 read the question, but not the options, and find the information in the text. • Then look at the answer options and choose the best one. Reading A15-A21 D Read the text again and find the answers to the following questions. 1 Why did the writer decide to go to a wilderness survival camp? 2 What did she not learn to do on the camp? 3 What shocked the writer on the first day of the camp? 4 What was the rest of the week like? 5 At the end of the camp, what did the writer realize? 6 How does the writer feel about her experience l8 at the camp? riL^ ;x * -.1^- A3 ‘фаг. : i I 4№Г' к J r\ Sa.. -- I iii ' || I |Щ|мИ||||1||^^ f ' In the Wild Survival Camp Learn the skills required to survive in the wilderness. We offer outdoor survival camps for adults, teens, families and groups in spectacular woodland in Wales. We allow you to connect to nature's wild places by exploring the natural world In the tradition of the old ways with rock, wood, water, plants and animals. ИШ——*............... # erness survival camp: a home away from home? How long can you live without everyday luxuries? Not for very long, as I found out on my wilderness survival camp experience I had heard about wilderness survival camps from some classmates who went to one last summer. They were very excited about their experience and I was curious. So during last month's term break I decided to go to one. After everything I'd heard, I was really looking forward to it. On the first day our instructor, James, reassured us that the woodland would provide us with everything we needed, well almost. James was goin to show us how to find watc food and how to light a fire. V\ were also shown how to bui a shelter with only branch' and leaves. The water was easy to fii because the camp is in one the wettest parts of the count but the food was not. To i к horror, I discovered that we h to find our own. This me; hunting, but we couldn't ft it on the first day. We went < Grammar 1 (Siisik past simple and past continuous See pages 165 and 166 for information about past simple and past continuous. Match these extracts with the descriptions. 1 I was really looking forward to it. 2 ... I was curious. 3 ... some classmates who went to one last summer. 4 ... as we were cooking the mushrooms, they caught fire. 5 We looked for food, lit fires, cooked ... Past simple is used to talk about: a repeated actions in the past b a completed action at a specific time in the past c a state in the past Past continuous is used to talk about; / d an action that was in progress when something else happened e a temporary situation in the past A Complete with the past simple or past continuous. 1 Last year, while I... (stay) with friends on their farm, I... (ride) a horse for the first time. 2 When I was a child, we ... (move) house at least five times. 3 Ben ... (watch) TV when he ... (hear) a strange noise coming from the flat next door. 4 John lives in New York, but he ... (grow up) in Chicago. 5 Christine ... (know) she couldn’t live in that place forever. 6 I... (not live) there, I... (only stay) there while my house was being renovated. 7 What... (do) when I... (call) you earlier? В Choose the correct answer. 1 It snowed / was snowing a lot last year. 2 He was talking / talked on the phone for hours with his girlfriend. 3 Did you go / Were you going to the theatre last night? 4 I was hearing / heard a strange sound and went downstairs to see what it was. 5 As I was jogging / jogged in the park in the morning, I saw my friend Tim. 6 My father cooked / was cooking dinner when he realized that we had run out of salt. time expressions in the past See page 166 for information about time expressions in the past. C Complete with a time expression. 1 ... I was living in Paris, I ate croissants every day. 2 Sarah was able to relax ... her visit to the countryside. 3 I went horseback riding ... was there. 4 ... Tom was a child, his family moved to London. 5 Twenty years ... there were more people living in the country than there are now. 6 I haven’t been back to my village ... many years. used to and would See page 166 for inforrtiation about used roand would. D Choose the correct option. 1 Did you used to / use to walk everywhere before you got a car? 2 We used to / use to enjoy walking in the countryside. 3 Jason wouid / used to prefer living in the city. 4 My friends didn’t used to / use to go out a lot. 5 Mum use to / would take us on picnics when we were younger. E Four of these sentences contain mistakes. Find them and correct them. 1 Jane used to living with her parents, but now she lives alone. 2 I would live in that house. 3 Paul used to came over a lot, but he doesn’t anymore. 4 I would play with the children next door every day after school. 5 Didn’t you used to live in my street? 6 Most big cities used to be less polluted than they are today. F Work in pairs. List five ways iife used to be different 100 years ago. 20 Vocabulary Town and village A Where would you find these places -in urban areas, in rural areas or both? block of flats • multiplex cinema multi-storey car park • shopping centre/mall skyscraper • country house • farmhouse public garden/park • garden • gym/sports centre field • industrial area В Decide if these adjectives are positive, negative or both. Then work with a partner to describe your area. busy • dangerous • depressing • dull • exciting • green historic • interesting • lively • lovely • modern • noisy peaceful • pleasant • polluted • quiet • safe My town is a very lively place. There are lots of shopping centres and multiplex cinemas. Unfortunately, it’s polluted and noisy. House and home C Complete with house or home. 1 Most people don’t leave ... until they’re at least 18. 2 The ... with the red shutters is for sale. 3 Our football team always wins when we play at... . 4 Please deliver it on Friday. There’ll be nobody ... tomorrow. D Make compounds with house and home. Which word can take both? 1. .. hold 5 ... town 2 . .. less 6 ... warming 3 . .. made 7 ... wife 4 . .. ick 8... work E Complete with a compound from D. 1 We had a... party when we moved into our new flat. 2 New York is pot my .... I moved here when was 18. 3 ... ice cream is delicious. 4 I always get... when I’m away from home for more than a week. 5 Does every ... have a computer? F Complete the collocations. Then answer the questionnaire. Compare your answers with a partner. do (x 5) • clear / lay • load • make take • tidy • walk • water Do you ever • • • 1 ... your bed? 2 ... the cooking? * 3 ... the dishwasher? 4 ... the household shopping? 5 ... the rubbish out? 6 ... the ironing? 7 ... your room? 8 ... the washing-up? 9 ... the table? 10 ... the plants/garden? 11 ... the laundry? 12 ... the dog? Phrasal verbs G Choose the correct option. In one sentence both options are correct. Then match the phrasal verbs with their definitions. 1 Our house was run down so we did it up / down. 2 I don’t want to go out. I’ll just stay in / on and watch TV. 3 I need to throw out / up some of the old clothes in my wardrobe. 4 Come over / on to my house tonight! 5 If you’re in the neighbourhood, drop by / in and see us. a to remain at home b fixed c visit without an appointment d visit e get rid of Your voice Give a 2-minute talk on where you iive. Remember to say: • where your home is (in the urban area, rural area, etc) • what the neighbourhood is like • what your home is like • what chores you like and dislike doing and why 21 -V л i ?v ■^«1 *, 7 j^ •t , С'-Ч #’ *. i -A -■.■ I ^■ ■:> •\ % 5 .■ ii. -i -.-i^i '■'’■ij !n--^ f4-=.;-." X ■. ^^ ■ .. -1 - .j. ., ^s:> ■. :r:::'i=.H- :■ ■■ f ‘■i j- ■Л I ^ *■ -t 'й ■- -J’ »Л5-у£:~>-' ;•.-* ,Ч --s- - Jo ЙЯ- -л- ??»■ vT'i '^Г Casa Batlltf ''T - <•7^ -44 г '^4- A Look at these pictures of two buildings. What makes them unusuai? Use these words and phrases to heip you describe them. Parts of a building the outside the roof the walls the ceiling the staircase a room Talking about a building colourful impressive design a lot of detail rich design decorative features amazing The roof of the first building has got a lot of detail. В Listen to a radio programme about the two buildings. Which parts of the buildings are mentioned? Casa Vicens II I I I S Q < Ш X Steps to success In Listening A1-A7 the questions are in the same order as you hear them in the recording. Listening A1-A7 ^ p194 Listen again. Decide if each statement is true, false or if the information is not stated. 1 All Gaudi’s buildings can be found in Barcelona. A True В False C Not stated 2 The rich design makes Gaudi’s buildings special. A True В False C Not stated 3 Gaudi was happy to design and built the Casa Vicens. A True В False C Not stated 4 The ceilings in the Casa Vicens aren’t flat like in most buildings. A True В Faise C Not stated 5 It took Gaudi five years to design the Casa Vicens. A True В False C Not stated 6 The Casa Batlld is Gaudi’s only building that reminds us of animals. A True В False C Not stated 7 The roof of the Casa Batlld looks like an elephant. A True В False C Not stated 8 A one-day Gaudi walking tour starts at eight in the morning every Friday. A True В False C Not stated 9 Visiting the Casa Mild is free of charge. A True В False C Not stated Quick chat Do you like Gaudi’s buildings? Why/Why not? Do you know of an extraordinary building in your town or area? What makes it special? 1 / I I \ I Speaking A Listen to someone comparing two pictures and answer these questions. 1 What do the pictures show? 2 What similarities are there between the pictures? 3 Which of the places would the speaker prefer to visit? В Look at the pictures described on page 193. Did the speaker do weii? C (ЗЖ1 Listen again and match the comments in the Language chunks box. angua chunksi .■svtes Impressions It looks like ... It's a very ... I get the impression ... It makes me think of... I think it's probably... ••••••• that the first place is in a wet country... it could be a farm ... a dangerous place to visit, peaceful place, the Amazon rainforest. •T?: HELPFUL HINTS i When describing pictures, use phrases that make it clear you’re talking about your opinions and impressions. D Work in pairs. Copy the checkiist in your notebook. Speak for one minute each. Listen to your partner and complete the checklist. Then give feedback. Student A: Compare pictures A and B. Which place would you like to live in? Student B: Compare pictures C and D. Which place would you like to live in? Checklist: Yes No 1 Talks about the similarities. 2 Talks about the differences. 3 Answers the question about their preference. E Work in pairs. Which of these things are important when choosing where to live? a garden space for parking parks or public gardens nearby a good school nearby shops within walking distance good public transport a variety of entertainment facilities It Sounds [t], [d] and [id] F Copy the table into your notebooks Listen and put the verbs in the correct column. [t] wished [d] discovered [id] decided ' . 1 23 j Grammar 2 I , the, the zero article ,4 See page 166 for information about articies. Find and correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1 Nile is the longest river in the world. 2 A lot of the European cities are built ori a major river. 3 What is capital of Austria? 4 I live in beautiful village. 5 I’ve lived in a same house my whole life 6 The George is my next-door neighbour. Ш ? m ■9^r Ш ЛЧ*” '5ГД Tatami A Tatami room is ’... room in ^... Japanese house which has one or more tatami mats. These mats, which are ’... traditional type of Japanese flooring, are associated with ^ ... Japanese tea ceremony. Made of straw, they measure 90 cm by I \^r^dn 5 size of a room is typically 180 cm. In Japan, ... size ui a measured by the number of tatami mats it can fit. There are certain rules that must be followed with regard to « ... number and layout of ^ .:. tatami mats. » ... mats must not be laid where » .. corners of three or four mats touch. If you do not follow these rules, it is believed you will have Ш в Read this sequence and answer the questions. There's a boy sitting on a chair. The chair is in a room. The room is in a house. The house is in a street. The street is in a city. The city is in Ireland. isi: 1 Where’s the boy? 2 Where’s the room? 3 Where’s the city? C Work in pairs. Write simiiar sequences beginning with these sentences. When you’ve finished, compare your sequences with another pair. There’s a bee on a flower. There’s a fly on the wall. possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives See page 166 for information about possessive adjectives and pronouns. ’•»... bad luck. Choose the correct option and then complete the rules. 1 This is my / mine house. 2 This house is my / mine. Possessive pronouns or possessive adjectives? a ... {my, your, his, her, its, our, their) are followed by nouns. b ... {mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs) are not followed by nouns. D Choose the correct answer. 1 A friend of... spent a week in a wilderness survival camp. a my b mine 2 ... grandmother lived in five different countries before settling here. a My b Mine 3 Is that... car over there? a your b yours 4 No, that’s Frank’s. This is .... a my b mine 5 This is ... and this is Sam’s, a your b yours 6 ... chemistry teacher moved here from Saratov, a Our b Ours 24 Practise your English A Choose the best answer. 1 I was doing my homework when the phone.... A was ringing C ringed В rang D did ring 2 What... between the time you got home and the time you went to bed? A you did C you doing В did you D were you doing 31... live in a very small house by the sea. 2 A did В used C used to D would 4 Every night my father... home from work and sit in that chair. A used come C was coming В would come D comes 51... her many times. A visited C was visiting В visit D am visiting 6 The only... I don’t mind doing is the ironing. A homework C household В housework D home life C Read the text quickly to find answers to the questions in B. The power of Feng shui Is there a room in your home that everyone likes to spend a lot of time in? What about a space that no one seems to use very much? Are you finding it ’... to sleep at night? These questions can easily be answered using the art and science of ancient Chinese Feng shui (pronounced fung shway). Feng shui, which literally means the wind and the water, teaches us how to create harmony and balance around us by making changes in our work and ^.. spaces. By arranging our furniture and decor in a way that aligns with nature, we draw harmony and good health into our lives. According to this ancient philosophy, the placement of everything from the front door to the toilet can affect our overall well-being. The Chinese believe in this philosophy so ^... that they employ a Feng shui master before building or buying a home. Here is a story to illustrate its power. A few years ^.. Ken Taylor bought a luxurious apartment that had a large light-filled bedroom. After living in the apartment for a few months, he noticed that ®... its beauty he was not comfortable in the bedroom and as a result he was not sleeping well. A few weeks later, after learning about Feng shui, he understood why. He needed to rearrange the *..., including his bed. In Feng shui, it is believed that in order to get a restful sleep, you need to place your bed where you can see the entrance. That's what Ken did. He also changed the colour of the walls and curtains from dark to light ^.... After making these necessary changes, he began sleeping I _I.— I ^ Ia. ^9 1^4 1^1 7 Who... your bed every morning? to experience more happiness in his life. A made C did 1 A easy в difficult C easily D depressing В makes D does 2 A living В open C existing D personal 8 Which is the tallest... in the world? 3 A hardly- В widely C strongly D lively A field C house 4 A ago В before C earlier D later В apartment D skyscraper 5 A despite В although C however D in spite of 9 Can you please tell John to... the 6 A room В house - C items D furniture rubbish out? 7 A colours В shades Cshadows D paints A get C take В do D make 10 This place is so.... There’s nothing to do in the evenings. A polluted C modem В exciting D dull В Discuss these questions in pairs. Can the colours in your bedroom affect your sleep? Can the position of your bed in your bedroom affect your sleep? D |Г| Read the text again and choose the correct answer. Steps to success In Grammar and Vocabulary A22-A28; • Read the text without thinking about the gaps to get a general idea of the overall meaning. • Before you look at the answers, think about the type of word you need (noun, verb, etc) and the general meaning. < to о Quick chat Would you follow a Feng shui master's advice and rearrange the furniture where you live? Why/ Why not? 25 '-JC У ~ 'г». ' ■ •. •' V .;» •v>-'... ■QSi<^' ’'V*^ ^ 'Y -^■'''^' ^ •L _=-fI.'' ^2Z- Writing: A Match the pictures with the descriptions. Which words heiped you decide? О This building is known for its odd, pickle shape. Designed by Norman Foster and completed in 2003, it is located in London's busy financial centre and has become an iconic symbol of the city. О This structure, located in central Italy, is famous for the curious way it stands. Completed in 1372, the building leans because the ground on one side is too soft to support it properly. 0 These tall, deep terra cotta red-painted structures stand in front of the Neva River. The ship bows and anchors that decorate the structures represent Russia's influence on the seas. r'l .. 'Шй:,, LfJr' -- k: ^г '. :* Bl I..., ^.• .44 \ 5? ri :\\ i •J- m Л * Д - i -I тл if'. m 7. V- ii Ш IV] -SS3^C;i ..vz'fr^r.' ^ r 'ii»}!: y^\( - r>-*V^y »rV* Ш® 1;^I r:v^*w.. ..*4* ■*&,} ” im* Лш!В2^ ■ 'г*^ ... i B- - . Read this article about the Sydney Opera House. Why is it the writer’s favourite building? mm sS5r>^v^s i'' M :rV;*e ^ •i „V -.^ .^,- ‘ДГ- , г.■*.*>■•■-■« . . - t.V‘ Ш '>* Ш Шг. :5 r.'K f , ...йг;г1?.ь.>г4. “t;; 4f^K-'.: K'..--jyy.i, Ш- V? ' ^ V.i- %* " T SU'Tf' _. • ш Йе**> ’i'V»r./ Г*Ъ *J Л^ Гч ..- с/ , •‘l^V* к •**^^-.* 3--1. ’^ij;,. W' Ф shrubs, several species of deer and thousands of species of insects. Hundreds of thousands of people reside in this region, with the largest cities being Arkhangelsk, Tobolsk, Yakutsk and the port city of ^rmansk. -s. The subtropics >4 I X ^ ■ I I • ^ ■ * ■ Щ Subtropical climatesc^Tare }those‘ regionsof the world between 5 terTipefate clirnates" with trdpica^ climates r«4»xii|^ warm p, ■ characaertsed by constant warmth and - A еаЩор!С^ ^eccregio^K^ genera ' ancffidrnid, will expeo'e^e winter temperatures / '^ ^'.almost freezing t:old, if, only for a very brief eriod. The'city of Sochi happens to be^in a region that fallsJn this category. Situated on Ц the shores of the Biack Sea with the Caucasus Mountains as a backdrop, Sochi receives a great deal of moisture from the sea and is protected from harsh, northerly weather by steep mountain ranges. The region is lush in vegetation, even dotted with palm trees, and Sochi is regarded as a winter getaway destination. Other notable subtropical regions in the world are the Deep South in the US, the Po river valley of Italy, southern China and the region of Buenos Aires. »** fl -0^ в Now read about different ecoregions of Russia and answer the questions. 1 Which region do you imagine covers the smallest area in Russia? 2 Which region is likely the most difficult to access? Why? 3 What flora exists in the region of Sochi that is more likely found on a tropical island? 4 Why is it surprising that the lowest of temperatures occur in the taiga? 5 In which region would you likely find yourself all alone? 6 Why doesn't Sochi ever experience blizzard-like weather? 7 Which region covers the greatest amount of land? 8 In which region would you have difficulty finding something eat? Ч- Project Ecoreaions of Russia -T'*. jCvV’ifcnV'ieii,; ^ лу.у • • . \ f yrY ^«" Choose one of the main ecoregions of Russia and write a short profiie. Inciude a picture of the ecoregion. • Caucasus mixed forests region • Crimean Submediterranean forest complex • Pontic-Caspian steppe • Kazakh steppe • Mongolian-Manchurian grassland • East Siberian taiga • Romincka Forest • Sarmatic mixed forests • Scandinavian and Russian taiga 29 j Culture today... да- •_ -г .'■IS •s EMJ^ [■'"-.Ж^,; ■ i| fjees^-j.-.^,'. f*»5i ' .r- ■ - < A Read the introduction beiow. Then take a moment to think about where you iive. What kind of home is it? What is it made of, both externaily and internaily? •-гч;й>;' Л ' V. . r^j -. ,v- -- ■-•'-•-p'^'cjfc.* The houses in urban or rural areas around the world have many differences. In some areas there are lots of blocks of flats, in others there are actual houses. Some constructions are grey or painted concrete, whereas in others, they are made of brick, logs, mud or a wooden frame covered with canvas. There are reasons to explain these differences - weather or environmental conditions, space constraints or even family economics, local traditions. V» .'Надрй,.; m- ^5 'Ш ■ -sili - •* 'if 4".^ .1: If'- . J^it**s*ит*М nvfc i»v%\ ml r-C,-'- ■bZi sjV l?A< •Ml '^iss. Л Ш -4^ тш rj^9' iS^i y.»' f "i ;£i ...^ [Ж !fll| в Now read about different types of houses around the worid. For each different type, expiain why this kind of house is used. The Russian izba Log houses (izby) dotted the Russian countryside for centuries. Even now, many peasants’ houses in Russia retain the spirit of izby and remain part of the cultural landscape. The izby were primarily made of interlocking pine tree logs. The type of izba varied depending on the region, eg, in Central Russia, a fence enclosed the peasant’s house, the cattle-shed, haylofts and stables. In the North, however, because of its harsh climate, agricultural buildings were often joined under a single roof with the family’s living space. The size of an izba depended on the wealth and size of the household. But however big or small it was, its most important part, the hearth, was the stove. It played the key role in peasants’ everyday life: it was used for heating as well as cooking; in winter peasants used to sleep on top of it to keep warm. The ‘red corner’, another important part of the izba, where the table and benches were placed and the icons were hung, was located diagonally across from the stove. At the long wooden family table, the head of the household took seat nearest the icons. The stove corner, in contrast, was for women - they cooked, spun and did other work there. The decoration of the izba reflected the artistic r taste and skill of the Russian peasants. The roof of the izba was often crowned with a beam (konyok) that was carved in the shape of a horse’s head. This signified that the animal was giving its life to the home so that the home could live. The most striking feature of an izba is the wood carvings that surrounded the windows and hung from the roof overhangs and transformed izby into remarkable works of folk art. Fortunately, many original izby have been preserved and restored and are now regional open-air museums, one of the richest ensembles gracing the island of Kizhi on Lake Onega. 30 I i The Mongolian ger The Masai of Kenya are a semi-nomadic tribe. They live in an area of wild beauty. Their life involves caring for their cattle and looking after their family or tribe members. Although ihe Masai move around less now than they used to, they still build their houses in the old traditional way. They only use materials that tney can find around them and their dwellings are not really permanent. The small houses, which are only built by women, are circular buildings. They have a frame of wooden poles which are stuck together and made waterproof with mud, dung from their cattle, ash, sticks and urine. Theliouses are never more than three metres by five, and one and a half metres high. Everything happens in these small houses - the masai cook, eat, sleep and sometimes keep their animals in there. The houses are easy to build and provide a shelter. These houses are usually built as part of a group of other houses. A fence of thorny acacia trees protects the small Masai village and their cattle from the wild animals that roam around at night outside the enclosure. The Mongolian ger has been used for thousands of years by the nomads of Central Asia. Very similar to a yurt, the first written description of this dwelling was recorded by Herodotus, the 'father of history', who lived in Greece between 484 and 424 BC. The traditional ger is a tent-like structure made from a wooden frame and felt walls. An outer layer covering the ger is made from waterproof canvas. The whole construction is easy to assemble, dismantle and carry. This feature is of essential importance, as nomadic herders move at least three or four times a year in the search for good grazing lands. The ger is a comfortable place to live in both during severe winters and hot summers. Due to the opening in the centre of the roof, called the crown, fresh air circulates through the ger. The central wood-burning stove provides even distribution of heat in cold months. When it’s hot, the lower end of the soft covering is slightly raised. The constructive principle of the ger has changed little since Genghis Khan's times. Only a few elements were adapted to newly developed technology, such as carpentry. This made it possible to craft a wooden crown similar to a wheel in place of a simple piece of wood 'bent into a circle. Even more obvious are the use of a wooden door instead of a felt curtain, and of course the iron stove with a chimney in place of an open fire. The unique design, structure and practical features make the ger the most common type of habitation in Mongolia. Surprisingly as it might seem, almost half of the population of Ulan Bator still lives in gers. C Answer the questions. **-•*'?' Л 1 In your opinion, which house would cost almost nothing to build? Why? * jpi’ 2 What is remarkable about the interior of the Russian izba? Match the words in the box to the type(s) 1»^ II .. «Ill • m Ш \ r of hbuses they describe. Then use the context to explain the meaning of each woiA*; ■n: 3 What crowned the roof of the.izba and why? 4 What is the construction of the mud fiut ПкёЙ 5 Why is it necessary to have a fence around the Masai homes? ■ 11 I 11 ■■ I I » «» • 6 Which feature of the ger construction is the most important and why? 7 Why does the ger remain the most populaf, J \J I I if. dwelling in Mongolia? carvings • felt • crown*- konyok • nomadic i-nomadic • cattle • waterproof - stove fence f bench • red corner 0 Notice Hold a group discussion of an ideal house. Consider the foiiowing: climate, risk of natural disaster, iocation, шт'-- Щ j, number of inhabitants, building materials, ■ -*v. ^ — special features. 31 Progress check 1 .•If,. - ■■' T-■' '■ ..•—■'-«*vrv •- • • i • V. ;• • -■ A Choose the correct option. 1 I get really tired / annoyed when people are late! 2 My sister is so selfish / aggressive. She only thinks of herself. 3 We had a housewarming / homewarming party to celebrate moving in to our new place. 4 After the fire, they were left houseless / homeless. 5 Our house / home is bigger than yours. 6 Heather is really bossy / moody. She has to control everybody. 7 When I fell over I was so embarrassed / anxious that my face went bright red! 8 Come over / Come on to my house at about six o’clock. 9 Let’s stay in / stay on tonight. There’s a good film on TV. 10 Is there anyone house / home? I’ve been knocking for ages. В Complete with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1 ... this hot chocolate ... (contain) any sugar? I can’t have sugar. 2 You ... (look) tired. What have you been doing? 3 My grandparents ... (come) from Slovenia. 4 At the moment, I... (learn) a new language. 5 Hurry! The bus ... (leave) at five o’clock. 6 This weekend the whole family ... (get) together. 7 I... (do) the washing-up when she called. 8 At ten o’clock, I... (hear) a strange noise coming from next door. 9 We ... (have) dinner, then we ... (go) to the cinema and then we ... (come) home. 10 When I... (be) a child, we ... (live) in the country. c Read and complete the text using the correct form of the words in capitals Louise: a case study Louise Little is a clever girl. However, she is ’.... When she left school she didn't go to university, she got a fulltime job as a sales ^... at a clothes store. Her parents aren't happy about her choice. They think she is ^.... Neither do they w'ant her to move out and live on her own. They say that if she is too ''... to tidy her room, how can she look after a place of her own. Louise is popular, though. She is a very ®... girl and she is always ®... with others. Her family don't understand that she is Just a simple girl who wants a simple life. 'I do my Job well and I'm very ’’.... Honestly, I can't see what all the fuss is about.' AMBITION ASSIST RESPONSIBLE ORGANIZE ATTRACT CONSIDER RELY Unified State Exam Grammar and Vocabuiary B11-B16 p196 32 D Complete with a/an, the or F Complete each gap with one word. Зое of ’ ... most interesting buildings in ^... world is j*doubtedly ^ ... Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, t has ^ ... very characteristic design, which is easily •cognizable. ®... building itself is made of ®... glass, ir>estone and ^ ... metal known as titanium. ® ... renium panels reflect *... light and make ... building ook as if it is covered in fish scales, which is fitting as t s situated right on ” ... waterfront. If you are ever in ■* _ Spain, ... Guggenheim Bilbao is well worth ... Should children help out around the home? Of course they should.' ... I was growing up, I ^... to have to help with ®... housework. I would have to ... the supermarket shopping, ®... my bed and ®... my room. I must admit I hated doing these things, but I had no choice in ^... matter. Now that I am ®... grown-up, I understand that this was a good way it to teach responsibility. Now I'm used ®... doing my fair share of household chores. I'm even thinking of doing ... the house. t- D I E Choose the best answer. 1 Kelly and I were best friends A during C while В for D as . years 2 Louis and I sat next to each other... we were in primary school. A during C while В for D as 3 My dad ... staying up so late. He gets really sleepy. A isn’t used to C used to 3 is used to D didn’t used to i My family ... live in that house. A would C use to 3 am used to D used to 5 A cousin of... is getting married this weekend A my C me 3 mine D 5 ... sister is taller than my brother. .A You’re C You В Yours D Your 7 Denise has got the most fabulous hair. A thin C fair 3 thick D straight ■ ■ a red curly 3 Tom is such a(n)... person. a smile on his face. A energetic C cheerful В creative D efficient He’s never without G Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 Sally doesn’t usually get up so early. USED Sally ... up so early. 2 I never thought she would get so upset. OCCURRED It had ... that she would get so upset. 3 Jasmine came round every day after school COME * Jasmine ... every day after school. 4 Didn’t you live in Smith Street? TO Didn’t you ... in Smith Street? 5 Sam usually forgets his mobile phone. It’s annoying. ALWAYS Sam ... mobile phone. 6 What is your occupation? JOB What... do? 7 You keep mixing up their names! ALWAYS You ... mixing up their names! 8 The flight is at four o’clock. LEAVES The ... at four o’clock. 9 Do you have any plans for this weekend? YOU What... this weekend? 33 3 Learning for life ■rnt^' S’ Й r-'г?? 5^ •< r‘^ Listening to short extracts for gist; understanding how to paraphrase Q Expressing opinions, agreement / disagreement; inviting others to take part in conversations -J Reading a long text for gist; understanding text cohesion Writing an informal letter to practise organizing and developing ideas art gallery -;-йаг r;ssn>> Sait ir-ar? *4. 5 •?Vipieis . - 5' lli ih ( f If*. ^Т!«ЯНвйВ8ч&<чу' v|t5 • .MrJw UT В8Г1Л1жВ1МГ t I 'ГсСЛ Ш cinema i&r theatre r fc- “Ч s> >w ‘г. -Cff I ^=ьатг L-iT, 1Л- ^3^ ■i^4- fW: S.'SEofe" jer if =s* -w * * . ^*v- nL lU'K.. Га •m-Ti. ■iit funfair * Л'.ч T^-y. Work in pairs. Imagine that your ciass is organizing an excursion. The photos show a choice of places to visit. Put them in order of preference. Ш Tr^: Л •* museum Ж ski resort г2^- tr-sr-.tj:. ■ -'-Г Ш 5j^- .5^,^ Reading В in Skim the text about ^-.'■ a new sort of school trip and match paragraphs 1-7 with headings A-H. There is one extra heading you do not need to use. A What are other schools doing? В Traditional trips C Disadvantages of virtual excursions D The future of the traditional trip E What’s happening in Lemmington? F The equipment you need G The benefits it brings H What is videoconferencing? Unified State Exam Reading B2 ^ pi 95 School trips have never been so exciting! 2 Excursions cyberspace Where did you go on your last school excursion? Maybe you went to a nearby museum, or did you go for a stroll to the local art gallery? If you were really lucky, perhaps you were all taken to the theatre! Excursions have always been part of the school year, A ... than this. Most schools don't have the money or time to take their students to more exciting places. However, for children at Lemmington High, school trips have changed forever. This year alone, lucky Lemmingtonians have seen Pisa in “ Italy; they've taken a tour of the Louvre in Paris; they've even visited a school in Ulan Bator. And the school year hasn't finished yeti They have plans to meet children in the Outback of Australia В .... But how? The answer is videoconferencing. (T) These, you see, are virtual excursions and they take place in 'cyberspace'. The children haven't been to Italy and they haven't flown to Mongolia. They've seen these places on a large computer screen in their own classroom. However, as teacher Leonard Bowen explains, C.... 'With videoconferencing, learners experience these far-flung places for real,' says Bowen, who leads the videoconferencing project at Lemmington High. 'A videoconference is a live video link over the Internet. During a conference, our students can see and speak to real people almost anywhere else in the world.' Indeed, the only requirement is that the other school, museum or footballer's house, also has videoconferencing equipment. Steps to success To find the right place for a sentence part in a text: • Read the whole text to get the gist. • Look for reference words and links in the sentence part choices: this, these, they, it, one, but, etc. • Read the sentences before and after each gap in the text. • Put each sentence part in the most probable gap. Check by reading the text with your answers. Do the sentences go together logically? Reading B3 •* p195 -Ш к -я Ж: Ш 5^2. -:Ак But are these virtual excursions as useful as real ones? 'Certainly/ says Bowen. 'Pupils learn about other cultures by communicating with people who live there. It's an amazing experience for everyone involved.' 'And it's not just the teachers who are enthusiastic. The school has been using the system for a year now, D ... . 'We've been doing it about once a month, but we'd do it every day if we could,' says 14-year-old Shelly Brookes. 'We've learnt a lot, but I also feel like we've made friends around the world.' Another advantage, of course, is that virtual excursions are not affected by the weather. If it's been raining non-stop for the last week, that's not a problem! Not surprisingly, E ... too. One, for example, has interviewed researchers in a camp in Antarctica. Another has spoken to a group of native American children from their school in California. The possibilities are endless. How can your school start videoconferencing? Well, first of all you need the right equipment. Some systems cost almost 5000 pounds, but these are the very best cameras and screens available. However, F ..., as Leonard Bowen explains. 'Our screen is quite big, but it's connected to a cheap computer. Our internet connection isn't the fastest available. The whole system has cost under 600 pounds. Cheap, but effective.' The wonders of technology have truly brought the world into the classroom. Perhaps you've been wondering G ... . Leonard Bowen, who has worked with children for over 20 years, doesn't think they're history quite yet. 'We've been doing them for years,' he says, 'and kids still enjoy them.' After all, you can't buy a souvenir through a video screen! » Ф ■Щг Ш m.. Vv*. : * - Ш • Ш f C-. IL'" C @ These sentence parts have been removed from the article. Choose from sentence parts 1-8 the one which fits each gap A-G. There is one extra sentence part you do not need to use. 1 this isn’t the same as watching a documentary on TV 2 but they seldom get more adventurous 3 if the traditional school trip will disappear forever 4 and the pupils have become quite addicted 5 but sometimes it can be difficult to get a good connection 6 you don’t need to buy state-of-the-art equipment 7 other schools have been trying videoconferencing 8 and to interview a famous footballer in his own home Words in context D Match the words and expressions in bold in the text and in C with a definition. 1 a relaxed walk 2 all you need 3 distant 4 not real 5 the most modern available 6 can be used in many different ways 7 gone forever 8 very keen on Quick chat Should school excursions be educational or fun? Can they be both? 35 Grammar 1 present perfect simple and continuous See page 167 for information about present perfect simple and continuous Match these extracts with the uses of each tense. 1.. . who has worked with children for over 20 years... 2.. . we’ve made friends around the world. 3 We’ve been doing it about once a month ... 4.. . they’ve taken a tour of the Louvre in Paris, ... 5.. . it’s been raining non-stop for the last week... Present perfect simple is used to talk about: a an action in the recent past that has a result in the present b an experience c a situation or state that was true in the past and is still true today Present perfect continuous is used to talk about: d an action that started in the past and continues up to the present e an action that first occurred in the past and has occurred repeatedly up to the present A Complete with the present perfect simple or continuous. 1 Where have you been? morning. 2 I can’t go out tonight. I. homework. ... (wait) for you all (not finish) my 36 3 We’ve got PE today and I... (not bring) my PE kit. 4 John ... (revise) hard all week for his chemistry test. 5 ... (you / meet) my sister before? 6 Irina ... (not learn) German very long, but she already speaks well. 7 I... (take) karate lessons with my friends for a year now and I love it! 8 They ... (never eat) a mango before. 9 Misha ... (wait) for three hours already to buy a ticket to the movie. 10 Anton can’t come to the phone right now. He ... (go) to the supermarket. В Choose the correct option. 1 Jane’s not here at the moment. She’s been / gone to drama club. 2 I’ve never been / gone to Africa, but I’d love to go. 3 Is Mark here? No, he’s just been / gone to the staff room. 4 Has anyone here been / gone to that new sports club in town? 5 How many times have you been / gone to the Head’s office? 6 Mum and Dad have been / gone to the theatre tonight. They’re seeing a Shakespeare play. C Complete the email with the present perfect simple or continuous. Oe 0 To: Cc: Subject: N«w Message Hi Kevin, I'm in Greece, but I bet you can't guess what I'... (do) the last few days. Skiing! That's right. My class ^... (come) to Greece for ten days and for the last two days we"... (stay) in the mountains. It's great. 1 “... (never go) skiing before. Have you? A Greek ski instructor *... (teach) us to ski since we arrived. She's very nice and I think I«... (become) quite good already. My friend Kelly ^... (not be) so lucky, though. She *... (have) an accident and so she can't ski. She 9... (not watch) TV all day, though. She... (be) busy with her camera. She'll put her photos on the school website when we get back. Bye for now, Stella V*'*’ ,5V’ V4< ...... -V- Л' . ri* ■xv. .■CTiral Ч . w* ... ...S.V.. r . 1 Я-: W':" ■■■ > . ' . -Л . . .. f. ‘.i ‘ u-">- < бег ''T'S-t ^ —1 p*r 't- (Z Vocabulary School and education A Match a word from box A with a word from box В to make collocations about school. В Complete the story with a collocation from A in the correct form. Jim Yelland ’ ... interest in school when he I was about 11 or 12. At bv..- primary school he was a good student. He ^ ... attention in class and always did his ,, homework. He was .!. well and getting good marks, but his parents never ^... interest in his efforts and eventually he stopped trying. In secondary school he gave up altogether. He didn't * ... the rules, and he * ... trouble again 2nd again. He ^... truant from school for two or three days at a time. Eventually, he *... suspended from school for a month. But one person really seemed to care. Mr Goodall, the English teacher, went to visit Jim at home. They talked and Mr Goodall persuaded Jim to try again. This year Jim has ® ... hard and he has ... his end-of-year exams. Sometimes all you need is someone who believes in you! 3 do : @ attention J follow : : exams J get. : hard get into: * e ' ' ■ interest : work ■; : interest • lose ; : ш/es - Ш ' ** 1Ш pass : : suspended: pay 1 ft trouble : : play : : , truant : : show ■; ; well C Choose the correct option. 1 Most children go to state / public schools run by the government. 2 Private / Individual schools are often very expensive 3 Vocational / Occupational courses teach learners useful skills that they can use at work. 4 Some schools have an open / public day when parents can visit. 5 The school year is divided into three seasons / terms. Each one lasts about three months. 6 Most schoolchildren in England wear a costume / uniform. 7 Hand your homework in by the deadline / finish line. 8 Some adults attend evening classes / lessons to learn new skills. Phrasal verbs D Replace the words in bold in each sentence with a phrasal verb from the box in the correct form. break up • get marked down • give back • hand in hand out • take up 1 I submitted my homework a few days late. 2 Mr De Lay took ages to return our tests. 3 Jane distributed the photocopies. 4 Dad started to learn Chinese two years ago, but he didn’t study hard. 5 Our school closed for Easter very early last year. 6 I lost points in the test for my poor spelling. Synonyms E Make pairs of words with similar meanings. adolescents age grouft head peers teenagers siblings brothers and sisters helper principal assistant F Choose the best word to complete each of these opinions. 1 Children are most influenced by their peers / adolescents. 2 The head / assistant of the school should always be a woman. 3 Siblings / Age groups should do their homework together. 4 Teachers ought to have assistants / adolescents to help them in class. Quick chat Do you agree or disagree with any of the opinions above? Why? Why do you think some children play truant? Listening A What problems at school do these pictures show? Do you have these problems at your school? В Look at these opinions about school. Which ones are illustrated in the pictures? Do you agree with these opinions? A Homework should have a purpose. В Teachers and pupils need to respect each other. C Teachers shouldn’t judge students all the time D Pupils should keep classrooms clean. E Teachers shouldn’t give so much homework. F Pupils should wait to be asked by the teacher, r s a < LU X U. Ш z Ш L in Steps to success The statements in Listening B1 express what the speakers say, but with other words. Read the statements, and try to think of other ways to express the same ideas. Listening B1 -> pi 94 C Choose the sentence which is closest in meaning to the opinions from B. opinion A 1 Homework is useless. 2 Homework should be worthwhile. Opinion в 1 Pupils should be polite to teachers. 2 Teachers should be polite to pupils and pupils should be polite to teachers. ^ Tpuplls sPou,dp-t be compared tor everything 2 rpupiis’ worK should get a grade. Opinion D 2 Classrooms should be cleaned more Xn. Opinion E irrsS-flironhorneworK. Opinion F I apeak in class. ' to apeak in (аШ You will hear five different people talking about life at school. Match speakers 1-5 with opinions A-F listed in B. There is one extra opinion you do not need to use. Your voice Give a 2-minute talk on your school. Remember to say: • what your school looks like • what facilities it has • what your favourite subject is and why • what you like and dislike about your school and why 38 t Speaking A Look at the bad things pupils sometimes do at school. Put the list in order of seriousness Share your ideas with the class. being late for class dropping litter within the school grounds eating in class writing on desks shouting in class not doing homework writing graffiti on walls being rude to teachers and other pupils В How can teachers encourage pupils to behave better? These pictures show some ideas. Match the phrases in the box with the pictures. \ b 1 e in detention • be sent to the Head • clean the school get marked down • get suspended • speak to parents H- C 09 Listen to Anna and Peter. Note down the ideas from В that they mention. D (°[^ Look through the phrases in the Language chunks box. Listen again and note down the expressions you hear. . .*•« V uaqe chunks 3 Expressing opinions В Agreeing and disagreeing I think... I believe ... In my opinion,... I don't know if... If you ask me,... I think you're right. I'm not so sure. Well, yes and no. I wouldn't say so, no { FA) Inviting others to speak .................. Wtot do you think? Don't you think? ^ What do you teckon / don't about...: Wouldn't you agree? you., ек HELPFUL HINTS A discussion is not a speech! Give your partner chances to speak, too. Invite them to speak using the Language chunks. E In pairs, do this task. You and your friend have been asked to think of ways to improve your school. Discuss the ideas below and choose the best two. • longer school day, with more breaks • more varied lessons, for example more languages • fewer students per class • better equipment for science classes • more school trips Remember to: • discuss all options • be polite • take an active part in the conversation • come up with ideas • give good reasons • find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account • invite you friend to come up with suggestions • come to an agreement I 'Si. F Are these questions ‘real’ or ‘checking’? Listen and repeat. 1 You haven’t read this before, have you? 2 This is our classroom, isn’t it? 3 I’m not disturbing you, am I? 4 Katie’s writing a test tomorrow, isn’t she? 39 Grammar 2 Sbsik present perfect and past simple See page 167 for information about present perfect and past simple. Read the sentences and answer the questions which foiiow. I forgot my homework yesterday. Mrs Bruce went bananas! B: ’ve forgotten my homework. I’m terrified Mrs Bruce is going to go bananas! Which sentence... 1 talks about a finished moment in the past? 2 connects a moment in the recent past with the present time? 3 describes an event and result in the past? 4 describes an event in the past with a result in the present or future? 5 mentions the exact time that an event happened? A Two of the sentences are correct. Which ones? Find and correct the mistakes in the other sentences. 1 James has gone to a different school before this one, but he didn’t like it. 2 Last year my class has visited Berlin and Munich. 3 haven’t been at school the day before yesterday because I was i 4 At last I’ve finished my homework! 5 'Have you ever changed schools?' 'Only when I started secondary school.' 6 Alice was in the exam room for three hours, don’t know when she’ll come out. Ж В Complete with the present perfect or past simple. 1 Colin Long ... (be) in detention three times this year. 2 ... you ... (enjoy) primary school when you were small? 3 Our exam results still... (arrive). I wonder how did? 4 I’m really enjoying history this year. We ... (learn) a lot. 5 Mr Dawson is the best teacher we ... (have). 6 Oh dear! I don’t know what I... (do) with my German books. 7 We ... (have) a great chemistry lesson earlier today. 8 What time ... you ... (arrive) at school this morning? time expressions with perfect tenses See page 168 for information about time expressions with perfect tenses. C Complete the email with words from the box. already • ever • for • just • never • since • still • yet АЛО New To: Ct StAita. Hi Owen, How are you? I haven't heard from you ’... ages! wrote to you two weeks ago, but you ^... haven't replied. Is everything alright? I'm fine. I haven't quite got used to being at boarding school ^..., but it's getting better. I can't believe that I've ... been living here for three months. haven't made many friends, but there's one girl that I've been speaking to a lot. She's been here ^... she was only eight years old. Imagine! Anyway, I'm going to the cinema with my class tonight. There's a film with an actor called Bernard Butch. I've ®... heard of him, but all the girls here are mad about him. Oh, and have you ^... heard of a band called the Bogus Brothers? Everyone here's nuts about them. I have to go now because the bell has ®... rung for bedtime. Write soon. Love, Ellie ЦО TT IL щт I Practise your English A Read the text in В quickly. What is 'spaced learning'? В Read and complete the text using the correct form of the words in capitals. X r„ Steps to success -й^ For Grammar and Vocabulary B4-B10 make sure that you: •^Read the text once quickly to know the general “meaning. • Look carefully at the text before and after the gap. It will help you to decide what grammatical form,you need. For example, from the word STRONG you may need . to make the superlative, STRONGEST, if the gap is preceded by the. • Read the completed text again to check if it is grammatically correct and is logical. Grammar and Vocabulary B4-B10 p196 i?4( 'fr--. .S^'s-V-V'S ^r. Eight-minute mini-lessons boost learning ^ jst imagine: it's about twelve o'clock on a typical “orning at school. The school day ’... yet, and you crobably can't wait for the next break, can you? But ^w many breaks have you already had today? One? Two? How about 15? ^lat may sound ridiculous, but for pupils of Aythenden High School in England, it's quite normal TO have 15 breaks in a morning. That's because they ^... a new educational method called 'spaced learning'. ~~ie pupils *... normal lessons of 50 minutes. Instead, ~ey've been having short bursts of learning that ast only eight minutes. After every eight minutes, the *... take a break for ten minutes. They play sport or word games and then start again on ®... next eight-minute lesson. Spaced learning' is based on scientific research that was carried out a few years ago in the USA. The research ®... that memory develops best with short bursts of learning. But has the new method helped Wythenden pupils? 'Certainly it has,' says Ron Mackinly, the school's headmaster. 'We've been using 'spaced learning" for two years, and the pupils have never done in maths and science. It's an amazing improvement.' So there you have it! And now ... I think it's time for a break, don't you? NOT FINISH Ш A- USE NOT FOLLOW CHILD THEY SHOW WELL : ]* - ••• - •;Ц,у ч'<--• V,,;-''; • ••, -г '-'у Quick chat What do you think of ‘spaced learning’? Do you get enough breaks at school? 3 C Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given 1 My dad often travels to distant parts of the world. FLUNG My dad often travels ... places. 2 Are you still doing your homework? YET Haven’t you... ? 3 Hasn’t Gareth got out of bed yet? IN Is Gareth ... bed? 4 Mike went a few minutes ago. HAS Mike... gone. 5 That’s the best photo I’ve ever seen. NEVER I’ve... better photo. 6 I don’t like pop music anymore. LOST I’ve... pop music. 7 Colin Smith hasn’t been going to school. TRUANT Colin Smith has .... 8 You haven’t been listening, have you? PAYING You haven’t..., have you? 9 Sally has never been in detention before. TIME This is the first... in detention. 10 Jane wasn’t allowed to go to school for two weeks because of bad behaviour. GOT Jane ... two weeks, for bad behaviour. Informal letter A Does your school offer any of these extra activities? Which activities wouid you like to do? • amateur dramatics • arts and crafts • debating • information technology • photography • sports • traditional dancing r# amateur dramatics •v£4-S e i.vr--” i \ V\ :x. 1.-* M S' ^4* Г" Ll 'ii йга м*1Л:у'£'- V information technology e . . . 'V*'“.4 В You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Thomas who writes: Men I visited your school last year. I u,as really impressed with (ZI HoSlft Ги "" -'"W ten should we put on plays, do you think7 (3) How many rehearsals are needed to put on a good show? ^ By the way. my family have recently got a puppy.. ;>o. C Read this reply to Thomas’ letter. How many people are In the drama club altogether? 1 I г' ■ decided to start your own drama club. Im happy to give you advicel 'wCr-r-r. >--r • iT r s,T.s r".»ii" 1“ club members, you should try putting up P°= rnembers now. That's terrific that my club, and apart from me t ere are a ou picked out a name for your family have got a puppy. How many weeks old ,s ,t. Have у p if^ Is it very active? If you need any more help with the dramatics club drop me a line. Take care. Kathy t rvfi?StV'£r;.У; .-г ' > Skills development Steps to success • You don’t have to answer the questions in the same order that they appear in the prompt letter. • Make sure you answer all the questions in the prompt letter. • Begin the paragraph about your friend's news with a general and appropriate remark. • Conclude your letter by offering to provide more advice if your friend needs it. D Thomas asks questions in his letter. Read Kathy’s reply to the letter again and match the questions (1-3) with the answers (A-C) given in the reply. Planning and writing E Imagine this is part of a letter you received from an English-speaking friend Tony. Read it quickly to find out why he is writing. . ■ Ш- J'd really like to start a school magazine. I know youVe got some experience. Can you give me advice? How often should we bring out the magazine? Where could we get the money to make it? Should I sell the magazine or give it away? In other news, I've recently entered an essaywriting contest... 3 F Now write your reply to Tony’s letter. Write between 100 and 140 words. Use the Planner to help organize your letter, and try to use some of the Language chunks for giving advice. 11 ■jii Paragraph 2: Answer Tony's questions about starting a school magazine. Paragraph 3: Ask Tony three questions concerning his news. Paragraph 4: Let Tony know you are available if he needs more help, and wish him luck with everything. kchecW •% * liV -•аг ш -.x;. Щ. Be sure to; ✓ begin with a natural opening paragraph, thanking your friend for his/her letter ✓think about organization before you write ^answer all the questions in your reply ✓ ask your friend three questions about his/her news ✓check punctuation and spelling ШР 43 4 Skills aims >> Predicting content of short listening texts; listening for specific information Suggesting ideas and expressing agreement while speaking si Reading a series of short texts for gist and specific information si Writing an essay to practise paragraph formation, forming and developing ideas A How much do you know about science and technology? Do this quiz and find out. 1 If you drop two balls of different weight from a high place, which will fall first? a the heavier item b They will both fall at the same time. 2 Which scientist lived in the 20th century? a Einstein b Newton 3 When was the telephone invented? a in 1918 bin 1876 4 When was the first email sent? a in 1971 b in 1991 Check your answers on page 193. Reading В Read the title of the article and the subtitles given in C. Match each subtitle to a photo. What do you think the article is about? 5 Q < Ш X Steps to success When you do Reading B2: • Scan the text quickly until you find the information you need. Don’t read the whole text in detail. Reading B2 c v' Match paragraphs 1-4 of the article with subtitles A-E. There is one extra subtitle you don’t need to use. A First vaccination В First dinosaur fossils identified C The theory of natural selection D The gravitation law E The law of falling bodies >1 !t < Years later, scientists who make great discoveries are admired for their cleverness and originality. But some of the great discoveries were not praised at the time they were made. 1 In 1822, the geologist William Buckland had been doing research when he came across some really big teeth. Big-sized bones and teeth had been found earlier by other people, but they were not considered important. Why not? Because they thought they had belonged to giants, which, at the time, were not interesting to scientists. In fact, these teeth belonged to an extinct species of animal that had lived more than 160 million years ago! Buckland knew they were important. He did not come up with the name dinosaur to describe these creatures. Sir Richard Owen did that years later in 1842. But he did publish the first ever scientific paper describing fossil dinosaurs. The name Buckland gave to the dinosaur he discovered was Megalosaurus, which, in Greek, means 'great lizard'. 2 Charles Darwin published his book On the Origin of Species in 1859. He had developed a theory, which he called natural selection. It was a theory of evolution, stating that the 'stronger' characteristics of a species become more common in later generations. These are the ones that help an animal or plant survive in their own environment. At the time, Darwin's theory shocked the world because it didn't agree with what the church had been teaching. Even today, in some parts of the world, Darwin's theory is not taught in schools. Darwin came up with his theory while he was on a five-year scientific expedition to the Pacific coast of South America. He got many of his ideas from the data he collected on the Galapagos Islands. I 1 In 1604, astronomer and physicist, Gaiiieo Galilei, proposed his theory of falling bodies. For nearly 2,000 years, people had accepted Aristotle's theory that heavier bodies fall faster than lighter ones. Galileo proved that this was false. He showed that all bodies fall at the same rate no matter how much they weigh. In a book written by one of Galileo's pupils, an experiment which proved this theory was described. Galileo is said to have dropped two balls of the same material, but different weights, from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. He wanted everyone to see that the balls would reach the ground at the same time. And they did! People have questioned whether this experiment really ever happened, however Galileo's theory is now regarded as a scientific fact. 4 In 1796, Edward Jenner, an English country doctor, gave someone the world's first vaccination. In the 18"" century, people were terrified of getting a common disease called smallpox. One in three people who caught the disease died. If you did survive, you were left with terrible scars all over your body. Jenner noticed that after people had come into contact with cowpox, they didn't catch smallpox. Cowpox was similar to smallpox, but it only affected cows. He decided to inject the cowpox disease into healthy people. It was a risk, and other doctors were sceptical. But Jenner had made a major scientific breakthrough. He had come up with a smallpox vaccine. Thanks to his discovery, the threat of smallpox no longer exists and people today are protected from many other dangerous diseases. D For questions 1-10, choose a C Galileo Gaaj D Edward A William Buckland В Charles Darwin Which scientist(s)... 1 experimented on people? 2 may not have conducted an experimert -s » well known for? 3 proved that a previous theory was wrongs 4 invented a name for a new discovery? 5 wrote a book about his discovery? 6 discovered that something was more imporarf than people had previously thought? 7 discovered that characteristics are passed on to next generations? 8 came up with his theory after watching people? 9 developed his ideas while travelling? Words in context E Find words in the texts that mean the following. Paragraph 1 1 animals 2 the remains of an animal Paragraph 2 3 a group of animals or plants with similar characteristics 4 the development of plants or animals over time Paragraph 3 5 speed 6 doubted Paragraph 4 7 marks left on the skin or body 8 not easily convinced Quick chat ^ Which discoveries do you think were the most important? In pairs, come up with two more important scientific discoveries. 45 Grammar 1 past perfect simple and continuous See pages 168 and 169 for information about past perfect simple and continuous. Look at these extracts. Which event happened first, A or B? 1 ... Buckland (A) had been doing research when he (B) came across some ... teeth. 2 ... it (A) didn’t agree with what the church (B) had been teaching. 3... after people (A) had come into contact with cowpox, they (B) didn’t catch smailpox A Choose the correct option. 1 The Internet had not been / had not been being around for very long before it became popular. 2 I realized my mistake only after I had sent / had been sending the message. 3 I sent / had sent the email a week ago and I still haven’t received a reply. 4 Darwin began writing a book when he had developed / developed his theory. 5 Kate had been planning / had planned to buy a new computer for months. 6 They had been programming / had programmed the computer game for months before they presented it to the public. В Complete the sentences with words from the box. after • already • before • for «just • since • soon • when 1 By the time I asked, she had ... given her mobile away. 2 Rachel had ... arrived home when she realized she had left her laptop on the bus. 3 I had been sleeping ... an hour when she called. 4 I had finished all my work ... I went out. 5 I hadn’t seen her... we were in primary school. 6 James and I watched TV ... we had finished dinner. 7 Sally had been working on her computer for ten minutes ... the screen went blank. 8 As ... as he had got home, Colin checked his email. C Work in pairs. Imagine you saw your partner doing something strange yesterday. Ask and answer questions to find out more. Use the ideas in the box to help you. covered in paint • crying • laughing • limping running in a bathing suit • sleeping in the park I saw you yesterday. Why were you laughing so loudly? - / had just heard a ••5— •f, .«W-- < Цб D Read and complete the text using the correct form of the words in capitals. How wrong can you be? Today more than one billion people have a computer in their home. But in 1977, Ken Olsen, an engineer and co-founder of the Digital Equipment Corporation, ’... that there would be no market for the home computer. Engineers at the company ^... on a project to make computers smaller, faster and cheaper when he famously said, 'There is no reason for any individual to have a computer at his home.' In fact, Ken Olsen ^.. to the dangerous home computer of science fiction films - quite a different thing. In the 1930s, before TV became popular, film producer Darryl Zanuck ^... that television would never succeed. To a certain extent Zanuck *... right, as television *... until the 1950s. But by the 1970s and 1980s, it ^.. a huge part of our lives. In most households today you can find two or even three TV sets! Unified State Exam Grammar and Vocabulary B4-B10 -* pi96 PREDICT WORK REFER SAY BE NOT TAKE OFF BECOME Vocabulary Science A Complete the spidergrams with words from the box. astronomy • physics • biology chemistry • mathematics • geology *Y: *4vv * - n О solar system ? >;:а'Г5 -.w* u: ' v«.v. c»>.*. r^-rjjgSS •'»'.v4ver* planets S3r - gases / i v..C4i; > ’'Л * height chemicals ? liquids ? sae-* volume Ям ‘ T . ***Д-^_Ц^ * ' г • J numbers '• —,-К.-г=Т-.’> space animals j- o- , ■>'X» Y.5&V - Л'" ? i K*.>. amounts issmi >T<- i-srr-* 7 ' •'j-Л. Ti; 5^'i'-5; earthquakes ^.#1: УуЛ 'i \ < ? j > ■• stones S" в Choose the best answer. 1 The litre is the unit we use to measure.... A volume В weight 2 Ice is the solid form of water. When it melts it becomes a .... A gas C solid В liquid D powder 3 The ... of this paper is 20 centimetres and the length is 28 centimetres. A height C weight В width D length 4 The telephone was the best... ever. A discover C discovery В invent D invention 5 We conduct experiments in a .... A theories C laboratory В research D scientific 6 Einstein’s theory of relativity was a very important scientific .... A research C experiment В scientist D breakthrough 4 Computer technology C Choose the correct option * • — ; :'?< *'-у-ггт*”>*г>^ Г'.' * i—' -* _ Г _ г - , ' «.л'? 1 ■ - А\у desk - -i. Last year I bought myself a laptop. For years I had had a (1) desktop / fable fop computer, but I decided I needed something smaller and more (Z) portable / moveable. I love it. At home, I use it with a wireless (3) mouse / key as moving the arrow around the (H) keyboard / screen with the touch pad is tricky. It took a while to get used to the position of the (5) keyboard / scanner because it is so close to the screen, but I managed. I log on to the Internet every day to check and send (6) documents / emails and spend about an hour a day (7) online / Internet surfing the Web. On my desk. I also have a (8) scanner / printer, which I use to copy pictures and documents. And of course a colour (9) printer / scanner which I use when I need to see documents and pictures on paper. :: i; ■ ■■ • - -Щ^л W- I 4^ Phrasal verbs D Match the phrasal verbs with their definitions. 1 hack into 2 set up 3 log in 4 click on 5 plug (sth) into 6 back up a enter b illegally access c make a copy of d press e create f insert E Complete with a phrasal verb from D in the correct form. 1 You need to type in your username and password to .. this website. 2 An outsider... the company’s private files last night. 3 My computer died this morning! Luckily I had ... all my files. 4 If you want to see another website, put the arrow here and ... this link. 5 Let me show you the website we ... at school. 6 To connect the mouse to the computer,... it... here. h Listening A Look at the first set of pictures in D. What do you think the conversation will be about? В Which words or phrases will you hear in this extract? Why? mobile phone GPS tracking device gadget email radio MP3 player expensive C QLllI Listen to the first extract. Were you right? D Work in pairs. For the remaining sets of pictures: • guess the topic of conversation. • come up with three words or phrases you expect to hear. 48 CO О Steps to success When you do Listening A1-A7: • Read the statements before you listen. • if you don't hear the answer to one question, start listening immediately for the answer to the next question. • Choose Not stated if you cannot hear the information when you listen to the recording. Listening A1-A7 -* p194 E (iJlJ You are going to hear six conversations. For each conversation decide if the statement is true, false or if the information is not stated. 1 The girl’s phone hasn’t got a camera. A True В False C Not stated 2 The girl usually uses her laptop in bed. A True В False C Not stated 3 The woman didn’t like the submarine. A True В False C Not stated 4 The speakers are talking about the lights on the bike. A True В False C Not stated 5 The speakers agree that car alarms are worse than house alarms. A True В False C Not stated 6 According to the man, email is the fastest way to contact people. A True В False C Not stated Quick chat What do you think the best and the worst inventions of all time are? ft I I I ■ i: \ ■ Speaking A лЗИ Listen to two people having a discussion. What are they talking about? lU Listen again and note down the expressions you hear. Lan ua liT- Making How about... ? What about... ? We should ... We could ... Can 1 suggest...? Why don't we ... ? (■•-'й-s- at • IEkv-:. ; ' ^^Pi'essing agreement I agree. Alright. Yeah, OK. Perfect! Exactly! Absolutely! You're right. That sounds like a good idea. —^ — - _ —. I .Vv- W: Ж 'T 1 ■■ ’.:Ф' .Mj; A“ fUL HINTS ^ When you have a conversation, be polite. Show you are listening to your partner. Always look at your partner. Also nod, agree or disagree. Say things like aha, right, yes. C Work in pairs. Suggest four things you could do together this weekend. Use expressions from the Language chunks box. How about going to the cinema? ■ ^ S*»25FSe«S£m4BBSS2! pff m That sounds tike a good idea. D In pairs, do this task. Your school is organizing an exhibition of important inventions and scientific discoveries. There will also be a talk on the two most important inventions and/or discoveries. Look at the pictures and discuss these questions: • What have the benefits of each discovery or invention been? • Which two do you think the talk should be on? - - - 1 =■/ VvTi microscope electricity Ш: f^.r mobile phone W-:. m ii~-- f j ,v*4;- i 1 iiy- tT:;! ^ V-I' . ЧЩ TV i aeroplane W^--: Ш computer • .-.--rA' - - -- r Remember to: • discuss all options • be polite • take an active part in the conversation • come up with ideas • give good reasons • find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account • invite you friend to come up with suggestions • come to an agreement Final [r] E (i^ Listen to the way these sentences are read out. Pay special attention to the sound between the words in bold 1 Technology makes life far easier than it used to be. 2 Modern cars are more attractive than old ones. 3 In the 20"" century there were a number of important discoveries. had, F Practise saying the sentences. / I i Grammar 2 comparatives and superlatives See page 169 for information about comparatives and superlatives. Look at these sentences. Which ones compare two things? Which ones compare more than two things? 1 The aeroplane is faster than the car. 2 But the car is more usefui than the aeroplane. 3 House alarms are not as bad as car alarms 4 Car alarms are the worst invention ever. Choose the correct option to complete these rules. 1 We use the words more, less or the ending -er to make comparative / superlative sentences. 2 We use the most, the least or the ending -est to make comparative / superlative sentences. 3 We use than after comparative / superlative adjectives or adverbs. 4 Not as bad as means worse than / better than. 'X' «С i A Find and correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1 Physics is more'harder than maths. 2 A mobile phone is most convenient than a landline. 3 The washing machine is more easy to use than the dishwasher. 4 Old planes aren’t as fast than new ones. 5 What is the farest you’ve ever ridden? 6 The best computers get the faster they get. 7 The least you know about this the better. 8 Of all the maths problems we had to solve, this one took the less amount of time. Ф в Complete these scientific facts. Use the correct form of the words in brackets. «4Г ’OS. - vc?s Ж /> \P- V e> jr' T гауда 1 Dinosaurs were by far... (big) animals on Earth. 2 ... (fast) speed a falling raindrop can hit you is 29 km per hour. 3 The temperature at the centre of the Earth is much ... (high) the temperature on the surface. 4 No rock on Earth is ... (hard) as a diamond. 5 The more you know ... (strong) you grow. 6 A dog’s sense of smell is 1,000 times ... (sensitive) than a human’s. 7 To avoid catching someone else’s cold, it is ... (safe) to kiss them than to shake their hand. 8 If you want to be safe, the plane is ... (good) way to travel. 9 The ... (mountainous) a region, the more earthquakes it has. 10 The squid has by far... (large) eyes of any animal on the planet. C Complete these sentences. When you’ve finished, compare your answers with a partner. 1 My country is warmer.... 2 The best machine ever invented .... 3 The most amazing thing .... 4 The strangest experience .... 5 The older I get.... * Ш- &«ТЛгЛ^*т**Гс5 te'- Ш'С: 4 Practise your English A Read the text quickly. What does the writer think about modern devices? Technology: A blessing or a menace? In the 20th century we saw many revolutionary inventions that promised to improve our lives and to reduce the amount of work we do. The belief was that the more technology we allowed into our lives the better our lives would be. ■ ^1»- But many technological have caused more problems than they have solved. It is an accepted fact that some household .. have increased rather than reduced the amount of work we do around the home. For example, the more kitchen equipment you have, the more work you do in the kitchen. But this is not the only problem modern technology has had. Some technology has turned out to be more of a nuisance than a good thing. Look at the mobile phone. There is no doubt that when it was invented, the regular phone, or landline, was an invention that made communication easier and more ^.... However, the mobile phone has crossed that line. In many situations it is an ^.. of privacy and in others just plain rude. How many times have you been sitting chatting with someone over coffee or dinner when the person you're with receives a call? Instead of turning it off or Just ignoring the call, they answer it. Clearly, you are not as important as the ^... Let's stop fooling ourselves. Life has not improved in the way the technological revolution of the 20th century had promised it would. It has ®... got worse. DISCOVER Г-. C Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 This device is not as good as that one. That device ... this one. (THAN) 2 Travelling by plane is expensive compared to travelling by train. Travelling by plane is not... travelling by train. (CHEAP) 3 As I get older, I enjoy life more. The older I get... life gets. (THE) 4 I started watching TV at nine and she came over at ten. had ... an hour when she came over. (FOR) APPLY fC-- :Г.- St w:. 5 I was born after the DVD player had been invented. By the time I was born, ... been invented. (ALREADY) 6 How wide is that door? What is ... that door? (THE) D Choose the best answer. I 1 You need to ... some internet sites before I using them. ¥■ A hack into C log into I В click on D plug into fe 2 Laptops are more ... than desktop I computers. EFFECT |i A portable C moveable Ш В bigger D mobile INVADE 1 I 3 There is a sun and eight planets in the i Earth’s.... || A solar system C stars I В space D planet |y 4 All living organisms are made up of tiny .... CALL I A animals C plants || В cells D stones I? 5 The ... of these two phones is different. The .pi r I one on the left is heavier. A weight C volume В height D length В Read and complete the text using the correct form of the words in capitals. Steps to success In Grammar and Vocabulary B11-B16 look carefully at the words before and after the gap. They can help you decide what type of word you need and if your word needs to be in the singular or plural form. — —- ■ ■ -L!------ - r ..- -— ... - . -- - . ... Grammar and Vocabulary B11-B16 p196 t to Your voice Give a 2-minute talk on technical devices. Remember to say: • how technical devices have made our lives better • what devices you use in everyday life • if technical devices ever create problems • which device you wish you had and why 51 ft read a book see friends Writing: Essay A Which of the following do you do in your free time? Why? • play sports , • watch TV , • play computer games В Read this essay topic. r Internet computer games are a safe and worry-free form of entertainment for young people. What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement? Write 200 to 250 words. -w. s>*.\ ss:-:.-. gr_4!;. С Work in pairs. Copy the table. Brainstorm the advantages and disadvantages of playing computer games and make notes. Then discuss your ideas. Advantages .• n.v -j ..................... Six Ж .b-tiii. Ч ~ ■a)?’»-. -4, '*7 r ■** Ш f *.1 t k Д , * I J< Ч Лч.^ * i 5 ti’«4«cv. «тал.» -^xi * ■> _ \zx^ Г^щ K-^’2vi »< wiS:2‘ да’- -f ■» £ ■» S ‘•tei " ii- ii :r:.-s; j ^ !J§%5 %лт V? X. if» iiv .. .. ■^-Г 4-4. 41 ’i.T V V ->• «1Д-. < f v« 4'^ V- ~U. Щ - titL*' ^Sf'' ‘Г ■г • .^йsя^■ \ / ЭТ?- ■ .. lirr ns r Sfl ■;Sfs --. 4”- V ' - JSS' ;'^Й' -V D Read the essay below and answer these questions. • Were any of your ideas mentioned? • What is the writer’s opinion of playing computer games? The Infernef has become widely available and computer games have become more popular than ever before. 3uf is this a good thing? I don't believe it is. but others might disagree. In my opinion, many young people spend more time online playing games than doing sport or exercising. What is more, computer games can be addictive. This means that people are not in control of their habit and spend hours in front of a computer screen. As a result, they don't study or spend time with family and friends. Others may say playing computer games is fun. Young people work hard at school and need to take time off their studies Щ to enjoy themselves. Furthermore, computer f games can improve your thinking skills p because you need to think and react guickly p to situations in a game. However, I don't ^ agree with this opinion. Young people should fe avoid computer games because it's almost Ь impossible for them to control how much time Ш they spend on them. Hesides, weve all got enough bad habits already without adding one more to the pile. In conclusion, although Ш computer games can be entertaining, I think Л there is a real danger they can do more harm than good. Thus, parents should set strict boundaries for their children to follow concerning this type of entertainment. fc; W-. й!®-' .■•.r Л m- fSi? Z: t ;.rv^i w-3) 1.Ш b'? m -tr-l 'M: ш .'.Ч ЙЖ5 Ji'l ЖМ51 i iTl'itiP Щ; r ,* hfi- I'itedS ’Ш ■ф. . :й; 'y •,-»4 {-ir ■'^5: -•-S?. -3 6&‘X тл J :'dis-^ Тй >•;-•• ТЙ*’- / -сГУ / •-?ча*л u f Skills development E Copy the table in your notebook and then work in pairs. Decide how you would divide the essay into five paragraphs and complete the plan. Paragraph topic Ideas 1 Introduction 1 introduce topic 2 ... 1 my opinion 2 ... 3 ... 3... 1 ... 2 ... 4 ... 1 ... 2 ... 5 ... 1 sum up 2 ... F Find expressions in the essay that signal 1 the writer’s opinion 2 the opposing opinion 3 the writer's disagreement 4 the conclusion 5 additional points Gettin G Read this essay topic, look at the spidergram a student has begun and copy it in your notebook. In pairs: • discuss which points you agree with • add more ideas to the spidergram • decide what your opinion is on the use of mobile phones Mobile phones offer a wide range of benefits with ^ almost no danger to users. What is your opinion? Do you agree with this ^ 5t0t0ment? Write 200~250 words. ■i: 4'i '•',v ' Advantages - can save lives other disadvantages - annoying! MOBILE PHONES p Dangers - drivers and accidents on the road - radio waves damage brain № Planning and writing H Copy and complete the Planner. . ’WtU... Steps to success When writing an essay, it is important to have a few good ideas. Develop your ideas with an explanation or an example. Don’t include a lot of undeveloped ideas. Remember to give meaningful reasons that support your opinion. Develop the opposing opinion enough to showtwhy you believe it is wrong. I I H li i «It Paragraph 1: How will you introduce the topic? Paragraph 2: What's your personal opinion and what are some reasons for your opinion? Paragraph 3: What might be an opposing opinion and reasons or examples for this opinion? Paragraph 4: Why don't you agree with the opposing opinion? Paragraph 5: What's your conclusion? V“' — ,f ' 1-Ч ' :■ •> u» r** • I Write your essay. Use the Language chunks and the Planner to help you. ■“bs^- fc*' SS^ Lan ua chunks к -r'i ■Ш Presenting ideas In my opinion ... ... can often be ... Most people agree that... I think... Some believe that... Ш, Sf 5®.- -‘Sj?,, Be sure to; ✓followyour plan ✓ use a few good ideas t/develop your ideas with explanations or examples t/organize your essay into five paragraphs, ✓ make your opinion clear ✓ use a formal or neutral style 53 Learn about chemistry .ъ: Vt*(' ? Tkb. ■ siJ-’wi!*'' A Read the introduction beiow. Then iook at your ciothes. What fabrics and substances are you wearing? Are any of your clothes ‘special’, eg waterproof, quick dry or nowrinkle? acrylic • canvas • cotton • glass leather • nylon • plastic • polyester rubber • silicon • silk • viscose • wool " W - . .мч!. i j I I pI ■ ■ li • AllVb* V I i '/VsTb,-1 ' 1 ■ 'i'utw • T I ili^# r.-'l I n. - f Science and technology have entered our lives in ways we don’t even realize. Simple chemistry is one element of science that has changed our lives. Take clothes, for example, and look at how chemistry has changed our choices. Once, clothes were only made of natural fibres like cotton, silk or wool. Then, thanks to organic chemistry, we discovered synthetic or artificial fibres like nylon, polyester, acrylic and viscose. What are you wearing? Are your clothes made of natural fibres, or synthetic, man-made fibres? They’re probably a mixture of both. Now think about the kind of clothes you can get that make life more convenient. There are clothes that do not need ironing, which you can’t stain and that keep you dry from the outside and dry from the inside. This is all chemistry. But how does it work? Ж I. I ц"*; C:.. ТУ. * • ■ • li*" * •• . s S"P s ■ЛУ A: it I- Now read about different fabrics. How couid no-iron, no-stain, no-ciean ciothes help the environment? No-wrinkle clothes щтщят.' ; *4f* Cotton is a cellulose-based substance. It comes from plants. In cotton, the cellulose is cross-linked with hydrogen bonds which hold the fabric flat. When it gets wet or sweaty, however, the hydrogen bonds break and it starts to wrinkle. That's why cotton clothes get wrinkled in the washing machine. Ruth Rogan Benerito discovered that adding a chemical like formaldehyde would stop cotton wrinkling because it stopped the cotton getting really wet. Formaldehyde isn't a very nice chemical. It's toxic, yellow and stinks. The clothes didn't last long and they weren't very healthy to wear. A lot of research followed, and by 1992 (not that long ago) dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU) entered the scene. It was not expensive, it didn't turn yellow and it wasn't toxic. If your clothes are wrinkle-free they probably contain this chemical. 54 '“V V hSS'fV ■•-^■\;г1:- --’■'^ . A'.i- • kffe- ;• •v^SP Й i‘*(. ш Stain-free clothes Waterproofing A Stain resist! by Patsy Sherman in the |l950s;WHile Patsy was working on a latex rubDePComppund for tubes, she spilt a little of the substance on her 'rV-:'- • - •v ' ■ . canvas shoes. After some tim#shemoticed ‘•^T* .,■:* that where the latex compound had dropped m r-i}r ^‘4 vyj on,her shoe^,the shoe stayed clean. Oil and "vyater and the staihs they carried, just rolled S':£J- Researchers at the i University of Zurich are working on a fabric made of . polyester coated in silicon \uf'^ nahofilaments. This could be the most waterproof clothing ever - clothes that literally never get wefc ... . ,4-isi«r The silicon IS sprayed^ over the material like a gas. You can't зееюг feel the жл........ ''Us »V“r ~y. г- } Ч ’£-'АУ к" ~ silicon, but it's there and it* makes the fabric hydrophobic, and the droplets%pf water just Щ This is how Scotchgard was invented. It is the most well-known way^to ifeepT’clothes Stain-free. Now it's used on furniture because balance on top, but never soak into the material. it doesn't feel very nice, but Nano-Tex has * ?5 ^ • ••“ •1* « created fibres that still feel soft and{natural, butt which are strong and wearing^ don't crease and stains just fall off them. V-f- '4 4*«r 5>=%t This could be a revolutiorfary new material for --дда;' swimming costumes.,lt is possible that this is also the first step towa^rds self-cleaning clothes, or clothes that contrpl»srnell. It's probably extremely expensive so people won t stop using '.«г . . rTAsf.-w** wr • . . .-.. -A■"'••М'-?>7^?г«5г gnjj.- - waterproof clothing, such as Gore-Tex, yet. 'i-» „ Stiv.- ГГ-—. First, fabric is soaked in a solution which contains billions of tiny particles. The fabric • N'-vw . C!L ^ • * T?:. at'-' is then heated, and these tiny particles bond or^stick'to the fibre. The particles actually wrap themselves around the fibre with microscopic whiskers sticking out. The whiskers trap air and are like an invisible protection on the fibre so that stains don't get in. This has been used very successfully on clothes like silk ties. J. - -^’’.1 C Answer the questions. 1 Why does cotton wrinkle when it gets wet or sweaty? 2 Why is formaldehyde unpleasant? Can you think of any other use of formaldehyde? 3 Was the discovery of Scotchgard an accident? Why? 4 Why is the Nano-Tex product better than Scotchgard for clothes? 5 Imagine the way that silicon is put on the polyester fabric. Why do you think they put it on like this? 6 Write a definition for hydrophobic. 7 Can you think of a benefit of a swimming costume that doesn’t get wet? t, Л- I? •< ........Ac-'-’s' i?. _ г m -ft. % Ы‘ =T.' 3 04К^*'.. * mh .. -5, tt-^4. ЩС V ‘ „ Project: Research nanotechnology r Go onto the Internet and find out what nanotechnology is. Find three uses that nanotechnology can be applied to. 55 Culture today... The best standards of higher education A React the introduction. What other universities besides the ones mentioned in the introduction are considered top-notch educational facilities? In the United States, there is a group of educational institutions known as Ivy League universities. What does 'Ivy League' mean exactly? The term arose from those New England universities that had ivy growing on the walls of the buildings that dotted the campus landscapes. It has come to mean much more than that, however. As these particular American universities offered the best standards of higher education in the country - and at quite a cost, the term 'Ivy League' became synonymous with 'privileged elite', a meaning it still carries today. There are eight universities which belong to this club and whose sporting teams form the Ivy League athletic conference, including Harvard, Princeton and Yale, and all of these universities offer grants and scholarships so that students from meagre means can have an opportunity to attend, providing they have the smarts. В Now read the leaflet about Harvard University. What makes it so famous, do you think? C Use the information in the leaflet about Harvard University to answer the questions that follow. 1 Who made a donation to the university? a Charles W. Eliot b Barack Obama c John Harvard d Tommy Lee Jones 2 In what way was Tommy Lee Jones different to Obama and Portman? a He earned a iv Ш ’s degree. iy:'” b He was not jnvolved'with journals, c He became an actor, d He.was a Hah/a|d graduate. % When were many more schools set up? a abdiit 100-150 years ago b in the 1930s c in the 21st century d in the 17th century = . r. , 4 When were the first doctors trained at Harvard? a in 1909 b when ^iot was president c after the course was offered at Oxford d before the law school was founded V 5 According to the text, what is one reason why Harvard is the world’s top university? -^ a It has the.most members of staff, b It gets the best students, c It offers the most courses, d ft conducts the best research. 6 What is unique about Harvard? a It has produced the most presidents. ^ b It has a House Plan, c It was established before any other US university. d It gives the most scholarships. ? 7 What is notable about Radcliffe? a if wa^ a part of Harvard, b It agreed with Harvard, c It offered accomrhodation. d It allowed women to study. * 56 ff,': -г i <■ .7. ’ ■ >ns nt у Units 3 and 4 Harvard Universit Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Eight Presidents of the United States have graduated from Harvard University, including Barack Obama. am 1636 Founded and initially called New College 1639 Named Harvard College First scholarship granted 1653 First Native American begins studying at Harvard 1780 Harvard officially recognized as a university 1782 Harvard Medical School founded 1817 Harvard Law School founded (oldest in the United States) 1879 Affiliated college for women opens (Radcliffe College) Which is the oldest university in the United States? Harvard. Early History The university has grown from nine students with one master to more than 18,000 degree candidates, including undergraduates and graduate students. Over 14,000 people work at Harvard, including more than 2,000 faculty members. Harvard was established in 1636 and was named after John Harvard, who left his library and half his estate to the new learning institution when he died. During its early years. Harvard offered courses similar to those of the English universities, particularly Oxford and Cambridge. Later History As the university grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, so did the curriculum, particularly in the sciences. Charles W. Eliot, who was university president from 1869 to 1909, changed Harvard from a small provincial institution into an impressive modern university. During his presidency, the graduate schools of Business, Dental Medicine, and Arts and Sciences were established. Enrollment rose from 1,000 to 3,000 students, and the faculty grew from 49 to 278 members. By the 1930s, the House Plan had been established. This provides a small college atmosphere within the larger university. After their first year, students go to one of 12 campus Houses and live there for the remainder of their undergraduate courses. Each House has a master and teaching staff, as well as a dining room and library, and offers a large range of athletic, social and cultural events. Recent History In the 20th century, the quality of undergraduate and graduate education at Harvard continued to improve. The university - keen to make higher education available to everyone - provided more and more scholarships to poorer students. In 1943, Harvard and Radcliffe signed an agreement which allowed Radcliffe’s women students into Harvard classrooms. At this time, the university also firmly established its role as an outstanding research institution. Harvard’s excellence has continued into the 21st century. It is consistently the number one university in the world in international college and university rankings. The university makes every effort to ensure it attracts the best teaching staff, and the strongest students regardless of financial circumstances. US President Barack Obama is a graduate of Harvard Law School. While there,, he was president of the Harvard Law Review - a legal journal published by students at Harvard Law School. In fact, he was the Review’s first African-American president. Tommy Lee Jones, an Academy Awardwinning actor, attended .Harvard on a scholarship, was roommates with future US Vice President Al Gore, and played for the university football team. He graduated with a degree in English. Actress Natalie Portman graduated from Harvard with a bachelor’s degree in psychology, there she was a research assstani in a psychology lab and she coauthored two research which were published in journals. ■'--.•.'**""4» -гчт-"-a D Your voice Would you like to go to university? there a university in Russia that you admire? ■Ml t *v I •. . ^ ll 4 I и t (Г b * I I ri li Progress check 2 A Choose the best answer. 1 ... is the study of the Earth, mountains, rocks and events such as earthquakes. A Chemistry В Geology C Astronomy 2 Each school year is divided into three .... A seasons В months C terms 3 Our local college offers ... courses such as car mechanics and hairdressing. A vocational В occupational C academic 4 The air we breathe is a mixture of.... A liquids В gases C solids 5 Do children have to wear... at your school? A uniforms В costumes C suits 6 Who was the first person to ... a dinosaur? A discover В invent C conduct 7 A ... is a useful thing for copying documents and photos. A printer В screen C scanner 8 My cousin goes to a very expensive ... school. A individual В state C private В Complete each sentence with a preposition. 1 Mrs Daunting still hasn’t given us ... our history tests. 2 The earphones plug ... this socket just here. 3 I’d like to take ... a musical instrument, but don’t have the time. 4 If you click ... this link, you’ll be taken to another page. 5 If you don’t know the password, you won’t be able to log ... the site. 6 When do schools break ... for the summer? 7 Can you hand ... these photocopies to the class please, Simone? 8 You need to set... an account before you can buy anything from the website. C Complete the sentences with words from the box. already • as • Just • more • most •still • than • yet 1 I think the Internet has been more important... the telephone for changing our lives. 2 Helen’s only been coming to this class for a month, but she’s ... made lots of friends. 3 I’ve ... made a pot of tea. Would you like some? 4 Learning online isn’t as much fun ... learning in a classroom with others. 5 What do you think has been the ... important discovery ever? 6 Mike hasn’t got his exam results ..., but he’ll have them soon. 7 Alan is much ... determined to succeed this time. 8 You ... haven’t met my new girlfriend, have you? D Choose the correct option. 1 We don’t usually go on holiday abroad, but last year we have gone / went to Poland. 2 I have bought / bought some cakes earlier. Do you want one? 3 Miles hadn’t met / hadn’t been meeting me for a long time. 4 I’m really exhausted. How many of these boxes have we moved / have we been moving? 5 I haven’t seen / didn’t see Mandy all day. don’t know where she could be. 6 We’ve tidied / been tidying the house all morning, but it still seems a mess. 7 When I was a very small child we didn’t have much money, but we had been / were happy. 8 By the age of 15, Maurice Hobbs had passed / passed the exams for university. 58 i ♦ s t E Complete the second sentence so that it has the same Ч meaning as the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 Learning German is easier than I’d thought. AS Learning German ... I’d thought. 2 Ben always loses marks for his bad spelling. DOWN Ben ... for his bad spelling. 3 I’ve never had a computer as bad as this one. EVER This is the ... had. 4 Karen Young isn’t allowed to come to school for two weeks. BEEN Karen Young ... for two weeks. 5 He wasn’t listening to me. PAYING He... to me. 6 Haven’t you finished your homework yet? STILL Are you ... homework? 7 You should make a copy of those files. UP You ... files. 8 Do you know how long the Channel Tunnel is? THE Do you ... the Channel Tunnel? 9 Tom began guitar lessons when he was six and he’s still taking them. SINCE Tom’s been ... he was six. 10 The blue whale is the biggest animal that has ever lived. BEEN There ... animal than the blue whale. F Read the text and choose the correct answer. Hi Jed, How are things? It's only Tuesday and I've ’... been having a difficult week. This morning H... a maths test and I don't think I've done very well. I hadn't studied enough for it. What's worse is that on Monday Mr Cole ^... back our history essays and I hadn't done nearly as well as I had expected. I'll certainly .. work harder next year if I want to pass my exams. Talking of work, I've been trying to finish my chemistry homework for the last half an hour, but I'm finding it difficult to .. attention. So I've been writing this message to you instead. What's your news? When you last wrote you had been working hard on a science project about the *... system. Have you finished it? I came ^.. a website that might be useful for you. Click on this ®...: www.exploreastronomy.com. What do you think? Speak soon, Mandy 1 A already 2 A passed 3 A sent 4 A should 5 A show 6 A planet 7 A over 8 A link В yet C since D still В did C made D failed В handed C took D offered В need to C have to D must В give C make D pay В sun C universe D solar В by C across D on В reference C guide D line to О Steps to success Choosing an answer, be careful because often the meaning of the different options can be very similar but the difference may be that each word goes with a different preposition or typically goes with another word (called collocation). * Grammar and Vocabulary A22-A28 p197 59 Holidays with a difference! 6o Skills aims 4> Listening for main ideas in a long interview >> Expressing opinions politely; suggesting tentative ideas xj Reading short texts for gist and details Writing a formal letter / email to practise linking, formal register usage and organizing and expanding ideas **■ 4"^ ; - I V I ' i-m ?/ . m %e iff/ A How much do you know about travel and transport? Do this quiz and find out. 1 Which word best completes this sentence? The plane is the safest way to .... a journey c trip b travel d voyage 2 Which is the odd one out? a bed and breakfast c five-star hotel b guesthouse d resort 3 During peak hour traffic, you are likely to get stuck in a traffic .... a jam b line c queue d-block 4 Which word or phrase is not connected with plane travel? a boarding pass c jet lag b checking in d driver Check your answers on page 183. Reading В Scan the text. What type of text is it? 1 an advertisement 2 a brochure 3 an article s < X CO о Steps to success When a text has many sections, read it very quickly. • Scan it to fin^ out what type of text it is. • Skim the different sections to locate the specific information you need. Reading B2 p195 c Match paragraphs 1-4 of the brochure with subtities A-E. There is one extra subtitie you don’t need to use. A London Murders В Harry’s London C Spies of London D Royal London E Ghosts of London D Skim the text. Where do you find information about: 1 tour guides? 2 cost? 3 what you will see and hear on each tour? 4 comments from customers? 0 1.>C. Ш PM •Ш- About us Are you visiting London any time soon? Don't miss one of our walks. Samuel Pepys and Charles Dickens both liked nothing better than strolling around London to take in the sights and smells of the city. On our guided walks, we give you the chance to see as much of London as possible. Our walks will take you off the beaten track and show you places that are not on the tourist trail. Our guides are all knowledgeable professionals, who will astonish and entertain you with interesting facts about the city and its history. Our tours are an experience you will never forget. Our tours 1 5.00 pm Fridays and Sundays Harry Potter isn't just for kids. There are very real places behind the stories. On this walk you will visit many of them. What is an Invisibility Cloak or a Philosopher's Stone? Where is the entrance door to The Ministry of Magic? By the end of this fantastic walk, Angela will have answered these questions and lots more. She will also enlighten you about all the legends, superstitions, and tales of ghosts and giants found in the series and take you to the locations where the movies were shot. Guide: Angela Peterson N r ШШ ■ X IJ 2 7.00 pm Wednesdays and Saturdays On this tour you are going to experience one of the most frightening nights of your life. The stories, the drama and the scenery will transport you to another time. You will visit dark backstreets and narrow alleyways and hear terrifying ghost stories. But be warned: stick close to the group, as you never know what could be lurking in the streets after dark. Bring a friend. After this tour, you will be too scared to make your way back to your hotel alone! Guide: Greg Jones 3 3.30 pm Tuesdays and Saturdays Ever wondered what inspired Ian Fleming's James Bond books? On this walk you will find out about the world of secret agents and double agents. You will explore the secret world of MIS and MI6. You will also hear real stories of Cold War London, visit places where spy world exchanges took place and where many mysterious meetings were held. By the end of this walk, you will have experienced for yourself what went on in London during the Cold War. Guide: Tom Sims 4 4.00 pm Thursdays and Sundays Enjoy being scared? If so, you're going to love the London Murders tour. On this spine-chilling walk, our guide will take you to all the grim places in London where horrific crimes took place. You will see where murderers like Jack the Ripper and the notorious Dr Crippen hung out and searched for their unsuspecting victims. Hear their stories, but beware. These crimes may have taken place in the past, but the terrifying atmosphere is still very much alive! Guide: George Macdonald 'The Ghost tour of London was truly magnificent. The next time Tm in London I will be doing it again!' Sam Peters 'Anyone who does the Spies of London tour is going to learn about a side of London they never knew existed.'Annie Duncan Price of our tours Adults: £5 Children (under 16): £3 Senior citizens: £3 Groups of four or more: £3.50 for adults and £2 for children Walking Tours of London Email: [email protected] Phone: 020 7767 8790 Fax: 020 7767 8791 www.walkingtourslondon.com E Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C or D). 1 What is not true about the guides? A They are all from London and know the city well. В Their tours are full of surprises. C They know a lot about the history of London. D They will take you on unusual routes. 2 How much will it cost for two adults and two children to go on a tour? A £11 В £12 C £16 D £20 3 Which tours have been influenced by novels? A 1 and 2 В 1 and 4 C 1 and 3 D 2 and 4 4 Why should you go on the Ghost tour with someone else? A It is more enjoyable with company. В There is a special offer for two people. C so that you have someone to go home with D to have someone to talk to 5 Which places will you not see on the London Murders tour? A where the murderers spent their time В where the murderers lived C where the murderers found their victims D where the police found the victims 6 What did Charles Dickens like to do? A go for walks with Samuel Pepys В visit London when he could C go sightseeing around London D walk around London in a relaxed way 7 What does the Harry’s London tour offer? A a tour of the studio where the film was shot В an opportunity to ask lots of questions C stories for kids D a visit to the places mentioned in the books 8 Who is Annie Duncan? A a tour guide C a tour organizer В a character from history D a satisfied customer Unified State Exam Words in context F Match the words and expressions in boid in the text with a definition. 1 extremely 4 dark and frightening depressing 2 hiding in 5 gave the idea a suspicious way 6 stories 3 not much visited by 7 return tourists 8 inform Quick chat Which of these tours would you like to go on? Why? 6l Grammar 1 expressing the future See page 170 for ways of expressing the future. Match these extracts with the use of each tense. 1 After this tour, you will be too scared to make your way back ... 2 Enjoy being scared? ... you’re going to love the London Murders tour. 3The next time I’m in London i will be doing it again! 4 By the end of this ... walk, Angela will have answered these questions ... Which sentence talks about: a a prediction we are sure about? b a prediction based on what we know, believe, hear or see? c a completed future action? d an activity in progress at a certain time in the future? A Complete with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1 ‘How am I going to get home?’ ‘I... (call) you a cab.’ 2 Can I go on the school trip? I promise I... (be) good. 3 When Tom gets a job, he ... (save) money to travel around the world. 4 The train ... (leave) at ten o’clock. You’ll need to leave soon if you’re going to make it. 5 The passengers are all disembarking. I think the ship ... (leave). 6 ... (you fly) to Germany from France or taking the train? В Choose the correct option. 1 If you want a different sort of holiday, you’ll be loving / ’ll love India. 2 This time next month, we will be lying / have lain on a beach. 3 I didn’t enjoy the long flight, but you might / will like it. But then again you might / will not. 4 I think going on more than one tour will be / will have been too tiring for us. 5 By the end of our trip we will be visiting / have visited five countries. 6 For the long weekend we’re going / ’ll go on a skiing trip. C Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 They’ve predicted rain for this weekend. TO It... this weekend. 2 There’s a chance we’ll go camping this summer. MAY We... this summer. 3 This year I plan to walk to school. AM This year... to school. 4 I promise to be good on the school trip. WILL I... on the school trip. 5 We’re leaving any minute now. ABOUT We... leave. 6 Next week I’m flying to the Bahamas. WILL This time next week ... to the Bahamas. 7 Would you like me to carry your suitcase? SHALL ... your suitcase? 8 My brother is going to travel around South America before starting university. INTENDS My brother... South America before starting university. Quick chat 62 9 Vocabulary Sights A Think of an example of each of these sights in any country around the world. 1 ancient ruins / archaeological site 2 castle 3 street / square 4 monument 5 museum 6 palace Accommodation В Complete with words or phrases from the boxes. double • en suite • guests • luxury • room • stay Щ .r<' Д -Дч"' Ж ’Г ■ «frrvaS- Deciding where to (1)... when on holiday is not "always easy. It depends on personal preference and of course on what you can afford. By far the most expensive accommodation is a(n) (2) ... hotel or a five-star hotel. The price of a hotel (3)... will also depend on whether it is a(n) (4)... room or single room, whether It has a(n) T (5\... or whether you will need to^share the bathroom with other--* (6)...'. Л'р- a ^ ^ ^ Ч. ^ }' Si '/ t ^ Г -t-r; i ' a b' nportments t { j-S>- iMMMssttMeiMiiMHHRi Hi Hii alone • in • out • self-catering «5Г You will find that (1) ... apartments are a good option if you're not travelling (2).... They come equipped with kitchens, which means you can save money by cooking and eating (3)... rather than eating (4)... in restaurants. olternotives book • campsite • rates • tent • visiting • youth hostel If you don't mind roughing It, then staying in a (1)... on a (2)... is a good option. Of course, this is not an option if you're (3)... a city. The cheapest accommodation in a city is usually a (4)..., but they offer very few services. You will also need to take a sleeping bag. It may be better to pay a little extra and (5) ... a room in a guesthouse. They are more personal and offer (6)... and breakfast «ft at lower (7)... than hotels. h;*'* ^ ii::y W: P 5 Travel and transport C Which means of transport are private and which are pubiic? Add some more to the iist coach bike / bicycle motorbike taxi / cab the Underground sailing boat ferry / ship yacht D Which means of transport can you: drive? ride? catch? get on / off? get in / out of? sail? E Match a word from each list to make as many compound nouns as you can. F Choose the correct option. 1 This year we’re going abroad / foreign country. 2 You’ve just lost / missed the bus. 3 Paris has a lot of sights / sightseeing to see. You’ll spend your whole trip sights / sightseeing. 4 Last year, we went to / on holiday abroad. We went to / on Morocco. This year we’re spending / going our holiday at home. 5 Did you come here on / by foot or on / by bus? 6 Yesterday my sister set off / started off on her trip around the world. Your voice t K- sb- &• T". • f- I a* Г I Give a 2-minute talk on transport. Remember to say: • which means of public transport is popular where you live • how you usually get around • what your favourite / least favourite means of transport is and why • which means of transport you think is the safest and why 63 ш ^ , ..,«i - '.^f.^ ■"“^ -Г^- •. /:>и fv7 * •'’ i.'-I-а» ^. т i- * • ■ '--ifeW '',i-»^V-?’'''‘^4 Р4Ж г^^^тту'уу.^л л*. ... *> .л^'. .:f•^^.-т^ I - ♦ • ' *■ I* 4# - .Г 1#^ ^ 1’^ 'ЧйЦV. 7S<‘ 'ti,T Northern Territory } ;(w« V- .. ^ ” ■ГХ . r =^- V Kakadu National Park <•. A f •Ts^ - iSSA. ■ r . ..’^i-^' Queensland Western Australia 5‘;,' ■. ^ rV-A-.^ ' ■» Kimberle' 'ft ;t4»-. /, Zr^y*- 4«Hff**** t>. уц>. A What do you know about Australia? Answer these questions. 1 What is the capital city? 2 What sights is it famous for? 3 What is the climate like? 4 What animals do you associate with Australia? Steps to success Remember that the wrong answers are there for a reason. They are supposed to distract you so that you think they are right Don’t choose an answer just because you hear a word from a question. Listening Aff-A14 p194 64 В You are going to hear an interview about a trip to the Australian Outback. Before you listen, read the options and discuss the foliowing: • What information about the trip do you expect to hear in each section? • What questions relating to each section do you think you might hear? Then write possible questions for each group of options. «.* 'ii -^3 New South Wales 6old Coast / r" If' Tf *%. r - yictoria'^s ‘j i Ш .U_-— 1 A the busiest parts of Australia В the greenest parts of Australia C the driest parts of Australia 2 ... ? A Perth В Kakadu National Park C Darwin 3 '> A the waterfalls В the varied landscapes C the desert 4 A in Darwin В in Kakadu National Park C in Kimberley 5 ... ? A The rivers were named after an English explorer. В There are many alligators in the rivers. C An English explorer thought the crocodiles were alligators. 6 A The camels were brought there by early explorers. В The camels have always been there. C The camels find it too hot. C CTliJ Now listen to the interview. Choose the correct answer for each question. Have you ever been on an exciting holiday? What would make a holiday exciting for you? I I Speaking A (ЗШ Listen to three students talking. Which of the following are they talking about? a Where they’re going on their next holiday. b How they’re going to entertain students from another country. 16 Listen again and note down the ways of expressing uncertainty they use. Expressing uncertainty Giving opinions Yes, I suppose you're right. I'm not sure ... They might like that... They may not... I don't know, 1 think ... Maybe... Perhaps... - - 1= n..i35y."V. Making tentative suggestions I suppose we could ... We could ..., couldn't we? They can... (Perhaps) we could... It might be better to... Шз m' MBlfUL HINTS Use expressions like the ones in Language chunks box to show others that you are not sure about something. Models like might, may, can and could make opinions and suggestions sound less ‘strong’. As a result, you are easier to agree with and more persuasive. 5 C In pairs, come up with a solution to the problem below. Your school will be hosting four students from another country for three days (Friday, Saturday and Sunday). They have never been to your country before. They will be staying in a hotel. Your teacher has asked you to come up with ideas to entertain them. Use the information below to create a programme that will satisfy everyone for the three days. Make notes in the table below. rhristinq 17 Loves: shopping, the beach, dancing, sightseeing, trying new food Hates; wuseams GeorgiJI , Loves: watching sport, skateboarding, swimming, fast food, amusement parks Hates: shopping and sightseeing АИПС1 16 l^;;^musemeM porks, meeting people, shopping, dancing Hates: lying in the sun Tony 17 r t A Loves: sports, sightseeing, fast food, dancing, meeting people Hates: shopping and museums IDEAS Walks Museum visits ^ Sightseeing (monuments, cathedrals, castles, archaeological sites) ✓ Shopping ✓ Eating ✓ Visits to the seaside Sporting events .ZTmL m Now copy the table in your notebook and fill it in. Friday Saturday Sunday Morning Afternoon Evening D Which of these words rhyme with coach? 1 coat 2 boat 3 rope 4 abroad 5 go 6 goat 7 hot 8 road 9 broad 10 board 17 Now listen and check. F Practise saying the words. Think up two more words that rhyme with coach. Grammar 2 time clauses ... See page 171 for information about time clauses with: as soon as, when, untiland before. Choose the correct option. 11’ll phone Heather as soon as I get / will get home. 2 I’ll let you know what happens when I’ve spoken / ’ll speak to him. 31 won’t stop using my car until the public transport system improves / will improve. 4 Pick up your rubbish before you leave / will leave the park. Do the sentences refer to the past, present or future? A Complete the email with the correct form of a verb from the box. call • email • get • leave • see Л О To Cc. ' fe ■ p. fc: Щ; Ей' L'. ‘ ■ - Dear Mum and Dad, Hope you're well. Venice was gorgeous! Today we're leaving for Florence. As soon as we ’... there, we'll be having a long hot shower - we haven't had a proper shower for a week!! We're exhausted, but we won t stop until we ^... all the places we can visit with our InterRail passes! Before we ^... for Rome, we're thinking of popping over to Pisa for a day - it's only an hour from Florence by train! We ^... you when we get to Rome. We *... you again before then. Love, Gill and Fran fc' Ф Шг'- ■ Ш: Ж- ШИ'.- mi'- Ш:-' Ш Wf т-' Ш. ' 1: гг.-'Л.-' ifc щ ’л.!».!****.*. т ш щ ш Ш- ш I JV . бб question tags See page 171 for information about question tags. В Complete the question tags. 1 You couldn’t give us a lift,... ? 2 You’re not flying,... ? 3 You told him how to get here,... ? 4 Tamsin’s afraid of flying,... ? 5 Rob’s been to the States,... ? C Rewrite using question tags. 1 I don’t think you agree with me. You ... ? 2 Surely you’re not going to walk all the way! You’re ... ? 3 Could you open the door for me? You ... ? 4 Don’t you think Mike drives too fast? Mike ... ? 5 Don’t you agree that the walking tour was great? The walking tour... ? indirect questions See page 171 for information about indirect questions. «•••••♦•••••«•a** Which question in each pair is indirect? 1 a Could you please tell me how much the holiday package costs? b How much does the holiday package cost? 2 a Do you know what time the plane is expected to land? b When is the plane expected to land? D Complete each sentence so that it means the same as the sentence before it. 1 What kind of room would you like? Can you tell me ... ? 2 Where are you going on your next holiday? Do you know ... ? 3 Is an en suite important? Can I ask you ... ? 4 What time does the tour begin? I wonder if.... 5 How much will it cost? Could you tell me ... ? J 5 Practise your English A Read the text in В quickly. Which means of transport does Nick Hunter think we will use in the future? How realistic do you think his predictions are? В Ifl Read and complete the text using the correct form of the words in capitals Gettihqtaro.undlin>theifuturei The different means of transport we use in our day-to-day lives ’... a long way. Just think, a little over 100 years ago many forms of private transport - the motorbike, the car, the bicycle -' would have been inconceivable. But today most households have at ^.. one car and many have a motorbike or a bicycle. But what's in store for us in the future? What will we be driving or riding 50 years from now? We asked Nick Hunter, a futurist, whose job is to predict future technological innovations, to tell us his views. 'If we take into consideration the problem with fossil fuels, the next big change is going to be the use of more environmentally friendly cars. In fact, within the next 20 years, most ^... will have replaced the petrol powered cars we're driving today with a car that *... on alternative energy sources such as electricity or even soiar power. Another type of car we might be driving very soon is a smart car. When our streets *... , which I'm sure they will be soon, drivers with 'smart' cars will be able to relax while their cars detect magnets placed along specialized highways. The cars will run automatically as the highway computer system *... the flow of traffic, resulting in steady, safe transportation. Looking .. into the future, it's hard to' know for sure. We could very well be driving cars that can also fly in 100 years' time or perhaps riding hover bikes with jet engines and propellant tanks in place of wheels! COME * m % ■ LITTLE PERSON RUN AUTOMATE CALCULATE FAR Ш'. *?«i*;'* . ■ ■ fe;' ’ fc"' ■ WJcv ■. m. ®V ■ Ы: . /.С'-'У ' T?*- -• СкУ I''' Шу- p''' p-v. P Unified State Exam Grammar and Vocabulary B4-B10 p196 C Choose the best answer. 1 I wonder... let me know how much the tickets are. A if could you C what you could В you could D if you could 2 I’ll call you as soon as I... at the airport. A arrive C arrived В will arrive D will be arriving 3 What time ... the next coach leave? A do C will В does D did 4 In the future, will we be driving as much as we do now or will we be getting around ... foot? A in C on В by D with 5 I... the tram at eight o’clock this morning. A drove C got В sailed D caught 6 You live right opposite the railway, A don’t you C aren’t you В doesn’t it D are you 7 I’m ... holiday at the moment. A at C in В to D on 8 Next year, they’ll A will it В are they be going to Italy, C aren’t they D won’t they • • • 9 Will you spend your holidays ... again this year? A board C foreign country В abroad D another country 10 In Paris,... is called the metro. A the underground C the bus stop В the train D public transport riting: Formal letter/emai askina for information A What kind of information would you need to know before you booked a cruise holiday? В Now read this advertisement and the notes made on it. What information does this person want to know about the cruise? [ which? Ask for more details. • • • •, [Ask aboat dates. ]. [whatare they?] .......... Skills development Content, organization, Unking and style MCTJWispmiiwj C Read the email and find the parts that contain the information from the four notes. Are they all in the same paragraph? D Complete the email with the missing linking words. also • finally • first • regarding dates E Find all the indirect questions the Contis use. Why have they used them? 68 ■W. 1-.^^ I* I.' тш:' М STi • • • • • •^4 Greek islands im • •« ^oy four glorioul»*^^ aboan The cruise includes ^ number nf •••*.and tw^^SigicalStes We have a cruise on a (j.ate that suits you. ...Askabout ouf special discount rates! - Organizer: Ms Helen.^apadaid % ofith^n Tours . Shipping & Travel Agency :.. 7^202 Heraklion. Crete - GREECE - Tel: (+30) 2810 346247 iFax: (+30) 2810 346248 [email protected]. Xii te .3^ ret'Ч ООО K«w limaot О > X-:' To: a: Sub^: i Dear Ms Papadaki, We are writing to enquire about the four-day Greek Island cruise your company is offering. My family and I are interested in going on this cruise, but we were wondering if you could answer a few of our queries first. (1)..., your advertisement states that we will visit four Greek islands. Could you please let us know which ones? We are particularly interested in visiting Santorini and were wondering if this is one of the islands we will be visiting. Could you (2)... let us know which archaeological sites we will visit and if you offer free guided tours? (3) ..., my family and I are interested in travelling in the first week of July. Could we ask if you have a cruise that week? If so, please let us know the exact dates. (4) ..., in your advertisement you mention that you have special discount rates. Would you mind telling us what these rates are exactly? Thank you in advance for your help. Yours sincerely, Emily and Giuseppe Conti к I 1 1 j ев© F This email was written by someone else. What’s wrong with it? Use these ideas to heip you. • style of language • content • organization • linking • beginning and ending T« Cv. Newi^Hge Planning and writing Dear Helen, My friend and I want to go on one of your cruises, but we have some questions. Which islands will we visit? Santorini will be one of them won t It. What about the archaeological sites? Which ones will we Jisit? We want to go on a cruise in June. What dates will it leave on? Please get back to me ASAP. Bye for now, Rhona - "•srtV' ■ -й’чй.’" ejCsy - G Now read this task and compiete the Pianner below. Use indirect questions when asking your questions. ■ tfs For example? к for details. к how much. .h :^, . I'r -i?; How early? i • f Youth Camp - Wilderness Survival COme'on a three-day \wildemess survival.c.amp for 14-18 year olds. We specialize in wilderness survival education. On our camps, we will teach you the skills you need to survive in the natural world. YoLTwill.^so enjoy a range of sport and activities. We have choices for all tastes. We have special rates for those who book early! • ••*****^^^ For enquiries, contact: Tom Maynard. Youtb-Gaiti'p - Wilderness Survival PO Box W iJF. United Kingdom TEL and FAX: (+44) 01483 429379. email: [email protected] • Щ Ш HINTS Paragraphs make letters or emails easier for the reader to follow. Organize your letter or email into paragraphs and link them with simple linking words. Use indirect questions to ask for information in a polite way. H Write your letter in 120-150 words. Use the Language chunks to help you. angua chunks .L Formal letters/ enrialls ■ 4*. 7 Щ-i-: I да?*"'’" l am / We are writing to enquire about... Your advertisement states... In your advertisement you mention ... Thank you in advance for your help. Start your email / letter: Dear..., Paragraph 1: reason for writing Paragraph 2: first question and anything else you’d like to say regarding this note Paragraph 3: second question and anything else you’d like to say regarding this note Paragraph 4: remaining questions express thanks Sign off: Yours sincerely, / Yours faithfully,... Г* 1 Оезг Mr / Ms ... Yours sincerely. Be sure to; ✓ include all four notes ✓write at least four paragraphs ✓talk about one topic/note only in each paragraph ✓ use linking words to link your paragraphs ✓ use a formal style ✓ use indirect questions to be polite ✓ begin and end the letter/email appropriately 69 Serious fun Г? г'" W ' 'S s Skills aims Listening to a long interview for gist and details Ч. % r" **• -V# # — !i UC71CUIO Asking polite questions; saying yes and no in polite ways Reading short texts for gist and specific information Writing a story to practise narrative tenses and creating interesting content .-■l . Ч i » b- Walter Disney 01 г ч' г l^jjsten^unst t * 4. a ,z ' “ j£> !*■ pi: 0-^ ' ^ i rA I Ir.. r. ^ *4''7 ^kon/i ! ’’ =" Marc Chagall - -i; r i ' I ■lew titles MBA «_ loek em lor ••• . 1 S! his parents had fSS Kip 9PP5 dUcS thTt l„credible voyage and K,p discov Viceroy is no ordinary bird. novel This is going to . Л- Brave New Worlds PublishinB Ages 7-12 RRP £10.99 6oa^'J'^{jJ.Hove\ l«’T'" r ^ Fi" * -> ■: p- kiv a. iJ'^' I-!-!: TJ.‘ . A Work in pairs. What do/did these people do? Can you name any of their films, books songs, paintings or cartoons? Reading В Quickly read some book blurbs. What kind of books are they? Choose from the list. Г T г children’s literature • children’s picture book fairy tale • fantasy • horror • mystery • romance science • science fiction ^4 ■*л ^ /i- v •' «■ ■.Л 'ь*». ‘ ' ■•^4 / vf'" ‘ 'rtr. trP’l ■*'.■> I» Ч> , • ».’■ "Л' ■" ;>ч ■ “V “ jr Iwt, jUv Г" Л’- ~.4*: ’i £ • i-A, ■9^ f : j -. Л ” I I .'... Л . к •T. Thirteen terrifying stories of terror for teenagers by the world's greatest authors such as Edgar Allan Poe's The Black Cat, plus stories from new writers like Kelly Drew and Mike Smith. There are also two newly translated or s у the popular Scandinavian horror writer Karen Christensen. 7 and had to this is stop. If you're one night a book Albatross Books RRP £12.00 M . j ■■■■'«К- 11.1! .-Ч-Чг? г г ■>h ■'чк-..- 1 -V' The Robinsons are all set for a fantastic holiday in the sun. Robbie and Rose just can't wait. Their tickets are I bought, their bags are packed, their plane is waiting ..., but oh dear! All of a sudden Rose realizes she's afraid of flying. She refuses to get on the plane. Her family try to persuade her that [ flying is safe, but nothing will change her mind. Then Captain * Johns suggests doing something very special! The latest in the Smarties Prize winning Robbie and Rose books sees the twins in a summer holiday adventure. As ever, the book teaches young readers about the world around them through a delightful story. With line drawings by Jane Moston. 7 haven't read a better children's book in years!' Ken Graham, The Guardian 'My kids are reading their 12^^ Robbie and Rose book and they're enjoying it as much as their first.' Helen Murray, Good Housekeeping Magazine C Ifl Match book blurbs 1-5 with headings A-F. There is one extra heading you don’t need to use. M Walton Young Scholars: Range (ages 6-8) ^ _____________ icata T ..«y . w Ages 10-14 Ballistic Publications RP £9.?2 ♦ i syai Li* A week ago Harriet^eceived a Grange and disturbing call from her boyfriend, Alex. But the next ^фу Alex denied making any calls. He seerwed cool and distant... not the AleX', . :ff- . :'A! that Harriet knows'-'-and loves.'tThinqs'take a sinister turn when the police visit Harriet as part of a murder investigation. Their main suspect is... Alex. Why have they* accused Alex? Harriet is sure there has been a mistake. What has happened to Alex^and what was the meaning of that call? ..■ '500 pages „рСригё 'excitement!', Ken Bodd, 1мгр6о1ЕсЬо0^^^, 'Such vivid charatersp^Hi ^ will not forget thpi*b^ a " long * timej "'afferf' reading' ■ yy»T-. ' ,; j Dan Lewis, The Observer ¥ | Ages 14+ Hobber & Hobber RRP £14.99 /»J*4KT - A Electricity В A Narrow Escape C The Error D Tales of Utter Terror E The Dragon’s Cage F I Won’t Fly ^ - Mi ...... Another voyage of discovery with Professor Dick Dynamo and his companion, Fritz. This time, Dynamo and Fritz are your guides into the world of amazing amps, crazy currents and vicious volts. Along the way you'll get to know why a conductor is more than a mad man at the front of an orchestra. You'll also iearn the shocking truth about electric eels and the incredible, but true, story of a man struck seven (!) times by lightning. Read on if you dare. 'A fantastic dose of real learning that kids will swallow whole thanks to Francis' witty prose and Monroe's hilarious colour illustrations.' Julia Jones, Goodbye Magazine Unified State Exam Reading B2 D Choose the best answer (A, B, C or D). 1 You want to buy a book for your teenage sister for Christmas. She often reads writers from around the world. She doesn’t like long novels. Which book is best for her? A2 B3 C4 D5 2 Which books include pictures? A 1 and 2 В 2 and 3 C 3 and 4 D 4 and 5 3 Which books are part of a series of similar books? A 1 and 2 В 2 and 3 C 3 and 4 D 4 and 5 4 Which books cost over £9.00, but under £12.00? A 1 and 4 В 1 and 5 C 2 and 4 D 2 and 5 5 You want to buy a book for your best friend’s 14'" birthday. She loves fantasy books and mystery books. Which book will you buy? A 1 B2 C4 D5 6 Which books are about a journey? A t and 3 В 1 and 4 C2 and 3 D 2 and 5 7 A teenage friend of yours doesn’t read very much, but has a good sense of humour. He’s not so interested in fiction. Which book would you buy for his birthday? A 2 B3 C4 D5 8 Which books have won an award? A 1 and 2 В 1 and 3 C 3 and 4 D 4 and 5 Ш' m- Я&Й'-Т'. % ■» i +• В rit Words in context D Match the words and expressions in bold in the text with a definition. 1 become serious and frightening 2 exciting 3 first 4 lovely 5 pictures 6 writers SK". к chat to read? ^ - Which of these books would you like to reaa: v/шЕг favourite form of entertainment? What’s Ш? 71 Grammar 1 м (Shsik reported speech See page 172 for information about reported speech Complete the sentences in the table. How do the tenses change? Direct speech Reported speech ‘... their 12"’ Robbie and Rose book.’ She said her kids were readina their 12'" Robbie and Rose book. ‘I haven’t read a better children’s book In years.’ He said ... a better children’s book in years. Ш W: Ш V V-. A Choose the correct option. 1 ‘My mum is writing a novel.’ Angie told me that her mum wrote / was writing a novel. 2 ‘We were playing Tomb Raider.’ Paul admitted that they have been / had been playing Tomb Raider. 3 ‘Have you ever been to an art gallery?’ Our teacher asked us if we had / had we ever been to an art gallery. 4 ‘This will be my last film.’ He warned us that this had been / would be his last film. 5 ‘Does James like classical music?’ Olga wondered if James liked / does James like classical music. 6 ‘I am going to travel by plane.’ He said that he is going / was going to travel by plane. 7 ‘I’ll pick everyone up and drive them there.’ She said that she will pick / would pick everyone up and drive them there. 8 ‘I am painting a new piece for the exhibit.’ Maxim said he was painting / had been painting a new piece for the exhibit. 9 ‘I couldn’t read the rest of the book.’ She said she couldn’t read / had couldn’t read the rest of the book. 10 ‘I had eaten all the sweets.’ She said she ate / had eaten all the sweets. 11 ‘We were driving for hours in the snow.’ They said that they had been driving / drove for hours in the snow. В What did they actually say? Write the direct speech. 1 John claimed that I had broken his CD. 2 Anne told me she had seen that movie two years ago. 3 She asked me if I liked her new book. 4 Mum asked me what we’d seen at the theatre the night before. C OLieJ Anne and Tim are singers in a band. Listen to an interview with a journalist and report what they say. Start with Anne/Tim said... D Yesterday the celebrity actress Mavis Stilton met the press. What did the reporters ask her? Report the questions. 1 What do you do in your free time? __ : ... ^ 2 Do you ever watch your own movies? ^k: 3 Who’s your favourite actor? —------------- .... .............- - - .,. --.-.irCTTWfff-.. • 4 Is Mavis your real rfame? V,*>**^. ,, ......cy/JU tu • *; ^ - .Л» 5 Where did you go on holiday last summer? 6 Do you like London? fi-. ^.i^iSXSr 72 Vocabulary Entertainment A Organize these words into two groups; At the concert hall and At the art gallery. Use a dictionary to help you. audience • choir • composer • conductor • exhibition keyboards • landscape • portrait • sculptor • sculpture В Find the odd word out. Use a di help you. 1 actors cast credits 2 outfit costume make-up 3 rehearse practise practice 4 author writer composer 5 rehearsal practise practice 6 plot set story 7 role stage part 8 location setting cast C Complete the sentences with words from В 1 The ... inciuofes Brad Prtt and Johnny Depp. 2 The actress in the lead ... wore a beautiful... . 3 His last movie was filmed on ... in Antarctica. 4 I found the ... hard to follow. 5 Sophie Kinsella is my sister’s favourite .... She’s read all her books. 6 Our final... was great. We were ready for the show. D Complete the text with words from the box actor • actress • awards • comedies • criticized director • dramatic • performances Everyone has heard of the Oscars, the ’ ... for the year's best films, but have you heard about the Razzies? These are awarded to the worst movies of the year. Razzie record-holders include Sylvester Stallone. Stallone's ^ ... have won many prizes for Worst ^ ... . Funny man Eddie Murphy has made millions laugh with his ..., but he's a Razzie record-holder too. In 2007 the comic received a record three awards for his unimpressive acting in Norbit. But Razzies aren't only for actors. In 2007 Chris Siverston won the Worst ®... award for making the film / Know Who Killed Me. Since most stars don't like to be ®..., only a few winners have ever collected their Razzie awards. However, in 2004 Halle Berry accepted the Worst ^... award for her role as Catwoman. She gave a very ®... acceptance speech! Quick chat Phrasal verbs with out E Match the phrasal verbs with the definitions. 1 bring out 2 carry out 3 go out 4 look out 5 sell out 6 sort out 7 speak out 8 turn out a be careful b become in the end c have a relationship d do e express your opinion f have no tickets available g organize h publish F Complete with a phrasal verb from E in the correct form. 1 Has Sophie Kinsella ... a new novel? 2 This book ... to be quite good after all. 3 Some film stars ... about poverty. 4 Stunt men ... dangerous tricks. 5 The newspapers are full of stories about who celebrities are... with. 6 The Robbie Smith concert has totally...! 7 ... the CDs! They are in a mess. 8 ...! You’re going to fall over. 73 t..-v Listening A Work in pairs. Look at the pictures. What could the connection be between them? D (ajU Now listen again and choose the best ^ answer for each question. в You are going to hear a radio interview about a famous art award called the Turner Prize. You will hear the speakers mention the following artists. Listen and match the names with the pictures from A. Martin Boyce Mark Wallinger s < X Cathy Wilkes Tracey Emin Martin Creed Steps to success • For multiple choice questions, first try to think of your own answer for each question. •Then, compare your own answer with the options you are given. Which option is closest to your own answer? Listening A8-A14 C Work in pairs. Read these questions about the interview and discuss possible answers 1 Why do people argue about the Turner Prize? 2 What does Dave think about Cathy Wilkes’ art? 3 How does Dave feel about the fact that My Bed did not win the prize? 4 How much money did Martin Creed win? 5 What served as a focus in the 2011 winning entry? 6 Why hasn’t Mike got a favourite winner? 7 What was special about Mark Wallinger’s winning entry for the 2006 prize? 1 A Because it costs so much money. В Because the entries are controversial. C Because the competition is unfair. 2 A He likes it. В He thinks it’s boring. C He thinks it isn’t art. 3 A He is surprised. В He is disappointed. C He is glad. 4 A £19,000 В £20,000 C £25,000 5 A a rubbish bin В a scene in nature C a type of tree 6 A He thinks they were all bad. В He thinks they were all good. C He likes too many of them. 7 A Using video was a new idea. В It was funny. C It used animals. I Quick chat What do you think about the Turner Prize? Is it nonsense? Do you like modern art or do you prefer more traditional art? 74 Speaking A These cards show information needed for two students to take part in a roiepiay activity. Look at the cards. What is the roiepiay about? Student A; You are a journalist working in London for the magazine Celebrity World. Your editor has asked you to interview one of these stars for the next edition. Both stars have the same manager. First Speak to the stars’ manager and find out this information: • the amount of time they can give • will they travel to London • their interview fee • any special news they want to talk about Then Choose the best star to interview. Explain why you made your choice. © Chuck Warren _ |«ит Whitney Tears Student B: You are the manager of the celebrities below. A journalist wants to arrange an interview with one of them. Answer the journalist’s questions with the information you have about each celebrity. Then ask who he/she would like to speak to and why. i Chuck Warren • has time for a ten-minute interview • will only speak over the phone • charges $1,000 per interview • recent news: will star in a new thriller next year Whitney Tears • has time for a half-hour interview • will be in London next week • charges $1,500 per interview • recent news: is getting married to a famous star В If you were the journalist, which star would you choose to interview and why? Work in pairs. Tell each other what you think. C (aUl Now listen to two students acting out this roiepiay activity. Which star does Student A choose to interview? D (4^0J The Language chunks box includes some ways of asking polite questions and saying yes or no to a request. Listen again and note down the expressions you hear. angua chunks Polite questions 1 was wondering if • ■ • I'd like to know if... Could you tell me Would you mind telling me... ? M Do you happen to know ■. ■ ? .ХГ j Гш Polite ways to say yes Of course. Absolutely. Certainly. ■J. ■"i^r »i: '-r,y Polite ways to say no I'm afraid not. Unfortunately,... I'm sorry, but... л"- Ч ,-r X. Remember that in formal situations you need to ask and answer questions politely. One way to ask politely is to use indirect questions. However, you don’t need to make every question an indirect one! E Work in pairs. Now it’s your turn to do a roiepiay. Student A, your role card is on page 183. Student B, your role card is on page 193. When you’ve finished, swap roles. • Ч i: 6 HELPFUL HINTS L F How do we say the underlined sounds in these words? Copy the table in your notebook and put the words in the correct column. badge match bus bush June tune she see 1 [d3] cage 2 [tf] church 3 [f] station 4 [s] face G <3211 Listen, check and repeat. Grammar 2 reporting verbs See page 173 for information about reporting verbs. A Choose the correct option. 1 Jane told / said / asked me she had spent £5,000 on a painting! 2 We told / said / asked if we could see the film again. 3 Mike told / said / asked that he enjoyed your book a lot. 4 Jessica told / said / asked Jim that she loved reading romantic novels. 5 I told / said / asked that I didn’t want to go to the cinema tonight. 6 Nelly told / said / asked me if I’d seen the last episode of Lost 5. В Read the news story quickly ignoring the gaps. Why was the artist sent to prison? C Now read the news story below again and complete with reporting verbs from the box r —|пш" Tinmiinif''ТГ1...............ШнУ—iiniiiiiiiiaiimiiiji'.CiJiti ' inn.t_ ........................ ’ added • admitted • asked • claimed • denied said ‘told «warned Ш I I D (°l^ Listen and choose a reporting verb (a-h) for what the people (1 -8) say. a admit b advise c beg d complain e deny f promise g refuse h threaten E Report what the people say using reporting verbs from the box. admit • invite • promise • complain suggest • warn 1 Tve never read a book in my life,’ said Alex. 2 There’s nothing good on TV tonight,’ said Karen. 3 ‘Why don’t we go to the theatre for a change?’ Mike said. 4 ‘Don’t worry. I’ll get you tickets for the show,’ George said. 5 ‘Don’t go to see the new James Bond film. It’s terrible,’ said Mandy. 6 ‘Would you like to come to the exhibition with me?’ Angela said. / 76 Five years for fooling the art world A 47-year-old Bolton artist has been Jailed for five years. In court, Bob Harris ’... that he was guilty. However, Judge Sir Toby Knuckles ^... that Harris must be punished. He ^... that Harris had wasted his great skills to deceive instead of making an honest living. Harris' skills certainly were impressive. His forgeries ranged from fake ancient Roman sculptures to copies of modern landscape masterpieces. Bolton Council, for example, agreed to pay Harris £400,000 for a fake Egyptian statue. Today, Ned Bungle, who bought the statue for the Council, “... that he should have been more careful. However, lawyers ®... the court that Bungle was not the only one deceived by the fakes. The Bolton-born artist ®... he had inherited the 'masterpieces' from his grandparents. He had hoped to sell a fake portrait to London's Tate Gallery, but an expert realized it was not authentic. When police ... him if he knew the works were forgeries, Harris refused to admit anything. Judge Knuckles ... galleries not to be fooled by artists like Harris in the future. li- Practise your English A Read the text in В quickly and answer these questions. • What is being reviewed? • Who are these people: Graham Swanky, Neil Dibble, Miriam Figg? • What is the critic’s opinion? В Ш Read and complete the text using the correct form of the words in capitals. '=31 When I spoke last week to the actor Graham Swanky about his new show, Wolf, he didn't seem very happy. 'It's a great play,' said Swanky, 'but our aren't going well.' His words surprised me, so I decided to go to the Garrick Theatre, where the show is currently playing. The play is a comedy based on the comic novel by J J Keller. I was ^... by the novel when I read it. I didn't laugh once. I found the illustration on the cover the only funny thing about the book. The play, however, is *__The cast is generally very strong, and Swanky's performance was excellent. The only weak member was Neil Dibble. I saw him singing last year in the ^... Bananas. He may have a good voice, but his acting is hopeless. Nevertheless, Wolf turned out to be a great success. The music, by world-class ®... Morris Batt, is perfect. The ®... Miriam Figg has done a fantastic job. Graham Swanky needn't have worried! REHEARSE IMPRESSED DELIGHT MUSIC COMPOSE DIRECT Ш- n mv- - g',:, SI?- 9 * Ш. Ш;- Ш'::- ш Щг-' ri5i?r-■ Шг. ш. Ш:.-' •• ш- Vj-i*. шг щ. ш. Grammar and Vocabulary В11-В16 р196 Give a 2-minute talk on your favourite film. Remember to say; • what kind of film it is • who stars in it • what happens in the film ^ • why you like it C Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 Philip Pullman has published a new novel. OUT Philip Pullman ... a new novel. 2 ‘Have you ever seen a James Bond movie,’ Greg asked me. HAD Greg asked ... ever seen a James Bond movie. 3 Could you organize these books for me? OUT Could... for me? 4 Do you know what happened in the last episode? MIND Would ... what happened in the last episode? 5 This story is full of drama and excitement. AND This is a very ... exciting story. 6 ‘I was reading my book all morning,’ said Ann. SHE Ann said ... her book all morning. 7 I rehearse twice a day. TWO I have ... a day. 8 ‘Don’t touch my book!’ said Jessica. WARNED Jessica... her book. D Choose the best answer. 1 All the papers ... Angelina’s new film. A critic C critical В criticize D critically 2 She asked me ... be at the cinema. A if Sarah would C would Sarah В will Sarah D shall Sarah 3 I asked her... she liked art galleries. A does C what В whether D would 4 I wanted to go to the Bi-2 concert, but all the tickets are... out. A bought C found В given D sold 5 James ... that he had lost my CDs. A admitted C refused В promised D ordered 6 Mary ... me that she loved the film. A told C asked В said D invited Writing: A story A Work in pairs. Look at these pictures and think of a story that connects them. Then tell the class your story. В Quickly read the story. Is it the same as yours? О This story happened (1) ... when I was only fen months old. © It was my first ever Christmas day. /Лу brothers had opened their presents (Z) ... that morning and now they were playing with them. A\y mum was getting the Christmas dinner ready. Unfortunately, nobody noticed what I was doing! © What was I doing? Well, I was sitting by the Christmas tree playing on my own. I was holding a tiny light bulb that had fallen from the Christmas tree lights. A\y brother Neil turned round. He noticed the bulb in my hand. (3) ... , he noticed something else. Two bulbs were missing from the tree. Not one ... twol © '/Лит. Fionas eaten a light bulb!' shouted Neil. At that age. you see, I used to put everything in my mouth. /Лип^ rushed in. She looked at me. She turned white. She ran and got my coat. © W)„ . my mum and I were leaving for the hospital. (5) ... . my brothers rushed up. They were smiling and holding two tiny light bulbs. Not one ... two! C Find examples of these verb forms in the story. 1 past simple for a state or situation in the past 2 past continuous for a temporary situation in the past 3 past perfect for an event that happened before another event in the past 4 used to + infinitive for habitual actions in the past 78 Skills development Organization D Read the five stages of a good story. Match them with a paragraph from the story to put them in order. 1 Bring the story to a close. 2 Attract the readers’ attention. 3 Develop the story with further events. 4 Introduce the first ‘event’. 5 Set the scene. Lingua - Feelings ashamed astonished delighted furious heartbroken terrified I felt a chill down my back. My heart sank. My body froze. My stomach turned. Time phrases just then earlier a moment later a long time ago in an instant Ш. E Use the time phrases in the Language chunks box to complete the gaps in the story. There may be more than one correct answer for each gap. F The techniques below make stories more enjoyable to read. Find an example of each technique in the story. 1 using direct speech 2 speaking directly to the reader 3 using short sentences after long ones 4 repeating a phrase for effect 5 adding suspense at the end of a paragraph HINTS L Keep the story simple - don't have too many events or too many places. Include two or three characters only. Make sure the story has a beginning, a middle and an ending. Use some descriptions of people and places to bring your story to life. sit- Planning and writing G Take a look at these pictures. In pairs, think of a story that could include ail the objects and people. H Now write your story. Use the Planner and write between 120 and 180 words. I I I I Paragraph 1: Attract the readers’ attention Paragraph 2: Set the scene. Paragraph 3: Introduce the first ‘event’. Paragraph 4: Develop the story with further events. Paragraph 5: Bring the story to a close. гПу»/.: у checkijj ш щ Be sure to: ✓ plan first, giving each paragraph a purpose ✓ keep your story simple - don't have too many events or too many places ✓ include two or three characters only ✓ make sure the story has a beginning, a middle and an ending ✓ describe people and places to bring your story to life i ✓ include some of the writing techniques discussed in this unit ✓ read through your finished story and check for spelling errors 79 f Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova A Can you name three famous Russian artists? Do you know which art movements they belong to? В Think about a picture you really like. How would you describe it? Renaissance painting • iconography modern art • Realism • photography avant-garde • Soviet Nonconformist Art Classicism C Now read these extracts about different Russian artists. Which art periods from the box above do you think they beiong to? Andrei Rublev Although little is known about his life, Andrei Rublev is considered one of the greatest Russian painters of Orthodox icons ever to have lived. He was born in the mid 1300s, his birthplace being unknown but believed to be near Moscow. He was a monk who lived in theTrinity-St. Sergius Lavra and studied Sergius of Radonezh's work. He painted icons and frescoes for famous Russian Orthodox churches such as the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir. His most famous work was the Trinity, which is regarded as being one of the greatest works in Russian art. The figures in his work are characterised by peaceful facial expressions rendered in the Byzantine manner, giving the work a symbolic nature, as opposed to realistic. Also featured in his art is the belief of asceticism, which describes a life completely absent of material wealth and devoted to spiritual well being. He often worked with other painters and The Apostle Peter A. Rublev with his pupils. 1408 ' 1 Born in the late 1800s, Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova were known for their futuristic painting styles. They painted during a significant transitional period in art in which painting made a radical departure from previously accepted standards. It was a time when such artists as Picasso, Van Gogh and Matisse were getting recognition for their unusual manners of painting. Both artists embraced several movements throughout the timeline of their work, including Impressionism, Cubism and Russian Futurism. The pair met early in their art careers in 1900 and formed a lasting relationship, although they did not marry until 1955. They were known for pushing boundaries and sometimes went too far. Larionov was expelled from art school three times for refusing to follow his instructors’ orders. In an effort to break down social norms,Goncharova and her friends would paint their faces and display themselves out in public for the world to see. Goncharova faced legal troubles when she featured nudes in her artwork, but was eventually cleared of all charges. Their vivid artistry and fearless nature have made them two of the greatest Russian artists of the early 20th century. Costume design for Saint Peter from ballet Liturgie N. Goncharova. 1915 r C his style of painting eventually became the standard in religious artwork at that time. He worked with his teacher and mentor, Theophanes the Greek, a Byzantine Greek artist and another great icon painter of Russia. Together they painted The Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. In 1988, the Russian Orthodox Church made Andrei Rublev a saint, the first ever Russian painter to receive this honour. 8o Units 5 and 6 Lacemaker V.Tropinin. 1823 Vassily Tropinin Born in the 1770s, Vassily Tropinin lived most of his life as a serf and wasn't a free man until he was well into his 40s. When he reached adulthood, he was ordered to learn cake decorating; however, he studied drawing in secrecy at the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg. He was eventually allowed to study at the academy without being officially enrolled, and he showed impressive talent in his early work. Just as he was being discovered as an artist, his owner pulled him back to rural Ukraine to work in a bakery. However, his owner, perhaps after realising the talent Tropinin possessed, changed his mind and ordered Tropinin to begin work copying famous works of art and producing family portraits. Tropinin became known for the highly realistic quality of his work, able to depict subjects as the world saw them. Upon securing his freedom, Tropinin moved to Moscow and began displaying his work in prominent art galleries. He painted more than 3,000 portraits in his lifetime. D Answer the questions. 1 What information seems to be missing from Rublev's history? 2 How would you describe the appearance of Rublev's work? 3 Who were Larionov and Goncharova's contemporaries? 4 Besides being artists, what other quality did Larionov and Goncharova share? 5 Under what circumstances did Tropinin receive training in the arts? 6 How is it that Tropinin went on to become a painter or portraits? Mihail Chemyakin An artist who refused to accept the socialist and communist ideals of the Soviet Union, Mihail Chemyakin found himself at the centre of controversy at the very beginning of his art career. Through his Job at the Hermitage Museum, he and a group of artists and other museum employees staged an exhibition in 1964 that showcased art outside the realm of Soviet Realism, an art movement that praised Soviet ideals. For this, Chemyakin and his colleagues were forced to resign and the museum director was fired. It was not long after that that he was forced to leave the country, settling in Paris. A painter and sculptor, Chemyakin's work features a wide range of subjects and uses brightly coloured imagery and odd, contorted shapes to project his ideas. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Chemyakin's work was reintroduced into the country, and he has been commissioned to create public works of art in Moscow and design animation for films. | Peter the Great in the Peter and Paul Fortress, Saint Petersburg. M. Chemyakin. 1991 7 Why did Chemyakin lose his Job at the Hermitage museum? 8 What ultimately happened to Chemyakin's work as a result of his beliefs? Project: A famous Russian artist Choose a Russian artist and give a short biography, describe their work, accomplishments and/or controversies Add your own opinions. 8i А I Read the introduction below. Then take a moment to describe a book you have recently read. A book discussion club, often simply called a book club, is when a group of people meet to discuss a book they've all recently read. They are quite common in the UK, as they are a wonderful opportunity to talk about specific books and express opinions about a book's plot, characters and events. Members typically have literary discussions during the meetings, but it is not uncommon for members to talk about other topics, as the club also serves as a means of socializing. The book selections can be any type of book the members decide upon, but award-winning fiction books are popular choices в Quickly read the text ignoring the gaps. In your opinion, how important is it to hold an award like The Man Booker Prize for Fiction’? The Man Booker Prize for Fiction is a literary award presented yearly for the best full-length works of fiction written in English and published in the UK. It is a prestigious award A ... , even to those who are simply nominated. The award was established in 1968, shortly after becoming commonly known as the Booker Prize. Winners, aside from gaining the esteemed'^ attention of the literary world, also receive'"^ cash prize. Authors were originally given *21,000 ^ pounds, and this has since been raised to 50,000 pounds, В.... I I ) 1“' ' •Jiv rr- Winners are chosen by a panel of judges! C Judges are selected by an advisory conimittes,^ which consists of a writer, a bookseller, aUiterary agent, a librarian, two book, publishers! and -a person selected by the Booker Prize Foutldatibpf These judges change from year to year, ^though they may return to the panel for a secondjtlmje, if only rarely. •o'! Л \ r 2C, '' ^ t' i Z - ~ I 5k.'s * •' Sc-f.-v W Past winners, have all been citizens I of ,Jhe Commonwealth of Nations, D ... . Also ifiqluded are the Republic of Ireland and Zimbabwp;’Most of the winners have been of British citii^ensfup, although there have been several winnerspf-Irish, Indian and Australian origin. The prize Js.„now awarded to a citizen of any country so long as the novel was published in the UK. •* -;«p. Occasionally, controversy arises in the' award process. Some writers over the years have felt E ... , making them feel as if their books were being overlooked. Also, judges'have threatened to quit the panel because the list of nominees included selections not worthy of the prize. These incidences, however, have done nothing to diminish the reputation of the award. ■ f 82 А. Г/. , In 1993 and 2008, the foundation gave special awards to celebrate the 25th and 40th anniversaries of the prize. These awards were given to the best of the Booker Prize winners, and in each instance, the prize was awarded to Salman Rushdie's Midnight Chiidren. % HU Other awards similar to the Booker Prize are held in other countries; in Russia, it is known as the Russian Booker Prize and has been held since 1992. the|text again and complete gaps A-E thjsen^nce parts 1 -5. There is one extra enc4part you db not need to use. ne of the most profitable literary e world hich aracountries |ш1 once belonged to the Лиг brincB much redbonition to the winner too npch focus of ®ion s given to particular in ides important figures from the d ingihe most prestigious ones J te А4Л’ — ,:Я 'i.. Units 5 and 6 D Answer the questions. 1 What genre of books is the Booker Prize given to? 2 More than money, what else do winners receive from the award? 3 What is the advisory committee responsible for? 4 What has changed about who is eligible for the award? 5 What issue have authors had with the award? 6 How have controversies affected the award over the years? E Complete the sentences with a word from the box. diminish • esteemed • literary • overlook panel • prestigious 1 Because my writing professor has won awards for his work, I value his ... opinion. 2 Reports of plagiarism can greatly ... the value of a work of fiction. 3 Martin works as a ... agent and helps manage the careers of writers. 4 The winner of the book prize was chosen by a ... of individuals who were also writers. 5 Leslie hoped to get accepted to the ... university in order to receive an excellent education. 6 Book prize foundations sometimes ... great authors for years, but they honour them later with special awards. F Your voice Imagine you are judging a book prize competition. Which modern work of fiction would you choose to win and why? 7VC--W 83 Progress check 3 ГН w''“ S'/,*‘^***^ -vW^ A Complete the sentences with the words from the box. palace • museum • monument cathedral • archaeological site 1 The church on St Isaac’s Square is one of the most famous ... in Russia. 2 Knossos in Crete is a very old and famous ... 3 We want to visit every ... in Rome. Like the Colosseum! 4 The ... that the king lives in is so much larger than all the houses in the city. 5 There are so many amazing works of art to see inside the Pushkin ... of Fine Arts. В Choose the correct answer. am travelling alone this year and I need to book a simple ^ ... room at a hotel. The cheapest place I found is at a ^..., but there isn’t a bathroom ^. I am not picky, but I do like to have my own bathroom. I never book a room at a * ... hotel. think that their ®... are far too expensive for what is offered. I don’t care about satellite TV, internet access or mini bars. I would rather spend that money visiting the museums in the city. Next year, I am going to stay at a ® ... for two weeks in the summer. It will be so cool! It’s going to be just me, my tent and the sea. 1 a double c en suite b single dluxury 2 a youth hostel c en suite bluxury d five star hotel 3 a double c en suite b rates d tent 4 a luxury c youth hostel b guest d campsite 5 a singles c doubles b rates d luxuries 6 a campsite c hotel b youth hostel d rate C Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 Juliet started studying the stars when she graduated. SINCE Juliet... 2 I have never played such an exciting computer game before. EVER This is the most... 3 He hasn’t handed in his assignment yet. STILL He ... 4 Computer programming is harder than I’d thought. AS Computer programming ... 5 Kim will be able to use the car when her husband gets back. UNTIL Kim won’t... D Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1 I... (call) you when I... (get) home. 2 We ... (not start) until everyone ... (get) here. 3 What... (do) this weekend? Do you want to see a film? 4 Just think. This time next month we ... (fly) to Europe. 5 By the end of the day I... (finish) all my work. 6 When Jamie leaves school, he ... (travel) around the world. 7 I’m sorry. I... (not do) it again. 8 I don’t want to walk. I think I... (take) the bus. 84 Е Choose the best answer. 1 It’s quick and easy to travel to ... if you live in Europe. A abroad C a country В a foreign country D a holiday 2 Oh, you’ve just... the last tour. A been C missed В had D lost 3 When we ... on our trip we were very excited, but by the end of it we were exhausted! A set off C got off В started off D went off 4 There was a huge traffic ... on the way here. A line C queue В block D jam 5 ... There’s a car coming! A Look out! C Go out! В Speak out! D Get out! 6 The play we went to see ... to be fabulous. A found out C turned out В went out D carried out 7 The whole ... of the film were magnificent. A credits C actors В performance D cast 8 The production has been such a success that every performance has ...! A sold out C found out В carried out D turned out 9 You’re not coming on the camping trip,... ? A aren’t C do you В are you D don’t you 10 You couldn’t help me with this,... ? A could you C do you В couldn’t you D don’t you 11 Could you ... me how much a double room costs? A tell C say to В told D said to 12 Can ... breakfast is included in the price? A tell us if C you tell us if В you told us if ' D you tell us •i;:; '*Т^»^** г Put the following statements and questions into reported speech. 1 ‘I really enjoyed the exhibition.’ She said ... . 2 ‘I wonder if we’ll see any stars here tonight.’ She wondered .... 3 ‘It was the scariest film I’ve ever seen!’ She claimed .... 4 ‘What films do you like?’ I asked him .... 5 ‘Did you enjoy the book?’ She asked me .... 6 ‘Have you ever been to Budapest?’ He asked me .... G Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 This year I plan to get my driver’s licence. AM This year... get my driver’s licence. 2 The coach is leaving in the next few minutes. ABOUT The coach ... leave. 3 Where are you going this summer? KNOW Do you ... going this summer? 4 ‘Have you ever read a book?’ he asked. HAD He asked me ... read a book. 5 ‘Don’t drive so fast!’ my mother said to my brother. WARNED My mother... to drive so fast. 6 ‘I’ll show you my photos,’ she said. TOLD She ... show me her photos. 7 ‘Why don’t we take the train?’ asked Tina. SUGGESTED Tina ... the train. 8 ‘I didn’t steal her car I tell you,’ said Pete Smith. DENIED Pete Smith ... car. 9 ‘Would you like to come with us next Saturday?’ asked Nicole. INVITED Nicole ... them the following Saturday. 10 ‘OK. I’m the one who took the bike,’ said Fran. ADMITTED Fran ... the bike. Turn on, tune in 'W. >, «• .f-r Skills aims Listening to short texts for gist and specific information Ф Practising communication strategies Reading for gist and details; understanding implied information Writing a film review to practise language usage and organizing ideas iff/ A Work in pairs. Do you recognize any of these letters and words? Which would you use for: connecting to the Internet? contacting friends? finding information? following the news? listening to music? sharing photos? watching a film? watching a music video? Flikr ® j ,v^. WWW ■m You Tube ™ BBC CNN MTV® iPod TM Blue Tooth ♦ft"' Facebook \Google Ж Wi-Fi ™ Reading В You are going to read about a popular website called You Tube. Skim the article Which five paragraphs match these headings? Facts and Figures Finding fame What is You Tube? What’s there? (x2) s < X to о Ш Steps to success Multiple choice questions often test your understanding of implied opinions or facts, so you need to ‘read between the lines’. When you find an example of the writer’s opinion, try to rephrase it in your own words. c 1 A В C D 2 A В C D Now choose the best answer (A, B, C or D) What does the writer imply about You Tube in paragraph A? Many people waste their time on it. It has changed the Internet a lot in recent years. Most people who use the Internet know about it. It’s the most popular site on the Internet. According to the writer, what is special about You Tube? It hosts millions of videos. Its videos are not made by professionals. Its movies are very short. It’s like a television station. V ni eiii® feif о I lJ ® II V'-й^ What do a meting рагЙа and a mobile phone being blended have io’commdh? If you've spent any time on the already know .can be Internet in the pas^few^years, you the answer. These, and a'million evei found on YouTube?» 5< шш В ШШшг. 'ЩШЩ т Ш- You Tube is the biqqest video-sharing website on the net. yideos are For those of you,who don't knovy uploaded to the site by subscribers, and they tan be viewed by anyone in the world with internet access. The video clip! are short, but there are millions of them. Imagine having a TV that receives homemade programmes which are broadcast by thousands of homemade 'channels' - that's You Tube. And that's what makes it special. It's all done by amateurs. C Nevertheless, their creativity is amazing! Whole soap opera series have been written, performed and filmed by just a few friends. There are beautiful animations. There are professional-looking documentaries from amateur journalists. There are any number of 'How to ...' videos that teach you everything from 'How to build your own aeroplane' to 'How to be emo'. It's all there on You Tube. D So who's watching? Well, according to the figures, nearly everybody. Around one hundred million videos are downloaded from You Tube daily; about five billion clips are viewed annually; each minute 13 hours of new video are uploaded and sixty-five thousand new movies are added every day. The numbers speak for themselves, and they are rising all the time. It's no surprise that You Tube is the third most visited website on the Internet. J 3 What does the writer want to emphasize about You Tube in paragraph C? A It’s unprofessional. В It’s varied. C It’s funny. D It’s free. 4 How many clips are watched every day? A sixty-five thousand В one hundred million C five billion D a million fi ■ -:Ш The site also has some of the funniest content on the net. Hilarious clips of dancing hamsters and unfortunate accidents arewievyed by Millions. However, You Tube isn't just for |aughs. If you're a music lover, almost every pop video'that has even been made is there, if you're a teacher, there are a host of school channels for your ahobby, however strange, there will be a channel for you on You Tube. In short, people are offered an ehbrmousjange of chblcbs.’ of as just an '«адь-iilll The traditional media h#r%fefen giverv a huge shake-up by You Tube. Why? Because the audience make the programmes for themselves! What's more, fame and stardom are being changed by You Tube forever. Until recently, if you wanted to be famous, you had to get your act seen by a show business agent. Not anymore! You want fame? Put yourself on You Tube. That's what teenage internet celebrity Lucas Cruikshank did. Cruikshank made his own show, called Fred. It is now one of the most popular shows on the net. New Zealand actress Jessica Rose, comic Lisa Donovan and singer Savannah Outen have all found fame the same way. H Could all our media look like You Tube in the future? Unlikely. Nevertheless, over the next few years more videos will be uploaded, more internet stars will be made and more people will fall about laughing at the sneezing Ш ft’ ШШ'-' Щ- Ш I' -5Ut-v |- ?:?V. •Ai* ' KC- p I p- fe JiT.".-r , ;'rC^ fc' f ■ Ш: 4,V'. Ш- m mi. Ш te. Ш 5 What does the writer mean by The numbers speak for themselves’ in paragraph D? A Large numbers of people subscribe to the service. В The video clips play automatically. C The statistics prove that You Tube videos are good quality. D The figures show that You Tube is very popular. 6 Which type of video is not mentioned in paragraph E? A educational material В comedies C news and current affairs D music 7 Why does the writer think You Tube is a ‘media revolution’? A because of who makes the material В because of how people access it C because of the material it contains D because of how much it costs 8 What do Lucas, Jessica, Lisa and Savannah have in common? A They are all actors or actresses. В They have all been discovered by agents. C They have all created their own fame. D They all have their own You Tube channels. Words in context D Match the words and expressions in bold in the text with a definition. 1 a sudden, huge change 2 being a celebrity 3 lots of 4 not professional 5 people who sign up to a service 6 short movies 7 got from the Internet 8 very funny E Skim the text once more to find words connected with the media and communications. Quick chat How often do you surf the Internet? What are your favourite websites? Have you ever watched anything on You Tube? What? 87 Grammar 1 passive voice See page 173 for information about passive voice. Find examples in the article of the passive forms below. 1 with present simple 2 with present continuous 3 with present perfect 4 with future will 5 with modal Can this extract from the article go into passive voice? ... they are rising all the time. Ш Щл-: ШУ ш W- 0 fe'.' A Find the sentences with passive voice. How did you identify the sentences with passive voice in each case? 1 a All through the summer newspaper articles had been written about the fires. » b The newspapers had been writing articles about the fires all through the summer. 2 a He was sent a mysterious letter, b A mysterious letter was sent. 3 a These photos have been downloaded from the Web. b I downloaded these photos from the Web. a We have been broadcasting regular reports since last summer. b Our regular reports have been broadcast since last summer. 5 a The BBC websites have been improved. b The BBC have improved their websites. 6 a It’s believed that several thieves took part in the robbery. b People believe that several thieves took part in the robbery. В Rewrite these sentences in the passive. One sentence cannot change. Why not? 1 Robert told me this very strange story. 2 The virus may infect millions of computers. 3 They are going to send new subscribers an email. 4 Our TV hasn’t been working properly for days. 5 They had offered me a job as a foreign correspondent. 6 Many people think that mobile phones are bad for your health. C Look at the diagram and rewrite the description in your notebooks using passive voice. As you do this exercise, think about: what tense to use sentences that may not go into passive whether or not to mention the agent (by. Someone sent my friend a text message a few minutes ago. How did she receive it so quickly? The service works like this: The mobile phone company divides the country into areas called cells. A relay tower serves each cell. These towers are constantly receiving and sending our messages. Once we have pressed the 'send' button, our mobile phone sends the message to the nearest relay tower. The relay tower transmits the message to the r^' nearest switching centre. The switching centre checks where it will send the message. Up in space, a satellite is waiting to relay messages. Switching centres are sending messages all the time. When the switching centre has sent my friend's message to the satellite, the satellite beams it to her. tv*' vtoSSSPS»*;- /v\y friend was sent a text message nninufes ago ... •few S4l .'•I»*. - 88 с (° 23 Listen to extracts 1-6. What kind of 1 programme are they? 2 chat show reality show documentary sitcom 3 game show soap opera 4 D Work in pairs. Match the words to make 5 jobs in the media. Then describe a job and ask your partner to guess. 6 1 chat show a ertist 2 disc b critic 7 3 film c designer 4 make-up d engineer 5 sound e host 6 web f jockey ( Listening A These photos show different forms of media for communicating news, in pairs, think of one advantage and one disadvantage of each form. the Internet V magazines ^ Hd mobiie phone 1., television t- 2. Ht, ^ «I ' newspapers r- ^ ■“■ UF 2sl^^ !■ Щ V*-! radio ..ЙР^ f^lll You are going to listen to eight people complaining about forms of media and communication. First listen and decide which of the things from A they are talking about. C ^515 Listen again and choose the best answer. 1 You hear a woman talking about the media Who does she think is treated unfairly? A the public В celebrities C editors 2 You hear a man talking about local media. Why is he unhappy? A There are too many radio stations. В There are too many commercials. C There isn’t enough variety. Steps to success • If you don’t hear the answer to one questioi start listening immediately for the answer the next question. • Use the second listening to find the answei you didn’t hear the first time and to che the answers you already have. Listening A8-A14 pi 94 Ш.#| A В С You hear a woman talking about a problem with her daughter. Why is she unhappy? She doesn’t like what her daughter watches on TV. Her daughter watches too much TV in general. Her daughter plays her TV too loudly. You hear a man expressing his opinion. He believes that people shouldn’t play their radios in public places, believe what they hear on the radio, have their televisions playing loudly. You hear a woman expressing her opinion. What doesn’t she trust? computers in general social networking sites online shopping You hear a man talking about something his wife reads. Why doesn’t he like it? It’s too serious. It’s too boring. It’s too old-fashioned. You hear a woman talking about her son. Why is she worried? He spends too much money on telephone calls. He may be damaging his health. He stays out late too often. You hear a girl talking about the news. What opinion does she express? You can’t trust the TV news. The TV news isn’t very exciting to watch. The TV news is better than other news sources. Quick chat How do you learn about what’s happening in the world? Are people of your age interested in the news? Why/Why not? « 90 speaking A Look at the things mobile phones can do. Work in pairs. How useful are these things for you or your friends? Put the things in order of importance. take photos play games send texts make calls listen to music send emails keep information about friends В What would these people want to use a mobile phone for? Tell your partner what you think. C eUl Listen to Marcus talking about the two photos in B. Which uses of mobile phones from A does he mention? ffSELPFUL HINTS Ц- If you can't remember the exact word, try to describe what you mean with other words. D CRHJ Listen to Marcus. What word is he looking for? colleague manager texting / email twins E Work in pairs. Take turns describing these things to each other without using the actual words for them. 7 F Work in pairs. Student A look at the photos below. Student В look at the photos on page 183. Talk for a minute about the photos. Make sure you answer both parts of the question. Use the expressions in the Language chunks box. Student A’s photos: * Compare the photos and say why these people are using computers. t^ngua chunks Talking about similarity similarly... likewise... in the same way.. Talking about difference • • • • « in contrast... on the other hand whereas... however... • • Long and short vowels [a:], [ae] and [л] G Look at the words. Then listen and decide which words have the same vowel sound as the word you hear. dad [ae] bad rat bar [a:] father stamp cup [л] mop pup late cart monkey Now listen, check and repeat. 91 Grammar 2 causative form See page 173 for information about causative form. Which of these sentences uses causative form? What is the difference in meaning? 1 a b 2 a b 3 a b 4 a b 5 a b I’ve had a lot of work to do on the house recently. I’ve had a lot of work done on the house recently. Dad’s got to repair the car. Dad’s got the car repaired. She wants to have photos taken in her garden. She wants to take photos in her garden. Mr Jones is getting his painting framed. Mr Jones is getting a frame for his painting. A Find and correct the mistakes in the sentences. 1 We’re going to have got our portraits painted. 2 I’ve cut my hair at that new hairdresser’s. 3 The police have had the man arrested. 4 The mechanics have had a good job done on my car. 5 I’d stolen my phone in the park. 6 We damaged the roof during the storm. В Complete with the causative form. 1 Where ... you ... your hair... ? It always looks great, (cut) 2 Next week I... a new computer.... (deliver) 3 We should ... the new radio station ... by someone famous, (open) 4 James ... his music video ... 5,000 times so far. (download) 5 ... you ... your subscription for Metal Monthly... last month? (renew) 6 I’m afraid there isn’t a TV in the lounge. We ... it... at the moment, (repair) He must have fixed the computer. He must have the computer fixed. C Complete these thoughts with the causative form of words from the boxes. costumes • crew • film • lead role • music compose • direct • fly • make • play 5 ... the ... to Brazil for the filming. 02 have the film directed by Steven Spielberg. 2 ... the ... by a famous Italian designer. 3 ... the ... by Kate Winslet 4 ... the ... by Coldplay. Quick chat If professional В vocational C amateur D full-time in В at C with D about fame В recognition C population D notoriety watchers В spectators C viewers D audience sale В deal C suggestion D offer amateurs В buyers C subscribers D correspondents run В create C make Ddo = W ft .r % % _ 1 • 1ЛН- ».•- Writing: Fi A What makes a good film? Work in pairs. Put these things in order of importance. a famous cast the special effects the acting the costumes the directing the plot the scenery the musical score В Quickly read this review. Which of the things from A does It mention? if '4- « -f'r-. - >5J«7JS ;>2 !ГЛ> r'7^^У.Vrч' ■4^ / Ж ^ Jtf Г ■M Ш- wV£^-«-Vv^ When I heard that The Golden Compass had been turned into a film, I was so excited. I went last Saturday night to see it with my friends at the local cinema. The film is based on my favourite book, Northern Lights. The book is the first in a series of three books called His Dark Materials. They're great books, and I would recommend them. Unfortunately, the film was a great disappointment. The plot is all about Lyra, an orphan who lives in Oxford. Lots of children start disappearing. When Lyra's best friend is kidnapped, she goes on a journey to rescue him and to solve the mystery. Along the way she meets lots of other characters, such as some people called the Gyptians and a talking bear. штш:тЩ <43 It's an exhilarating story. However, I wasn't convinced by the actors. The film has a star-studded cast, and that's the problem. Nicole Kidman was too beautiful to be a villain. Every time I saw Daniel Craig I was reminded of James Bond! Actually, I think his performances in James Bond films are much better, especially in the latest one. There was some intelligent acting from Dakota Blue Richards, as Lyra, and gorgeous Eva Green, as Serafina Pekkala, but I'm afraid they couldn't save the film. My verdict? There were some astonishing special effects. The costumes were sumptuous and the music was lovely. However, if you enjoyed that fabulous book as much as 1 did, you're better off avoiding this film. HINTS V‘r4..v; fc_ v4* When your write a review, don't try to tell the whole story: that's not necessary or interesting. Make sure everything you write is relevant and don't forget that a review is about your opinions. C Read the review again and cut out any irreievant parts. Try to reach 180 words. Compare with a partner. Did you cut the same things? Quick chat Have What seen think Golden Compass? What kind of films do you like? J{ Skills development Organization D Here are two plans for a review. Which one matches the review on page 94? Plan introduction, with a surprising opening sentence Brief outline of the plot and characters Your opinion in more detail Summing up and recommendations fe-. ? •.*£X>v Plan В Introduction with a brief description of what the film is about The good points The bad points Sum up with your overall view 5*ii>Yxw’ 8te ЩрГ-': ■- E Find adjectives in the review on page 94 to describe these things: 1 the original book 2 the cast 3 the plot 4 the costumes 5 the music 6 the acting F Can you think of more adjectives, positive and negative, for the things listed in E? G Here are some useful expressions from the review on page 94. Match each expression (1-5) with its opposite (A-E). lingua chunks 1.. . you're better off avoiding this film. 21 wasn't convinced by . • • 3 ... a star-studded cast, 14 ... couldn't save the film. 5.. . a great disappointment. h.-< .'Лд.--, ■. •«'<•» «-r;..» ^ S.-^ •' V'w-r- . ШШ'' л... rescued the film. В I'd thoroughly recommencd it. C •.. a pleasant surprise. D... was totally believable. « Ш •.. little-known actors, f 7 Planning and writing H You recently saw this notice in an English-language magazine: Reviews wantedl Loved it or loathed it, we want to hear. If you've seen a film receiitly that you loved or hated, write a review for us and you could be published in next month's edition of Movie Monthly. Write your review • ..-.V I Before you write, copy and complete the Planner so that you know what will be in each paragraph. 11 Film title Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 fe-: 1^:.: Ш: Ш i’ S-.0 Be sure to: ✓choose a film that you have strong opinions about ✓startwith a surprising statement ✓ plan before you write ✓ use plenty of adjectives ✓give your opinions throughout Do not: • just tell the story • write irrelevant information • •4**‘*S^ ?\x / f J Now write your review. Write between 120 and 180 words. Use the Pianner and the Language chunks to help you. 95 9б The world of sport... and leisure Skills aims > Listening to an interview for gist and specific information •0 Interrupting another speaker and acknowledging interruptions ^ Reading short texts for gist and specific information > Writing an article to practise improving content and developing and organizing ideas %6 У A How much do you know about sport and leisure? Do this quiz and find out. 1 Name three team sports beginning with B. 2 Name two extreme sports? 3 What sport are these people famous for? c Elena Isinbaeva a Tiger Woods b Serena Williams d Michael Phelps 4 Which of the following is not a board game? a Monopoly b Chess c Blackjack d Scrabble 5 What would you be doing if you were skydiving? ,, -Tf г ■L-'' S Check your answers on page 193. Reading В You are going to read about extreme sports. Skim the article and match paragraphs A-D with headings 1-5. There is one extra heading you don’t need to use 4 Extreme ironing 5 Free running 1 Wave jumping 2 Wingsuit flying. 3 Ice climbing Steps to success • In Reading B2, accuracy and speed are important. Don’t waste time reading the whole text in detail. • Check that the heading you have chosen is the MAIN point of the paragraph, not a secondary point. Something might be mentioned, but it might not be the most important point. Reading B2 .Л: V. i . ;f Й! ^ '■a si w 1 Ж’ S' Jv'.fiTrfc-J'.- •Ss> Ш ^ «p.. What will they think of next? A Gerry I'm not really an athletic person and I've never been into sports but I think if I took up a sport, I'd like to do something unusual. A few weeks ago I was watching a TV programme about unusual interests and sports and I saw something that looked strange enough for me to try. It's called extreme ironing. The people who do it claim it's more than just an extreme sport. They like to call it a performance art! Personally, I think it looks like a lot of fun. What happens is you take an ironing board to a remote place (for example, to the top of a mountain, to a desert or even under the sea!) and iron a few items of clothing on it. I must admit, I really like the idea of combining the excitement of an extreme outdoor activity with the satisfaction of a well-pressed shirt. Whacky! В Penny I've been doing free running for some time now and I really love it. Some people call it an extreme sport, but I like to think of it as an art you do with your body. In fact, it's more similar to dance than to regular running. It's usually done in cities and it involves performing different movements to get over buildings and walls. Movements like running, jumping, acrobatics, dance - anything that will keep you moving. As you run, you focus on freedom and beauty. The aim is to create a beautiful way of moving. We practise in gymnasiums and in any city areas that are full of obstacles like buildings, cars, walls, trees, etc. It can be quite dangerous and injuries are very common. But if you train well and warm up before you run, it's not as unsafe. г I've always loved the sea and have tried many different sea sports. I've been water-skiing, windsurfing and of course swimming. But last summer, on a trip to Spain, I tried wave jumping. It was amazing! I saw people doing it during a storm off the coast of Cantabria. They were using their windsurf boards, but you can actually use anything that floats - a surfboard, a jet ski, or even an air mattress! Obviously, you can only do this sport if the weather conditions allow for it. There have to be fairly large waves. The higher the wave the higher you can jump and, of course, the harder you fall! This can be a dangerous sport as the sea and the waves are very unpredictable. But if you're careful, you'll be fine and if you start with small waves, you can slowly progress to bigger waves. D Will I suppose most people would call me crazy. You see I've always been fond of extreme, adrenaline-raising activities. You name it. I've probably tried it! I've been bungee jumping, hang-gliding, skydiving and rock climbing. What I'd like to try next though is ice climbing. I've been reading up on it and plan to try it this winter. It involves climbing up steep ice formations. Like rock climbing, you need to use ropes if you want to do it the safe way - and I don't plan to do it any other way. I'm going to try it on icy cliffs in the Canadian Rockies, but you can do it on frozen waterfalls, rock slabs covered in ice, or any vertical icy surface. Like mountain climbers, many ice climbers risk losing their toes and fingers to frostbite, but that's really only if you do it regularly. I'm not sure yet if I'll want to do it a second time. It will all depend on how the first time goes! C Now look at the pictures and say what extreme sport each one shows. D For questions 1-5, choose from the people (A-D). A Gerry В Penny C Claire D Will Who ... 1 does not usually do a sport? 2 says their sport can be considered an art? 3 says their sport is pleasing to watch? 4 enjoys doing anything extreme? 5 isn’t planning to start a new sport? E For questipns 1-5, choose from the sports (A-D). A Extreme ironing C Wave jumping В Free running D Ice climbing Which sport(s)... 1 is usually done in any isolated place? 2 can cause serious damage to parts of your body if not done with care? 3 can you do with a variety of different equipment? 4 can you only do in certain weather? 5 requires special equipment to make it safe? Words in context F Match the words and expressions in bold in the text with a definition. 1 doesn’t sink 2 started 3 straight up and down position 4 things that get in your way 5 unexpected 6 far away and difficult to get to 7 ironed 8 studying G Scan the article again and write down the names of aii the sports. Quick chat Do you think these activities should be considered sports? Why/Why not? 97 Grammar 1 zero, first and second conditionals V‘'.V-':ir i. .-7^ See page 174 for information about zero, first and second conditionals. Match the extracts with the use of each conditional. 1 But if you train well and warm up ... , it’s not that unsafe. 2 ... I think if I took up a sport, I’d like to do something unusual. 3 ... if you’re careful, you’ll be fine ... a The zero conditional is used to talk about situations that are generally true. blhe first conditional is used for a situation that is real or likely in the future. c The second conditional is used for a situation that we can imagine, but probably won’t happen. Шч Ш: ш. Ш: ш .Ди.гг: * же- • fe. т ш Ш- т #• К щ Шг Ыу:>. fe.-: ш: Ш Ш; 1Г 0i: Ш ШМ- ш А Three of these sentences contain mistakes. Find them and correct them. 1 If Nikolay Davydenko will win Wimbledon, we’ll all be very happy. 2 If Pete is lucky, he’ll be picked for the team. 3 Rock climbing is not a dangerous sport if you will take precautions. 4 If you don’t train, you don’t improve. 5 If I could try any sport. I’d try snowboarding. 6 If I’d win this match. I’d get a chance to play in the finals. В Complete the dialogue with the correct form of the verbs. Sara: Alice: Good luck in the game today! Thanks. If I ’... (play) well I think I ^... (win). But if I don't then I ^... (be) terribly upset. Alice Sara: If I '•... (be) you, I ®... (take) a deep breath and try to think positively. You're certainly good enough to win. I *... (be) more confident if I ^... (be) good enough to win, but I just don't think I'm as good as Kate. Sara: Whenever you *... (put) yourself down like that, it ®... (make) me mad. You are good enough and that's that! Thanks, Sara. If I ... (believe) in myself, I'd probably be a better player. Aiice C Use this information about Alice to make six conditional sentences. (1) play W6 get a university scholarship/ (2) not play well: study hard for university (3) have more« confidence: play better (4) do better« at school: more time for tennis • has an important tennis tournament coming up • not confident in herself not doing very well (5) not do welh'^^MMI ■•v . , ^ \ i, 1^^шР at schoo does not know what to do У* doesn’t have a bOyfrlend (6) have^ ^ boyfriend: feel 1^' happier | If Alice had more confidence in herself, she would play heffer Alice would play beffer if she had more confidence in herself D Work in pairs. Continue one of these sequences until you can’t think of anything else to say. If it’s a sunny day. I’ll go to the park. If it’s raining. I’ll stay at home. If it’s raining, I’ll stay at home. ■<Ф' What will you do if you stay at’home?. 4^. 4 « If I stay at home, I’ll invite my friends over. M- 98 fi » Vocabulary Sport and leisure A Match the sports descriptions to the words in the box. Then describe the objects in the pictures. athletics • basketball • boxing • deep-sea diving football 'tennis 1 You play in a ring. Each person punches his/ her opponent wearing special gloves. 2 You play on a track. It includes all track and field events. For example, running, long jump, etc. 3 You do this in the sea. It involves diving under water wearing flippers, a wetsuit and a snorkel or an oxygen tank. 4 You play this on a court. You throw a ball into a hoop. 5 This team sport is played on a pitch. You score by kicking a ball into a goal. 6 You need a net, a racket, a ball and two players. It’s played on a court. В Copy the table in your notebook and complete it. Then add the sports from A to the table. Sport/Hobby Verb Person baseball play baseball baseball player chess fishing gardening gymnastics hockey ice-skating photography sailing skateboarding • • ■ C Choose the correct option. 1 Federer beat / won Nadal very easily, but he had already beat / won the last two sets. He defeated / won him in three straight sets. 2 Your competitor / opponent is the person or team you are playing against. 3 Someone who takes part in sports competitions is called a(n) competitor / opponent. 4 Sometimes a spectator / viewer at a baseball match will get injured by a ball. 5 In a tennis match, the person who makes sure the game is played fairly is called a(n) umpire / referee. In a football match this person is known as the umpire / referee. 6 The game ended in a(n) draw / equal. There was no winner. come and go D Complete the gaps with come or go in the correct form. 1 I hope your dream of winning a medal... true. 2 Jess ... second in the race. 3 Our team’s colours ... well together. 4 If we lose the match. I’ll... mad! 5 How did the game ... ? 6 They lost! I wonder what... wrong? Phrasal verbs E Match the phrasal verbs with the verbs from the box. I come • eliminate • exercise • spend time socially • start 1 Many people take up a sport at school. 2 A lot of kids hang out in fast food restaurants after school. 3 Working out at a gym makes a big difference to your fitness. 4 Joe didn’t turn up for training last night. 5 To win the match a boxer needs to knock out his opponent. Your voice Give a 2-minute talk on hobbies. Remember to say: • what hobbies are popular today • what hobbies you have • how much time you spend on your hobbies • what the most unusual hobby you’ve ever heard of is 99 j.,- fiZJTTjr D 29] Listen again. Decide if each statement is true, faise or if the information is not stated. 1 Dalita is the only teenage chess champion in the world. A True В False C Not stated 2 Dalita started playing chess when she was living in Armenia. A True В False C Not stated 3 Dalita started entering chess tournaments when she was nine. A True В False C Not stated 4 D^ita finds her training regime demanding. A True В Faise C Not stated 5 In a game of speed chess, players use a clock to time their moves. A True В False C Not stated 6 The interviewer thinks speed chess is a very interesting game. A True В False C Not stated 7 One of the reasons why Dalita likes chess is that she enjoys getting acquainted with other contestants. A True В False C Not stated Г о < ш X u- LU Z Ш Z) L Sfeps to success You hear the recording twice. Use the second listening to find answers you didn’t hear the first time and to check the answers you already have. Listening A1-A7 -> pi 94 A Have you ever played chess? What do you know about the game? В You are going to hear an interview with a young chess champion. Which of the foiiowing words or phrases do you think you wiil hear? chesspieces check checkmate competition opponent tournament chess piayers draw Quick chat Which would you enjoy more, speed chess or traditional chess? What do you think life would be like for a young chess champion? Talk about: • their studies • their friends • their free time • their family C COH Listen to the interview. Note down the words or phrases from В that you hear. 100 Speaking A Look at the results of a class sports survey. What do they show about students’ preferences? What students preten team sports - 75Л individual sports - 50% extreme sports ~ 2.0 to water sports ~ ^5% walking or hiking - 45% snow sports - 60 to В (5h] Listen to three students talking. What are they trying to decide? C Listen to the students again. Note down the expressions in the Language chunks box the speakers use. ^ngua chunks Interrupting another Ц Acknowledging speaker I interruption Excuse me. Sorry,..., but... May I say something? Sorry for interrupting ... Of course. Please do. That's all right. Go ahead. i A ■'Г lilELfliUL HINTS D Work in pairs. Take turns to give your opinion on the statements below. Interrupt your partner after 30 seconds using the Language chunks. Remember to acknowledge interruption. • Everyone should find the time to play sport. • Jt is important to have leisure time. • Students today have very little free time. • Playing board games is better for children than playing computer games. E In pairs, do this task. Imagine your class would like to go on a three-day adventure trip. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each holiday package. Then decide which package would best suit the class. Use the class survey in A for information about the class preferences. Package 1 Package 2 Package 3 Whitewater rafting hiking bungee jumping tennis kitesurfing windsurfing wave jumping beach volleyball hiking skiing snowboarding ice hockey Remember to: • discuss aJJ options • be polite • take an active part in the conversation • come up with ideas • give good reasons • find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account • mvrte you friend to come up with suggestions • come to an agreement X-:. Word stress F dlU Look at the following words and decide which syllable carries the main stress. Then listen and check. 1 fishing 2 cinema 3 gardening 4 photograph 5 photography 6 opponent 7 opposite 8 tournament 9 skiing 10 competitor G Practise saying the words. Pay special attention to the unstressed syllables. 101 Grammar 2 conditional links See page 174 for information about conditional links. Choose the correct conditional links and then answer the questions below. 1 Unless / As long as it snows in the next few days, we’ll have to call our skiing trip off. 2 I’ll try any new sport unless / as long as it’s safe. 3 Suppose / Provided (that) you practise, you’ll do well in the competition. 4 Suppose / Provided you lost, what would you do? 5 What If / Unless you lost? What would you do? a Which links mean if and only if? b Which link means except if? c Which links are only used in questions? A Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 If the referee made a bad call, what would you do? IF What... made a bad call? What would you do? 2 I wouldn’t go skydiving because I think it isn’t safe. PROVIDED I’d go skydiving ... was safe. 3 If the waves are high enough, we can go wave surfing. AS We can go wave surfing ... the waves are high enough. 4 I won’t tell Justine'unless you want me to. IF I won’t tell Justine ... want me to. 5 Ian will practise if you ask him to. UNLESS Ian ... you ask him to. 6 Suppose things don’t go as planned, what will you do then? IF What will you do ... go as planned? (Shafe like and as See page 174 for information about like and es. Choose the correct option. 1 He works as / like a football coach. 2 She plays volleyball as / like a professional player. 3 He looks as / like David Beckham. 4 He used his hand as / like a bat. 5 As / Like any professional athlete, table tennis players have to train a lot. В The reading text on pages 96 and 97 contains many examples of the different uses of like and as. Scan it and note down all the different examples you find. C Match the questions with the answers. 1 What do cats like? 2 What are cats like? 3 What does your cat look like? 4 How is your cat? a He’s fine, thanks, b They’re cute and furry, c It’s black and white and a little chubby, d They like to play and they like to eat fish. D Four of these sentences contain mistakes. Find them and correct them. 1 Sally’s working as a yoga instructor. 2 That looks nice. I’ll have the same like you. 3 American football looks a bit as rugby, don’t you think? 4 What’s the new goalkeeper like? Have you seen him? 5 He’s very fast, as most people in the team. 6 I wish I could play as you. You’re fantastic! 102 Practise your English A Choose the best answer. 1 My favourite track and ... event is the 100-metre sprint race. A pitch C race В field D court 2 The ... all cheered when their team finally scored a goal. A spectators C listeners В viewers D referees 3 When we scored our second goal, the ... blew his whistle to indicate that the player had been offside. A umpire C referee В coach D player 4 The chess player looked at his ... as he made his final move. A competitor C opposite В player D opponent 5 Barcelona ... Liverpool to secure their place in the Champions League final. A won C beat В defeat D win 6 Nobody won. The game ended in 3. ... . A equal В win C draw D defeat 7 Callie ... first in the hurdle race. A came C went В come D go 8 How did your night... ? A go C come В went D came 9 Have you ever... fishing? A played C gone В done D came 10 I’ve been throwing the ball all morning, but I can’t get it to go in the.... A hoop C pitch В net D racket В Discuss these questions in pairs 1 Do you know the names of any world swimming champions? 2 The photo shows a junior swimming champion called Troy. How many hours of training do you think he does every week? C Read the text quickly to find answers to the questions in B. ‘ r,V V, I * /V. . I I'm a junior swimming champion and ’... any athlete, I spend most of my 'free' time training. The competition is tough and ^... I give it 100%, I will never get to world championship level. I often get asked what it's ^... to be a teenage swimming champion. I tell people that in many ways, my life *... be the same even if I wasn't a swimmer. I go to school, I have my friends, I even have hobbies. But the truth is that, in one important way, it is very different. ®... a champion swimmer, I will eventually train for at least 30 hours a week, which will mean five hours a day, six days a week. At the moment, I'm only training 18 hours a week, but ®... I ever want to be as good as someone ’’... Ian Thorpe or Michael Phelps, this will have to change. People often ask me, ®... if you don't succeed? What ®... you do then?' I tell them that in my opinion, I've already achieved a lot more ... most people will ever achieve. The truth is you never really know if you will ever become good enough for the Olympics or any other world championship competition. But hey, where's the fun in knowing? D Read the text again and write one word in each gap Quick chat you think Troy is to worth sacrifice even Olympics? Why/Why not? training is never gets to Writing: Article A Read the following writing task. In pairs, make a list of all the benefits of playing team sports. Then compare your list with the class You have seen the following announcement in an international teen magazine. The benefits of team sports Tell us what you think the benefits of taking part in team sports are for children and young people. Th e benefits of team sports. We will publish the most interesting articles next month. В Read the article. Are any of your ideas mentioned? Team sports: why should we play? There's no doubt that most people are aware of the physical benefits of taking part in team sports. But can playing team sports offer us any other benefits? The answer is, yes. To begin with, it's a fact that if you exercise, you have more energy and you feel better about yourself. As a member of a girls' basketball team. I've noticed that teenagers who play team sports are more active in general. What I mean is, they have more interests, they do more and they even study more! I think another important benefit is that when you are in a team and work closely with other people, you learn to co-operate and you improve your social skills. Because you learn to work together with others rather than competing against them, as a member of a team, you tend to make more friends. As far as I'm concerned, playing a team sport can definitely offer many benefits. But perhaps the best thing about it is the fact that it's a lot more fun than staying at home! •ГЙ.:' Ш- •■•ж:,- i 104 I Skills development Making the article interesting t: HELPFUL HINTS L imC» U.tr I { An article should interest and engage the reader. Use questions, have a personal angle, include a catchy title and get the reader's attention from the very first paragraph. It doesn't matter if it is informal or neutral in style as long as it is consistent. Which of the following features does the article in В have? • A catchy title • The use of direct or indirect questions • The writer’s opinion • A personal angle • An example D Is the article written in a neutral or informal style? How do you know? Developing ideas E Find the explanations the writer uses in the article to develop these points. Being a member of a team ... 1 makes you more active. 2 teaches you to co-operate with others and to improve your social skills. F How is the article organized? What does the writer include in each paragraph? Make notes. Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 introduction with question uaqe chunks Giving your opinion......... To begin with ... I think another important benefit As far as I'm concerned ... What I mean is ... 'W rei.3 Ш- • • m Ш !■ vV«V. • • - --- • ■ \ --- • Ш Planning and writing G Read this writing task and, in pairs, make a list of all the benefits you can think of associated with having a hobby. When you have finished, compare your list with the rest of the class. You have seen tho following announcement in an international teen fnagazine. ^ it: ' 4л The benefits of having a hobby Tell US what you think the benefits of having аЪоЬЬуаге for young jpeople. Write an article of between 120 and 180 words. »ЛСм/. . We will publish the most interesting articles next month. H Copy and complete the Planner. Ш1ш^ш I Й--- 1 Title Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 5?/U- % I Now write your article. Use the Language chunks and the Planner to help you. Be sure to: ✓write four paragraphs ✓talk about one topic only in each paragraph ^develop your ideas with explanations or examples ✓ use linking words/phrases to link your ideas and paragraphs ✓ be consistent in style (eg informal or neutral) ✓ make it interesting by asking questions, giving your opinion, using a personal angle and/or giving examples ✓ give it a catching title . 'i*'. 105 А What sport do you most enjoy or do you feel that you are best at? Think about sports people who do this kind of sport. How does your body type, height and weight compare to them? C Now read the descriptions of sports competitors below. Which body type combinations would be best for these sports people? ati- В Read the text below and decide which body type you might be. ■Oi V;;4; TV'S*. ". -.r^'T r\ 'л 106 Have you got the right stuff? Have you ever watched the Olympic Games and noticed that for each sport the competitors have a particular body shape? There are three basic body types and we are usually a combination of these. A Endomorph If you are an endomorph, you are pear shaped with a round head. You have quite broad shoulders and hips and you carry quite a lot of fat on the body, upper arms and thighs. Endomorphs are suited to sports that require strength, but not agility and speed. В Mesomorph If you are a mesomorph, you have a wedge-shaped body with broad shoulders, slim hips, a lot of muscle and not much fat. The mesomorph is well suited to sports that involve strength, agility and speed. C Ectomorph If you are an ectomorph, you are very tall and thin, with narrow shoulders and hips, long limbs and little muscle or fat. The ectomorph is better suited to endurance sports and gymnastics. They are unable to build up great strength. Шй., ■4i§r\V;V ' The swimmer The perfect swimmer is tall with long limbs. The swimmer should have broad shoulders and slim hips, and it helps to have big feet and hands. Some of the best swimmers in the world have enormous feet. It helps propel them forward. •... The rower The rower needs to be extremely tall, strong and heavy, but have very little fat. They also need to be able to pump oxygen around their bodies fast. They have the highest air intake of all sports - 300 litres a minute. 0‘S':v t- № Ш'у 'Н®-- Шй- The sprinter The perfect sprinter has slim hips, but has really good muscles in the legs. He/She needs to be able to get the muscles working fast. That means the muscles need to have fast twitch’ fibres - they work very effectively for a short burst of activity. mib 'fe-c--'. тш^ ^ f ‘ 'Л ■■ тШг Ши The marathon runner A marathon runner needs to have a lot of stamina. ‘Slow twitch’ muscles are more suited to this because they can keep producing power for a long period. It helps if they have a small build and a light frame, and they’re not too tall. i t-i К'^тЦГ-У!'- The gymnast The gymnast needs to be small, very strong and light. They need to have an even spread of muscles all over their body. The weightlifter Weightlifters are small and very strong with short arms and legs. S9?r- Л '/ D Before you read the next part think about the following: What other factors make you very good at a sport? Then read on and answer the question. Megan Still was proof that having a perfect body for a certain sport can make a big difference. She was chosen in 1987 to be trained as a rower. She had never rowed in her life, but within ten years she had won a gold medal. Having a body perfectly suited to a certain sport is fantastic. However, you need to have good training and technique, and there are other genetic factors that can work in your favour. Genetic study has shown that some people use oxygen more efficiently than others. Some people have a genetic mutation which means that there are more red blood cells in their bodies. Because of this, more oxygen circulates round their bodies and it allows them to perform better at endurance sports. If you do enjoy a sport, don't stop it just because you feel you aren't physically suitable.There is no greater motivator than passion. Anyway, not everybody takes up a sport to become a professional athlete, and when you do start a certain sport, your shape changes to fit the sport if you train a lot. So don't look in the mirror and give up. Try it! There are always exceptions to the rule. E Answer the questions. 1 Which body type has the least amount of fat? 2 What group do you think most top models fit into? 3 What’s the difference between ‘fast twitch’ muscle and ‘slow twitch’ muscle? 4 Why do rowers need to have a good set of lungs? 5 Why is Megan Still a good example of matching body type to sport? 6 How would having extra red blood cells benefit a long-distance runner? 7 Apart from body shape and genes, what three things can help you to be good at a sport? Project: Sports people Choose three sports that you enjoy and write short profiles for the kind of athletes that would be ‘suited’ to the sport. Think about the body type they might have. Here are some ideas: • rugby player • rock climber • skier • boxer • tennis player • high-jumper or long-jumper • football player • basketball player 107 1о8 А BRffiF HISTORY :■ А Read the introduction below. Which type of media do you prefer - print or digital? Why? WTy'i',VtihlHfh-.l til 'fti'iW ^yiiSalgi;'iLeaWK^OW ' Printing may very well be on the decline. These days, fewer and fewer people are buying newspapers and magazines and are instead reading these periodicals online. As a result, publishers of these traditional forms of media are struggling to cover the costs of printing them. But would the world be a better place without print media? True, the trees on our planet might breathe a sigh of relief, but would our eyes feel the same way after staring at a computer for hours on end? Will bookshops become a thing of the past also? If these trends continue, we may find ourselves forever strapped to an electronic device just to stay informed of current events. D Now^ead the texK What fact about the ^istpry of printing do find the most C sigiiiif leant? ■ ; i’’ , * ’Г!' ‘,r '15Г ■ 1.1 “ '^Printing can be Traced bdek to,KlesopotarrHan^ v" tiroeS'wB^ BC, in which presses were used to form symbols in clay tablets.jNowad^s^the' most ^mmm^fprmTof printing is pressing' ink oh paper,% tfaditioh t^t| began at the start of the last The first tirass produced book was the Gutenberga BiblSr^nnade by'^German printer Johannes Gutenberg inftthe' t450s. Since then, the itiassjproduction of bSoks has spread to every corner of Th^lobe.f, ' Not , long ane^j^amenDerg s printing spread'^to^Englaljd. The4ijet English printed Wilts pddlishedjthe very first book'^ingthi !<'<<*'-{гЛ T^J' • - .ns»-' Im a worktor He Droducia the languagef ajtranslation of in 1472. in beigium using a colleague's press^after haying learned th'e art^df printing during a stay in »-. t 1 - = it |Г - it 1 1 he returned to Britainitbiset, up the first British >i A . дамд4»«и «л» printing press in »-VS nturies ш i! in England benefited vements that peeufred during iff'Era. Presses moved fromebeing '>*»v .• J.'ij 'j%fl!^-'.. ,r.•■••• v’‘ ' >•-. Ч л« . . the use ft m- ««4M I' - made of wood and, stone to of metal, which ^aslmore durable, A variety of colours began to appear infbooks^ wfirch allowed^ for more elaboratefand.attractive illustrations. - ife,.- t W*»? ■' : < di iu. 4 >r- .12^^ "-ТЙё!*.! щш ne* * p.««“ was common at VI printing press f was established in tsar,Ivan IV, also known as as • ' published books'without ЬйШе^ аз ш this changed опсе;Г Timofeyev printed the Apostolos, in 1564. The fires in its early years but was and even expanded. By the early 1600s, the Moscow Print Yard had published a total of 30 books at 1,000 copies each. Although no longer in operation, its premises have been made an historical monument which houses the Russian State University for the Humanities. Printing change draniatically during the 19th and 20th Qentur}es. With development of colour printing in the 1830s, more and more books inciuded mass produced colour illustrations. Critics of the process, however, opposed its use because of fe lack of authenticity, as’prior to the inyehtion, colour illustrations in bpoks werii "hand paintAsOtber improvenrtents included «rotary pTihihg presses, which used a cylinder for printing and greatly sped up the printing process..; These new methods also lowered . the costs associated with printing, which resulted in’reducing book prices! tijus making thepi moite available to the masses. ' '’«Ш 'i ; 1 Modern forrns of printing, such as ink-jet and laser printing, were developed in the 1950s and 1960s. These forrned the basis of the first printers used in the home that accompanied personal computers, whicbeventually featured laser and digital printing The most recent dev misprinting, a process dimensional object plastic or I Д- %■ -,:-r la three-pf wood, printing ■> ^ process, as 3-D jxinting allows users tb #eatil№ipes they have desidned Ь?Та"8от1ш^г!!^Й}РсШ as jewellery, face, rBod^ftind eiWh food can be created using C Choose the best option to complete the sentences. 1 Today's form of printing began ... a three millennia ago. b in the 1450s. c 1,000 years ago. d a century ago. 2 William Caxton printed his first book ... a outside his homeland. b in Germany, c in Britain. d in a foreign language. 3 According to the text, printing presses of Victorian times were manufactured using . a wood. c colour. b metal. d stone. • ' -V, yrj I.- ‘:1 4 The Apostolos was special because it included ... a illustrations. b daily news, c religious texts, d a year of manufacture. 5 A problem with colour illustration was ... a it was of poorer quality. b it was too expensive to produce, c it was banned by critics, d it was too slow a process. 6 What people commonly use to print documents was developed in the ... a late 19th century, b early 20th century, c mid 20th century, d late 20th century. 7 3-D printing can create objects from any material as long as it is ... a sturdy, b square, c soft, d smooth. D Complete the sentences with a word from the box. ink • translation • mass produced • durable illustrations • cylinder • block 1 This book was originally written in Russian; what you are reading is a ... . 2 An image can be carved out of a ... of wood which can then be used to make copies. 3 Books with hard covers are more ... than paperback books. 4 This printing press uses a metal... that spins around rapidly and makes hundreds of copies per minute. 5 The printer ran out of... and was spitting out blank sheets of paper. 6 This children's book has a number of... that help tell the story through imagery. 7 After books became ... in the 15th century, they spread all over the world. E Your voice Are there any magazines and newspapers that you enjoy reading? Which ones? Would you like to publish anything on your own? lOQ Progress check 4 XJ»^ L-1 A Fill in the gaps with the words in the correct form. ■> 'ffi. IL Чу •X Л- J I f. i t ' n > Is. «ar W --<^3 ^-T /i Л 'V_ articles • subscribers • reporter • viewers watch • documentary My cousin is a V.. for an Australian newspaper called The Times. He loves his job because he gets to meet a lot of interesting people and be in exciting situations. The Times is a very popular newspaper In Australia. There are also a lot of ^... who read the newspaper online in Australia and in other countries. He writes lots of ® ... on the environment. He is also working on a , which will be shown on TV next week. I am going to ® ... it. The TV station expects there will be a lot of other ®... , too. В Complete the sentences with one missing word. 1 Email is a great way to keep in .... 2 Every week the match ends in a .... 3 How did last week’s game ... ? 4 I know that John won the race, but where did you ... ? 5 Sometimes it takes ages to download .... 6 The next day the news hit the ... . 110 C Choose the best answer. 1 If the car..., our planet would be a much cleaner place. A didn’t exist В don’t exist C won’t exist D existed 2 This is where the Prime Minister has .... A cut his hair C his hair cut В been cut his hair D hair cut 3 When you ... water to 100 degrees, it boils. A are heating В heat C will heat D heated 4 It... that Neil Best is going to join the team next month. A has said C is being said В is said D says 5 When we throw plastic in the sea, it... marine life. A harmed C is harming В would harm D harms 6 Fiona’s dream of becoming a pilot has finally ... true. A come В turned C gone D been 7 Beaches ... much cleaner if people didn’t throw their cigarettes on the sand. A would be В will be C are D get 8 They ... new store opened by a celebrity next week. A are having their C are have their В have had their D will have had 9 If life existed on other planets, what... be like? A it would В would it C won’t it D will it 10 Excuse me, is there a telephone here? I need to ... a call. A phone В do C take D make D Find and correct the mistakes in these sentences 1 Unless you try hard, you might be chosen for the team. 2 She cuts her hair at the same hairdresser’s as me. 3 I wonder what we would find if we can travel to another solar system. 4 If dogs don’t get regular exercise, they became unfit and restless. 5 The car was broken down again yesterday. 6 Builders have had the new football stadium completed. 1 А open В browse С turn D look 2 А Provided В Unless С Suppose D Except 3 А attach В record С play D download 4 А may В must С should D will 5 А in В on С up Doff 6 А long В well С soon D much 7 А stay В hang С visit D hold It's a weird, wonderful world mm Skills aims 4> Listening to short extracts for gist ^^ Supporting opinions and reacting to opinions while speaking ,4^ Reading a long text for specific information and details: identifying the writer’s opinion 4# Writing a formal letter to a newspaper to practise forming, linking and organizing ideas Jb- i %6 fe/ A Work in pairs. Which one of these ‘amazing facts’ is not true? True or false ... ? 1 Dolphins sleep with one eye open. 2 Ants can lift 50 times their own weight 3 An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain 4 Bats have two noses. 5 A starfish doesn't have a brain. 6 A hippo can run faster than a man -Si Ш Check your answers on page 193. в Work in pairs. Look at the pictures. Which of these strange creatures do you think really exist? Reading C You are going to read about animal life in the world’s oceans. Skim the article. Which animals from the pictures are mentioned? of the deep 112 * I'T If you wanted to discover a new species of animal, where would you look? The rainforests might be a good place to start. The deserts could hold secrets under the sand. But your best bet would be the oceans. The oceans cover nearly three quarters of the Earth's surface. They are so vast and so deep that scientists have only just begun to learn what lives there. And the creatures they do know about are so bizarre they look like visitors from another world. ?2 'The oceans are a place of extremes,' says Professor Sally Fishwick of Bristol University, 'they are home to the biggest creatures on our planet.' And she's right! Take the blue whale, for instance. Growing to over 30 metres long, weighing around 180 tonnes and with a heart the size of a car, it is the biggest animal that has ever lived. These monsters of the ocean are an example of a phenomenon called deep-sea gigantism. 'We don't know why,' explains Professor Fishwick, 'but when some species evolve deep under the sea, they become huge.' The colossal squid is another example. This bizarre beast can grow to ten metres in length, weigh nearly half a tonne and has the largest eyes of any known animal. 3 But it's not Just giants that make the oceans so special. Almost every day scientists are finding creatures that are, in the words of Sally Fishwick, 'just plain weird.' The 'Yeti crab' is a good example. Discovered two and a half kilometres below the surface, this blind beast is covered in white fur and is part-crab, part-lobster and part... alien! Another recent discovery is the 'Dumbo octopus', so called 9 ** ъх TSSli^ 4 15 6 7 8 "г.'^г'^':^г:^ lEss:*- r Steps to success Be careful! The choices given in the questions may be correct facts or » “ commonly held opinions about the topic of the text. Make sure these facts or opinions are actually stated in the fexll Reading A15-A21 p196 -----S??f* r*^ *. D because of the large fins growing out of its head that look like an elephant's ears. Some discoveries have left scientists utterly confused. Deep under the icy waters of Antarctica, for example, researchers have found animals that look like flowers. They stand, like tall glass tulips in a field, feeding on tiny creatures called plankton. Some creatures are so different from any other animal that biologists need to create a new category for them. If you live several kilometres below the surface of the sea, you have to be pretty tough. 'The pressure down there is like having several jumbo Jets on top of you,' explains Professor Fishwick. 'Yet some creatures can actually survive there.' Other amazing organisms have been discovered near undersea volcanoes where the temperature exceeds 400 degrees Celsius. These are exciting discoveries. They show us that we needn't spend millions on space exploration in order to find new forms of life. As Fishwick points out, 'If life exists in such places on Earth, then it must exist elsewhere in the universe.' Until recently, however, the depths of the ocean were Just as mysterious as the distant planets. The colossal squid, for example, lives so deep in the sea that it has never been seen alive. If fishermen hadn't accidentally caught them over the years, we would never have known they existed. 'If people could see what lives there, they would be amazed,' says Fishwick. Now the latest technology is helping to do Just that. But it's a race against time. Global warming and the careless way we treat the ocean is threatening this mysterious undersea world. If you think that the extinction of species is something that only happens in the rainforest, you'd better think again. 'We ought to remember that the oceans are full of life, too, and that they need our protection,' urges professor Fishwick. We should see the story of the blue whale as a warning to us all. If governments hadn't banned the hunting of this beautiful animal in the 1960s, it would have become extinct. Professor Fishwick's words are worth remembering. 'We must put the damage right, or we will lose a world that has only Just been discovered.' P-- Si' :Si •• 'Ш' Ш' ; • А7л;-. « Sj. : ■Ш:- 5»V-. ш. Ш: S:- Ш- •e. s'-' ■ Ы its Ы 'jii' • ?'4- W-t'. •*. - r- Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C or D). 1 According to the writer, why is the ocean the best place to find new species? A It is easy to explore there. В It is such a large place. C It is difficult for animals to hide there. D It is rich in plants and food. 2 What don’t scientists know about deep-sea gigantism? A what it is C where it happens В what causes it D which animals demonstrate it 3 In paragraphs three and four, what does the writer want to emphasize about ocean creatures? A their strangeness C their size В their number D their usefulness 4 Why are the creatures described in paragraph five so exciting? A They are so large. C They come from outer space. В They can fly. D They live in extreme conditions 5 Scientists know about the colossal squid because A dead ones have been seen. В scientists can dive to great depths. C live ones have been seen on rare occasions. D fishermen catch them frequently. 6 What does the writer mean by ‘it’s a race against time’? A Scientists are too busy to explore properly. В The blue whale is threatened by hunters. C Some species may disappear before we find them. D Ocean life changes too quickly for science to record it. 7 What does the word they refer to in paragraph seven? A all sea creatures C the oceans В blue whales D the rainforests Words in context E Match the words in bold in the text with a definition. 1 a fish’s ‘arms’ 6 more than 2 big 7 strange 3 change over time 8 strong 4 far away 9 totally 5 not from Earth 10 ugly creature Гг . -br.:' Did anything in the text surprise you? Do you think there may be life on other f^anets? Why/Why not? 143 Grammar 1 modals See page 175 for information about modals. Match these extracts with an explanation. 1 The rainforests might be a good place to start. 2 ... some creatures can actually survive there.’ 3 ... you have to be pretty tough. 4 The deserts could hold secrets under the sand. 5 ... it must exist elsewhere in the universe.’ 6 We should see the story of the blue whale as a warning to us all. 7 ‘We must put the damage right...’ This expresses... a possibility b certainty c ability d obligation e necessity f advice fu>(v Sfflf* *. *■ Ш- Ш- Ш- Ш: Шу w- Шу Ш Ш. Щ Ш ms: Ш'- I 'й?- Ш- iftS.- A Which modal can’t be used to complete these sentences? 1 If we want to stop global warming, we really ... stop consuming so much. a must b ought to c might 2 A giant tortoise ... live for over 150 years. a must b can . c may 3 One day we ... find life on another planet. a might b can c could 4 This ... be a new discovery! a must b might c ought to 5 I think you ... recycle more. a could b should c may 6 Nothing ... live in the middle of a volcano. a can b could c ought to В Choose the correct option. h The Bio op The oceans are full of mysteries, but the story of the Bloop' must / has be one of the most mysterious. In the summer of 1997, marine scientists in the Pacific detected a sound on their equipment. The sound was so loud that it "'•Э t could be heard over a 5,000 km area. Scientists studied the sound and decided that only some kind of animal ^ could / had to make such a noise. But if it was an animal, it ^ must / had to be several times bigger than a blue whale - the biggest known creature on the planet. We =* may / should never know what the Bloop really was... or is, but if you're ever swimming in the Pacific, you ® don't have to / shouldn't go too deep! C Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. You can use up to three words in each gap. 1 It’s not necessary for you to buy so many things. You ... to buy so many things. 2 It’s illegal to smoke in public places. You ... in public places. 3 I wish I did more to be environmentally friendly. ... to be environmentally friendly. 4 The law in some countries makes people pay for the rubbish they throw away. In some countries people ... for the rubbish they throw away. 5 I’m sure that travelling by plane is not good for the environment. Travelling by plane ... good for the environment. 6 You don’t have to use plastic bags from the supermarket. You can use your own. You ... plastic bags from the supermarket. You can use your own. 8 I’m sure that this is the dirtiest beach I’ve ever seen. This ... the dirtiest beach I’ve ever seen. I I f I < J 9 Vocabulary The environment A Match to make sentences. 1 Animals and plants that live in a wildlife 2 Siberian tigers are examples of endangered 3 Paper bags are more environmentally 4 Factories pollute the air and this can cause acid 5 Scientists say that global 6 Every day a different animal or plant is becoming a extinct because of our behaviour, b friendly than plastic bags, c rain to fall over a large area, d reserve are protected by law. e species that may disappear in the future, f warming is making the sea levels rise. В Now match the words in bold from A with a definition. 1 a safe place for animals and plants 2 animals and plants we may lose forever 3 disappearing forever 4 kind to the environment 5 polluted water 6 the heating of the planet over time The weather C Match these words for extreme weather conditions with the pictures. blizzard • drought • flood • heatwave hurricane • tornado D Choose the correct options to complete the weather forecast. Tomorrow's going to bring some pretty unpleasant weather to most parts of the country. In the north you can expect ’ freezing / frozen temperatures, nearly eight degrees ^ under / below zero on high ground. To the west there will be ^ soft / light showers in the morning, but this will turn to « heavy / thick rain by the afternoon. In the east the day will begin with a ^ light / bright breeze, but by evening there will be gale- ® force / strength winds. In short, wherever you live, you'd better stay at home! Ш: Weather idioms E With a partner, decide what the idioms in bold mean. 1 When I heard the news, well! It was like a bolt from the blue. 3- 2 They’re so happy together. They’re on cloud nine г I Ф & 3 Don’t worry. I’ll be there to help, come rain or shine. 4 When I forget my homework, Mrs Grimm has a face like thunder. . ..V,.... , ...... .. ...... ■0M: M 5 I don’t know what the fuss is all about. It’s just a storm in a teacup. 6 I’m not going out tonight the weather. feel a bit under Your voice Give a 2-minute talk on weather. Remember to say: • what types of weather you get where you live • what problems the weather can cause • what type of weather is your favourite and why how the weather affects your mood .'.'.да I 115 -У.* S. * -• -1'*^^'"'-' '* ■' <*'' - '. .tii- _. - -f — «ч-;* -,. . ^ *1Л' -ТЛ- ^ “ ' •■-Vi" ■ -rio t ^ вйгь*»г" t. . • •-.J '.. ■•ng"' -Щ ^ А*“г*-.* “■. __-• ■.■* •••’.' ^ “*т V • .. .»• • А Match these words with the type of weather shown in the photos. Some words may go with more than one type of weather. Expiain the connection. -ггг'- 1 .fi- 'j.V . ■‘ Г ■■ 4. bang • bend • blow • burn • deep • electricity flash • freezing • gust* pouring • puddles• scorching shade • slip • soaked Vt A }c ЭЧ в CaJll You wili hear five peopie taiking about accidents caused by the weather. Listen and match each person with a picture from A. What words helped you choose? Steps to success Remember that the speakers may use the actual words that come in the statements but there is only one correct match for each speaker. Listening B1 I *4^ . V ■■I , C CiU] Now listen again and match the speakers with these statements. There is one extra statement you do not need to use. Speaker 1 Speaker 2 Speaker 3 Speaker 4 Speaker 5 A I lost something. В I had to be rescued. C I was late. I had something damaged. E I received an electric shock I felt ashamed. Quick chat Do you prefer sun or snow? Why? Il6 Speaking к. 5:’ ^ Many fish in our^seas are endangered because of overfishing. Here are some suggestions for dealing with the problemi Which solutiohs'do you think would be a :^u .4; best? ^ Г.‘^че to do nothing Government choo^ww^^ *u. - j^.- ^ :f- - 5Л y**!^^^i..wiar?r^." 200 fish farms created as alternative to fishing Fish threatened with extinction ■?.r J,4^.V* *»V7w>. .'• ;t3S2 ■S’ * Fishing мтеЛ for f«yqr! л" v"fil •tt: ...., __ , Fish to be protected in new marine sanctuaries >й,: ■> Л f r-,;T В (all] Listen to two students talking about the problem. Which two solutions do they talk about? IWFUL HINTS ^ Whenever you express your opinion, give your reasons for it. Remember! The discussion is not only about your opinion. Listen and react to your partner’s opinion too. Now listen again. Note down the expressions from the Language chunks box that the speakers use. angua rf'4r: -rf.K chunk! Supporting your That's because ... The reason I say that is For that reason ... —f,. * isii *■ ^ V*- • • • T-T- .7>' ?»- . • #J4*T.^ • *^Л . T-r..^ ^5 ..V <«:>^.;li ♦. «у* ir*i J -aK : rHSticsi^-w ’< it. .jf’ ; ft. •iJ^ie^r' 'C •t«. . ’ » *v-' ■•' '1^ - 's-\‘ Л-..в-. V- Ltsasrl i^-A ./ » Reacting to opinions I see what you mean. I understand what you're getting You've got a point there. That's a good idea. Do you think so? I'm not so sure. 9 D In pairs, do this task. Here are some ideas to stop people throwing litter away carelessly. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each idea and then choose the idea which will work best. 5SS7"'-=si‘- Remember to: discuss all options be polite take an active part in the conversation come up with ideas give good reasons find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account invite you friend to come up with suggestions come to an agreement Sentence stress / silent letters E Read the sentences and decide which words are most stressed. I can ride.a bike, but I can’t ride a horse. : ^ ’ ' My mum can’t speak English, but she can speak French. F (Зт Now listen, check and repeat. G OUll Sometimes letters ‘disappear’ when we speak at normal speed. Listen to these sentences. Which letter disappears? I must get up early tomorrow because I mustn’t be late for school. I mustn’t eat so much chocolate and I must eat more fruit. Grammar 2 third conditional sentences See page 175 for information about third conditional sentences. Look at this sentence and decide if the statements that foliow are true or faise. If governments hadn’t banned the hunting of the blue whale in the 1960s, it would have become extinct. 1 This is about the present. 2 The government banned the hunting of the blue whale. 3 The blue whale became extinct. A Match the sentences that have the same meaning. I; I %- C-vr.-.- * W '• Ш- u»*.v Ш. a Dr Botany made a discovery because he didn’t go to the jungle. b Dr Botany didn’t go to the jungle and he didn’t make a new discovery. c Dr Botany went to the jungle and made a new discovery. 1 If Dr Botany hadn’t gone to the jungle, he wouldn’t have made a new discovery. 2 If Dr Botany had gone to the jungle, he would have made a new discovery. 3 If Dr Botany had gone to the jungle, he wouldn’t have made a new discovery. В Find and correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1 If we had protected tigers sooner, they wouldn’t become so rare. 2 The house wouldn’t have flooded if it is better built. 3 I wouldn’t crashed the car if there hadn’t been ice on the road. 4 We could have saved the building if we acted sooner. C Choose the best way to complete each sentence. 1 If the car... invented, our planet wouldn’t have become so polluted. a hadn’t been b wasn’t c isn’t 2 Jane’s fish ... have died if she had looked after them better. a won’t b would c wouldn’t 3 Our holiday ... much nicer if the beaches had been cleaner. a would be b would have been c wouldn’t have been 4 If we had tried harder, we ... the Yangtze river dolphin from extinction. a can save b could save c could have saved 5 If the wind ... so strong, the forest wouldn’t have burnt so quickly. a wasn’t b hadn’t been c had been 6 If we hadn’t remembered to bring an umbrella, we... soaking wet. a would b wouldn’t c will have have got have got got D Make third conditional sentences about these situations. 1 There was a hole in the roof and the bedroom flooded. If there hadn’t been .... 2 There were no litter bins near the beach and it got covered in rubbish. If there.... 3 The snow got very deep and I couldn’t go to school. If the .... 4 We discovered fossil fuels and we created global warming. If we.... 5 We didn’t look after the forests and they burnt down. If ... . Quick chat Think about your life. How might things have been different if... • you had never been to school. • you had lived in a different town. • television had never been invented. ii8 л Practise your English A Look at these photos of freak weather conditions. Do they reaiiy happen? What causes them? В Read the news articie quickly and answer theselquestions. 1 Which freak weather picture from A does it describe? 2 What cause is suggested? We talk about rain, but it's just an expression, right? Well, you'd better think again! The weight of some objects falling to Earth recently is very worrying. The objects are huge balls of ice and they have been crashing to the ground all over the place. The biggest ice ball yet recorded fell in Brazil. This bolt from the^... weighed 200 kilos, was the size of a fridge and landed in a car showroom. 'If I hadn't seen it with my own eyes,' said Fabio Souza, a cleaner at the showroom, 'I wouldn't have believed it. It's a miracle that no one was *....' The same is true tor pensioner Jan Kenkel. If she had been in her living room when a 22 kilo chunk of ice fell on her house in Iowa, she may have been killed. Scientists, who have called the balls 'megacryometeors', are *... confused by the phenomenon. First of all, you don't have to live in cold countries to get one in your back garden. They have fallen in parts of Africa that never experience ®... temperatures. What's more, they often fall from clear blue skies. So what's going on? Some people think that these balls can't form naturally because they are just too large. They think the balls must form on aeroplanes high *..., then break off and fall to Earth. Whatever the cause, it looks like we now have one more extreme weather ^... to worry about. Vt>. 1:Уд=-.-т • й/d . i- •• Ш Шу ^«5• Шл-' Шй- Ш'- W-“- ^ ii: Фа 9-.У: i. ' t:,V С @ Now read the text again and choose the best answer. 1 A strong 2 A red 3 A hurt 4 A firstly 5 A bitter 6 A overhead 7 A forecast В heavy В green В damaged В finally В frosty В overboard В phenomenon C report C deep C yellow C destroyed C rarely C freezing C overweight D thick D blue D scratched D utterly D melting D overnight D situation Unified State Exam Grammar and Vocabuiary A22-A28 p197 9 Quick chat Do you ever get strange weather in your country? If you do, why do you think it happens? D Use the word in capitals to form one word that fits each sentence. 1 There are many ... species in the world which need our protection. DANGER 2 Using a bike is a very ... friendly way to travel. ENVIRONMENT 3 Fumes from factories and vehicles cause... warming. GLOBE 4 The blue whale nearly became ... in the 1960s. EXTINCTION 5 Do you believe that people ... from apes? EVOLUTION 6 I was ... amazed when I saw the damage from the storm. UTTER 7 The colossal squid can often ... nine metres in length. 8 One day in the future people may be able to travel to... planets. DISTANCE 9 The climbers were surprised by the ... of the winds at the top of the mountain. STRONG 10 The animals living in wildlife ... are protected by local governments. RESERVATION 119 А Read the newspaper article below and discuss the following: • What are the causes of this problem? • What can we do to prevent it? Forest fires rage out of control Another day, another fire. Firefighers are battling to control the fifth forest fire that has started this week. Another huge area of forest land has been totally destroyed, and the fire is fast approaching homes. 'The situation is out of control,' said fire service chief Andy Wood.' We need to stop this happening.' C Now read the letter that a reader sent to the newspaper. Does she mention any of your ideas? ш>- ш- ms mW: ш. Ш- Ш- В Note your ideas down. Use these questions to help you. • Who is responsible? • What actually makes the fires start? • Are these fires accidental or deliberate? • What can the government do to help? • What can we do to help? ЧШ Why do foresf fires happen? Dear Sir/Madam, Your reports on the forest fires last week made me so sad. However, I am sure we can stop this happening again if we understand the two main causes: nature and our own carelessness. It is true that forest fires sometimes happen naturally. Nevertheless, we can still prevent these if there are more foresters cleaning up the dry wood and leaves from the ground. In addition, there should be more firefighters near the forests so they can reach fires quickly. The second main cause is people's carelessness. It goes without saying that people shouldn't light fires in the middle of the forest. Furthermore, visitors often leave litter behind. When the weather is hot, paper and bottles can cause fires to start. We need to teach people about these things. Without a doubt, last week's fires would not have happened if people had known how to treat the forest properly. Some people think there's nothing we can do to protect our forests. On the contrary, I believe the solutions are very simple, but we must make an effort. Let's get started! Yours faithfully, Paula Pringle, Pinkerton How can forest fires be prevented? Skills development D This kind of letter describes the causes of a problem and suggests possible solutions There are two ways you can organize this. Which way matches the letter on page 120? Plan A Introduction, say why you’re writing. List the causes of the problems. List the solutions. Sum up with a call to action. Plan В Introduction, say why you’re writing. Describe one cause, give solutions for it. Describe another cause, give solutions for that Sum up with a call to action. Organizing each paragraph ?iej(!pful hints у You should have a 'mini plan' for each paragraph before you write it. Your ideas in each paragraph should be organized in a clear way. .; V E These words and phrases can help connect your ideas in a paragraph. In your notebook, put them under the correct heading: Joining simiiar ideas or Joining opposing ideas. furthermore • however • in addition • in contrast likewise • on the contrary • on the other hand angua chunks Expressing certaiiity Without a doubt... It goes without saying ... There's no question that.. ,иял^'- — I v^ --- —' -4'i II -Mil ' .. Introducing other people's opinions It's often argued that... Some people believe that... It's thought that... m 9 Planning and writing F Read this task and note down ideas for your letter. The Trumpet Protests over dump plans Hundreds of protesters gathered outside the village of Little Haven yesterday to show their anger. They are furious about council plans to open a new rubbish dump near the village. 'It will ruin our beautiful •A-- village, and who knows what health problems it will cause?' complained one local resident. However, the council argue they have nowhere else to put the waste. Ъ' You have read articles in The Trumpet newspaper about the problem of what to do with the rubbish Write a letter to the editor saying what you think should be done about it. i -^4Mss, *' * ^ G Copy the Planner in your notebook. Then choose your best ideas and complete it. ■V-’-'' b 'i Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 H Write your ietter. Try to use some of the expressions from the Language chunks box kchecW ■t Be sure to: ✓start by clearly mentioning the article you are responding to ✓decide how to organize the whole letter ✓ use linking words and phrases to connect yoar ideas logically ✓finish off with a strong statement of whatyou believe and a 'call to action’ 121 10 Food for thought Skills aims ■s> Predicting content; identifying speakers and topics of conversation; listening to short extracts for gist and details Asking about and expressing preferences Reading a long text for gist and specific information; understanding text cohesion s> Writing an informal letter of advice to practise giving advice and organizing ideas 4 M- m 3. •V-’ -• -:£i. _ r A Work in pairs. Decide if these common beliefs about food and health are true. a Drinking warm milk makes you sleepy. b An apple a day keeps the doctor away. c Chocolate gives you spots. d Carrots can help you see in the dark. e If you listen to music too loudly, you go deaf. f We use only ten per cent of our brains. g Reading in dim light or sitting too close to the TV damages your eyes. Reading В You are going to read about some common beliefs. Skim the article and match a paragraph to each common belief in A. C Read the article a little more carefully. Are the common beliefs in A right or wrong? ■ Sf/' Л.- 1 . ' - A;. --- - Like most people, I grew up believing the more chocolate I ate, the more spots I would get. But now we are told that, in fact, there is no evidence that has been able to link it to skin problems. I wish I'd known that then! Research hasn't found any ingredients in chocolate that can either trigger acne ’... . Acne is thought to be associated with the body's reaction to hormones rather than to what we eat. 2 What about reading in poor light or sitting too close to the TV? What does it do to your sight? Nothing, apparently. These activities may strain or tire your eyes, ^.. they will not. In fact, you can't harm your eyes by using them, unless you stare into the sun. With the size of most TV sets today, you won't be able to see the set properly if you sit too close to it anyway. 3 Watch out MP3 users, this one is true. It is especially the case for music heard loudly through earphones. So, either keep the sound down low, *... . The maximum volume of most MP3 players is around 120 decibels, which. I'm told, is about the level of a jet aeroplane taking off! In France, they're taking this very seriously. The government has set a limit of 100 decibels in MP3 players, and companies have had to make adjustments. и I ' vA ■ 4 Funnily enough, this is a myth almost everyone believes. But scans have shown that we do in fact use 100 per cent of our brain! Each thing we do when we're awake (and even when we're asleep) uses a different part of the brain. So, in the course of a day, all of it is used. But even if we were to look at it from an evolutionary point of view, *... would have developed if they weren't necessary. 5 Surprising as it may seem, it is true: eating apples every day can keep the doctor away. Apart from all the useful fibre it contains, this common fruit lowers the risk of getting certain types of cancer. Apples contain large amounts of phenols, ®... and protect cells from damage. As we all know, there is plenty of evidence to suggest that antioxidants not only keep us looking young, but also protect us from disease. 6 Carrots contain high levels of a compound known as beta-carotene. It is what gives the vegetable its colour. It is also this substance, together with other essentiai vitamins, *... . So, it is true that eating carrots does your eyes a lot of good, but can it help us see in the dark? The answer to this question is no, it can't. Nothing you eat or drink can do that. If you w ant to see in the dark, you will need to get yourself a pair of night vision glasses! 7 This one is true, but you probably already knew that. The question is why. Warm milk contains an amino acid called tryptophan. Your body changes this into melatonin and serotonin, both of which cause a feeling of sleepiness. So, for those who have problems sleeping, a glass of warm milk before going to bed should ensure ^.. your head hits the pillow. < X to о Steps to success • When deciding which sentence part best fits a gap, read the text after the gap as carefully as the text before the gap. • Once you have decided on a sentence part for the gap, check that the text after it follows logically. Reading B3 p195 These sentence parts have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentence parts (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra option you do not need to use. A that you fall asleep as soon as В but permanently damage them C it is unlikely that larger brains D which is a weil-known antioxidant E that can improve eyesight in later years F or make existing acne worse G or stop using earphones H which work as strong antioxidants Words in context E Match the words and expressions in bold in the text with a definition. 1 important and necessary 2 changes 3 substances that slow down damage to our bodies 4 ailowed a maximum level 5 a way of looking at something 6 connected with 7 the TV 8 cause Quick chat What’s your opinion of these beliefs regarding the common cold? • Going outside with wet hair causes colds • Chicken soup will cure a cold. • The best treatment for the common cold is large doses of vitamin C. Check your answers on page 193. г 1 Grammar 1 Read these sentences and answer the questions that follow. 1 , in fact, there is no evidence that has been able to link it to skin problems. 2 ... this is a myth almost everyone believes. 3 Your body changes this into melatonin and serotonin, both of which cause a feeling of sleepiness. ё Which sentence(s): a uses a relative clause to give extra information? b contain relative clauses that give necessary information? c separates the relative clause from the main clause with a comma? d contains a relative clause but no relative pronoun? e use or could use the relative pronoun that? Now decide whether sentences 1-3 are defining or non-defining relative clauses. Ш: №' . ■ Ii- ж iV • Ш IT Fjs: r -'''tv ■ ;^:v W. wt:, I; Щу p- ! S'*"' i i: ф.: W W' A Choose the correct option. 1 The chef who / which makes the pasta is Italian. 2 I want a kitchen where / which is bigger than the one I have now. 3 The reason why / which they go there is because the food is excellent. 4 The cafd, which / where good quality coffee is served, closed. 5 We had hot chocolate at Angelina’s every day when / where we visited Paris. 6 Donna, who’s / whose mother owns a cake shop, is a fabulous cook. 7 The recipe on which / which this dish is based, was my grandmother’s. 8 The chefs, both of whom / whom specialize in vegetarian food, are world famous. В Decide if the gaps in these sentences are more likely to be filled with a defining or non-defining relative clause. 1 People ... have healthier lives. 2 My brother Ben ... is also coming to lunch. 3 I was speaking to someone ... . 4 Is this the drink ... ? 5 I’m looking for a cookbook .... 6 Louise ... made it for me. C These sentences contain the information missing from the clauses in B. Match them and rewrite them as relative clauses, using commas where necessary. Omit the relative pronoun if it is not necessary. a Her carrot cake is excellent. b You met him last year. c It contains a lot of vitamins. d She was telling me about the benefits of super foods. e It has vegetarian recipes. f They don’t smoke. D Join these pairs of sentences using nondefining relative clauses. 1 This cookbook is from the 19"’ century. It has a lot of interesting recipes. 2 Many people eat fast food. It is high in calories. 3 I eat pasta three times a week. I make it myself. 4 Helen needs to lose weight. She doesn’t eat anything but pizza. 5 On Saturdays, I go to George’s cafd. I always order their iced coffee. 6 On Friday nights we always go to The Jumping Bean. It’s my favourite restaurant. E Work in pairs. Write six quiz questions. Use each of these relative pronouns: that, which, whose, when, who, where. When you finish, swap your questions with another pair. Name the artist who painted the Mona Lisa. , 124 10 Vocabulary Health and diet A Match to make phrases. Which of these things have ever happened to you? Teli the class. 1 cut a an ankle 2 sprain b a bone 3 break c a muscle 4 pull d yourself 5 get e your arm / leg in a cast 6 graze f your knee 7 have g a black eye / a bruise В Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrase from the box. cut down on • get over • go off put on • take care of 1 Can you smell this milk? I think it’s .... 2 I’ve ... weight. I’ll have to lose a bit if I want this dress to fit me again. 3 If you want to be healthy, you need to ... yourself better. 4 Drink this. It will help you ... your cold. 5 To lose weight, you’ll need to ... the amount of junk food you eat. Food and drink C Choose the correct option from each pair of opposite adjectives. 1 I love pizza and burgers because they’re very tasty / bland. 2 Ripe grapes are sweet / sour, but unripe grapes can be as sweet / sour as lemons. 3 Indian food is hot and spicy / mild. 4 I prefer to drink sparkling / still water or tap water. The bubbles in sparkling / still water go up my nose. . 5 Carrots are fresh if they are crisp / soft. 6 Strong black coffee is quite sweet / bitter, unless you add sugar. 7 If you’re watching your weight, a salad or light / heavy lunch is better. 8 I’d like my steak rare / well-done, please. I don’t want to see any blood when I cut into it. 9 Salads can provide more vitamins because the vegetables are raw / cooked. 10 Salty / Sweet foods such as crisps are good in the summer. D Read the two recipes. Find words and phrases connected with food preparations, quantities and food. Vegetarian pizza Ingredients 1 20 cm pizza base 1 tablespoon of tomato paste 100 grams of cheese (or / cup of grated cheese) 1 pepper 6 mushrooms 1 onion 1 tablespoon of olive oil some olives some basil leaves IVl0tHod Slice the onion into rings and fry it in some olive oj until golden. Put it aside. Spread the pizza base with the tomato paste. Grate the cheese and sprinkle it onto the pizza base. Add the onion. Slice the pepper and mushrooms and add them to the pizza together with the basil leaves. Cut the olives and remove the pip. Add them to the pizza. Bake the pizza in a hot oven for about ten minutes. Serve with a fresh green salad. Jelly with fruit Ingredients 1 packet of jelly crystals 2 cups of water Method ■ Put the jelly crystals into a bowl. Boil the watPr anw into the bowl with the iellv crvsf3k t-к hfto ^ Chop the fruit into bite-s,zed p,eces and add i, to the jelly. Refrigerate u"l sef Now copy the table in your notebook and complete it. A. 1* ■■Л Verbs connected with food Quantities . 'f - ‘ГШ •h-.' f • i *'* mi « т'шЧ m'i••#•«*»«•••«•••••••••••••••*•••••••#•#•••• slice 1 tablespoon \ pizza base E In pairs, talk about... • a recipe for a dish you can make • a tasty meal you’ve had. 125 Listening A Match the adjectives in the box to the first four sets of pictures. boiled • cooke'd • fattening • fried • _ nutritious • raw «roast extract? В Now look at the last four sets of pictures. For each set, think of three words or phrases that you expect to hear. What is the topic of conversation likely to be in each C (illl Listen to the first extract and answer these questions. • Where are the speakers? • What is their relationship? • What are they talking about? 6 The boy has bruises in many places and his knees are hurt. 7 The doctor can't see patients at 11.30. 8 The man has obviously got a sprained ankle D я 371 You are going to hear eight extracts. For each extract, decide if the statement is true, false or if the information is not stated. 1 The woman prefers to order a sandwich. 2 The man doesn't like healthy food. 3 The meatballs have been grilled. 4 The steak tartare is made of underdone minced meat. 5 The cook says you should grate a lot of cheese. Unified State Exam Listening A1-A7 Your voice гя*»р- Give a 2-minute talk on healthy food. Remember to say: • who usually cooks in your family • what dishes are traditionai in your famiiy • which foods or ways of cooking are healthier • what foods you should try to eat less of or avoid 12б I I t t I Speaking A Imagine you are organizing a party. What sort of things do you need to consider? В о 38 Listen to two friends organizing an end-of-term party. Which of the following do they talk about? food drink times music invitations extra features cleaning up after the party plates, glasses and cutlery the cost HINTS When you have to talk about preferences, use phrases like the ones in the Language chunks box to vary the way you express yourself. Remember to invite your partner to express his/ her preferences too. C (aliJ Listen again and note down the expressions you hear. chunks m. Asking about pteferenw Do you prefer X or What would you rather have, X or Y? Which do you think is best? Which do you prefer? Would(n't) you rather... (than)? Expressing preference I'd prefer (not) to... IpreferXtoY... I'd rather do X than Y... I'd rather not have ... P - m 9 * Vi 10 D In pairs, do this task. Imagine you are responsible for planning an end-of-term party for the students in your year at school. You only have money for four of the following. Decide which you will choose for the party. 2 6 E In pairs or small groups, discuss these questions. 1 Do you like going to parties? Why/Why not? 2 What kind of celebrations (eg parties, weddings, etc) have you been to in the last year? What did you like/not like about them? 3 How do you usually celebrate a special occasion (eg your birthday)? 4 Do you prefer to celebrate a special occasion with your friends or your family? Why? Sentence stress ■■..i F (aliJ Words that carry meaning are stressed more than articles, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, conjunctions and pronouns. Listen to these sentences and pick out the words that are stressed. 1 Which would you prefer. Madonna or the Black Eyed Peas? 2 Do you prefer going to a wedding or to a dinner party? 3 I think I’d prefer finger food to a buffet. 4 I’d rather not have house music at the party. 5 I’ve got a good recipe for fruit punch. Listen again and repeat. I ’ r ~—.T^ r^re ileum caecum appendix 1|2 A Once you have swallowed, the food moves down this narrow tube. This tube connects the throat with the stomach. There’s a small trapdoor called a sphincter at the bottom of the tube. It pops open when the food comes down and the food drops into the stomach. The sphincter snaps closed again afterwards. В This is the place where food gets chewed up and mixed with saliva. Saliva is mostly water, but it also contains enzymes which break down food. It helps make food soft and easy to swallow. C This is a very important area for digestion. It’s like a big washing machine. The food drops in and the top area expands. If you’ve had a lot to eat, you can really feel it. While the top part is storing the food, the bottom part starts mixing the food up with digestive juices or acid -this is the muscle working to break down the food even more. Then it has to slowly empty its contents out into the next sections. DWhen the food gets to this point it doesn’t really look anything like food anymore. More enzyme liquids are mixed with the food here. These liquids come from the liver and pancreas. During the passage through this area the nutrients from the digested food are slowly absorbed into the body through little tiny fingers called villi. This is where the body really gets its fuel from. cardiac sphincter stomach - pyloric sphincter pancreas E This is where all the waste products go. Some absorption of vitamins and water still takes place here, but this is the end of the road for leftover substances such as fibre. large intestine — colon rectum anus Units 9 and 10 C Answer the questions. 1 Why do we need to chew our food? 2 What stops the food coming back out of the stomach? 3 What do enzymes do in the digestive tract? 4 Why does the writer use the word washing machine, and what does it describe? 5 At what point are important nutrients absorbed by the body? 6 Where does the body send leftover food? D Now read the warning below and decide: a Which are some of the different food groups? / »ii1, 'ЛЛ, I , jri ■ I ■ i ^ .ijWtfi I j уitjlfuMTbiitgli MTjy ■ I ■ b What kinds of things should we avoid? What can go wrong? One part of the body that we really need to protect is the liver. The liver is in charge of a multitude of functions in the body. Among other things, the liver is in charge of getting rid of the toxins in our body. Toxins are basically poisons. But you’d be surprised what kind of things are ‘poisonous’ for the human body. The biggest toxin is alcohol. If you drink too much alcohol, the liver doesn’t have enough time to get it out of the body and so the liver can stop digesting fats effectively. Then you get something called fatty liver. But this problem can also be caused by overeating. An overly fatty diet is extremely bad for the digestive system, as is a diet with too much meat. The fact is that for digestion to work effectively, we need a balanced and nutritious diet. We need to eat the correct amounts of protein, carbohydrate, dairy and fat and enough fruit and vegetables to keep everything working in harmony. ■у**** !>■ ч; ИЭуц pu' ipH" чу TfDQf ДШЩ’' Щ^т ^ и ^1| niMtflJi ■ W.j* Project: Good food i r Match the different foods with the correct food group. Which food group do you think we should eat the ieast of? Which shouid we eat more of? Create a food pyramid. fkr, ,, u-ra teaii шИт aubergine • banana • beef • bread • broccoli * butter • cereal • cheese chicken • cucumber • fish • jam • lentils • milk • nuts • olive oil • peach rice • spaghetti • spinach • tomato • watermelon • yoghurt ^Hgfpji^lSpnar ■мцтр' iiuiuii' protein dairy compiex carbohydrates fats, oiis and sweets fruit vegetabies 133 Culture today... WORLD'S TOP ECO-FRIENDLY COUNTRIES m A Look at the energy sources in the box. Think of an advantage and disadvantage to each of them and discuss those with your partner. . I " ikii..o»0’as.v- wind power • wave power • biofuel nuclear power - coal • natural gas • hydropower i . Now read the text. Match headings l-TQjyith paragraphs A-G. There is one.eidr^headmg you do not need to use. * A Once powered largely by nuclear power plants, Germany has in the past decade switched its energy production to safer means. Its success in developing such forms has been so profound that it is now the largest exporter of energy in Europe. What is more, the country is doing this with renewable energy. The country's goals are to be 100°/o reliant on renewable energy, which the igflfe^hopes to achieve by 2050. 1 A cooperation in energy , 2 Making use of tight spaces 3 Clean and efficient mass^Varia 4 Driving cleaner and better'^ 5 Saving nature in.the city 6 Banking on solar ene^y 7 An energy powerhQjJse. 8 Protecting nature's ass-trahsH In-Columbia's capital, Bogota, has greatly^benefit^ from a redesign the government embarked on recent years. City planners created busj;api(^transit'system within just three years thSt.;!*Ras f^ered'greenhouse gas emissions ; Because щ mass transit ‘>''3 w>. Ш Л *■ ' '-m.. xz, frorn all overdhe world visit Bogota in prder tp jekrn mofe^about this transport system, Whic’rt focuses less jM^fs and more on buses *45? «I 4 оте ..-зг -•>д 4 ihanng with its neighbours /. Gdmmon' practice Boasting thef^fl3‘s*Tiret'profitable offshore awind farm, ehrriark;^ctilaRy jitof^dd' Importing tfossil ifuels country has energy,^deals^’with md Eintand in which egeigr^ is ^ stored in thi^^ country's power systems, then sent*] babk when demand in Denmark rises. Workers in Denmark'S} electricity grid ^qtually direct energy ''Cir ASi sJtraffic' back and forth between natiemsT' yki-.. Ш ..-.г'-й'.-т*-S' -s-irfi.iiv. Ш Шс -,y!S»s .r » 3 • ^4 % • \ *1 Ч ^ - - . » Т-Щ- •• jT .* T-T-r . J'l '•- ЗГ' '- , ■ = '■'Л- ■-Л 'г- a •«■ -ЗВ.З «; Jt k a. % К t - *=•-4? vd \j ' . :-*г .7Г. «*»- 5 . smali,iandlocked country with a high popul^ien density, Austria has made recent strides in developing alternative energy sources. It ^seems the country has no choice.in the matter - what land is available is mostly mountains^'and nearly half the country is covered in forests. Heavily polluting power'.plarits a_re simply not an option.'Thus,, the country d|rivesTc 62% of^ its energy' needs .^ifrom windf solar, hydrdpowpr and biomass епегдуйЦ r — J.'k» !***■. '-f< -S' ..Д. * 1___M-c.___L ^ ^ У ^ 1.4« Vt / f. ^ * Ы=й|£е$:.^^^^^ g;;^; 5-ri--= Singapore is one the smallest countries in the world and has one of the densest populations. As such, environmental legislation is extremely important if the city-state wants to preserve what little natural resources it still possesses. These laws, however, have been instrumental in saving Singapore's last remaining rainforest. Building development in Singapore must also adhere to strict standards concerning water management, recycling and air quality. Once hit hard by poor resource management, Costa Rica has bounced back after embarking on an ecological campaign in the 1940s. In a country that depends on its natural attractions for tourism, such a policy makes perfect sense. Furthermore, with 5% of the world's biodiversity packed into its small borders, preserving nature is vital. To achieve this, a quarter of the country's land has been designated as national parks. Brazil's infrastructure, built in the decades before energy-efficient methods were in widespread use, is currently being upgraded to make the country more competitive with global economies. One area in which the country has excelled in particular is biofuel. Nowadays, nearly 80% of Brazil's automobiles run on some form of biofuel. As a result, the country has become a leader in biofuel industries. 55 r r I ■Щ '■a, V - I * ~ r.'- -'u_ Riffis Oft 1 ^ Ш Г.й.4?) 'ri- '«Iff f4 C Answer the questions 1 What does Germany hope to achieve in the future? 2 What is most remarkable about Bogota's efforts to redesign its public transport? 3 Why would Norway send power back to Denmark? 4 What two things make land management in Austria a challenge? 5 What specific success has environmental legislation had in Singapore? 6 What two reasons in Costa Rica are important for preserving nature? 7 Why does Brazil have to upgrade its infrastructure? D Complete the sentences with a word from the box. J adhere • embark • grid • infrastructure instrumental • legislation • profound • upgrade 1 The residents were ... in establishing community gardens; without their help, it wouldn't have happened. 2 Michelle's country home is not connected to the energy ... ; it is powered by a single wind turbine. 3 The government passed ... that limits the burning of fossil fuels. 4 Industries must... to safety and health regulations or risk being heavily fined. 5 The energy firm will soon ... on building the largest solar farm in history. 6 Metro systems are a type of transport... that allows quick, energy-efficient commuting. 7 The company wishes to ... its production line so that it uses more green technology. 8 The burning of coal and oil for energy has had a(n)... impact on the environment. E-^ Your voice Which forms of renewable energy are best suitable for Russia? What can be done to better protect nature in Russia? V- Progress check 5 X A Complete the sentences with the correct words. The first letters have been provided 1 This is the worst b... that has hit Alaska in years. I can’t even see my car from all the snow. 2 It is so hot! Meteorologists say that this h... will last for another five days. 3 The h... was so powerful. There was so much rain and winds were travelling at 150 kilometres per hour! 4 Farmers are worried that if it doesn’t rain, the d... will destroy their crops. 5 The t... destroyed five houses in our town. It actually lifted our car and dropped it 500 metres from where it was parked! 6 The f... really made life difficult for everyone. There was water everywhere! в Choose the correct answer. 1 I never swim in April. The water is freezing / frozen! 2 I’d take my sunglasses if I were you. It’s really bright / light out. 3 Nothing to worry about when you’re travelling. Just light / soft showers. 4 I am going to pull the car over. I can’t see anything through this thick / heavy rain. 5 I hope your father doesn’t go sailing today. The winds are very force / strong today. 6 You call this cold? Back home in Moscow it is 25°C under / below zero. C Complete the sentences with words from the box. There are four extra words. add • bitter • cooked • cup • glass • pour • raw refrigerate • slice • spicy 1 ... the onion into rings. 2 ... the milk into the saucepan slowly. 3 Thai food is just as ... as Indian food. 4 Isn’t sushi made with ... fish? 5 ... the cheesecake for at least two hours or until it sets. 6 You will need a(n)... of flour and three eggs. D Match to make sentences. 1 I’m feeling a bit under the weather 2 When I heard the good news, 3 Nick needs to put 4 Gill has cut down 5 You really need to take 6 Seeing her was a a bolt from the blue! b so I think I’ll stay in bed. c on the amount of sweets she eats. d I was on cloud nine e on three kilos. f care of yourself a little more. E Complete with a relative pronoun from the box. Then decide which relative pronouns can be a) omitted and b) repiaced with that. when • where • which (x 4) • who • why Deja vu Have you ever been in a place ’... you know you have never been before, but ^... you have a strange feeling you have visited before? What about a situation ^... you know has not happened before, but you have the feeling you've already experienced? Well, you are not alone. Deja vu, *... in French means 'already seen', is the experience of being certain that you have lived or seen a new situation before. You feel as though the event ®... you are experiencing has already happened or is repeating itself. The feeling is quite strange and people ®... experience it are often very surprised at the moment ’... it happens. The reason ®... you may be experiencing deja vu is not clearly understood. It may be attributed to a dream, but equally there could be other possible reasons for the experience. 136 Patricia .у*Г- ^ -•* -—^ : "•-«**' * ■* "* !>л 4-• 1 A broke В sprained C pulied D cut 2 A bones В muscles C elbows D wrists 3 A had В gave C made D put 4 A drew В stretched C broke D pulled 5 A on В against C with Dby 6 A mistakes В accidents C crashes D cases 7 A should В can C must D need Vanished withmit a trace! Skills aims 4> Listening to an interview for gist and details Asking for clarification; expressing agreement Reading long texts for specific information and details Writing a story to practise describing characters’ reactions and feelings; adding drama through the use of adjectives and direct speech •r *• ,V. m/ These people have mysteriously disappeared. Copy the fact files in your notebook. Then listen and complete them. в Name ; The crew of the Mary Celeste 1 Year of disappearance: Where last seen: V--:' Name: Amelia Earhart Year of disappearance Where last seen: Ш ■'S-- ¥' S; Ш Name: Lord Lucan Year of disappearance: Where last seen: Ж: Й. fe fH--: Ш W. % P Reading В You are going to read about two more mysterious disappearances. Read the newspaper articles quickly, then copy the fact files and complete them. Steps to success i'■ You have to find evidence in the text to support your answer. If you cannot find evidence for your choice, it is probably wrong. 1Л Reading A15-A21 >r •' > I V ^ ^ '' ■’* * , ' i \ A '' ' ^ ^ V ‘ '■’rts 5 , "5, '' il- 'Ti:. йЛЙ'- JrV^. : 0m ^ V'-'i 0% C -■ I was on a bus in the city centre. A middle-aged woman was sitting opposite me. I felt uncomfortable because she had started to stare at me. She looked confused about something. Eventually I said. I'm sorry. Vo I know you? The woman, in a very soft voice. answered. 7 remember teaching you. ■r-'-' A . th- xb--» V ' V-#' Ч —Я" -I* Ч-К f.’ C Strong emotions usualiy cause physicai feelings too. Can you find examples of this in the story? D Match these situations with the physical feelings in the Language chunks box. 1 I saw the train rushing towards me. 2 I heard someone whisper my name. 3 My eyes fell on the word ‘FAIL. 4 In front of me was a dish of spinach and snails t^ngua chunks Ч P P ^ ■ Quick chat Have you ever had any of these feelings? Why? 146 I T I Skills development Adjectives E You can make your story more memorable by using good vocabulary. Match the adjectives on the left with the more dramatic ones on the right. 1 surprised 2 annoyed 3 embarrassed 4 happy 5 frightened 6 sad a ashamed b astonished c delighted d furious e heartbroken f terrified F Write five sentences, each with a dramatic adjective from E. Direct speech 4 <■ HEbPFUL HINTS ^ Including some direct speech in your story is a way to bring your story to life. It makes your characters more 'real' and helps add drama. However, don't include too much direct speech - don't forget that you're writing a story, not a dialogue! 11 Planning and writing I Look at this writing task. In pairs, brainstorm ideas for a story. Use the mind map to help you. Write a short story for your school magazine. The story must include the words, 'It's a mystery,' she said. Write between 120 and 180 words. I i ■ i t Ш й Where did she say it? Who said it? ‘It’s a mystery,’ she said. What happened? Why did she say it? Who heard her? J Organize your story using the Planner and some of the Language chunks. Then write your story. Write between 120 and 180 words. I 1 G Can you find three examples of direct speech in the story on page 146? Copy down the paragraph using punctuation. Pay particular attention to the direct speech. I thought I was alone but suddenly a voice from the next room whispered what are you doing /Лагк it sounded familiar but strange at the same time is it my stupid brother playing games again I thought is that you John I called as there was no answer I walked angrily into the next room stop playing games I said as I walked in but to my amazement the room was empty . -vL-.s,.-- Ш^г 6*..2£s X- Ш: Paragraph 1: Introduction - when and where did this happen? Paragraph 2: Set the scene and describe the characters. Paragraph 3: What happened next? Paragraph 4: How did the characters feel? Be sure to: t/describe feelings as well as events ✓ include some dramatic adjectives include some direct speech ✓checkyour punctuation 47 Big spender %б Skills aims .0 Listening to a number of extracts for details v> Filling pauses and expressing interest in conversations Reading for gist; understanding text cohesion ‘i.'j -■■Ж’. Writing a formal letter of application to practise content, register usage and paragraph formation A Work in pairs. How much do you know about shopping? Do the quiz and find out. 1 Which country has the largest shopping mall? a Iran b the USA c France 2 Which of the following is not an accessory? a jewellery b a belt c a cardigan 3 What is the spending money given to children or teenagers called? a pocket money b bank account c money box 4 Where would you haggle over the price of an item? a a department store b a street market c a high street shop 5 What can you buy at the butcher’s? a fruit b magazines c meat Check your answers on page 193. Kathy Paula Reading В You are going to read about consumerism Skim the article. What do you learn about each person in the pictures? These sentence parts have been removed from the article. Choose the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra part you do not need to use. A wouldn’t want to spend my time В as she does not have the money C that some people might even say D when Max hasn’t spent some money E if we weren’t so fashion-conscious F as Max and Paula are very similar G that I can compare prices H would not allow them to buy Teenage consumerism Consumerism is the term used today to describe our obsession with buying things. Some would say that it has become a way of life. In fact, for many people, spending money equals happiness. Is it any wonder then, that young people have also been affected? Years ago, the pocket money teenagers got ’... an iPod, a trendy outfit or anything more expensive than some sweets, magazines and perhaps even a record. But today, things are different. We interviewed three teenagers about their consumer habits and this is what they had to say. Paula, 16, is a fashion victim, she admits it herself. Trying to look trendy is listed as her main hobby. 'I spend at least six hours a week shopping for clothes and shoes. I love it! I ^... doing anything else.' Where does Paula find the money to spend on so many clothes when she's only 16, you ask? 'I have a part-time Job working as a cashier in a local supermarket on Friday nights after school and on Saturday mornings. Also, I always ask for cash presents for my birthday and for Christmas. I buy most of my clothes when the sales are on, that way I can buy more with my money. I spend so much time window-shopping ^... from one store to the next. I know where to get the best bargains.' She shows me her shoes and a picture of a similar pair at ten times the price. 'I got these shoes for only £30, the real thing would have cost me over £300! I know I could be doing other things with my time, but I find it hard to resist!' Paula may spend hours a week shopping, but most of that time she is only window-shopping ^... to do much else. Max on the other hand is a shopaholic. How is Unified State Exam Reading B3p195 \ > Ш Шг' Max that different from Paula, you ask? Well, Max, 18, buys something every time he goes shopping and he goes shopping every day! 'I'm happiest when I'm shopping. I do most of my shopping online. I find it such a pleasure. 1 don't spend all my money on myself. I get presents for friends, my family and even my dog.' A day does not go by .. on clothes, games, music or the latest electronic gadget. Retail therapy is very real for Max. He is only happy when he is spending money. Ynti probably couldn't find two more different people than Max and Kathy. Kathy, 15, is careful with her money. So much so, in fact, ®... she is frugal. 'I don't like spending my money needlessly. I don't need to buy lots of jeans and shoes to be happy. I have hobbies, family and friends for that. I save money and spend it when I absolutely have to.' Kathy says she is sensible with money and that everyone else is a consumer victim. She says we need to find other things that make us happy because this is something that will end up costing us more than we bargained for. Spending leads to debt. Debt leads to misery. 'I don't want to be one of those people who cannot see that there are other things in life that can make you happy. Every day more and more shopping malls are popping up around us. Why aren't we building parks instead?' Where will all this spending lead us? To the poorhouse if we're not careful. As Kathy wisely points out, 'It's a trap. Fashion changes every year and so, to keep up, you have to buy more things every year. Perhaps T.. or so easily influenced by fashion magazines, we could see past it for what it really is - a spending trap. Money doesn't grow on trees and the sooner we realize that the better.' crt. Ч W: fkir:: i: Ш m- m:-. Ш Ш. 5%- Words in context E Find these words and phrases in the text. Choose the correct definition for each one. 1 trendy outfit a a fashionable set of clothes worn together b trendy clothes that fit 2 sales are on a when things are for sale b when shops reduce the price of the goods they sell 3 bargains a agreements b things bought more cheaply than usual 4 window-shopping a looking at things displayed in shop windows b shopping for windows 5 find it hard to resist a it is difficult to stop doing it b it is difficult 6 retail therapy a shopping to make yourself feel happier b therapy for an illness 7 frugal a very careful with money b careless about money 8 debt a money that is owed b money that is lent 9 keep up a to continue at the same pace b to keep something up high 10 fashion-conscious a awaring of what is in fashion and dressing accordingly b not following the fashions F Complete the sentences with words from E. 1 I bought some real... in the sale. Everything was under ten pounds. 2 Jill is really fashion-conscious. She wants to ... with all the latest trends. 3 I borrowed money and now I’m in .... 4 ... is great. There’s no need to buy, you can just look. 5 Tina always feels better after some .... Quick chat 149 Grammar 1 countable and uncountable nouns See page 178 for information about countable and uncountabie nouns. Match each word in bold with the type of noun it is. 1 ... or so easily influenced by fashion magazines ... 2 Money doesn’t grow on trees ... 31 buy most of my clothes when the sales are on. a uncountable noun b countable noun c plural noun Choose the best option to complete the rules 1 We usually use many / much for countable nouns anti many / much for uncountable nouns, but they are usually only used in negative / positive statements and questions. 2 We can use a lot of / many for both countable and uncountable nouns. f' f: w m. ft ^4= '■0 Ш Ш: EsaV rW.-- Щ- A Choose the correct option. 1 My house needs new furniture / furnitures 2 I don’t have much / many cash on me. 3 This store sells electrical goods / good. 4 I bought two pairs of jeans / pair of jeans. 5 We spend many / a lot of money on food. 6 The sales are only on for a few / few days. (Shsdk so / such and so many/so much See page 178 for information about sol such and so many! so much. Read the extracts and match the rules below. 1 I spend so much time window-shopping that I can compare prices ... 2 So careful, in fact, that some people might even say she is frugal. 3 Where does Paula find the money to spend on so many clothes ... 41 find it such a pleasure. Ш- mm Ш mm adjective • countabie noun • noun • uncountable noun Э SO + ... bsuch +... Iljiu Hn|iLlHJILMi[ cso much + ... dso many +... Ш- В Find and correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1 This top is such nice that I think I’ll buy two! 2 There was so many traffic that it took two hours to get to work! 3 These jeans are so much expensive that Mum wil! never agree to buy them. 4 I’ve never seen so much books before! 5 This is so nice car. Is it new? 6 Some actors have so many money they don’t know what to do with it! Match the sentences with meanings a or b. 1 These trousers are too expensive. 2 These trousers are expensive. 3 These trousers aren’t cheap enough for me. a These trousers cost more than I can afford and so I won’t buy them. b These trousers cost a lot, but I still might buy them. I'" C Complete the sentences with too, enough, so or such. 1 I don’t have ... money for a car like this. 2 We had ... a good time shopping yesterday. 3 Those trousers are ... small for you. You need a bigger size. 4 This department store is ... big - it takes ages to get around! 5 These earrings are pretty, but they’re ... expensive. They’re not even silver! 6 I spent... much on these boots that I can’t go out for the rest of the month! Vocabulary Clothes and accessories A Match the words and phrases from the box with the picture. Ьн. belt • bracelet • denim jacket • earrings • high heels leggings • necklace • nosering • waterproof jacket j ring • scarf • sweater • tracksuit • trainers 1 Ш /S)i i.-i-'iil • • • * • * 10 ik 4 ... I ^ 5 ... еУ4^: ^hx tlOil 12 13 ^3 8 14 '« . В Choose the correct option. 1 These shoes don’t fit / suit - they’re too small What size / number are they? 2 That colour really fits / suits you. You look good in green. 3 Can you help me do up / take up my zip? I can’t reach it. 4 Those jeans are really loose / tight. Can you breathe at all? 5 Those trousers are too loose / tight, you should get them taken in / taken up. 6 Because I’m short, new skirts or trousers usually need to be taken in / taken up. 7 Would you like to take it back / try it on? The changing rooms are this way. 12 Shopping and money C in pairs, list three things that you can buy in each of these shops. 1 Claire’s Accessories 2 Selfridges Department Store 3 Witfield’s Newsagent’s 4 Virgin MegaStore 5 Sainsbury’s Supermarket D Complete the sentences with words or phrases from the box. brand • buy • cash desk • logo • product receipt-take it back 1 This CD keeps jumping. I’ve still got the ..., so I think I’ll.... 2 This skirt looks really good. Why don’t you ... it! 3 I’d like to pay for this. Where is the ... ? 4 What’s your favourite ... of trainers? 5 This designer label has a crocodile as its .... 6 This advert is funny, but what... is being advertised? E Match to make sentences. Then match the idioms in bold with their meanings below. 1 John has more money 2 I think we’ve just been ripped 3 I can’t afford to buy a thing, 4 I can’t lend you any more. I’m not made 5 You must be loaded a I’m broke! b than sense. I can’t believe he paid £500 for those boots! c if you own five houses, d off. We paid far more than we should have, e of money you know! 1 get cheated 2 have unlimited amounts of money 3 be very rich 4 wastes money 5 have no money Give a 2-minute talk on shopping. Remember to say: • what clothes, shoes and accessories you like to wear • what kind of things you like to buy when you have money • what your favourite shop is • how important being in fashion is to you -C I 151 Listening A Work in pairs. How far do you agree with the foiiowing statements? Your hairstyle is an expression of who you are and how you feei. I don’t enjoy shopping. It’s important to keep up with hair fashions. With clothes, being comfortable is more important than iooking smart. Credit cards can make you spend more money than you earn. В Read the muitipie choice questions in C and match them to the pictures. A CO о Steps to success • Before you listen, read the questions carefully, because they contain a lot of information about the content of the listening extract. •The first time you listen to each extract, listen to it all before choosing an answer. Choose your answer during the pause and check it the second time you listen. Listening A8-A14 p194 C You will hear people talking in eight |f| different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer (A, В or C). You will hear each situation twice. 1 A girl is discussing her hairstyle. Why does she say it’s important for her to style it herself? A It is an expression of how she is feeling. В It is cheaper than getting it done by a hairdresser. C Only she knows how she wants it to look. 2 You hear two boys talking about hair. What does one of the boys want to do? A Dye his hair a dark colour. В Dye his hair blonde. C Dye his hair blue or violet. 3 You hear a mother and a daughter talking. What’s the problem? A The daughter needs a new pair of jeans. В The daughter spends more than she earns. C The daughter buys clothes she doesn’t need. 4 You hear a girl talking about clothes. What does her mother tell her? A That she looks better in formal clothes. В That she needs to dress more smartly. C That no one takes her seriously. 5 You hear a man talking with a sales assistant. What is the dress code at his work? A The employees have to wear a suit and tie. В The employees are smartly dressed. C The employees can wear anything they like. 6 You hear a man talking about online shopping. What does he like about shopping online? A He finds it convenient. В He finds it fun. C He can buy anything online. 7 You hear a man talking about buying a home. What does he say people should do first? A Talk to the bank about a loan. В Put a 10% deposit on the house. C Start saving as soon as they start working. 8 You hear a man and a woman talking about something the man has bought. How does the woman feel about his purchase? A She does not approve. В She is impressed. C She is envious. Quick chat Would you ever buy anything online? Why/Why not? акС«>-. J»’ •'* -к- г МС t - - --V .t-i - % '^i ^ir?i »T*'^ Imagine you won €1,000,000 in the lottery. What would you spend it on? Make a list. ■ГЖ; •'-^ I T-T=^ ^ Л->' -Л^г(А¥Й.... - -«.... Ш в (aiZj Now listen to two dialogues with students talking about the same topic. What do the four students say they would spend the money on? IliiMPFUL HINTS h 5Jh When you’re pausing to think of ideas, don’t drag out words or pause for too long. Fill your hesitations with expressions like the ones in the Language chunks box. If you’re having a conversation, make sure you show you’re listening to your partner(s) You can do this by expressing interest, surprise, etc in what your partner says. ' a У C <ЗЖ1 Listen again and note down the expressions from the Language chunks box you hear. angua chunks Hesitating ..... • • • • •««• • • • • I • • ■ • J. - 1 ’ ’v Г?. =>.S^> ,^Er:pL.>„ 5^^ ■ • • Umm Let me think ... Just a minute .. • Let's see .. • I Ui -ii’. "д"; -'sS. 'Му:: “:ysv,‘ -ta^'r • "~'Г. -“^\V &7 -VI' •Tti'v-j ,. .. ~~ Л1 ■»СирЛ|1г**г*СТЦ. • Expressing interest in y?vr Pf r*'?®'' Really? That sounds great / wonderful/nice/good. I know what you mean I see ... I can understand that... Wow! Why's that? That's interesting! D How would you express interest in the following statements? Use language from the Language chunks box. / do most of my shopping online. I ‘Ц; That’s interesting. * 1 I’m not sure I like shopping online. 2 I go shopping every day. 3 I think shopping centres are a waste of space 4 I never shop in large department stores. 5 I’m trying to save for a trip around the world. E In pairs, do this task. Imagine you and your friend have won a lottery. Decide which three of these items you would both spend your winnings on. accommodation • travel • charity • education hobbies • health • family • friends "т‘А*ЗЬ‘- ... ■ Remember to: • discuss all options • be polite • take an active part in the conversation • come up with ideas • give good reasons • find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account • invite you friend to come up with suggestions • come to an agreement F How important are the following things for a happy life? Rate them in order from the most important (1) to the least important (10). When you’ve finished, in pairs or small groups, decide on a common ranking. ' money • love • friends • family • health • fashion career • fame • free time • good grades ;Jlgsgji*=S*41 [i:] and [i] G <ЗЖ1 Listen to the numbers carefully. What numbers do you hear? Practise saying the numbers. 1 sixty / sixteen 2 fifty / fifteen 3 thirty / thirteen 4 ninety / nineteen 5 forty / fourteen H (°r^ Listen and write the number(s) you hear. ДТЦ^ТЮТ! а»5**й- Grammar 2 a ш в both ... and, neither each, every, all, none See page 179 for information about both... and, neither... nor, each, every, all, none. Match to make six sentences. mJ,. Дс.' 1 Neither 2 Both 3 None 4 All 5 Each / Every a of the clothes were cheap. C b the dress and the shoes were on sale. c the prices nor the service was acceptable. d the presents I bought were expensive. e person in the store bought something. W- Ш 'SS»Yi- Ш ш i0' Ш A Complete the sentences with words from the box. all • and • both • each • every • neither I none • nor 1 ... of the clothes I tried on suited me, so I didn’t buy anything. 2 ... these shoes ... those fit me properly. Are you sure they’re a size 39? 3 ... the dress ... the jacket fit beautifully. Are they in the sale? 4 ... person I know is mean with their money. 5 She spent... the money she won in a week! 6 ... of us has bought something online. В Work in pairs. Discuss the six items in each group and write sentences describing similarities and differences. Use all, each / every, none, both or neither, as shown in the example. 1 jeans, trousers, top, blouse, shirt, jacket 2 currency, money, dollars, cash, love, friendship 3 chair, sofa, table, desk, bookshelf, lamp 4 bird, bee, fly, parrot, horse, sheep 5 films, music, DVD player, dishwasher, television, washing machine Hofh jeans' and 'trousers' are plural nouns. All these goods can be worn. I indefinite pronouns See page 179 for information about indefinite pronouns. Copy the table of indefinite pronouns in your notebook and complete it. someone/ somebody everyone somewhere anywhere nothing C Choose the correct option. 1 Is there anybody / somebody home? 2 Are we going somewhere / anywhere this evening? 3 Why are you crying? Did I do anything / something to upset you? 4 Someone / Anyone told me you spent a lot of money yesterday. Is it true? 5 I’m bored. There’s nothing / something to do. 6 Everyone / Someone loves my new boots. I’m so glad I bought them. D Complete with indefinite pronouns. On Boxing Day last year, I made the mistake of going to the Boxing Day sales. As ' ... knows, on the 26**' December, all the shops have huge discounts on ^ • ^... queues for hours outside the shops so that they can be the first to find the best bargains. The sales really are amazing - *... you buy is 50% off! The problem is that ^... knows about the sales and they ail go ‘... to shop. As a result, all the shops are very crowded and if it's clothes you want to buy, you'll be disappointed because it's difficult to try ^... on. In the end, I didn't buy a thing. I've made a promise never to go again. my advice, if you're looking for ®... to do next Boxing Day, don't go shopping! m- “■.t" .'-Чй iA-, .-.Йл 154 12 Practise your English A Read the text in В quickly and answer these questions. В What is eBay? What was the first thing ever sold on eBay? Now read and complete the text using the correct form of the words in capitals. eBay eBay is the world's biggest online auction and shopping website. It is a marketplace where anyone who to buy or sell anything can go. All over the world, both individuals and businesses trade goods on eBay every day. It caters for everyone: buyers, sellers, browsers and collectors. As a place to buy, you can find anything you need or want at bargain prices. It is also a place to sell ^... unwanted items. New or old, you can sell almost anything on eBay. You can be sure there is someone out there who wants to buy it. The ^... thing that ever sold on eBay when it started in 1996 was a broken laser pointer. The story goes that the seller warned the buyer that the laser pointer *... and the buyer said that he was, in fact, a collector of broken laser pointers! Proving that there is nothing you cannot sell on eBay. Finally, it is a place for collectors. It is the world's .. market of rare, hard-to-find items. Whether it's stamps you collect or vintage cars, you'll find it on eBay. It ®... such a success that its website claims that there are T.. than 100 million users of the site worldwide! Unified State Exam Grammar and Vocabulary B4-B10-»p196 WANT ^ /.I'V-'' y-.. ' YOU ONE BREAK LARGE BE MANY PP fRm! Quick chat Is there anything you would be interested in buying or selling on eBay? What? C Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence Use the word given. 1 I can’t afford this coat. TOO This coat is ... for me. 2 I don’t have a lot of money, you know. MADE I’m not..., you know. 3 She’s very happy. She sings all the time. SO She’s ... sings all the time. 4 I love the way she does her hair. AMAZING Her..., don’t you think? D Choose the best answer. 1 Your new outfit is amazing! It really ... you. A goes В fits C suits D matches 2 I have a huge .... I owe more than €1,000. A borrow В lend C debt D doubt 3 Sorry, I can’t lend you any money. I’m .... A broke В ripped C ripped off D loaded 4 That top looks too big. You should .... A get it in В put it up C take it up D take it in 5 ... can make an outfit look better. A Clothes В Noserings C Necklaces D Accessories 6 There are always lots of bargains in the shops when the sales are .... A in В up C on D at 7 I don’t have ... money for this. Can you lend me some? A enough В too C many D so 8 I have ... money left. How much do you need? A a lot В much C a little D a few 9 It’s ... cold to go swimming. We’ll freeze! A too В very C so D enough 10 You’re jeans ... really nice. A are В is C be D was 155 n Wrifing: A letter of appiicatio A Discuss these questions. 1 Do students in your country have part-time or summer jobs? 2 Have you ever had a part-time or summer job? Sr., 3 What kind of part-time or summer job would you like to have? В Read the advertisement and answer these questions. 1 What is the position? 2 Should the letter be formal or informal? Why? 3 What do you need to mention in your letter? Are you looking for a summer job? We are looking for enthusiastic people to work in our busy cafe for the summer. If you would like a summer job, we'd like to hear from you. You must be at least 16 years old to apply. Apply in writing. Please include information about: • your current situation • your level of English • why you would like to work in a cafe over the summer C Read this letter of application. Does the letter do all of the things below? A letter of application should: • be formal • be separated into'paragraphs • begin and end appropriately • mention the information asked for in the advertisement • if necessary, ask for further information JMlS'rjJ ■•4^^ r 4V.- wr * f I 4- 1 -K Ч.**- .Tjirvir liiL - *«- £ -vr ■JV-;. Ш m* iSVi* 1% У: I -V >■■■<• — • V Dear Sir orMadam, I am writing in response to your advertisement. I would like to apply to work in your caff for the summer. I am a 16-year-old student in year ten at secondary school. I have been studying English for six years now and my level of English is good. I am free for the summer and would like to do something useful with my time. I believe this job will give me both valuable work experience, and the opportunity to practise my English. I would like to ask for some information, which the advertisement does not give. I would appreciate it if you would let me know whether the job is full-time or part-time. I would also be grateful if you could tell me the exact dates the job will be available for. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you require any further information or to arrange an interview. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, Giordano Piccirilli ■ I Гчь\" •vJ . ■.---- TV . j j 7 < *• • . r^: I . • - • 156 Skills development Style, content and organization D A letter of application should be formal Match the formal phrases (1-8) to the informal phrases (a-h). lingua chunks ■."ЧХ Ш ж Ш 5^ '■It I .M Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing in response to ... I am a 16-year-old student... I believe this job will... I would like to ask for some information. I would appreciate it if you would let me know I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, Best wishes. Please get back to me ASAP. Hi! I want to know something ... I'm 16. Please tell me... I think this job will... Just a quick note to... Ksa-- V > '.'■''■к - .1 ! _____ HINTS In a letter of application, make sure you include all the information about yourself that the advertisement asks for. Remember, you would really like to get the job, so be positive! E Find the parts of the letter on page 156 that mention the necessary information. • the applicant’s current situation • the applicant’s level of English • why the applicant would like to work in a cafe' over the summer F What information does the writer include in each paragraph? Copy the table and complete it. Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 12 Planning and writing G Imagine you would like to apply for the job below. Read the advertisement, then copy and complete the Planner. I I Й Paragraph 1; reason for writing Paragraph 2: your current situation / why you would like to work in a souvenir shop Paragraph 3: any previous work experience you have (including voluntary work) or don’t have Paragraph 4: any questions you have 0.. Ш i-'j w i; Ш- ■ Ы Ш- B-' Ш- Are you a teenager looking J| wiiffiiv^ ni/f/r»4 /or something to do over the % , Ш. ■ WMM шмА ^^^4Ш ШШIШiШ ^ summer? й* We are looking for enthusiastic people to work in our t| souvenir shop over the busy summer months. If you are eager to gain work experience and would like to work with other people your age, we'd like to hear from you. you must Щ be at least 16 years old to apply Apply in writing. Please include information about: *| . your current situation i . why you would like to work in a souvenir shop J: . any previous work experience (including voluntary * work) 1* H Write your letter in 120-150 words. к check! Be sure to; t/use a formal style ✓talk aboutyour currer\t situation ✓say why you would like to work in a souvenir shop ✓ mention any previous work experience ^ you may have ✓organize your letter into paragraphs _ ✓ use indirect questions if you'd like Щ. to ask for information Щ ✓ begin and end the letter appropriately «у.— 157 Ijir ш га:л;'йа "T:i n_ .rtv.V., ..- .•. ШШ _isi A Work with a partner. Can you think of how science helps the police solve crimes? These key words might help you. • blood •DNA • fingerprints • gunpowder hair soil samples teeth В Can you answer these questions? a Why would a criminal wear gloves to commit a crime? b Apart from the face, how can you find out who somebody is? c What other unique features do our bodies have? d Is it possible to tell when people are lying? C Now read the text and decide whether your answers were correct. The unique finger Forensic scientists can identify criminals and their victims in many different ways now, but the fingerprint is still the most effective means of identification. A fingerprint is unique. Each individual has a slightly different pattern on the tips of the fingers, and even if the skin is removed, when it grows back the same pattern reforms. There are tiny sweat glands in the fingertips and when we touch different surfaces, an imprint is left behind. ------Т-1Л - . Ш ...тггй',: Fingerprints are not always visible to the naked eye, but at a crime scene, police have a number of methods for finding prints and inputting them into computer systems. Most commonly, a black powder such as ninhydrin is brushed over an area. The powder sticks to the oil from the fingerprints and the print becomes visible. The prints can then be photographed or collected using tape. If a print is on a substance like paper which is porous, the police can use iodine to make the print show up, then, photograph it. Prints will also show up under the light from an argon laser. Surfaces can be dusted with fluorescent powder for this to work. Police rarely uncover a complete fingerprint, yet computer systems can find a match to even a small part of a print. Ninety-two per cent of fingerprint matches in the US are completed using the computer system with no human intervention. Now researchers are looking at ways to fingerprints from cloth. They are trying to use a metal vapour which rests on top of the fingerprints. This doesn’t yet allow police to make a fingerprint match, but it would be a way to discover whether or not a person has really been the victim of an attack. My DNA or your DNA DNA fingerprinting is relatively new. Examples of our DNA can be found everywhere because it is in our cells. So, there is DNA in our hair, in our saliva, on our skin and in our blood. The chemicals in DNA are always the same, but everybody’s DNA is linked up in a slightly different pattern so our DNA, or genetic makeup, is more or less unique. DNA fingerprinting is a way to identify criminals, but it is difficult. To analyze DNA, you need to get the DNA out of the hair, skin, saliva or blood sample. This is a complex chemical procedure 58 and errors are always possible. However, if a DMA pattern is identified successfully, it is a very effective method of finding dangerous criminals. As with fingerprints, there are databases of the DNA profiles of dangerous criminals and the police can use these systems to find a match. Usually, however, to identify the criminal, police will need to match two DNA samples. The police may need special permission to take a DNA sample from a suspect. Other clues There are other ways to identify criminals or victims. There are other unique patterns in the human body and without realizing, we carry clues which show what we have been doing or where we have been. A soil sample carried on the soles of our shoes can be evidence of having been present at the scene of a crime. A victim can be identified using dental records, or a criminal could be found using the imprint of lips on the side of a glass. If a crime has been committed, it is likely that something will point the police in the right direction. Even though ‘not scientifically proven, body language can tell us whether or not a suspect is lying. When lying, people tend not to look you in the eye, they are not as relaxed and their body movements are more strained. Science may make crimes easier to solve, but it doesn’t mean there are less of them. D Answer the questions. 1 What are the three methods that police use for identifying fingerprints? 2 How do police match up fingerprints? 3 Why is fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting a way to identify criminals? 4 Why do you think there is controversy about DNA profiling and fingerprinting? Think about the fact that once you have given a DNA sample, police might keep it even if you haven’t committed a crime. Project: Finding ciues Read the description of a crime scene below. Imagine you are a police detective. What could you do to get clues? Use the information in the texts to help you. At the crime scene we observed the following: The door had been opened from the inside, but a window near the door had been broken. There were tiny drops of blood near the window. A glass with lipstick on it was left on the table. There was a mark from a high heel and a dirty stain on the floor. Somebody had tried to open a safe. There was a long strand of hair near the safe. 159 "WSl -••i. -^'i <‘^"- •>''.^--^:й£ - . •» - %■ ^_.t чт *S- >fr" v.r*. Tr'. '■♦- .V V-t. "» ♦' Ji^ > A V- •/ .— ^4 .■^- /ЧГ. > . ic- i _• . Л •.‘i •— >*4 . -_S: ^^r<.< ;иб£- V^J 't^ .v5'. -г?^. ik’i »■' ■ 'ir^-'r^ -^“v........-^' >^ - * >^*. '^■* г *•► '•'Г t:::. f-t- iS 'S^ ' //X -Ч, r * •*V . ’^.' г ■5. 1 *, V :^*-js:- rX2 Ч . <4. .. > • %,'~'.,£rs‘- X ■- •-r. Л*.' '..л к ^ r - - tr. -'•i >£ . йР^:;о ■ •— Jf- Ji»:: - : rr«. 2'>v A Read the introduction. What harmful behaviours covered by the term ‘youth violence’ does the text mention? Can you add any more? —tfrfj.44b .-afaicaiMiifetwN^^ Without a doubt, youth violence is a problem worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are roughly 250,000 deaths per year for the 10-29 year old age group that result from crime. Youth violence has been diminishing in developed nations, but physical fighting is still quite common and anywhere from 8% to 40% of young people suffer from bullying. Naturally, any kind of violence is harmful to one's physical state of being, but youth violence in particular, because it occurs early in a person's development, can have a lasting and potentially devastating impact on mental well-being. To combat the problem, the WHO focuses on a number of initiatives, such as drawing attention to the problem as well as studying different types of violence in order to isolate specific solutions. The organization also works with agencies such as counselling centres, which help adolescents cope with their problems, and mental health organizations, which aid in stamping out the roots of youth violence before they grow. tv в Read the text quickly. Which way of tackling youth violence do you find most efficient/ inefficient? While much has been done over the years to address the issue of youth violencer parents, teachers, law enforcement officers and teenagers still face it on a daily basis. As the struggle continues*to*reduce violeiice among teens, it is becoming increasingly apparent that it takes not only the efforts of many peopl%ini the community, A .... •JV-, .'S* Every day inJ_ondon, nearly four youths are w victims of knife attacks and almost seven areJ = robbed at knifepoint. For those youths carrying * knives, clearly they are not considering the consequences and how it can shatter their;^ lives. Many youths that commit crimes do so®, for obvious reasons.such as money, В .a.. иазэй?-' London's Metropolitan Police decided to launch a campaign on YouTube in which viewers watch a series of films. After viewing a'clip, users can choose the next event, «effectively« deciding - -7,-py^-' iSTk^Krt-. . _ _. .-5^' an outcome. The series was‘createdi'to ehow young people the^consequeoces of their actions so that they will make betterdecisions *C,,.. . л-?5. 'i"<- ж J l6o Units 11 and 12 f In Glasgow, one district has enlisted the efforts of community groups to help youths and other residents battle drug addiction. The groups allow those who once misused drugs to learn new skills D.... Activities range from building sailboats, making furniture, participating in sport and volunteering in the community. The tasks give a sense of direction and purpose to the participants and as the programme has been successful, local officials are hoping to expand the effort to include the rest of the country. In Blackburn and Blackpool, northwest England, a charity has set up a site for teens to post photographs related to incidences of crime as well as youth problems in general. The site was developed in response to adolescents who told the charity that youth crime in the area was their most troubling issue. Young people have actually lent their voices to solutions on a range of social problems such as drugs, graffiti and neighbourhood pollution. Concerning the latter, teens suggested that the city clean out the rubbish bins more often - a quite practical solution, and tend to public gardens more often, The charity hopes to learn more about E ... and encourages teens to write about their experiences. In Devon, southeast England, a rehabilitation centre for adolescents claims to have an •• • astounding success rate concerning the reducggn pf repeat crime offenders. Less than 25% of young people admitted to the programme go on to commit another crime. The centre offers an 11-week course which the centre claims can reduce the number of youths who end up in prison. The programme's success has attracted national attention and government leaders have met with the programme's administrators to learn more about the centre and F .... C Complete gaps A-F with sentence parts 1-7. There is one extra sentence part you do not need to use. 1 when faced with such choices in real life 2 what drives teens to commit crimes in the first place 3 what makes its programme so successful 4 while getting their lives back on track 5 but also creative solutions to solve it 6 when they enrol in the programme 7 but a surprising number of them do it for fun D Answer the questions. 1 What two reasons are mentioned for youths carrying knives? 2 How does the series of YouTube videos work to reduce knife crime? 3 How does building a sailboat help with drug addiction? 4 Why did a charity develop a site for teens to post photographs of crime? 5 What do Blackburn and Blackpool teens want authorities to do more frequently? 6 What two indicators tell us that the programme in Devon is doing well? E Choose the correct word. 1 The city has launched / committed a campaign to reduce youth violence. 2 The centre offers programmes that help with drug consequences / addiction and other problems. 3 After years of drug misuse, Benjamin felt he had no feeling / sense of direction in his life. 4 Having responsibilities can help people with shattered lives get back on path / track. 5 Teachers and parents should ask young persons to provide / lend their voices concerning solutions to youth violence. 6 Paul visited a reduction / rehabilitation centre to treat his drug problem. F Your voice Is youth violence a problem in your community? Imagine you are organizing a discussion group for tackling youth violence. Who would you invite and what would you task each of them to do? l6l Progress check 6 • «a ' • ' bZ ~ • ■ ^■ -*' % - '4,'^ A Choose the correct option. 1 Why hasn’t Julie called yet? She should have arrived / arrive home by now. 2 Janice claims being / to be the fastest runner in her class. 3 The police won’t allow anyone go / to go into the house. 4 I’d like to buy this shirt, but I don’t have much / a lot cash on me. 5 It was such a / so good restaurant that we decided to book a table for the following week. 6 That’s a nice jacket, but it’s far too / so expensive. 7 Neither Seb nor / either Alison can come with us tomorrow. 8 I enjoy either / both jazz and pop music. 9 Don’t work so hard. Everyone / Someone needs a rest sometimes. 10 We don’t have nothing / anything to cook for lunch today. В Complete the sentences with words from the box. alibi • brand • clues • logo • motive • products sense • witnesses 1 Police have asked for... who may have seen the crime to contact them. 2 I find it silly to pay more for clothes just because of the ... name. 3 Justin spends so carelessly. Sometimes I think he’s got more money than ... . 4 The ... for Mercedes-Benz cars is one of the most famous in the world. 5 It’s difficult to understand the ... for crimes like arson. 6 Apart from a few fingerprints, the police haven’t found any other.... 7 What kind of... does your shop sell? 8 Jones might have committed the crime, but he has a perfect.... C Complete with a preposition. 1 A 39-year-old man has been accused ... arson 2 Excuse me, can I try ... this dress? 3 Alan was unfairly blamed ... breaking the computer. 4 These new trousers are too long and need to be taken .... 5 This skirt is too loose. I need to have it taken .... 6 A couple from London have been charged ... robbery. 7 One hundred euros for two tickets! I think you’ve been ripped .... 8 I don’t like this hat that I bought. I think I’ll take it ... . D Use the word in capitals to form one word that fits each sentence. 1 Don’t look at me so ... . I know you’re the culprit. 2 If you want to return an item to the shop, you’ll need a ... . 3 I wouldn’t trust him. He looks like a ... to me. 4 My uncle Robert is so ... that he’s got his own aeroplane. 5 There’s a great new shop nearby that sells ... like bracelets, earrings and scarves. 6 One thing I really hate is .... 7 I can’t afford to go out tonight. I’m totally.... 8 You can’t park here. It’s .... INNOCENCE RECEIVE CRIME LOAD ACCESS HONEST BREAK LEGAL -4) H •rf- .*5 : 162 Ik \ \ t- port ft t*' .•** Е Find and correct eight mistakes ГЧ Tft Cc Dear Sir/Madam, I recently ordered some jeans from your catalogue. When it arrived I found that one leg was short enough and the other was torn. I have tried speaking to one of your representatives about this, but no one answers the phone. For this reason, I have decided writing an email. Over the years I have spent much money with your company. Generally, your goods is excellent quality and I have had a few problems. However, I have been very disappointed by this latest purchase. I would like either a refund or a replacement. I hope hearing from you soon. Yours faithfully, Ann Grey F Compiete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. Use the word given. 1 I’m sure that Polly didn’t see us earlier. CAN’T Polly... us earlier. 2 My mum doesn’t allow me to wear make-up. LET My mum ... make-up. 3 It was such a heavy bag that it took two of us to carry. SO The ... that it took two of us to carry. 4 I don’t think these trousers are long enough. TOO I think these trousers .... 5 Both the colour and the size were wrong. NOR ... the size were right. 6 There is nothing we can do to help her. ISN’T There ... do to help her. 7 Andrew has forgotten that he borrowed my CDs REMEMBER Andrew ... my CDs. 8 This shirt is too small for me. DOESN’T This... me. Choose the best answer to compiete the text. Investigations are still underway into yesterday's robbery of a Jewellery store in Foley town centre. ’... got away with £10,000 worth of gold, diamonds and famous^... watches. Police have cordoned off the corner of Market Street near Bewley's department ^.. and no one is currently allowed to enter the area. *... believe that an employee may be one of the culprits. 'The criminals couldn't have known about the shop's side entrance ®... an employee had told them it was there,' said Detective Mike Holmes. Holmes also believes there ®... have been three members of the gang, with one waiting outside. AT.., Mrs Hazel Nutt, remembers seeing a ®... car parked near the store at the time of the robbery. However, she remembers neither the driver's ®... nor the vehicle's number plate. The police are still ’®... the area and it is too early to say Just when Market Street will reopen to the public. Л». b- .'.M* . .' 1 1 A Killers в Thieves C Arsonists D Burglars 2 A brand В logo C label D trademark 3 A shop В centre C market D store 4 A Judges В Solicitors C Investigators D Researchers 5 A if В unless C as long as D provided 6 A must В should C couldn’t Dwill 7 A witness В suspect C victim D lawyer 8 A sceptical В stolen C suspicious D doubtful 9 A outlook В appearance C configuration D resemblance 10 A determining В evaluating C testing D examining Unified State Exam Grammar and Vocabuiary A22-A28 pi97 163 positive negative questions 1 You We They live .... 1 You We They do not (don’t) live .... Do 1 you we they live ... ? He He he She lives .... She □oes not live .... Does she live ... ? It It (doesn t) it Stative verbs can be divided into the following categories: • feelings: love, hate, like, want, prefer • senses: see, feel, smell, taste, sound, weigh • mental processes: believe, imagine, know, mean, realize, recognize • possession and relationships: belong, include. Involve, depend on, owe, own • appearance: appear, seem, look like • existence: be, exist Some of these verbs can be used in both tenses, but the meaning changes. The present simple meaning is usually connected with the senses or with mental states, and the present continuous meaning is usually an action or process. present simple present continuous smell These flowers smell lovely. Why is your dog smelling my shoes? appear There appears to be a problem. Melanie Spears is appearing at the Palladium theatre tomorrow. feel This material feels very soft. Why are you feeling under the sofa? Have you lost something? taste My soup doesn’t taste very nice. I’m just tasting the sauce to see if it needs salt. weigh How much do you weigh? I’m weighing your luggage to check it’s not overweight. think 1 don’t think that’s a good idea. What are you thinking about? look You look great! What are you looking for? Note: We use can with the verbs see, hear or smell to describe something happening now. / can hear someone coming up the stairs. Unit 2 Past simple positive negative questions 1 You 1 You 1 you He He did not live he She lived .... She ■ • ■ • Did she live ... ? It It (didn’t) it We We we They They they We use the past simple to talk about: • a habit in the past My sister and I fought a lot as children. • a state in the past Did you live in Naples before moving to Rome? • an action completed at a specific time in the past Joe and I didn’t go out last night. • the main events in a story He came, he saw, he conquered. Past continuous Note: • We can use adverbs of frequency and other present simple time words with the past simple often, sometimes, always, rarely, never, etc. / often went to my friend’s house after school. We walked to school together every day. • We can also use did in past simple statements for emphasis. / did win. Who told you I didn't? positive negative questions 1 He 1 He was not Was 1 he She was She (wasn’t) she It living .... It living .... it You We They were You We They were not (weren’t) Were you we they living ... ? 165 ■ J. mine. yours. his. This flat is hers. ours. yours. theirs. Unit 3 Present perfect simple positive negative questions 1 You We They have (Ve) been .... studied ... . gone .... 1 You We They have not (haven’t) been .... studied ... . gone .... Have 1 you we they been ... ? studied 9 • • • ■ gone ... ? He She It has (‘s) He She It has not (hasn’t) Has he she it We use the present perfect simple: • for an action in the recent past that has a result in the present She has painted her room. I have bought a puppy. • for a situation or state that was true in the past and is still true today. Max has known me for years. • for an action completed repeatedly in the past with time references up to now Present perfect continuous Michaela has been in detention three times this year. • to talk about an experience at a time in the past which is not mentioned I’ve been to Paris. Have you? Note: Phrases such as It's the first/second/etc time ... are followed by the present perfect simple It's the first time I've been on a plane. positive negative questions 1 You We They have (‘ve) been studying. 1 You We They have not (haven’t) been studying. Have 1 you we they been studying? Has he she it He She It has not (hasn’t) He She It has i‘s) We use the present perfect continuous: • an action continuing up to the present moment She has been painting her room this morning. \ • for an action that has occurred again and again up to the present That squirrel’s been visiting our garden every day since the beginning of summer. • an action stopping just before the present moment I'm out of breath because I’ve been running to get here in time. Note: The present perfect continuous is often used with for and since. I’ve been working non-stop since eight this morning. The children have been playing in the garden for hours. have been or have gone Have been suggests that someone went somewhere, but has now come back. Have you been to the shops today? Have gone suggests that someone went somewhere, but has not come back yet. Where’s Greg gone? He’s gone to the beach. (and he’s still there) Present perfect and past simple We use the past simple with: • past actions or events that have no connection to the present Dinosaurs died out many millions of years ago. • past actions or events that took place at a specific, named moment in time / bought this mobile phone last January / yesterday / in June / three days ago. We use the present perfect simple or continuous with: • past actions and events that have a result in the present or future I’ve read that book, (so now I know what it’s about) I’ve been watching a lot of French films recently. (so now I know more about them) 167 Time expressions with perfect tenses * usually used with the present perfect simple only example notes for We’ve lived here for ten years. I’ve been waiting for an hour! for + a period of time (ever) since Jane and 1 have been friends ever since we were small. I’ve been playing the piano since 2000. since + a point in time so far How many times have you eaten so far today? * means ‘up to now’ first / second / third time This is the second time I’ve tried to pass this exam. ★ two / three / four times I’ve read this book four times. 1 love it. ★ yet Haven’t you finished yet? Mum hasn’t got back yet. * usually negative or question form already I’ve already cooked dinner. You haven’t finished already, have you? ★ just Kevin has just gone out. * something that has very recently occurred still They still haven’t received your letter. * usually negative form ever Have you ever eaten snails? This is the best book I’ve ever read. J * usually in questions about experiences or superlative sentences never I’ve never eaten snails. ★ Unit 4 Past perfect simple positive negative questions 1 You He She It We You They had (’d) studied. r 1 You He She It We You They had not (hadn’t) studied. Had 1 you he she it we you they studied? We use the past perfect: • for a completed action that happened before another past event / had just got home when the phone rang. She told her teacher that she had not done her homework. • for a situation or state before a moment in the past We’d lived next to the gym for a couple of months before I decided to join. • a completed action where the important thing is the result at a moment in the past We didn't feel like playing Scrabble because we had just finished a long game of Monopoly. Note: • Past perfect is often used with words and phrases such as: before, after, when, already, as soon as, just, for, recently, still, yet, since. It was (not) the first time ..., etc. It was the second time I'd been on a plane. • After we have used the past perfect simple once, we often then use the past simple instead of continuing to use the past perfect. / had already had one driving lesson, which was great, and I knew immediateiy that I wanted to get my driving licence. l68 Past perfect continuous positive negative questions 1 You He She It We You They 1 ! hoH /’H\ been had (d) 1 j • ' ' studying. 1 1 You He I She had not It (hadn’t) We You They been studying. Had 1 you he she it we you they been studying? We use the past perfect continuous: • for something that continued for some time up to another past event or situation The phone finally rang. I had been waiting for it to ring all day. I was excited. I had been waiting for something good to happen for a long time. Comparatives and superlatives We use comparatives to compare two things. It is hotter today than yesterday. This film was more interesting than her first one These trainers are iess expensive than your shoes. We use superlatives to compare more than two things. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Nicole is the most popular girl in the class. Carol is the least sporty girl in the class. Regular adjectives comparative superlative short adjectives -er -est wide wider widest short adjectives -Г -St ending in -e nicer nicest nice short adjectives change -y to -/ change -y to -/ + ending in -y + -er -est early earlier earliest one syllable double the last double the last adjectives with consonant + -er consonant + -est one vowel and hotter hottest one consonant hot long adjectives more/less + most/least + beautiful adjective adjective more beautiful most beautiful Irregular adjectives good better best bad worse worst far further/farther furthest/farthest for a past action that continued over a period of time until another action interrupted it / had been working hard on the project when it was cancelled. to show that an action was not complete / had been trying to call her all morning. Regular adverbs quietly more/less + adverb more quietly most/least + adverb most quietly often more/less + adverb more often most/least + adverb most often Irregular adverbs badly worse worst early earlier earliest far further/farther furthest/farthest fast faster fastest hard harder hardest long longer longest near nearer nearest well better best Irregular quantifiers little less [ least much/many more most We can also use {not) as + adjective + as to compare two things. His second book is as good as his first. (The first book and the second book are the same quality.) This film is not as bad as her first one. (Her first film was worse.) We can also link two actions or situations using comparatives. the + comparative + the + comparative The higher a plane flies the better. The more I see her the more I like her. 169 Units Expressing the future: will, be going to, present simple, present continuous, be about to will We use will for: • offers, promises or suggestions I’ll do my homework. I promise I won’t play computer games. My dad will give you a lift if you like. Note: shall is used instead of will in the first person question form. Shall I bring in the shopping? Shall we lay the table? Щ • spontaneous decisions Thanks for asking me to come. I’ll be there. • predictions / believe that one day I will travel to America. be going to We use be going to for: • intentions I’m going to study abroad when I leave school. * Expressing the future: future continuous Note: intend to is also used to talk about intentions. / intend to study abroad when I leave school. • predictions based on what we know, believe, can see or hear Look at the sun. It’s going to be another hot day. Present simple We use present simple to talk about timetables or scheduled events. The plane leaves at nine. Easter Sunday falls in April this year. Present continuous We use present continuous to talk about plans and arrangements. / can’t go this weekend, Tm having a party. Note: plan to is also used to talk about plans. / plan to visit Spain and Portugal when I’m in Europe next year. be about to We use be about to to talk about something that is going to happen very soon. Quick! The train is about to leave. It’s nine o’clock and the film is about to begin. positive negative questions 1 You He She It We You They will (’ll) be travelling. 1 You He She It We You They will not (won’t) be travelling. Will ! 1 1 you he she be it 1 travelling? we you they We use future continuous to talk about, ah activity that will be in progress at a certain time in the future. This time next month I’ll be travelling through Africa. Expressing the future: future perfect positive * negative questions 1 You He She It We You They t will (‘II). have gone. 1 You of will not She , It 1 (won t) ' have gone. You They Will 1 you he she it we you they have gone? We use future perfect to talk about an activity that will be complete before a certain time in the future. We often use the word by with this tense. By the age of 30,1 will have travelled widely. Note: may, might and could are used to make predictions that we are less sure about. Jane might come hiking, with us. By 2030, peopie may be holidaying on the moon. In the future, you could travel to the universe. Time clauses In time clauses referring to the future, time expressions such as as soon as, when, before and until should be followed by present simple or present perfect simple tense. I’ll do it as soon as I get home. I’ll ring you when I arrive. Don’t do a thing before I get there. Please don’t do anything until I’ve called you. Question tags affirmative main verb You’re from Germany, negative tag aren’t you? positive tag are you? negative main verb You aren’t from Germany, If the main verb is be, then the verb in the tag is . also be in the same tense. Jane isn’t happy, is she? You were at the cinema last night, weren’t you? If the main verb includes an auxiliary verb or modal, then we use the auxiliary verb or modal in the tag in the same tense. You don’t eat meat, do you? It isn’t raining, is it? They haven’t arrived yet, have they? They weren’t doing their homework, were they? Mike’s been working all morning, hasn’t he? There won’t be snow this year, will there? must arrive on time, mustn’t she? If the main verb is in the present simple or past simple affirmative form, then we use the auxiliary verbs do or did in the tag. John paints well, doesn’t he? You lived in Norway, didn’t you? We use question tags to: • check that something is true This is your book, isn’t it? • check that someone agrees with us This isn’t a very good film, is it? • request something politely You couldn’t open the window, could you? Rising intonation means we are not sure'about the answer. * It isn’t time to go already, is it? / Falling intonation means we are sure of the answer and we expect agreement. , You’re Barbara’s brother, aren’t you? ч Indirect questions We use indirect questions to be more polite. Can you tell me what time the next train gets here? (polite) / wonder if you could tell me what time the next train gets here, (very polite) Some indirect questions need question marks. It depends on the first phrase. with a question mark without a question mark Can/Couldyou tell me ... ? Do you know ... ? Do you think you can/ could tell me ... ? Would you mind telling me 9 • • • • / wonder if you can/could tell me ... 1 wonder if you could let me know ... 1 wonder if you know ... 1 would like to know ... All indirect questions need a question word or whether/if phrase question word; whether/if subject + verb / wonder If you would/could tell me how long it will take. Do you know whether/if any changes can be made to the ticket? Would you mind telling me what the cost will be? We do NOT use the question form in indirect questions. Direct question: What time is it? Indirect question: Could you tell me what time it is? If the indirect question phrase is followed by a noun or noun phrase, a question word, whether and if are not used. ✓ Could you please tell me the price of the holiday package? X Could you please tell me what the price of the holiday package? If a question word is used, then a verb is needed. Could you please tell me what the price of the holiday package is? Unit 6 Time and place 172 Units Zero, first and second conditionals Zero conditional {if + present tense + present tense) We use zero conditional to describe a situation that is generally true. If you don’t sleep enough, you don’t feel good the next day Note: We can also use when or whenever to express something that is always true. When/Whenever Jake calls, it’s always bad news. First conditional {if + present tense + will/might/may/can/couid/e\c + bare infinitive) {if + present tense + imperative) We use first conditional • to describe a situation that is real or likely in the future If I see Toby, I will tell him about the party. If you tell me what’s wrong, I can help you. • to describe a situation that is certain in the future When I see Tom, I’ll tell him. As soon as I get home. I’ll call you. \Ne won’t start until you get here. • to give instructions about present or future situations If Harry calls, tell him about next week. Second conditional {if + past simple or past continuous + would/might/ could + bare infinitive) We use second conditional to describe • a situation that is impossible, unlikely or hypothetical in the present or future If I was taller, I would become a model. If I wasn’t so short, I could become a model. • a situation that we can imagine, but probably won’t happen If Madonna came, I would definitely go to see her. Note: • We can say If I were . If I were rich,... • We can also say If I were you, ... to give advice. If I were you, I would study more and go out less. • We can also use could in the if clause. If I could meet anyone famous, I would meet Cristiano Ronaldo. . instead of If I was ... , • When the if clause comes first, it has a comma after it. If you come to my house tonight, I will give you the books. • When the if clause comes second, we don’t use a comma. / will give you the books if you come to my house tonight. Conditional links Instead of if: provided that/as long as Provided (that)/As long as it’s all right with you, I’ll bring a friend to the party. Instead of if not: * unless Unless someone is late, the meeting will start on time. For questions: suppose what if Suppose it rains, what will we do then? What if It rains? What will we do then? like and as We use like: • to ask for descriptions or information about someone or something - What’s she like? - She’s very nice. • to say that people or things are similar or the same She iooks iike Angelina Jolie. She behaves iike she was the queen. • to give an example Some people, like Jane and Archie, had a really good time. We use as: • to make comparisons. Frank isn’t as nice as his brother. We all need regular exercise, but a healthy diet is just as important. Lyuda's suggestion was almost exactly the same as mine. • to describe a job, role, use or appearance Debbie works as a PE teacher. An electric drill can be used as a screwdriver. The painter created a portrait of the princess a child. • to refer to what is known 4s everyone knows, the farming industry is in serious difficulties. Unit? Modals Modal verbs can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would and the semi-modal ought to: • have only one form He can play the guitar well. • are followed by bare infinitive (simple or continuous) or the bare perfect infinitive Sam must be home by now. He must have been in a lot of pain. • are made negative using not or n’t I might not come tonight. You shouldn’t drink too much coffee. • do not have an infinitive form (you need to use another word or phrase) ✓ / plan to be able to come to the party. X / plan to can come to the party. Note: The semi-modals have to and need to work in the same way as other verbs. Do you really need to buy that? I didn’t have to get up this morning, but I did. Expressing ability: can, could (in the past), be able to Josephine can really dance. I could play the piano when I was young. They weren’t able to find any tickets. Expressing possibility: can, may, might, could Athens can get too hot during July and August. It may rain later. They might get here a bit late. Could that be my old friend from school? Expressing certainty: can’t, must (based on some evidence) That can’t be John over there. He’s in London today. That must be a tasty cake. It’s homemade. They must be eating out tonight. They’re not answering. Expressing obligation / necessity: must (personal obligation), have to (obligation from someone else, eg rules), needn’t I must get more exercise. You have to be here at ten o’clock exactly. Do you have to wear that terrible dress? You needn’t do the washing-up. I’ll put them In the dishwasher. 0 Note: When we need to show tense or use an infinitive we use have to. We had to get to the port by 9 am. Mustn’t means forbidden or not allowed but don’t have to or needn’t means not necessary. You mustn’t eat anything before an operation. You don’t have to / needn’t eat your breakfast if you aren’t hungry. Giving or asking for advice: should, ought to You ought to get more rest. Should I take this bandage off? Giving or asking for permission: may, can, could {may is more polite than can or could) Can I go out tonight. Mum? May I take one of these delicious biscuits? Mum said 1 could come with you! Note: had better is an expression which has a similar meaning to the modal verb should. It’s usually used in the contracted form. It’s late. We’d better get home. Third conditional sentences {If + past perfect -t- would/could/may/might + have -\-past participle) We use third conditional sentences to talk hypothetically about the past. We imagine situations or circumstances that didn’t really happen, and wonder what might have been the result. If he hadn’t left fingerprints, the police wouldn’t have found him. If you had got here earlier, we may have caught the train. 175 Unit 10 Relative clauses Relative clauses give us extra information about something/someone or identify which particular thing/person we are talking about. Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns: who, that, whom (people) People who/that live on islands eat a lot of fish. The woman to whom 1 spoke is sitting over there. which, that (things) The food which/that is in the fridge has gone off. where (places) The restaurant where 1 work serves all kinds of food. when (times and dates) 1 remember the day when 1 first met her. whose (possessions) Is she the woman whose bag was stolen? why (reasons) 1 can’t understand why you don’t learn to cook. 176 Defining reiative ciauses The boy who is sitting next to the door is looking at you. Defining relative clauses: • tell us what exactly is being talked about (the boy next to the door) • give us essential information that cannot be removed from the sentence • do not contain commas • don’t need the relative pronoun if it is the object of the clause That’s the man (who/that) I told you about. Note: who or which can be replaced by that (less formal) The boy that is sitting next to the door is ... Non-defining relative clauses Harvey Jones, who is sitting next to the door, is looking at you. Non-defining relative clauses: • give us extra information about something/ someone • can be easily left out • are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas • must contain a relative pronoun Notes: which can refer to the entire previous clause. The food we ordered was very good, which pleased us Immensely. If we are referring to the previous clause as a whole, we cannot use the pronoun that instead of which. X The food we ordered was very good, that pleased us immensely. Other ways to introduce relative clauses Where can be replaced by in/at/from which. The restaurant where she had her dinner was expensive. The restaurant at which she had her dinner was expensive. The restaurant which she had her dinner at was expensive, (less formal) Other prepositions can also be used with relative pronouns. My friends, two of whom will be coming tonight, are all lovely people. The person to whom I gave the parcel told me you weren’t in. The day on which/when we won our match was a day to remember. Unreal past Past tenses do not always refer to past time. With some structures we use past tense to refer to the present or the future or to a general situation. • We use the past simple with / wish. If only. It's (high/about) time, would rather to talk about hypothetical situations in the present and future. / wish I was beautiful. if oniy we didn’t have to do so much homework. It’s high time we started going out more! I would rather you didn’t spend so much money. • We can also use the past continuous with wish and if only to talk about a hypothetical situation in the future. / wish you weren’t leaving this Saturday. (Fact: You are leaving this Saturday.) • We use the past perfect with wish and if only to talk about something we regret doing or not doing in the past. / wish / If only we had not told Tania about Steve. (Fact: We told Tania about Steve.) • We use would + bare infinitive with wish and if only when we want to criticize someone else’s behaviour (but not our own). / wish/lf only George wouldn’t have so many accidents. (Fact: George often has accidents.) • We only use unreal past with I’d rather when we are talking about someone else. When we talk about ourselves, we use bare infinitive. I’d rather you left now. I’d rather leave now. • I wish is used for things we know are not true, but / hope is used for things we want to be true, and we think they are possible. / hope I pass the exam. (Fact: It’s very possible I will pass the exam.) / wish I was/were older. (Fact: I’m not older.) Unit 11 Modal perfect We can use medals to talk about the past by using this pattern: These verbs are followed by the -ing form. / should have gone to the party last night, They must have arrived home by now. We can also use the continuous form of the modal perfect: / should have been studying. They must have been driving too fast. may, might and couid for possibility (To make guesses about what happened in the past, or about recently completed actions and events.) They may not have received our letter yet. I’m not sure, but John might have left this parcel for you. must and can’t for certainty Someone must have stolen my wallet. You can’t have seen Sally yesterday. She’s been in New York since last week. should and ought to for criticism You ought to have studied harder for your exams. They shouldn’t have bought that enormous house. It’s too big for them. should and shouldn’t for regret / shouldn’t have been so rude to her. We should have invited him to the party. could for possibility about a hypothetical past (To talk about things which we know didn’t happen in the past, but which were possible.) Be careful! You could have broken a window with that ball. My mum could have been a ballerina, but she became a teacher instead. Infinitives and -ing forms These verbs are followed by the full infinitive (with to). afford expect prepare agree fail pretend appear happen promise arrange help refuse ask hope seem attempt intend tend be able/ learn want pleased, etc manage wish choose need would like claim offer decide plan admit deny look forward to appreciate discuss mention avoid. dislike mind be capable of enjoy miss be good/bad at feel like practise be interested in finish succeed in can’t help give up suggest can’t stand imagine talk about consider involve think of delay keep I don’t mind waking up early. These verbs can be followed by either full infinitive or -ing, with no change in meaning. begin hate love start can't continue intend prefer bear/stand It started raining. It started to rain. Some verbs can be followed by either full infinitive or -ing, but there is a change in meaning. stop I stopped to read. = pause an activity to do something else / stopped visiting my friend. = stop an activity remember He usually remembers to buy bread. = do something that was planned He remembers buying fresh bread every morning. = a memory of doing something forget She forgot to buy milk. = not do something that was planned She hadn’t forgotten living in the country. = not remember a past event or experience (usually in negative form) try I tried to cut my own hair. = make an effort to achieve something / tried cutting my own hair. = do an experiment regret I regret to inform you that the headmistress will be leaving. = (formal) be sorry to give bad news / regret going to that hairdresser - my hair looks terrible. = be sorry about something that has happened Modal verbs {can, must, should, etc) are always followed by the infinitive without to or perfect infinitive: They must wear seat belts. You should have called me. This MP3 player appears to be broken. 177 too and enough Too means ‘more than enough’, ‘more than necessary’ or ‘more than is wanted’. It is different from very. She is too lazy to work. She walks too quickly. I can’t keep up. You’ve given me too much money. It didn’t cost that much. There are too many people here. There’s nowhere to sit. Ruth is good enough to get into university. She’s not fast enough to compete against others. Have you got enough money? both ... and, neither... nor, each, every, all, none We use both ... and to talk about two things in a positive way. Both the food and the deserts are great at this restaurant. I read two different books over the holidays. Both books were good. We use neither... nor to talk about two things in a negative way. Neither Shelly nor Heather were at the party. (Shelly and Heather didn’t go to the party.) Shelly wasn’t at the party. Neither was Heather. Each person I know is a good person, (focuses on the members of a group) Every person I know is a good person, (talks about members of a group in a general way) Each of the people I know is a good person. All (of) the people I know are good people, (talks about all members of a group) Most (of) the people I know are good people. (talks about a large number of a group) None of the people I know are good people. (talks about all the members of a group as a whole, but in a negative way) Indefinite pronouns negatives and questions affirmative sentences anyone Has anyone seen my keys? Anyone interested in acting, call this number. anywhere Did you go anywhere yesterday? anything He never does anything to help. If you’re rich, you can buy anything you want. no one No one likes Sally. nowhere There’s nowhere to sit - we’ll have to stand. nothing There’s nothing here for me. I’m leaving. someone Someone told me you’re moving house. somewhere J 1 know 1 left my keys somewhere in my room. something There’s something moving under the bed! everyone 1 knew everyone at the party. everywhere I’ve looked everywhere for my keys - they’re nowhere to be found. everything Put everything away, pleasel Note: All the pronouns with -one can use -body instead. someone - somebody, anyone - anybody, no one - nobody, everyone - everybody When we need a pronoun after using -one or -body words, we use theylthem. If someone calls, tell them I’m busy and that I’ll call them back. Anybody can do it if they know how. Speaking database Unit 1: Ways to expand • When you are asked a yes/no question, don’t simply answer with yes or no. Expand your reply with a little more information. Are you good at languages? ... No, not really, but I enjoy learning them. Have you ever flown? ... Yes, I have. I flew to Italy last year with my family. m angua chunks Г-: Сч' J Ways to expand Have you got... ? Yes, I have. In fact, I've got... / No, I haven't, but. Do you... ? Yes, I do. I usually ... /No, I don't, because ... Is ? Yes, it is, and actually ... / No, it isn't. Although ... Does... ? Yes, she does, and she's... / No, she doesn't, and the reason is that... Have you ever... ? Yes, I have. It was ... / No, I haven't, but I'd love to because... • • Unit 2: Impressions • When describing pictures, use phrases that make it clear you’re talking about your opinions and impressions. uaqe Ways to expand chunks b,_ It looks like it could be a farm. It's a very peaceful place. I get the impression that the first place is in a wet country. It makes me think of the Amazon rainforest I think it's probably a dangerous place to visit. ■; ....... ' ■ г , - rf. Unit3: Exchanging information and discussing • A discussion is not a speech. Make sure that you share your ideas and invite your partner to speak too. angua Bi chun|« Expressing opinions I think... I believe ... In my opinion ... 1 don't know if... If you ask me... Sy. I --o ■I.'.-J.il,. .. dfsagreei^ I think you're right. I'm not so sure. Well, yes and no. I wouldn't say so, no. ' • • a • .■ s. ■■ 1 " ^ ■ii. -j]"" Inviting others to speak............ What do you think? What do you reckon about... ? Wouldn't you agree? Don't you think? What's your opinion on ... ? Question tags; isn't it? / don t you?, etc ■■4j-K—.i rSjySTYj i8o I/ f 1 Unit 4: Agreeing and suggesting • When you have a conversation, be polite. Show you are listening - look at your partner, nod, agree or disagree. Say things like aha, right, yes. Language chun^^ —until Making How about.... What about... ? We should ... We could ... Can I suggest... ?^ Why don't we agreement I agree. Alright. Yeah, OK. Perfect! Exactly! Absolutely! You're right. That sounds like a good idea. '•-•• •• • ■'??7v.“=v.SS^ ''' ■' 7 * V*;*T * Unit 5: Uncertainty Use expressions like the ones in Language chunks to show others that you are not sure about something. • Models like might, may, can and could make opinions and suggestions sound less ‘strong’. As a result, you are easier to agree with and more persuasive. Giving opinioiis Yes, I suppose you're right. I'm not sure ... They might like that... They may not... 1 don't know, I think... Maybe... Perhaps... Making tentative suggestions I suppose we could ... We could ..., couldn't we? They can... (Perhaps) we could... It might be better to... t Unit 6: Asking and answering politely • Remember that in formal situations you need to ask and answer questions politely. One way to ask politely is to use indirect questions. Lan -J ua Polite questions............ I was wondering if... I'd like to know if... Could you tell me ... Would you mind telling me... Do you happen to know if... Polite ways to say yes Of course. Absolutely. Certainly. Ш 7-’:^ Polite ways to __ ^ • • • • ■ a no a a a a a a I'm afraid not. Unfortunately I'm sorry, but... • • a a a a a • * • • a a • ■ • • a Unit 7: Comparing pictures ■ When comparing pictures, you must discuss both the similarities and the differences. Langua if- pra*i5 Talking about similarity R Talking about ....................S difference Similarly... likewise ... Ш contrast... in the same way ... p on the other hand ... whereas... however... Ш- Unit 8; Interrupting When you’re having a discussion, it’s all right to interrupt as long as you do it politely and don’t do it too often! ^ngua f: -- Interrupting another speaker ............... Excuse me. Sorry,...»but... May I say something? Sorry for interrupting .. 4 Acknowledging interruption Of course. Please do. That's all right. Go ahead. ■•'' •v«v i8i Unit?; Supporting opinions Whenever you express your opinion, give your reasons for it. The discussion is not only about your opinion. Listen and react to your partner’s opinion too. Lan chunks Supporting your oP'P'?'™ .......... That’s because... The reason 1 say that is ... For that reason ... So... Since... As... Reacting to opinions I see what you mean. I understand what you're getting at You've got a point there. That's a good idea. Do you think so? I'm not so sure. Unit 11: Clarification • It is not a problem if you don’t understand what someone says, even in an exam. Just ask politely for clarification. Lan li chunks^ Asking for c|arificatiori......... Could you explain what... means? I'm not sure what you mean. Would you mind repeating that, Could you say that again, please? agreement Aha... I think you're right. Hmm. That's true. Absolutely. Exactly. I see what you mean. Unit 10: Expressing preferences When you have to talk about preferences, use expressions like the ones in the Language chunks box to vary the way you express yourself. Remember to invite your partner to express his/her preferences, too. m angua chunks ЗЙМЬ-- Asking about preference ............ ............. Do you prefer X or Y.' What would you ratl^er have, X or Y. Which do you think is best? Which do you prefer? Would(n't) you rather... (than). • -=л- r--’: Л E^pi'essing preference I'd prefer (not) to... I prefer X to Y... I'd rather do X than Y... I'd rather not have ... Unit 12: Hesitation and expressing interest • When you’re pausing to think of ideas, don’t drag out words or pause for too long. Fill your hesitations with expressions like the ones in the Language chunks box. • If you’re having a conversation, make sure you show you’re listening to your partner(s). You can do this by expressing interest, surprise, etc in what your partner says. t^ngua a chunks Hesitating Umm Expressing interest in says minute Really? That sounds great / wonderful / nice / good I know what you mean . I see... I can understand that Wow! Why's that? That's interesting! 182 г Pairwork J 1 I Г Unit 5, page 60, Dive in! 1b 2d За 4d ЩВ . .ь.**..с* Unit 6/ page 75, Speaking, Exercise E Student A I You want to book an entertainer for your school Christmas concert. Your partner is the entertainers’manager. First Speak to the entertainers* manager and find out this information: • what they do ; - - . _ • when they are available • their fee .....'У.; 7 Then Choose the best entertainer for your concert. Explain why you made your choice. «шгвШЖ' /-J ■'f fc'-l Bobbie Bright Unit 7, page 91,’Speaking, Exercise F Student B’s photos: I Compare the photos and say what feeling the people’s facial expressions communicate. Unit 11, page 143, Say it right! Exercise G Student A: t • The pyramids are in Brazil. • Tom Cruise is Greek. • Carrots grow on trees. 6- 183 Writing database «ft Cl Writing: !■ !'■■ I- orma! email / letter An Example question You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Tony who writes: really like to start a school magazine. I know you've ^ot some experience. Can you ^ive me advice? How o-ften should we brin^ out the magazine? Where could we get the money to make it? Should I sell the magazine or give it away? In other news, I've recently entered an essaywriting contest... ■:i3.Maste»63Syi : Write a letter to Tom. : In your letter : - answer his questions I — ask three questions about the essay-writino : contest : Write 100-140 words. I Remember the rules of letter writing. • f jAf Ф' Ж 4ii i: •f4V' •sc Model answer 184 use first names J........ be natural and friendly use topic sentences add some extra information ■ N refer back to the writing task . Hi Tony, « Thanks for your letter. I'm happy to hear that you're starting a school magazine. I hope I can help' ^ To start, I surest you bring out the magazine every two weeks. That will give you enough time to prepare the magazine, as it takes about ten days to make eacb.issu^ If I were you, I'd ask my parents to help me out with the costs in the beginning,And'Thstead of giving them away, why don t you sell them very cheaply? ...... vay, wny ^ ente№g-ari--essay-writing contest. What will you be writing about? Where will the winners..es5ayappear? What will you receive as an award? ^ _ Js this.№ough1hformation for you? Let me know if you need more. Good luck with your project Bye for now, -------------------------------- Katya ...............I sign off in an informal way J r«-T, - successfully nWiruyiV- • - Write in an INFORMAL STYLE -use contractions, abbreviations, phrasal verbs and expressions. ORGANIZE your email logically using the questions. Use DIRECT QUESTIONS. Begin and end APPROPRIATELY. Ш Lingua ’Й-. h-- J 4 **txiWVi Starting an inform^ .......... Hi..., Thanks for your message. Dear, How are things? Hello ..., Great to hear from you. 5- J Giving advice Why don't you ... ? What we did was to ... I suggest you ... You should try... You might like to ... If I were you, I'd ... -*• -- ■■frf jtv n - •- Finishing off an informal email Hope to hear from you soon, Take care. Bye for now. All the best. Love, I'K'^ Closing exP'’®**'®”?. Let me know... Well, got to go now. wt hello to -z; Ш-': • • • Writing: An article Example question You see this announcement in your school magazine. Write your article in 120-180 words. Model answer : Write about your city, j town or viliage. : • Where do you live? : • What does it have to offer? ; • Why is it a brilliant place to visit? : • What can you see there? ; We will publish the best article : here next month. Ф give your article a title use questions to get the readers' attention separate your ideas into paragraphs ' * •! give your opinion My City I live in Rome, which is the capital city of my country, Italy. As a large city, it has all the benefits that large cities have. But what <... makes my city a special place to visit? Its history and its people. Rome has a very long history and, as a result, it has many monuments and ancient ruins that are thousands of years old. One of the most famous archaeological sites in the world, the Colosseum, is located in the centre of the city. Millions of peop e from all over the world come to Rome to see these ruins an to visit all the museums my city has to offer. Another special thing about my city is its people. People from all over Italy live here and recently it has become a very multicultura city. As a result, throughout the year there are many cultural events and international music festivals to attend. ■ As far as I'm concerned, Rome is a fabulous place to visit. It has a lot to offer you no matter how old you are or what your interests are. keep your introduction short, but interesting develop your ideas with examples or explanations I ---------------s include a short conclusion Wjrr'': lingua !Bi chunks Give your article a TITLE. Write four PARAGRAPHS: an introduction, two content paragraphs and a conclusion. Develop one topic in each paragraph and give EXAMPLES. Write RELEVANT information. Use an INFORMAL or NEUTRAL style and be consistent. Make it INTERESTING - ask questions, give your opinion or use a personal angle. Adding/Extend ing points moreover furthermore and also in addition Contrasting ideas however whether but although in spite of on the one hand / on the other hand Expressing reason and result as a result since because because of as Giving your opinion To begin with... I think another important benefit... As far as I'm concerned ... What I mean is ... ЩШ Talking about a building It is situated/located in ... It was built by ... It was completed in ... It was designed by... fesr.. >4sp« W? .:fSiatdS • • • • • • • • • 185 186 Writing: An essay Example question Comment on the following statement Mobile phones offer a wide range of benefits with almost no danger to users. What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement? Write 200-250 words. m.' Use the following plan; - make an introduction (state the problem) - express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion - express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion - explain why you don't agree with the opposing opinion - make a conclusion restating your position • • 9ЖЛ Ш.ЛЯ9 МЛМ 9ЛМ ЖЩЛЛ.ЖЛ 9.9 МЛЩЖЛ 9Л 9 Щ.Л. 9 9 9Л,МЛ ЛЛ 9 ЖЛ • fAodel answer introduce the topic and make your opinion clear divide your essay into separate paragraphs link your paragraphs and ideas • H • • • * • • restateyoar position Almost everyone these days owns a mobile phone. There are many benefits to having one. I believe, though, that people must be responsible when using them, and there is even some danger if they are used improperly. In my opinion, people should use their mobile phones more wisely. For example, you can be in a public place and someone nearby may take a call and start speaking loudly for ten minutes. What is more, there are many people who use mobile phones while driving, which can cause distraction. Of course, others may say how mobile phones are very.cony.enient..... ^ ^ .............................. You can speak with a.frierKi orcoHeague at any time wherever you are. Furthermore, they are a good way to stay in touch with others. For example, if you're running late to meet a friend, it is easy to call them and let them know. ► However, I believe we have a responsibility to others when using mobile phones. It is rude to have long phone conversations in ■public sharing private information with people who don't want to hear it. Furthermore, there is a danger in talking on the phone while driving, as the driver will pay less attention to the road and possibly hit another vehicle or even a person. . In conclusion, I believe mobile phones offer many conveniences and are useful in daily life. That said, we must be considerate of others when we use them, and we must use them safely as well. -'«»* « • • support your arguments Щ-s Ш 3?; • Ш Lan m PLAN your essay - think of a few good ideas that are relevant to the topic. Write your opinion in the INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION. ORGANIZE your essay into five paragraphs. Give EXAMPLES to support your arguments. Use FORMAL LANGUAGE and LINKING EXPRESSIONS. ua chunks I-V’C, ....ra introdi^ Most people agree that... ide Some believe that... Щ FmhermZZ...•"* can often be... Because... •Гт T'JfU.' Linking paragraphs On the one hand,... On the other hand,... In conclusion,... Furthermore,. As a result... This means... What is more... Ч.-, ■ 'f"?.' rSLi' !fi - П|-1Г,ШГТЯГ' ^ Giving your opinion I think... I believe ... In my opinion... 'Sr PSErSaw-— ПЙ. - Writing: A story Example question Your school magazine is running a short story competition. For the competition you must write a story which ends with the words: ‘Oh, it’s only you!’ I said with relief. Write your story in 120-180 words. Model answer start with a short, surprising sentence use direct speech for drama A midnight shock I woke up with a start. My room was very dark, but I managed to see the time on the dock next to my bed. It was four in the morning. What ha woken me? A few moments later I understood. There was a noise coming from downstairs. Someone - or something - was moving around in the living Ж'-' aCu- create suspense or add humour with questions Ш 0: describe feelings and emotions room. At that moment I remembered the reports in the newspapers a few days earlier, local burglaries increasing!' the headlines had said. My stomach turned. I was terrified. Nevertheless, I decided to find out who or what was there. I got out of bed and went downstairs. I tried to creep quietly, but the stairs were creaking. They must have heard me, whispered to myself. I froze on the stairs. At that momentthe'livi’hg room door began to open slowly. I could feel my heart beating faster and faster. Then a head appeared round the door. My sister's! ........................................ 'Oh, it's only you!' I said with relief. ••• Ш- use a variety of tenses Ш use the words from the question soccessfnliv • • • • Keep your story SIMPLE. (Describe one event in detail.) Include two or three CHARACTERS. Use a variety ofVerb TENSES. Use plenty of ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS and colourful expressions. Use story writing TECHNIQUES: describe what characters see, hear, feel or smell use direct speech to add drama speak directly to the reader for humour or suspense vary the length of your sentences -use short sentences after long ones Lan ua Time phrases just then earlier a moment later a long time ago in an instant chunks 7г»Л Шт. Feelings ashamed astonished delighted furious heartbroken terrified I felt a chill down my back. My heart sank. My body froze. My stomach turned. m 187 Writing: A formal letter/emai . -i.- Example question You are interested in going on a family holiday. Read the newspaper advertisement and the notes you have made. Then write a letter to the travel agent using all your notes. Write your letter in 120-150 words. Outback Discovery The ultimate Outback experience Enjoy 15 days/14 nights in the Australian Outback. Visit beautiful Broome, explore the Bungle Bungle Range and experience an Aboriginal guided cruise through Geike Gorge We run 12 tours a year! ' Ask about our special family rates! t f» m W' ■ Model answer W Contact Outback Tours for more information; TEL:’(+61) 9890 46917 • FAX: (+61) 9890 4698 FMAII; nutbackdisc6verv@austra|ia.com Accommodation? Ask for more details. Ask about dates. What are they? *v. ;w- i *• V О ЛП begin a formal letter with Dear..., Dear Sir or Madam, say why you are writing divide your letter into separate paragraphs end in a formal way am writing to enquire about your Outback Discovery tour. We are interested in going on • this tour, but would like to find out some information first. First, your advertisement states that the tour is two weeks' long. Could you tell me how long we will be spending in each different place? Could you also let me know what type of accommodation we will be staying in? I would rather stay in a hotel than a tent. Regarding dates, I am interested in travelling over Christmas. Do you offer a tour at that time? If so, what are the exact dates. Finally, in your advertisement, you mention special family rates. Could you let me know what these are exactly? We are a family of four and we would like to know if we qualify for the special rate. Thank you in advance for your help. Yours faithfully, Amanda Bishop . • • • INCLUDE all the information asked for. Cover one or similar topics in each PARAGRAPH. Use FORMAL language - indirect questions. Begin and end in a formal way: If you don’t know the name of the person you’re writing to, use Dear Sir/ Madam, and end with Yours faithfully. If you do know the name, begin Dear Mr!Ms!Mrs ... , and finish with Yours sincerely. angua ';r,y * Beginning/Ending a 1^ -.••••••••••■••••••***** [•tb’ Ы Dear Mr/Ms ... Yours sincerely, . 1 am / We are writing to enquire about.. Thank you in advance for your e p. .v.u>. Introducing topics/questions "VV.Y”...................... I • • • ■ Sequencing points First,... also Regarding... Finally,... • ifr Your advertisement states ... In your advertisement you mention... m 41=. i88 Writing •♦♦•••«••••в* Example question You have seen this notice in a magazine: Write your review in 120-180 words. ....... Calling all bookworms! We’d like to hear your opinions about a book you’ve read recently. Good or bad, it doesn’t matter; just te us what you think. All published reviewers will receive a £10 book token. So ... what are you waiting for? .......................... Model answer u j ; 5. УЧ Г -- I • Ч ' • • I • • • •• ■ • • • • • •• • • • The Silver Sword by Ian Serraillier Danger, excitement, sadness and hop^’You can find all these and more in this excellent book. It's about war, but It's also about much more. The Silver Sword is set in Poland during the Second World War. It is about three children whose parents are taken tij............ ** * • • prison camps. The family home gets blown up and the children have nowhere to stay. The story.J|,ells us how the children survive without their parents and hd'w-.t.hey escape to Switzerland. write the title and author Why did I enjoy this book? Well, the plot was really ехс|'{Гп'д>.;;;-....... What's more, Serraillier has created very believable characters " who are my age. I think he really understands how my age ;\ group think and feel. Also, the writing brings the tragedy of war to life. The book helped me understand how awful war is. : All in all, if you like adventure or yo u're interested in history or you just love a good story, I can thoroughly recommend The Silver Sword. \ start with an interesting sentence to get the readers' attention \_________________ use present simple to talk about plot give a very brief summary of the plot finish off with a recommendation - - ГЯ*- - ■■ . snccessfoilv • CHOOSE a film, book or play that you have strong opinions about. • PLAN before you write. How many paragraphs? What is each one for? • Start with a surprising statement to ATTRACT the reader. • Give your OPINIONS - don’t tell a story. • INCLUDE your views on some of these things: - plot - characters - style of writing (for books) - costumes, music and performances (for films and plays) - what you learnt from the book, film or play Lan ua chunks Positive opinions ... rescued the film / book / play ...was totally believable ... was a pleasant surprise I'd thoroughly recommend it. Negative opinions ...... " Voute better offavoiding this film 7 I wasn t convinced by... ^ ... couldn't save the film / book / play •.. was a great disappointment Writing: A formal letter to a newspof ;Г Example question You have read an article in The Daily Herald newspaper about problems with graffiti in public places. Write a letter to the editor saying what you think about this problem and what should be done about it. The Daily Herald ............ Model answer .-------------- begin a letter to a newspaper like this •••••••••• •••••«**** Graffiti Scrawl Over New School Buildings When pupils and teachers arrived at Waddington High School in Cheshire this Monday morning, they were met by a sad sight. Vandals had covered their brand new gym and events hall in graffiti. Football team slogans and names were scrawled in huge letters across the walls and even on windows. This is a sad day for us, said Headmaster Gillian Parks. 'Graffiti seems to be a problem everywhere these days. Why do people do such things?' r • • • • • • say what you read and how it made you feel include questions to the reader remember that you're writing to the newspaper editor ' ■■■ '«I finish off with a strong opinion and a suggestion for action Ч Ч Dear Editor, ...^Yesterday I read your article about the vandalism at Waddington High School. Graffiti is a problem where I live, too, and it makes me feel so angry. My school walls have been written on by vandals many times. The local parks, all the shops and even people's homes have been covered in graffiti. The problem is everywhere, and it makes everything look so ugly. It is often argued j:hat.g.r.3.f.fiti.is..'aj;t.'...O.ri..tbe..co.n.t.rar.y.^What is beautiful about words ......sprayed all over a wall? Nothingl There is no question that graffiti is simply vandalism. It goes without saying that it is mostly young people who cause this problem. Why do they do It and how can we stop them? Parents need to teach their young children to respect things that we share with others. Furthermore, schools should talk about the problem with pupils. Many problems can be solved if we just talk about them. Thank you for reporting this story in your newspaper. It's high time we stopped ignoring the problem of graffitil ....... • • »• ■■■/. -v- successfaiiv PLAN your letter carefully. How many paragraphs? What will they include? Finish with a SUGGESTION about the problem. • • • • • • • • • Lan ua jchunks —. — Ж Joining similar ideas likewise in addition furthermore Joining opposing ideas in contrast on the other hand however on the contrary Expressing your opinions It's high time... In my opinion... I believe that... .. .. Expressing certainty Without a doubt... It goes without saying ... There's no question that. 'i*^J p^- Introducing other people's opinions It's often argued that... Some people believe that It's thought that... • • ’■jL! № '-Wr 'tf.rtir "■ЙФ, AX- A Writing; A letter of advice Example question “ы V.°* Ыпп^ r ^ problem is I find healthy food realh Model answer • • • •' • • «•' • ••' *• Hi I гГаСи. n'ter in Tem Magazine and I'd like to make some suggestions which 1 think could help. u f .stiy, it's true that i. you'te !"kC dying, both high in salt but tasty, you ьГск'ш You coulcUr.y.changing your diet slowly X than changing it overnight. This migM Mfe.У9.П ......... .................................... flavours. .......... , , j alternatives that improve flavour. It's worth changing to a healthy diet, it'il make you feei better an look good. Hope this helps and good luck. Ш- Ш" I* • • Шб. i^'.V use an appropriate opening phrase divide your letter into separate paragraphs Best wishes, use modals to give opinions and suggestions politely use an appropriate closing phrase ORGANIZE your information in a logical order. Lay out your letter in PARAGRAPHS. Cover all four points in the NOTES Use an appropriate STYLE. CHECK for spelling, grammar and punctuation mistakes. fH chunks Answering questions You asked me about... As for..., In answer to your question about Aw M Щ Openings and closings Dear Jessica, Hi/Hello Jessica, Thanks for your letter/email. It was great to hear from you. hope you are well. VriC I .1 K-»' Reminding and reassuring (informal letters/emails) Don't forget to ... Don't bother to ... Don't worry about... Let me know when/how/if... By the way,... 191 Writing: A formal letter or application Example question You have seen this job advertisement in a newspaper. Write a letter in 120-150 words. Model answer -----------------< use appropriate opening and closing phrases -^ ■ say why you are writing "givesome ' background information about yourself i City Council ■ Youth Summer Jobs Programme ■ Are you a teenager looking for a summer job? : We are looking for enthusiastic people to work in our tourist information . booths for the summer. If you would like a summer job, we'd like to hear from I you. You must be at least 16 years old to apply. I Apply in writing. Please include information about: 1 • your current situation ' •your level of English why you would like to work in a tourist booth over the summer ”..-i ■- *-'f .u!-- I • • ■ • • use set Ч Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing in response to your advertisement in The Moon newspaper on Friday I would like to apply to work in a tourist information booth for the summer. .'’AjtVv Ш- ....l-aTti'a'17-year-old secondary school student in year 11.1 have been studying English for five Y years now and my level of English is good. I will be staying in the city for the summer and / I believe this job will give me the opportunity to do something useful with my time. It also allow me to practise my English, which will benefit me enormously. / I would like to ask for some information which the advertisement does not give, i would / appreciate it if you would let me know whether the job is full-time or part-time. I would / j also be grateful if you could let me know the exact dates the job will be available for. / Please do not hesitate to contact me if you require any further information or to arrange an « / ^interview. / I look forward to hearing from you. % / Yours faithfully, m- Щ'И-'-: ШШ- Ш ask for extra information Gallego say you are available for interview Juan Gallego Lan ua Opening a letter Dear Sir or Madam, DearMr/Ms..., Say WHY you are writing in the first paragraph. Say why you WANT the job in the second paragraph. Ask POLITE questions about the job in the third paragraph. Say you are AVAILABLE for an interview in the fourth paragraph. Use indirect questions and FORMAL language. Use APPROPRIATE opening and closing phrases. Give a reason for writing I am writing in response to ... Give information about yourself Asking for further information I would like to ask for some information ... I would appreciate it if you would let me know... I am a 17-year-old student... I have been studying English for. I believe this job will. I will be... • • - Closing Please do not hesitate to contact me if you require any further information or to arrange an interview. I look forward to hearing from you ... Yours faithfully, or Yours sincerely. и •' ■:a-. 192 • • ■'* 0Щ -Ж г7ТГ|Гг^ЖТ'Г~гТтпттг^Т^"Г"П| ~i ~~ ‘CTi rT ' ~ Pairwork ^wP!^SEB5«ns '^icvj.r.-Л ^ ' KS^ff': WiW^ ^*5л^ ! Unit 2, page 23, Speaking, Exercise В t* > ? t • i -<>--v >..,*» Unit 6, page 75, Speaking, Exercise E Student B; You are the manager for these entertainers. Your partner is interested in booking one of them for a school Christmas concert. First Answer your partner’s questions using the information on this card. Then Ask your partner who they want to book and why. '.‘b • % •o%*. . r Ш- i *^r/. I, f 2^' i Unit 4, page 44, Dive in! 1b 2a 3b 4a Unit 8, page 96, Dive in! 1 basketball, baseball, bowling, badminton, etc 2 skydiving, bungee jumping, snowboarding, etc 3 a golf b tennis c pole vaulting d swimming 4 Blackjack 5 falling out of a plane with a parachute n- Unit 9, page 112, Dive in! Bat’s don’t have two noses. Unit 10, page 123, Quick chat 1 False. There is no evidence to link wet hair or being cold with catching cold. 2 True. It has been found to have properties that help people feel better faster. 3 False. Experts say there’s very little proof that vitamin C actually has any effect on the common cold. Unit 11, page 143, Say it right! Exercise G Student B: • Britney Spears is a plumber. • Boris Pasternak was English. • Whales live in the jungle. •Ъд.- Iz ?ll i’. " N Unit 12, page 148, Dive in! 1 a (Persian Gulf Complex in Shiraz with 2,500 .r stores in 20121), 2c 3a 4b 5c г ’ a. ^ i - " V The Biz Bobbie Bright ■ "''"S MS/ ■ boo« £250 per booking Й5Г У- 193 РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ПО ПОДГОТОВКЕ К ЕГЭ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ESSENTIAL TIPS FOR THE UNIFIED STATE EXAM IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE - 5^ 4*^ РАЗДЕЛА (LISTENING) :a5r~^1eEssfe!^tefe. Раздел «Аудирование» содержит 15 заданий, из которых первое - на установление соответствия и 14 заданий - с выбором одного правильного ответа из трёх предложенных. Рекомендуемое время выполнения заданий раздела - 30 минут. Максимальное количество баллов - 20. Задание В1 (базовый уровень) Проверяемое умение: понимание основного содержания прослушанного текста. Тип задания: установление соответствия. Характеристика задания В задании В1 предлагается прослушать шесть высказываний на одну тему и установить соответствие между высказываниями и утверждениями. Одно утверждение лишнее. Запись звучит дважды. РекомендаЕ^ии Внимательно прочитайте и прослушайте задание. Используйте паузу после задания для ознакомления с утверждениями и для прогнозирования содержания аудиотекста. Как правило, утверждения близки по своему содержанию, поэтому искать необходимо различия. Помните, что утверждения никогда не копируют аудиотекст. В тексте, как правило, использованы синонимы для выражения той же самой идеи. Поэтому если вы видите в утверждении то же самое слово / выражение, которое прозвучало в аудиотексте, это, скорее всего, «ловушка». На экзаменационном билете вы можете делать любые пометки, лишь бы это было вам на пользу. Например, по мере установления соответствий вы можете вычёркивать утверждения, ставить рядом галочку или крестик. Тогда установить самое трудное соответствие можно методом исключения. Используйте паузу между первым и вторым прослушиванием для проверки ответов. При повторном прослушивании сосредоточьте внимание на тех говорящих, чьи высказывания вы не успели соотнести ни с одним утверждением. Задания А1-А7 (повышенный уровень) Проверяемое умение: понимание запрашиваемой информации в прослушанном тексте. Тип задания: выбор ответа из трёх предложенных (Верно / Неверно / В тексте не сказано). Характеристика заданий В заданиях А1-А7 предлагается прослушать диалог и определить, какие из утверждений соответствуют тексту (являются верными), ^ какие не соответствуют (являются неверны-j ми) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа. Запись зву чит дважды. . \ Рекоменда1^ии Внимательно прочитайте и прослушайте задание. Используйте паузу после задания для ознакомления с утверждениями и для прогнозирования содержания аудиотекста. Помните, что порядок утверждений соответствует порядку изложения информации в тексте. Обращайте внимание на синонимичное оформление одних и тех же понятий в аудиотексте и утверждениях. Для определения ответа используйте строго информацию, данную в тексте, не додумывая за говорящего. Используйте контекст для того, чтобы определить значение новых слов. Используйте паузу между первым и вторым прослушиванием для проверки ответов. Задания А8-А14 (высокий уровень) Проверяемое умение: полное понимание прослушанного текста. Тип задания: выбор ответа из трёх предложенных (множественный выбор). Характеристика заданий В заданиях А8-А14 предлагается прослушать аудиотекст и выбрать один из трёх вариантов ответов на вопросы к тексту. Запись звучит дважды. \ 194 I Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте и прослушайте задание. Используйте паузу для ознакомления с вопросами и для выделения в них ключевых слов. Помните, что порядок вопросов соответствует порядку изложения информации в тексте. Помните, что некоторые вопросы проверяют понимание отдельных деталей текста, а некоторые вопросы (которые, как правило, даются в конце) - понимание текста в целом. Опирайтесь исключительно на информацию, приведённую в тексте, а не на общепринятые представления. Используйте паузу между первым и вторым прослушиванием для проверки ответов. Вы можете отметить различными способами вопросы, в ответах на которые вы уверены, не уверены или на которые пока не знаете ответа. Привлекайте контекст для определения верного варианта ответа. Например, если в аудиотексте вы слышите те же слова, что даны в ответе, но при этом контекст совсем иной, то выбранный вариант ответа неверный. РАЗДЕЛ 2. ЧТЕНИЕ (READING) Раздел «Чтение» содержит девять заданий, из которых 2 задания - на установление соответствия и 7 заданий - с выбором одного правильного ответа из четырёх предложенных. Рекомендуемое время выполнения заданий раздела - 30 минут. Максимальное количество баллов - 20. Задание В2 (базовый уровень) Проверяемое умение: общее понимание текста. Тип задания; установление соответствия. Характеристика задания В задании В2 предлагается прочитать семь коротких текстов и установить соответствие между текстами и заголовками (темами). Один заголовок (тема) лишний. Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте задание. Прочитайте варианты заголовков (тем) и постарайтесь предположить, о чём могло бы говориться в тексте под каждым из них. Обращайте внимание на ключевые слова, которые несколько раз повторяются в тексте и тематически соотносятся с лексикой заголовка (темы). Не опирайтесь на первое встретившееся подтверждение - следует найти несколько подтверждений правильному ответу. Старайтесь понять смысл текста, не обращая внимания на отдельные незнакомые слова. Будьте особо внимательны к сходным формам в тексте и в заголовках (темах), поскольку заголовки (темы) зачастую содержат ложные подсказки. Будьте особо внимательны к видовременным формам, так как лексическое наполнение заголовка (темы) может соответствовать тексту, но иметься в виду может другой период времени или характер действия. Используйте легко вычленяемые единицы в заголовке (теме) (имена собственные, числительные) для быстрого поиска соответствующей им информации в тексте. Задание ВЗ (повышенный уровень) Проверяемое умение: понимание структурносмысловых связей в тексте. Тип задания: установление соответствия. Характеристика задания В задании ВЗ предлагается прочитать текст и заполнить в нём пропуски, установив соответствие между отдельными его частями и фрагментами предложений. Один фрагмент является лишним. Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте задание. Прочитайте весь текст, стараясь понять его общее содержание. При подборе нужного фрагмента предложения руководствуйтесь комплексным лексико-грамматическим подходом: убедитесь, что фрагмент и по смыслу, и структурно соответствует как предшествующей части текста, так и последующей. Прочитайте текст ещё раз, но с уже заполненными пропусками. Убедитесь, что лишний фрагмент действительно не подходит. 195 1 Задания А15-А21 (высокий уровень) Проверяемое умение: полное понимание прочитанного текста. Тип задания: выбор ответа из четырёх предложенных (множественный выбор). Характеристика заданий В заданиях А15-А21 предлагается прочитать текст и выбрать один из четырёх вариантов ответов на вопросы к нему. Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте задание. Прочитайте текст, чтобы понять его основной смысл. Прочитайте вопросы и подчеркните в них ключевые слова. Помните, что вопросы расположены в том же порядке, что и соответствующие им части в тексте. Не пытайтесь сэкономить время, читая только те части текста, которые соответствуют вопросам. Читайте весь текст целиком - это поможет понять контекст и ничего не упустить. Подчеркните в тексте тот фрагмент, который является подтверждением правильности выбранного вами ответа. Не пытайтесь найти в тексте те же слова, что и в вопросе. Ищите синонимичные способы выражения одной и той же мысли. Помните, что некоторые вопросы проверяют понимание отдельных деталей текста, а некоторые вопросы (которые, как правило, даются в конце) - понимание текста в целом. I" ------ ' -Zl.. РАЗДЕЛ 3. rPAMMATHKif^ И ЛЕКСИКА (GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY) Раздел «Грамматика и лексика» содержит 20 заданий: 13 заданий с кратким ответом и 7 - с выбором одного правильного ответа из четырёх предложенных. Рекомендуемое время выполнения заданий раздела - 40 минут. Максимальное количество баллов - 20. Задания В4-В10 (базовый уровень) Контролируемые навыки: грамматические. Тип задания: грамматическое преобразование. Характеристика заданий В заданиях В4-В10 даются два текста с семью пропусками. Справа от пропусков даются слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами, которые необходимо преобразовать так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Далее необходимо заполнить пропуски образованными грамматическими формами. Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте задание. Прочитайте текст целиком, обращая внимание на то, в каком времени идёт повествование и есть ли в нём прямая речь. Прочитайте текст ещё раз, делая предположения относительно возможных грамматических форм для заполнения пропусков. Определите, какой частью речи является опорное слово, и вспомните, какие грамматические формы оно имеет. Обращайте внимание на выбор правильных видовременных форм глаголов и форм причастия, на наличие отрицательной частицы в составе опорных слов. Заполнив пропуски, прочитайте текст медленно и внимательно ещё раз и проверьте, не нарушился ли его общий смысл. Старайтесь избегать орфографических ошибок. При занесении ответов в бланк ответов помните, что между словами пропусков быть не должно (пишите, например, wasbuilt). Задания В11-В16 (базовый уровень) Контролируемые навыки: словообразовательные. Тип задания: лексико-грамматическое преобразование. Характеристика заданий В заданиях В11-В16 предлагается прочитать текст и образовать от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Далее необходимо заполнить пропуски полученными словами. Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте задание. Прочитайте текст и определите, какими частями речи необходимо заполнить пропуски. Вспомните способы словообразования, характерные для этой части речи. Образуя однокоренное слово, помните, что оно может иметь положительное или отрицательное значение в данном контексте. Помните, что для образования однокоренного слова вам может понадобиться и префикс и суффикс (unbelievable). 196 1 I Заполнив пропуски, прочитайте внимательно текст ещё раз. Не забудьте проверить орфографию. Задания А22-А28 (повышенный уровень) Контролируемые навыки: употребление лексических единиц в контексте. Тип задания: выбор ответа из четырёх предложенных (множественный выбор). Характеристика заданий В заданиях А22-А28 предлагается прочитать текст и заполнить в нём пропуски словами, выбрав один из четырёх вариантов. Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте задание. Прочитайте текст и уясните общий смысл и логику развития сюжета. Прочитайте текст ещё раз, останавливаясь на каждом пропуске, - подумайте, какое слово вы бы здесь употребили. Посмотрите, есть ли этот вариант среди предложенных. Выбирая нужный вариант, определите разницу в смысловых оттенках и употреблении слов. Прежде чем выбрать вариант ответа, обратите внимание на лексическое и грамматическое окружение слова в тексте. Для успешного выполнения задания важно соблюдать правила сочетаемости слов, знать фразовые глаголы и идиомы. Прочитайте текст внимательно ещё раз после того, как выберете варианты ответов. РАЗДЕЛ 4. ПИСЬМО (WRITING) В разделе «Письмо» необходимо выполнить два задания: написать личное письмо и создать письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения. Черновые пометки можно делать непосредственно на листе с заданиями или можно использовать отдельный черновик. Любые черновые пометки (черновик) не проверяются и не оцениваются. Оценке подлежит только вариант ответа, занесённый в бланк ответов № 2. Рекомендуемое время выполнения заданий - 80 минут. Максимальное количество баллов - 20. Задание С1 (базовый уровень) Проверяемые умения: умение решать коммуникативную задачу в письменной форме; умение организовать текст личного письма другу; умение правильно оформить текст с точки зрения языка. Тип задания: письмо личного характера. Характеристика задания В задании С1 предлагается написать личное письмо другу в ответ на письмо-стимул. В тексте письма всегда требуется ответить на три вопроса друга и задать ему (ей) свои три вопроса. Объём письма составляет 100-140 слов. Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте задание и уясните, что именно должно быть отражено в письме. Перед началом работы вспомните, как должно быть организовано письмо: Дата и адрес. Приветствие. Благодарность за письмо. Ответы на вопросы. Формулирование своих вопросов. Завершение письма. Внимательно прочитайте не только инструкции, но и письмо-стимул. Выделите в нём те вопросы, которые следует раскрыть в ответном письме. Составьте свои три вопроса другу с учётом указанной в задании тематики. Составьте план, который будет включать в себя все пункты задания. В процессе написания письма важно: написать свой адрес и дату в правом верхнем углу письма; во вступительной части письма выразить благодарность за полученное письмо и, возможно, извинение, что не сразу написан ответ; в основной части письма ответить на все заданные вопросы и задать необходимые вопросы другу по переписке; в заключительной части письма упомянуть о будущих контактах, подписать письмо; проверить как содержание, так и правильность организации текста; проверить правильное стилистическое оформление текста. Написав письмо, убедитесь, что вы уложились в требуемый объём слов. Проверьте орфографию. Задание С2 (высокий уровень) Проверяемые умения: умение решать коммуникативную задачу в письменной форме; умение организовать текст-рассуждение; умение ис- 197 •И пользовать лексику и грамматику в соответствии с поставленной коммуникативной задачей; умение правильно оформить письменное высказывание с точки зрения орфографии и пунктуации. Тип задания: письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения по предложенной проблеме. Характеристика задания В задании С2 предлагается написать развёрнутое высказывание с элементами рассуждения по предложенной проблеме и в соответствии с приведённым планом. Объём письменной работы составляет 200-250 слов. Рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте утверждение и вопросы, выделенные полужирным шрифтом. Ознакомьтесь с предложенным планом. Начинать введение следует с общего представления темы, отражения её проблемного характера. При этом важно перефразировать тему, данную в задании, не повторяя её дословно. Планируя свою работу, продумайте ключевую лексику для каждого абзаца. Делите текст на абзацы в соответствии с логикой и содержанием высказывания. Абзацы основной части, соответствующие пунктам 2 и 3 предложенного плана, стройте так: выразите в первом предложении основную мысль (мнение), а далее подкрепите её примерами и аргументами. Приводя контраргументы, желательно выражать своё мнение не теми же словами, что раньше, а использовать перифраз, синонимы. В заключительном абзаце необходимо ещё раз указать на проблемный характер темы, показать, что вы способны видеть и другие точки зрения, но тем не менее своя кажется вам более убедительной. Введение и заключение должны .быть приблизительно одинаковы по объёму. Общий объём основной части не должен быть меньше общего объёма введения и заключения. Особое внимание следует уделить средствам логической связи текста. Помните, что в этой работе вы должны придерживаться нейтрального стиля изложения. iq8 abandoned (adj) [a'baendand] брошенный, покинутый abundant (adj) [a'bAndant] изобилующий acacia (n) [a'keija] акация access ['aekses] 1. (n) доступ; 2. (v) иметь или осуществлять доступ (difficult to access -труднодоступный) accommodation (n) [a,kDma'deiJ(a)n] жильё; проживание accomplishment (n) [a'kAmpliJmant] достижение accuse (v) [a'kjuiz] обвинять acid ['aesid] 1. (n) кислота (amino acid -аминокислота); 2. (adj) кислотный (дождь) acrylic (n) [a'krilik] акриловое волокно add up (phr v) [aed 'Ap] соответствовать, согласоваться; быть понятным, иметь смысл (It doesn’t add up. - Что-то не сходится.) addicted (adj) [a'diktid] склонный, зависимый addiction (n) [a'dikj(a)n] склонность, пагубная привычка adhere (v) [ad'hia] придерживаться adjustment (n)[a'd3As(t)mant] настройка, коррекция adolescent (n) [,aeda'les(a)nt] юноша или девушка 11-16 лет; подросток adulthood (n) ['aedAlt.hud] зрелый возраст, зрелость advisory committee (n) [ad'vaiz(a)ri ka.miti] консультативный комитет affiliated (adj) [a'filieitid] аффилированный, являющийся филиалом age group (n) ['eid^ gruip] возрастная группа aggressive (adj) [a'gresiv] агрессивный agility (n) [9'd5ilati] быстрота, ловкость alibi (n) ['aelibai] алиби alien (n) ['eilian] пришелец, инопланетянин amateur (n) ['aemata] любитель, непрофессионал amount (n) [a'maunt] количество, объём amp (n) [aemp] (сокр. or ampere) физ. ампер anchor (n) ['aegka] якорь ancient ruin ['einj(a)nt ,ru:in] древние развалины anniversary (n) [,aeni'v3:s(a)ri] годовщина, юбилей antioxidant (n) [,3enti'oksid(0)nt] антиоксидант anus (n) ['einas] анат. анус anxious (adj) ['aer]kjas] волнующийся, опасающийся appreciate (v) [a'priiji.eit] ценить, быть благодарным, быть признательным. archaeological site [,а:к1э'1обз1к(э)1 ,sait] место археологических раскопок arrogant (adj) ['aeragant] высокомерный, надменный arson (n) ['a:s(a)n] (умышленный) поджог art gallery (n) [art 'gaelari] картинная галерея artistry (n) ['aitistri] артистизм, мастерство asceticism (n) [a'seti,siz(a)m] аскетизм ash (n) [aej] пепел ashamed (adj) [a'Jeimd] пристыженный и пристыжённый aside from [a'said fram] помимо; за исключением assemble (v) [a'semb(a)l] собирать, монтировать astounding (adj) [a'staundig] поразительный, потрясающий astronomy (n) [a'strDnami] астрономия athletics (n)[ae9'letiks] (лёгкая) атлетика aubergine (n) ['auba,3i:n] баклажан audience (n) [’oidians] публика, зрители authenticity (n) [.oiGen'tisati] аутентичность, подлинность award (n) [a'woid] награда, приз award-winning (adj) [a'woid.winir]] отмеченный наградой, получивший награду bachelor’s degree (n) ['baetjaiaz di.grii] степень бакалавра back and forth ['baek and ,b:0] туда и обратно back up (phr v) [baek Чр] комп, создавать резервную копию, дублировать baffle (v) ['baef(a)l] озадачивать, сбивать с толку bake (v) [beik] выпекать bakery (n) ['beikari] пекарня ban (v) [baen] запрещать, налагать запрет bang (v) [baeg] грохотать barely (adv) ['beali] едва, еле-еле basil (n) ['baez(a)l] базилик beam (n) [biim] (деревянная) балка be home (v) [,bi: 'haum] быть дома, находиться дома beast (n) [biist] зверь; тварь; чудовище beat (v) [biit] 1) биться (о сердце)] 2) побеждать, обыгрывать become extinct (v) [bi.kAm ik'stiQkt] вымирать behaviour (n) [bi'heivja] поведение be in detention (v) [bi: in di'tenj(a)n] оставаться после уроков (в наказание за плохое поведение) below zero [bijau 'ziarau] ниже нуля bend [bend] 1. (n) поворот, изгиб; 2. (v) гнуть, сгибать benefit (v) ['benifitj извлекать пользу, выгоду beta-carotene (n) ['bi:ta,kaerati:n] бета-каротин big-headed (adj) [.big'hedid] самовлюблённый, самодовольный biodiversity (n) [.baiaudai'vsisati] биологическое разнообразие biofuel (n) ['baiau.fjuialj биотопливо biomass (n) [’baiau.maes] биомасса biology (n) [bai'Dlad^i] биология bite-sized (adj) ['bait.saizdj мелкий, крошечный bitter (adj) ['bite] горький bizarre (adj) [bi'zai] странный, причудливый black eye (n) [.blaek 'aij синяк под глазом, подбитый глаз blame (v) [bleim] винить, обвинять bland (adj) [blaend] пресный, безвкусный blessing (n) ['blesig] благо, благодеяние blizzard (n) ['blizad] метель, (снежная) буря blow (v) [blau] дуть blustery (adj) ['blAst(a)ri] ветреный (о погоде) boarding pass (n) ['boidir] pais] посадочный талон boil (v) [boil] кипеть; кипятить (a) bolt from the blue [(a),bault fram 6a 'blui] гром среди ясного неба border (n) ['boida] граница 199 bossy (adj) ['bosi] любящий распоряжаться; властный boost (v) [buist] стимулировать, резко увеличивать bounce back (phr v) [bauns 'baekj восстанавливаться, оправляться от удара bow (n) [bau] HOC корабля bowl (n) [haul] миска, чашка boxing (n) [’boksir]] спорт, бокс boxing gloves (п) ['boksir] gUvz] боксёрские перчатки break down (phr v) [breik ' daun] 1) рушить, ломать; 2) расщеплять {какое-л. вещество) break up (phr v) [breik 'лр] распускать (учеников на каникулы) breakthrough (n) ['breikGrui] прорыв, открытие, крупное достижение brief (adj) [briif] краткий bring out (phr v) [brig 'aut] публиковать, выпускать в свет browse (v) [brauz] комп, просматривать bruise (п) [bruiz] синяк, кровоподтёк bullying (n) ['buliir]] травля, запугивание bungee jumping (n) ['bAnd5ii ,d5Ampir]] банджи-джампинг (прыжок с большой высоты на эластичном тросе, обвязанном вокруг щиколотки) burglary (п) ['Ьз:д1эг1] кража со взломом by far [bai 'fa:] несомненно, безусловно cab (n) [kaeb] брит, такси caecum (n) [’siikam] анат. слепая кишка campsite (n) ['kaemp.saitj палаточный лагерь campus (n) ['kaempasj территория университета, колледжа canvas (n) ['kaenvasj ткань, материя (canvas shoes -обувь из текстиля) carbohydrate (n) [.kaibeu'haidreit] углевод careers officer (n) [ka'riaz .ofisa] консультант no выбору профессии carpentry (n) ['kaipintri] деревянные конструкции carry out (phr v) [kaeri 'aut] выполнять carving (n) ['kaivig] резьба; резной орнамент cash prize (n) ['kaej praiz] премия (денежный приз) cast (n) [karst] 1) состав исполнителей; 2) гипс, гипсовая повязка castle (n) ['ka:s(a)l] зёмок cathedral (n) [ka'Giidral] (кафедральный) собор cattle-shed (n) ['kaet(a)l/ed] крытый скотный двор ceiling (n) ['siilig] потолок celebrity (n) [sa'Iebrati] знаменитость, звезда cell (n) [sel] 1) телеком, ячейка, сота; 2) биол. клетка cellulose (n) ['seljulaus] целлюлоза change your mind (v) ['tjeind^ jo: ,maind] изменить решение, раздумать, передумать charge [tja:d3] 1. (n) 1) обвинение; 2) цена (free of charge - бесплатно; бесплатный); 2. (v) 1) обвинять, предъявлять обвинение; 2) запрашивать цену (in) charge (of) ответственный за charity (n) ['t/aerati] благотворительная организация chat show host (n) ['tjaet Jau ,haust] ведущий ток-шоу check in (phr v) [tjek 'in] регистрировать(ся) (в гостинице, на рейс) checkmate (n) ['tjek.meit] шахм. шах и мат cheerful (adj) ['tjiaf(a)l] бодрый, весёлый chef (n) [fef] шеф-повар chemical (n) ['kemik(a)l] химический chemistry (n) ['kemistri] химия chesspiece (n) ['tjes.piis] шахматная фигура children’s literature (n) ['tjildranz JitratJa] детская литература chimney (n) ['t|imni] дымовая труба; дымоход choir (n) [kwaia] xop, хоровая группа chop (v) [tjop] рубить, крошить, нарезать church (n) [tjsitj] церковь citizen (n) ['sitiz(a)n] гражданин, гражданка citizenship (n) ['sitiz(a)njip] гражданство claim (v) [kleim] утверждать, заявлять clay tablet (n) ['klei .taeblat] глиняная дощечка clear (v) [klia] оправдывать, освобождать (от обвинений) click on (phr v) [klik 'on] нажимать, кликать (клавишу мыши); открывать (ссылку) clip (п) [klip] клип, короткий видеоролик clue (п) [klui] 1) подсказка; ключ к разгадке; 2) улика co-author (v) [.кэи'эгбэ] писать в соавторстве , colon (п) ['kaulon] анат. толстая кишка colourful (adj) ['kAlaf(9)l] яркий, красочный combat (v) ['kombaet] бороться come over (phr v) [kAm 'auva] навещать, приходить в гости come rain or shine [kAm 'rein з: ,/ain] в любом случае, что бы ни случилось соте true (v) [kAm 'trui] осуществляться, исполняться (о мечте, желании) соте up with (phr v) [kAm 'ap wi6] предложить (идею) commission (v) [ka'mij(a)n] делать заказ (художнику) commit (v) [ka'mit] совершать (преступление) competitor (n) [kam'petita] соперник; конкурент composer (n) [kam'pauza] композитор concert hall ф) ['konsat hail] концертный зал concrete (n) ['kDgkriit] бетон conduct (v) [kan'dAkt] 1) проводить, ставить (эксперимент); 2) дирижировать conductor (n) [kan'dAkta] 1) проводник (тока, тепла); 2) дирижёр consequence (n) ['konsikwans] последствие constraint(s) (n) [kan'streint(s)] ограничение, ограничения controversy (n) [kan'trovasi] полемика; жаркая дискуссия conventional (adj) [kan'venj(a)nal] обычный; общепринятый; традиционный cope (v) [kaup] справляться, бороться cotton (n) ['kat(a)n] хлбпок; хлопчатобумажная ткань counselling centre (n) ['kauns(a)lir] .senta] консультационный центр court (n) [kait] 1) суд; 2) корт, площадка для игр court case (n) ['kait keis] судебное дело cover-up (n) ['kAvarAp] сокрытие (особ, преступления) cowpox (n) ['kau.poks] мед. коровья оспа crease (v) [kriis] мяться, сминаться creative (adj) [kri'eitiv] креативный, творческий creature (n) [kriitja] 1) создание, живое существо; 2) животное credits (pi n) ['kredits] титры (к фильму) creepy-crawly (n) [.kriipi 'kroili] ползучая тварь crew (n) [kru:] 1) судовая команда; экипаж; 2) съёмочная группа crime scene (n) ['kraim ,si:n] место (совершения) преступления 200 crisp (adj) [krisp] хрустящий criticize (v) ['kritisaiz] критиковать cross-linked (adj) [,kros 'linkt] хим. соединённые между собой (cross-linked with hydrogen bonds -соединённые водородными связями) culprit (n) ['kAlprit] преступник curly (adj) ['ksili] вьющийся, кудрявый, курчавый current (n) ['клгэпг] (электрический) ток curriculum (n) [ka'rikjulam] учебный план, учебная программа cut down (on) (phr v) [клГ 'daun (on)] уменьшать, сокращать, сводить к минимуму cut yourself (v) ['kAt jaself] пораниться cutlery (n) ['kAtlari] столовые приборы dairy (n) ['deari] молочные продукты damage (n) ['daemid3] вред; повреждение dangerous (adj) ['deind3aras] опасный deadline (n) ['dedjain] срок исполнения, сдачи (работы) debut (adj) ['deibju:] дебютный deceiving (adj) [di'siivig] обманчивый, вводящий в заблуждение decline (n) [di'klain] упадок decorative (adj) ['dek(a)r0tiv] декоративный deep-sea diving (n) [diip.sii ’daivig] подводное плавание (со снаряжением) defeat (v) [di'fiit] наносить поражение, разбивать defend (v) [di'fend] защищать degree (n) [di'grii] 1) градус; 2) звание, учёная степень; диплом delightful (adj) [di'laitf(a)l] восхитительный, очаровательный dense (adj) [dens] плотный, густой (dense population -высокая плотность населения) deny (v) [di'nai] отрицать, отвергать depict (v) [di'pikt] описывать, изображать; рисовать depressing (adj) [di'presig] гнетущий, унылый derive (v) [di'raiv] получать, извлекать designate (as) (v) ['dezigneitj объявлять, называть desktop (n) ['desk,top] настольный компьютер detective (n) [di'tektiv] детектив, сыщик devastating (adj) ['deva.steitir]] губительный, разрушительный diaphragm (n) ['daiafraem] анат. диафрагма digest (v) [dai'd3est] переваривать(ся) (о пище) digestive (adj) [dai'd3estiv] пищеварительный diminish (v) [di'minij] 1) уменьшать(ся), сокращать(ся); 2) умалять, преуменьшать (значение чего-л.) director (п) [da'rekta, dai'rekta] 1) директор; 2) режиссёр disc jockey (n) ['disk ,d5nki] диск-жокей discover (v) [di'skAva] 1) обнаруживать, делать открытие; 2) узнавать discovery (n) [di'skAv(a)ri] открытие disease (n) [di'ziiz] заболевание, болезнь dismantle (v) [dis'maent(a)l] разбирать, демонтировать disorganized (adj) [dis'Diganaizd] неорганизованный dissolve (v) [di'zolv] растворять(ся) distant (adj) ['distant] холодный, сдержанный DNA fingerprinting (n) [di: en ,ei 'finga.printig] геномная дактилоскопия do the cooking [du: 6a 'kukir]] готовить еду do the household shopping [dui 6a 'haus.hauld Jnpir]] делать покупки для дома do the ironing [du: 6i 'aianig] гладить бельё do the laundry [du: Ьэ 'Jo;ndnJ стирать бельё do the washing-up [du: 6a 'wdJiq Ap] мыть посуду do up (phr v) [du: 'Ap] застёгивать do well [du: 'wel] успешно справляться, добиваться успеха documentary (n) [,dDkju'ment(a)ri] документальный фильм dot (v) [dot] испещрять, усеивать double room (n) ['dAb(a)l ru:m] двухместный номер dramatic (adj) [dra'maetik] 1) яркий, волнующий; 2) существенный (об изменениях) dramatics (n) [dra'mastiks] драматическое искусство draw (n) [dro:] игра вничью, ничья drop by (phr v) [drop 'bai] забегать, заскакивать drop in (phr v) [drop 'in] заходить, забегать drought (n) [draut] засуха duct (n) [dAkt] анат. проток (bile duct - желчный проток, pancreatic duct - проток поджелудочной железы) dull (adj) [dAl] скучный, монотонный dung (n) [dAf]] навоз duodenum (n) [,dju:au'di:nam] анат. двенадцатиперстная кишка durable (adj) ['dju0rab(a)l] прочный; долговечный dwelling (n) ['dwelig] жилище, жилое помещение earthquake (n) ['3:6,kweik] землетрясение eat in (phr v) [i:t 'in] питаться дома eat out (phr v) [i:t 'aut] питаться вне дома eco-friendly (adj) [i:k0u'fren(d)li] экологичный, экологически чистый ecoregion (n) [i:k0u'ri:d3(a)n] экорегион ectomorph (n) ['ekt0(u)mo:f] астеник, человек худощавого телосложения editor (n) ['edita] редактор eel (n) [i:l] зоол. угорь eerie (adj) ['lari] жуткий, зловещий efficient (adj) [i'fij(0)nt] квалифицированный; умелый elaborate (adj) [i'laeb(0)r0t] сложный, искусно сделанный eligible (adj) ['elid30b(0)l] имеющий право, могущий быть избранным eliminate (v) [I'limineit] устранять, уничтожать embark (on) (v) [im'ba:k] начинать, приступать embarrassed (adj) [im'baerast] смущённый, сконфуженный embrace (v) [im'breis] охватывать (мыслью)’, исповедовать (теорию) enclosure (n) [in'kl0U30] ограждение, ограда encompass (v) [in'kAmpas] охватывать encourage (v) [ш'кАпбз] поощрять; содействовать en suite (n) [on 'swi:t] номер, смежный с ванной комнатой endangered species (n) [in'deind30d ,spi:Ji:z] вымирающий вид, вид на грани исчезновения endomorph (п) ['end0(u)mD:f] человек с пикническим типом телосложения end up (phr v) [end 'Ap] оказаться, очутиться endurance (n) [in'djuarans] выносливость 201 enlighten (v) [in'lait(9)n] осведомлять, информировать enrollment (n) [in'raulmant] набор; приём; зачисление ensemble (n) [оп'5отЬ(э)1] архит. ансамбль enzyme (n) ['enzaim] фермент, энзим equal ['iikwal] 1. (n) ровня; равное количество; 2. (v) отождествлять, приравнивать(ся) equipped (adj) [I'kwipt] оборудованный, снаряжённый essential (adj) [i'senj(0)l] основной; существенный; важнейший esteemed (adj) [I'stiimd] почитаемый, уважаемый estimate (v) ['estimeit] оценивать, приблизительно подсчитывать even (adj) ['i:v(9)n] равномерный evening class (n) ['iivniQ klais] вечерняя форма обучения; вечерние курсы evidence (n) ['evid(0)ns] доказательство evolution (n) [,i:v0'lui/(0)n] эволюция evolve (v) [i'vdIv] развиваться, эволюционировать examine (v) [ig'zaemin] исследовать, изучать exceed (v) [ik'siid] превышать excel (v) [ik'sel] добиваться превосходных результатов excellence (n) ['eksalans] высокое качество exercise (v) [’eksasaiz] тренироваться, заниматься спортом exhibition (п) [,eksi'bij(0)n] выставка exhilarating (adj) [ig'zila.reitir]] волнующий, возбуждающий; захватывающий expel (v) [ik'spel] выгонять, исключать extend (v) [ik'stend] простираться, тянуться extinct (adj) [ik'stigkt] вымерший extreme ironing (n) [ik.strlim ’aianir]] спорт. экстремальное глажение fabulous (adj) ['faebjulas] удивительный, потрясающий face (v) [feis] сталкиваться (c необходимостью) (a) face like thunder [(0) ,feis laik '9лпб0] лицо темнее тучи facilities (pi п) [f0'sil0tiz] средства, оборудование faculty (n) ['faek(0)lti] амер. профессорско-преподавательский состав fair (adj) [fee] белокурый; светлый fairy tale (n) ['feari ,teil] сказка fantasy (adj) ['faentasi] лит. фантастика far-flung (adj) ['fa:,Алд] отдалённый, дальний farmhouse (п) ['faim.haus] фермерский дом fast-twitch (adj) [.faist'twitj] физиол. быстросокращающийся fattening (adj) ['faet(0)nig] ведущий к ожирению fatty liver (n) ['faeti .liva] мед. жировая дистрофия печени fearless (adj) ['fialas] бесстрашный, неустрашимый; мужественный feature (v) ['fiit/a] 1) изображать, рисовать; 2) определять особенности felt (n) [felt] войлок fence (n) [fens] забор, изгородь ferry (n) ['feri] парбм; паромное судно film critic (n) ['film .kritik] кинокритик fin (n) [fin] плавник {рыбы) fingerprint (n) ['figga,print] отпечаток пальца fire (v) ['fai0] увольнять firefighter (n) ['faia.faita] пожарный flash (n) [flaej] вспышка flat (adj) [flaet] плоский, ровный, гладкий flippers (pi n) ['flipaz] спорт, ласты float (v) [flaut] плыть, держаться на поверхности воды flood (n) [flAd] наводнение fluorescent powder (n) [flD:,res(a)nt 'pauda] флуоресцирующий порошок forensic scientist (n) [fa.rensik 'saiantist] судебный эксперт, судмедэксперт fossil (n) ['fDs(a)l] окаменелость, ископаемое (fossil fuel - ископаемое топливо) free running (n) [fri: 'глшд] спорт, паркур fresh (adj) [frej] свежий freshwater (adj) ['frej.woita] пресноводный frostbite (n) ['fros(t),bait] обморожение frugal (adj) ['fru:g(a)l] бережливый, экономный gall bladder (n) ['дэ:1 .blaeda] анат. желчный пузырь gale-force (adj) ['geilfois] штормовой (ветер) geology (n) [d5ii'i9l0d5i] геология ger (n) [gea] гэр, монгольская юрта getaway (n) ['geta.wei] короткий отпуск get away with (phr v) [get a'wei wi6] совершать что-л. запрещённое безнаказанно get into trouble (phr v) [get inta 'trAb(a)l] попасть в беду get marked down (phr v) [get maikt 'daun] получить заниженную оценку get over (phr v) [get 'auva] оправиться (от болезни) ghost (n) [gaust] призрак, привидение glance (v) [glams] (мельком) взглянуть global warming (n) [,glaub(a)l 'wDimig] глобальное потепление go mad (v) [gau 'maed] сходить c ума go off (phr v) [gau 'of] портиться (о продуктах питания) go sightseeing (v) [gau 'sait.siiig] осматривать достопримечательности go too far (v) [gau ,tui 'fai] заходить слишком далеко, перегибать палку go well together (v) [gau 'wel ta.geba] сочетаться, гармонировать go wrong (v) [gau 'год] идти не так, как надо; не получаться goal (п) [gaul] спорт. 1) ворота (например, на футбольном поле)] 2) гол gram (п) [graem] грамм graduate (п) ['graed3uat] выпускник (обычно высшего учебного заведения) graduate (v) ['graed^ueit] заканчивать (высшее учебное заведение) grate (v) [greit] натирать (на тёрке) graze (v) [greiz] 1) содрать (кожу), оцарапать; 2) пасти (grazing land - пастбище) grilled (adj) [grild] приготовленный на гриле gripping (adj) ['gripig] захватывающий дух grow accustomed (v) [grau a'kAstamd] привыкать guesthouse (n) ['gest.haus] небольшая гостиница, пансион guided tour (n) ['gaidid ,tua] экскурсионный тур, туристическая поездка gunpowder (n) ['дАП,pauda] порох gust (n) [gAst] порыв (ветра) gym (n) [d3im] тренажёрный зал 202 hack into (phr v) [haek ’inta] вскрывать, взламывать {компьютерную систему) hairdryer (n) ['hea.draia] фен hand in (phr v) [haend 'in] сдавать {например, домашнюю работу) hand out (phr v) [haend 'aut] раздавать hang out (phr v) [haer] 'autj постоянно бывать где-л., болтаться без дела harsh (adj) [haij] суровый {например, климат) hayloft (п) ['heijoft] сеновал headline (п) ['hed.lainj заголовок (hit the headlines -попасть на первые полосы газет, стать сенсацией) hearth (п) [ha:0] домашний очаг heatwave (п) ['hiit.weivj период аномально жаркой погоды heavy (adj) ['hevij 1) крупный, массивный; 2) тяжёлый (о пище)] 3) сильный {о дожде) height (п) [hait] высота herder (п) ['hsidaj скотовод hilarious (adj) [hi'learias] весёлый, уморительный hip (n) [hip] бедро historic (adj) [hi'stnrik] исторический, имеющий историческое значение homeless (adj) ['haumlas] бездомный homemade (adj) [.hau'meid] 1) домашний, домашнего изготовления; 2) самодельный, кустарный homesick (adj) ['haumsik] тоскующий по дому, по родине home town (n) [,haum 'taun] родной город hoop (n) [huip] обруч, кольцо horror (n) ['hnra] 1) ужас; 2) фильм ужасов household (n) ['haushauld] 1) семейство, семья; 2) домашнее хозяйство housewarming (n) ['haus.woimir]] новоселье housewife (n) ['hauswaif] домохозяйка housework (n) ['hauswsik] работа no дому humidity (n) [hjui'midati] влажность hurricane (n) [’Ьлпкэп] ураган hut (n) [hAt] хижина, лачуга hydrogen bond (n) ['haidrad3an bond] хим. водородная связь hydrophobic (n) [.haidrau'faubik] водоотталкивающий Ice climbing (n) ['ais .klaimir]] спорт, ледолазание ileum (n) ['iliam] анат. подвздошная кишка imaginative (adj) [I'maed^inativ] одарённый богатым воображением imagery (n) ['imid^ari] образы (в изобразительном искусстве, литературных произведениях) impact (п) ['impaekt] воздействие, влияние impolite (adj) [.impa'Iait] невежливый, неучтивый imprint (n) ['imprint] оттиск, отпечаток Incidence (n) ['insid(a)ns] число случаев {например, совершения преступлений) inconsiderate (adj) [.inkan'sidarat] невнимательный к другим ink-jet printer (n) ['ir]kd3et .printa] струйный принтер insert (v) [in's3it] вставлять inspire (v) [in'spaia] воодушевлять, вдохновлять interpreter (n) [in'tsiprita] устный переводчик, переводчик-синхронист intestine (n) [in'testin] анат. кишка (large intestine -толстая кишка, small Intestine - тонкая кишка) invent (v) [in'vent] изобретать invention (n) [in'venj(a)n] изобретение investigate (v) [in'vestigeit] расследовать investigator (n) [in'vesti.geita] следователь invisibility cloak (n) [in.viza'bilatl .klauk] плащ-невидимка iodine (n) ['aiadiin] йод irresponsible (adj) [,iri'spi9nsab(a)l] безответственный irritated (adj) ['iri.teitid] раздражённый ivy (n) ['aivi] плющ (Ivy League - «Лига плюща» -ассоциация старейших частных университетов США) jealous (adj) ['бзе1э$] 1) ревнивый; 2) завистливый jelly crystals (pi n) ['бзеИ ,krist(a)lz] сухое желе jet engine (n) [,d3et 'end^in] реактивный двигатель jet lag (n) ['d^et laeg] расстройство биоритмов в связи с перелётом через несколько часовых поясов jet ski (n) ['d3et ski:] гидроцикл, водный мотоцикл journey (n) ['d53inl] поездка, путешествие {преим. сухопутное) judge (n) [бзлбз] судья jury (n) ['d3uari] суд присяжных keep in touch [,ki:p in 'tAtJl продолжать общаться, поддерживать связь keyboard (n) ['kii.boid] клавиатура keyboards (pi n) ['kli.bDidz] клавишные {музыкальные инструменты, обычно электронные) kidnapper (n) ['kidnaepa] похититель людей knock out (phr v) [nnk 'aut] нокаутировать landlocked (adj) ['laen(d),lnkt] не имеющий выхода к морю (the) latter (pron) [(5э)'1аегэ] последний {из вышеупомянутых) launch (v) [bintj] начинать или открывать {например, кампанию) law enforcement officer (n) ['b: in.foismant .nfisa] сотрудник правоохранительных органов lawyer (n) ['bija] юрист lay the table [,lei 5a 'teib(a)l] накрывать на стол lean (v) [li:n] клониться, наклоняться leather (n) ['Ie5a] кожа {выделанная) leftover (adj) ['left.auva] оставшийся, неиспользованный legislation (n) [,led5i'sleij(a)n] законодательство; закон lentils (pi n) ['lentilz] чечевица lifespan (n) ['laif.spaen] продолжительность жизни light (adj) [lait] 1) лёгкий (о пище)] 2) слабый (о ветре, дожде) limb (п) [lim] конечность {человека или животного) limp (v) [limp] хромать, прихрамывать line (n) [lain] 1) черта (finish line - финишная черта); 2) верёвка (washing line - бельевая верёвка); 3) род деятельности; 4) строка; 5) конвейер (production line - поточная линия) liquid (п) [’likwid] жидкость 203 lively (adj) ['laivli] живой, оживлённый liver (n) ['liva] анат. печень lizard (n) ['lizad] ящерица load the dishwasher [,laud бэ 'dij.woja] загружать посудомоечную машину location (n) [l0u'keij(a)n] 1) съёмочная площадка {за пределами студии); 2) (место)положение log (п) [log] бревно log in (phr v) [log 'in] комп, входить в систему (the) long jump (n) [(5э) 'lor] бзлтр] прыжок в длину look out (phr v) [luk 'autj быть настороже (Look out! -Осторожно! Берегись!) lorry (n) ['lorij грузовик lose weight [lu:z ’weit] худеть lovely (adj) ['IavM] красивый, очаровательный lurk (v) [1з:к] скрываться; таиться lush (adj) [IaJ] буйный, пышный {о растительности) luxury (n) [’lAk/ari] роскошь luxurious (adj) [lAg'zjuarias] роскошный nanofilament (n) [.naenau'filamant] нановолокно natural selection (n) [,naetj(a)ral si'lekj(a)n] биол. естественный отбор net (n) [net] сеть; сетка ninhydrin (n) [nin'hidrin] хим. нингидрин noisy (adj) [’naizi] шумный nomad (n) ['naumaed] кочевник nomadic (adj) [nau'maedik] кочевой nominee (n) [.nomi'ni:] кандидат, номинант non-existent (adj) [,nDnig'zist(a)nt] несуществующий northernmost (adj) ['noiban.maust] самый северный notable (adj) ['nautab(a)l] примечательный; достойный внимания nourishment (n) ['nAriJmant] пища nude (n) [njuid] обнажённая фигура {в живописи, скульптуре) nutrient (n) ['njuitriant] питательное вещество nutritious (adj) [njui'tri/as] питательный nylon (n) [’nailon] нейлон make a call [meik э 'кз:1] позвонить по телефону make а сору [meik э 'kopi] копировать, делать копию таке а bed [meik э ‘bed] стелить постель make-up (п) ['meikAp] макияж make-up artist (n) ['meikAp .ciitist] визажист make up one’s mind [meik ,Ap wahz 'maind] принимать решение, решаться matchstick (n) ['maetj.stik] спичка mathematics (n) [,mae0a'maetiks] математика meagre (adj) ['miiga] скромный, скудный means (pi n) [miinz] состояние, средства measure (v) ['теза] измерять melatonin (n) [.mela'taunin] мед. мелатонин menace (n) ['menas] угроза, опасность mesomorph (n) ['mesa(u)mD:f] человек атлетического телосложения mild (adj) [maild] неострый (о еде) miserable (adj) ['miz(a)rab(a)l] несчастный misuse (n) [mis'juis] злоупотребление misuse (v) [mis'juiz] злоупотреблять mixture (n) ['mikstja] смесь moan (v) [maun] жаловаться model maker (n) ['mDd(a)l ,meika] разработчик моделей moderate (adj) ['mDd(a)rat] умеренный moisture (n) ['maistja] влажность monk (n) [mAgk] монах moody (adj) ['muidi] унылый, угрюмый moveable (adj) ['muivab(a)l] передвижной, переносной mud (n) [mAd] грязь • multi-storey (adj) ['mAlti.stairi] многоярусный, многоэтажный multiplex cinema (n) ['mAlti.pleks 'sinama] многозальный кинотеатр murder (n) ['msida] убийство musical score (n) ['mju:zik(a)l .skai] музыка к фильму mystery (n) ['mist(a)ri] 1) тайна; загадка; 2) детективный роман или рассказ, в котором расследование преступления связано с тайной obstacle (п) ['obstakl] препятствие occupation (п) [.okju'peijn] занятие; профессия occupational (adj) [,Dkju'peiJn(a)l] профессиональный, связанный с профессиональной деятельностью occur (v) [а'кзг] 1) случаться, происходить; 2) приходить на ум, в голову oesophagus (п) [I'sofagas] анат. пищевод offshore (adj) [,оГ/з:] расположенный на некотором расстоянии от берега, в открытом море off the beaten track [of бэ 'bi:t(a)n traek] в стороне от большой дороги; в малоизвестных, малоизученных областях office worker (n) ['ofis ,w3ika] офисный работник; чиновник, служащий (be) on cloud nine [,bi: on klaud 'nain] (быть) на седьмом небе от счастья open day (n) ['эирэп dei] день открытых дверей outcome (п) [’aut.kAm] результат, исход, итог outfit (п) ['autfit] одежда, комплект одежды outgoing (adj) ['autgauig] общительный, дружелюбный outside the realm [aut.said бэ 'relm] за пределами области, сферы oven (n) ['Av(a)n] духовка, духовой шкаф overboard (adv) ['auva.boidj за борт overlook (v) [.auva'Iuk] не замечать, не обращать внимания, недооценивать oxygen tank (n) ['ок$1бз(э)п taegk] баллон с дыхательной газовой смесью (visible to the) naked eye [('viz9b(a)l ta 6a) 'neikid ai] (видимый) невооружённым глазом pancreas (n) ['paegkriasj анат. поджелудочная железа panel (n) ['paen(a)l] жюри, судейская коллегия particle (n) ['pa:tik(a)l] частица patient (adj) ['peij(a)nt] терпеливый peaceful (adj) ['pi:sf(a)l] мирный, спокойный peak hour traffic (n) [pi:к ,aua 'traefik] уличное движение в часы пик peasant (n) ['pez(a)nt] крестьянин; сельский житель peer (n) [pia] сверстник pepper (n) ['pepa] перец performance (n) [pa'bimans] представление, спектакль 204 philtrum (n) ['filtram] анат. подносовой желобок physics (n) ['fiziks] физика physiognomy (n) [.fizi'onami] физиогномика pickpocketing (n) ['pik.pokitir]] карманная кража pickle (n) ['pik(0)l] солёный или маринованный огурец pine (n) [pain] сосна pip (n) [pip] косточка (плода) pitch (n) [pitjl спорт, поле pizza base (n) ['piitsa ,beis] основа для пиццы play truant [plei 'truisnt] прогуливать (занятия в школе) plot (n) [plot] сюжет plug into (phr v) [р1лд 'inta] подключить к point of view (n) [.point av Vjui] точка зрения pointed (adj) ['pointid] заострённый, острый pole (n) [paul] 1) полюс; 2) жердь; 3) шест pollute (v) [pa'luit] загрязнять polluted (adj) [pa'luitid] загрязнённый; загазованный polyester (n) [.pnli'esta] полиэстер porous (adj) ['poiras] пористый portable (adj) ['po:tab(a)l] портативный postal worker (n) ['paust(a)l ,w3ika] почтовый работник postgraduate education (n) [,paus(t)'graed5uat edju,keij(a)n] образ, последипломное образование (академический курс на базе высшего образования на соискание учёной степени магистра или доктора) pour (v) [рэ:] лить(ся), наливать powder (п) ['pauda] порошок praise (v) [preiz] хвалить, восхвалять, прославлять precipitation (п) [pri,sipi'teij(a)n] (атмосферные) осадки premises (р1 п) ['premisiz] помещение, здание, дом prevent (v) [pri'vent] предотвращать primarily (adv) ['praim(a)rali] сначала, первоначально principal (n) ['prinsap(a)l] директор школы, колледжа prior to (prep) ['praia ta] прежде, до profitable (adj) ['profitab(a)l] прибыльный, рентабельный profound (adj) [pra'faund] абсолютный, полный, совершенный prominent (adj) ['prnminant] известный, выдающийся protein (n) ['prautiin] белок, протеин public school (n) ['рлЬЬк ,sku:l] привилегированная частная школа (в Англии) puddle (n) ['pAd(a)l] лужа pull a muscle [pul a 'тл$(а)1] потянуть мышцу punch (п) [pAntJ] пунш (напиток) punishing (adj) ['pAni/iQ] суровый; трудный push boundaries [puj 'baund(a)riz] переходить границы дозволенного, бросать вызов ограничениям put on (phr v) [put 'on] надевать, одевать question (v) ['kwestj(a)n] сомневаться, подвергать сомнению queue (n) [kju:] очередь quit (v) [kwit] оставлять, покидать rare (adj) [rea] редкий rate (n) [reit] доля; уровень (например, преступности) raw (adj) [n:] сырой, необработанный read up on (phr v) [,ri:d 'ap on] специально изучать reassure (v) [.riia'Jua] заверять, убеждать recipe (n) ['resapi] рецепт (кулинарный) recognition (п) [,rekag'nij(a)n] признание (чьих-л. заслуг и т. п.) record-holder (п) ['rekad .haulda] рекордсмен rectum (n) ['rektam] анат. прямая кишка referee (п) [.refa'ri:] спорт, рефери, арбитр refrigerate (v) [ri'frid^areit] охлаждать, замораживать regardless of [ri'gaidlas av] независимо от, невзирая на rehabilitation centre (п) [,ri:abili'teij(a)n .senta] реабилитационный центр rehearsal (n) [ri'h3is(a)l] репетиция rehearse (v) [ri'h3is] репетировать reliable (adj) [ri'laiab(a)l] надёжный reliant (adj) [ri'laiant] зависимый, зависящий remainder (n) [ri'meinda] остаток, оставшаяся часть remote (adj) [ri'maut] отдалённый, удалённый remove (v) [ri'muiv] удалять (the) Renaissance (n) [5a ri'neis(a)ns] эпоха Возрождения render (v) ['renda] воспроизводить, изображать, передавать renewable (adj) [ri'nju:ab(a)l] возобновляемый (о природных ресурсах ит. п.) repeat offender (n) [ri.piit a'fenda] преступник, повторно совершивший преступление; рецидивист reporter (п) [ri'poita] репортёр requirement (п) [ri'kwaiamant] требование research (п) [ri's3it|] исследование resign (v) [ri'zain] оставлять пост, уходить в оставку responsible (adj) [ri'spDnsab(a)l] ответственный revolution (п) [,reva'lu:/(a)n] революция rickshaw (п) [’nkjoi] рикша ripe (adj) [raip] спелый roast (adj) [raust] жареный (особ, в духовке или на открытом огне) robbery (п) [Vobari] ограбление rock (п) [гок] 1) скала; 2) камень roll off (phr v) [raul 'of] скатываться (c чего-л.) romance (n) [rau'maens] сентиментальный роман rotary printing press (n) [.rautari 'printig pres] ротационная печатная машина rough it ['rAf it] терпеть лишения и неудобства, обходиться без обычных удобств roughly (adv) ['гаА1] приблизительно, округлённо rule out (phr v) [ru:l 'aut] исключать rural (adj) [Vuaral] сельский ransom (n) ['raens(a)m] выкуп rapid transit system (n) [.raepid 'traenzit .sistam] скоростная транспортная система safe (adj) [seif] надёжный, безопасный saint (n) [seint] святой saliva (n) [sa'Iaiva] слюна salty (adj) ['soilti] солёный sanctuary (n) ['saegktjuari] заказник, заповедник scar (n) [ska:] шрам scenery (n) ['siinari] декорации scholarship (n) ['skalajip] стипендия (the) sciences (pi n) [5a 'saiansiz] естественные науки science fiction (n) ['saians ,fikj(a)n] научная фантастика 205 scientific (adj) [.saian'tifik] научный scorching (adj) ['sloitjir]] палящий, обжигающий scuiptor (n) ['skAlpta] скульптор sculpture (n) ['skAlptJa] скульптура search engine (n) ['s3:tj ,end3in] nporp. поисковик, поисковая система season (п) ['si:z(a)n] сезон, время года secure (v) [si'kjua] 1) обеспечивать, гарантировать; 2) получать, приобретать self-catering (adj) [.self 'keitarir]] с кухней самообслуживания selfish (adj) ['selfij] эгоистичный sell out (phr v) [sel 'aut] распродавать semi-arid (adj) [.semi'aerid] полузасушливый, полупустынный semi-nomadic (adj) [.semi.nau'maedik] полукочевой semi-trailer (n) [.semi'treila] полуприцеп, двухколёсный прицеп sentence (v) ['sentans] выносить приговор, приговаривать serf (п) [s3:f] крепостной (крестьянин) serotonin (п) [.siara'taunin] мед. серотонин serve (v) [s3:v] подавать (на стол) set а limit [.set э 'limit] устанавливать предел, ограничивать set off (phr v) [set 'of] отправляться (в поездку) set up (phr v) [set 'Apj создавать, основывать setting (п) ['setir]] время и место действия пьесы, фильма shade (п) [feid] тень, полумрак shatter (v) [’Jaeta] разрушать (здоровье, жизнь) shelter (п) ['Jeltaj 1) шалаш; 2) кров, убежище shoplifting (п) ['Jnp.liftir]] мелкое воровство (покупателей) в магазинах showcase (v) ['Jau.keisj показывать, демонстрировать shrub (п) [/гаЬ] кустарник sibling (п) ['sibliQ] брат или сестра (siblings - дети одних родителей) sights (р1 п) [salt] достопримечательности signify (v) ['signifai] означать, символизировать single room (n) ['sir]g(a)l ,ru:m] одноместный номер (в гостинице) sitcom (n) [’sitkom] (сокр. от situation comedy) комедия положений skyscraper (n) [’skai.skreipa] небоскрёб sleeping bag ф) [’sliipir] ,baeg] спальный мешок slice (v) [slais] резать ломтиками, нарезать slip (v) [slip] скользить, поскользнуться slow-twitch (adj) [.slau'twitj] физиол. медленно сокращающийся smallpox (n) ['smoil.pDks] мед. оспа smarts (pi n) [smarts!амер. ум, мозги snorkel ф) ['snDik(a)l] дыхательная трубка (для подводного плавания) soak (v) [sauk] 1) мочить, замачивать; 2) промачивать (о дожде)] 3) впитываться soaking wet [.saukig 'wet] насквозь промокший sociable (adj) ['saujab(a)!] общительный social networking site (n) [sauj(a)l 'netwsikig .sait] социальная сеть soil sample (n) ['soil ,sa:mp(a)l] образец грунта, почвы solar system (n) ['saula .sistam] Солнечная система sole (n) [saul] подошва solid ['solid] 1. (n) твёрдое тело или состояние; 2. (adj) твёрдый (в твёрдом состоянии) solution (п) [sa'lu:J(a)n] 1) раствор; 2) решение sort out (phr v) [sort 'aut] утрясать, улаживать sound engineer (n) ['saund end3i,nia] звукоинженер sour (adj) ['saua] кислый space (n) [speis] 1) пространство; 2) космос sparkling water ['spaik(a)lir) .woita] газированная вода speak out (phr v) [spiik 'aut] высказываться species (n) ['spiijiiz] (биологический) вид spectator (n) [spek'teita] зритель sphincter (n) ['sfigkta] анат. сфинктер (cardiac sphincter - нижний пищеводный сфинктер, pyloric sphincter - пилорический сфинктер (мышечное кольцо между желудком и двенадцатиперстной кишкой) spicy (adj) [’spaisi] пряный, острый, приправленный \ специями spill (v) [spil] проливать(ся), разливать(ся), расплёскивать(ся) spin (v) [spin] прясть, сучить (шерсть) spine-chilling (adj) ['spain.tjilir]] ужасающий, жуткий (часто о фильме, романе) sprain ап ankle [.sprein эп 'эедк(э)1] вывихнуть лодыжку spread (v) [spred] 1) распространять(ся); 2) намазывать sprinkle (v) ['sprir]k(a)l] посыпать squid (n) [skwid] кальмар stable (n) ['steib(a)l] хлев stage (n) [steid3] сцена, театральные подмостки stain (n) [stein] пятно stain-free (adj) [.stein'frii] стойкий к различного рода загрязнениям и воздействию воды staircase (п) ['stea.keis] лестница, ряд ступеней stamina (п) ['staemina] выносливость stamp out (phr v) [staemp ’aut] подавлять, уничтожать starfish (n) ['stai.fij] морская звезда star-studded (adj) ['stai.stAdid] звёздный, c большим числом знаменитостей stardom (n) ['staidam] статус звезды start off (phr v) [stait 'of] начинать(ся) state-of-the-art (adj) [.steit av 5i 'ait] новейший, ультрасовременный steep (adj) [stiip] крутой (подъём, обрыв и т. п.) still water ['stil .woita] вода без газа, негазированная вода stink (v) [stigk] плохо пахнуть, вонять stir (v) [st3i] мешать, помешивать stomach (n) ['stAmak] желудок storm in a teacup [.stoim in a 'tiikAp] буря в стакане воды, много шума из ничего stove (п) [stauv] печь, печка straight (adj) [streit] прямой strained (adj) [streind] напряжённый, неестественный stretch (v) [stretjl простираться, тянуться stroll (n) [straul] прогулка subscriber (n) [sab'skraiba] подписчик subsist (v) [sab'sist] жить; прокормиться substance (n) [’sAbstans] субстанция, вещество sumptuous (adj) ['sAmptJuas] роскошный, дорогостоящий survival (n) [sa'vaiv(a)l] выживание, выживаемость suspect (n) ['sAspekt] подозреваемый suspend (v) [sa'spend] временно лишать ученика права посещать школу (в наказание за проступок) 20б swallow (v) ['swdIsu] глотать sweat gland (n) ['swet glaend] анат. потовая железа sweaty (adj) ['sweti] потный, запотелый, взмокший sweet (adj) [swiit] сладкий tablespoon (n) ['teib(a)l,spurn] столовая ложка tackle (v) [Чэек(э)1] бороться {например, с преступностью) take а call [teik э 'кэг1] отвечать на звонок take а sinister turn [teik э .sinista Чзгп] принять ужасный оборот take саге of [teik 'кеэ dv] заботиться о ком-л. или о чём-л. (Таке саге! - Береги(те) себя!) take the rubbish out [teik 5э 'rAbiJ aut] выносить мусор take up (phr v) [teik 'лр] 1) заниматься (чем-л.)] 2) браться (за что-л.) tap water (n) ['taep ,wo:ta] водопроводная вода term (n) [t3:m] 1) семестр; 2) термин thick (adj) [0ik] толстый thigh (v) [0ai] анат. 1) бедро; 2) бедренная кость thin (adj) [0in] тонкий threaten (v) ['0ret(a)nj угрожать, грозить throat (n) [0raut] горло, гортань, глотка throw out (phr v) [0rau 'aut] выкидывать, выбрасывать (ненужные вещи) tonne (n) [tAn] метрическая тонна top-notch (adj) [,tDp'nDtЛ первоклассный, превосходный tornado (n) [tDi'neidau] торнадо tough (adj) [tAf] 1) жёсткий; 2) выносливый; 3) напряжённый, интенсивный tournament (n) ['tuanamant] турнир track and field (n) ['traek an ,fi:ld] лёгкая атлетика traffic jam (n) ['traefik d^aem] (дорожная) «пробка» transitional (adj) [traen'zij(a)nal] переходный trap (n) [traep] ловушка, западня tribe (n) [traib] племя trigger (v) ['triga] инициировать, вызывать trip (n) [trip] поездка, путешествие tryptophan (n) ['tripta(u)faen] хим. триптофан trustworthy (adj) ['trAs(t),w3i5i] заслуживаюидий доверия, надёжный turn out (phr v) [t3in 'aut] выяснять(ся), оказываться turn up (phr v) [t3in 'Ap] явиться, прийти turned-up nose ['t3indAp nauz] вздёрнутый нос umpire (n) ['Ampaia] спорт, судья, арбитр unambitious (adj) [.Anaem'bijas] нечестолюбивый, непритязательный undergraduate education (n) [,Anda'graed3uat edju,keij(a)n] образ, преддипломное образование (академический курс на базе среднего образования на соискание степени бакалавра) (be/feel) under the weather [(bii/fiil) Anda 5a 'we5a] (чувствовать) недомогание uniform (n) ['juinifoim] униформа, форма unpredictable (adj) [,Anpri'diktab(a)l] непредсказуемый upload (v) ['Apjaud] комп, загружать urban (adj) ['з:Ьап] городской urine (n) ['juarin] моча utterly (adv) ['Atali] чрезвычайно, совершенно vaccine (n) ['vaeksiin] вакцина vanish (v) ['vaenij] исчезать vapour (n) ['veipa] парь1 vast (adj) [vciist] широкий, бескрайний vicious (adj) ['vijas] злой, жестокий victim (n) ['viktim] жертва viewer (n) ['vjuia] (теле)зритель villus (pi villi) (n) ['viIas] анат. ворсинка (на слизистой оболочке внутренних органов) violence (п) [vaialans] жестокость, насилие virtual (adj) ['v3itjual] виртуальный viscose (n) ['viskaus] вискоза vivid (adj) [’vivid] яркий, живой vocational (adj) [vau'keij(a)nal] профессиональный (vocational course - курс профессиональной подготовки) volume (n) ['voljuim] 1) том; 2) объём voyage (n) ['vDiid3] путешествие (особ, космическое или морское) whacky (adj) ['waeki] чокнутый, со странностями walking tour (n) ['wDikig ,tua] пешеходная экскурсия warn (v) [wDin] предупреждать, предостерегать waste product (n) ['weist .prodAkt] продукт жизнедеятельности waterproof (adj) ['woita.pruif] влагоустойчивый wave-jumping (n) ['weiv.d^Ampir]] спорт, прыжки на волне wavy (adj) ['weivi] волнистый wealth (n) [wel0] достаток, благосостояние weapon (n) ['wepan] оружие wearing (adj) [’wearig] износостойкий wedge-shaped (adj) ['wed^Jeipt] клиновидный weight (n) [weit] вес weird (adj) [wiad] странный, непонятный well-pressed (adj) [wel'prest] выглаженный, отутюженный wetsuit (n) ['wet.suIt] гидрокостюм whisker (n) ['wiska] усик Whitewater rafting (n) [.waitwoita 'raiftig] сплав на плоту по реке с порогами width (п) [wid0] ширина wilderness (п) ['wildanas] дикая местность, глушь wildlife reserve (n) ['waild.laif ri'z3iv] заказник; заповедник дикой природы win (v) [win] выигрывать witness (n) ['witnas] свидетель work out (phr v) [w3ik 'aut] 1) вычислять; 2) заниматься физкультурой worthy (adj) ['w3i5i] достойный, заслуживающий wrinkle (v) ['rir]k(a)l] морщйться, сминаться wrinkle-free (adj) [,rigk(a)rfrii] несминаемый yacht (n) [jut] яхта youth hostel (n) ['ju:0 ,hDst(a)l] молодёжный хостел yurt (n) [j3it] юрта zoo-keeper (n) ['zui.kiipa] работник зоопарка 207 Учебное издание Инновационная школа Комарова Юлия Александровна Ларионова Ирина Владимировна Араванис Розмари Кокрейн Стюарт Английский язык Учебник для 11 класса общеобразовательных организаций Базовый уровень Редакторы М.А. Горетая, О.А. Гужновская, МЛ. Панкина Дизайн-концепт Eleni Fine Верстка Е.А. Бреславского Обложка Б. Б. Тырдановой Иллюстрации: lllias Arahovitis, Tomek Giovannis, Christos Skaltsas Фотографии: Bananastock c. 35, 42 (нижняя слева), 45 (d), 90 (газеты), 103, 106 (слева), 122 (морковь), 123, 125 (нижняя), 137,138; Bananastock/ Punchstockc. 15; Brand Xс. 16 (d), 21 (В), 49 (верхняя слева), 68, 136, 148 (справа), 159 (нижняя); Corbis с. 34 (аттракцион), (лыжники), 36, 49 (верхняя справа), 63, 77, 98, 100 (шахматы), 104 (яблоко), 106 (справа), 130, 149, 158, 159 (верхняя); Corbis/Apeiron Photos с. 42 (нижняя справа), 74 (В, С); Design Pics с. 59; Digital Stock/ Corbis с. 26 (нижняя), 34 (музей); Digital Vision с. 49 (нижняя в центре), 50, 56, 116(1,4), 183 (комедиант); fotodom с. 70 (нижняя), 94, 96 (2), 110; Geophoto с. 28, 29 (нижняя); Getty с. 44 (а), 91 (мужчина с ноутбуком), 96 (1), 107,116 (3), 122 (девушка в наушниках), 125 (верхняя); Image Source с. 6 (Ь), 21 (С), 34 (кинотеатр), (театр), 49 (нижняя справа), 74 (F), 90 (девушка), 153, 160 (верхняя), 162, 183 (девушки); Lori с. 8 (нижняя), 9, 16 (а), (с), 26 (с), 29 (нижняя), 30, 31 (нижняя), 57 (Томми Ли Джонс), 70 (Борис Акунин), 73, 81 (справа), 91 (девочки), 93, 97 (4), 141, 183 (С), (D); Macmillan Australia Primary Library/Guy Holt c. 122 (мозг); Macmillan Education/ Stuart Cox c. 74 (D); Macmillan/ David Tolley/ Dean Ryan c. 90 (журналы); Macmillan/ Paul Bricknell/ Dean Ryan c. 90 (радио); Macmillan/ Raymond Turvey (Turvey Books Ltd.) c. 132; Medio Images c. 116 (5); Morguefile c. 34 (галерея), 44 (b), 54 (справа), 116 (2); Photo Disc c. 21 (A), 54 (справа), 74 (E); Photo Disc/ Getty Images c. 19, 49 (верхняя в центре), 52, 54, 60 (мост), 90 (справа), 91 (мужчина с телефоном), 121; Photoaltoc. 122 (мусс), 148 (слева), 160 (фон); Purestock/Punchstock/Getty Images с. 83(3), 101 (нижняя); Stockbyte с. 18, 21 (D), 69, 139; Stockbyte/ Punchstockc. 66, 91 (компьютерный класс); Superstock с. 60 (верхняя справа), (нижняя); Tassphoto с. 8 (верхняя), 42 (верхняя), 70 (Кирстен Данст), 74 (А), 82, 83, 155; Thinkstock с. 49 (нижняя слева), 55 (нижняя), 84, 85, 90 (телевизор), 100 (девочка), 101 (верхняя), 120, 129, 134, 156; Панкина Мария с. 26 (А), (В) Подписано в печать 05.06.14. Формат 60x90 1/8. Печать офсетная. Бумага офсетная. Уел. печ. л. 26. Доп. тираж 8000 экз. Изд. № 23040. Заказ 10840. ООО «Русское слово — учебник». 125009, Москва, ул. Тверская, д. 9/17, стр. Тел.: (495) 969-24-54, (499) 689-02-65. ISBN 978-5-00007-426-8 785000 074268 Отпечатано в типографии ООО «ЛД-ПРИНТ» 196644, Санкт-Петербург, Колпинский р-н, пос. Саперный, территория предприятия «Балтика», д. б/н, лит. Ф. тел. (812) 462-83-83, e-mail: [email protected]