Английский язык 9 класс Рабочая тетрадь Афанасьева Михеева

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Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Пособие для учащихся школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев и гимназий Москва «Просвещение» 2009 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А64 Авторы: О. В, Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева, К. М. Баранова, Н. Ю. Петрова ISBN 978-.5-09-018489-7 © Издательство Просвещеште^, 2009 Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение^^, 2009 Все права запдищены Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Pages of History: Linking Past and Present 1. Listen to the text “The First Discovery of America”^ and choose the right items to complete these statements. 1) Erik the Red left Iceland because----- a) he wanted to travel b) he didn’t like the climate c) he was trying to avoid some problems 2) Erik and his people made Greenland their new home as------- a) it provided food for the animals b) the island was big and lonely c) it was the first island on their way 1 /“ »_ 3) and his men lost their way way to Norway way from Norway way to Greenland 4) Leif [li:f] a) on the b) on the c) on the The country Leif and his men arrived in a) abounded in food b) had neither snow nor ice c) was a safe place to live 5) The new country a) Forestland b) Grapeland c) Vinland got the name of 6) Leif visited the new country again a) often h) never r) eventually 7) Leif discovered America for Europeans about a) a thousand years before b) five hundred years after c) five hundred years before Columbus ^ Scripts (p. 94). UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 2. Listen to the text “The Roaring Twenties” and say which of the following statements are friie, false or not mentioned in the text. 1) In tile 1920’s life began to gain speed. 2) In the twenties jazz gave way to waltz. 3) Charleston was the most popular dance of the period. 4) They began to make sound hlms in the year 1923. 5) The music played during movie shows helped to create the right atmosphere. 6) The first radio programmes were listened to with the help of a pair of headphones. 7) The first radios were big and rather costly. 4 UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 8) The use of cars stimulated road building. 9) The early cars were not safe enough to be used 10) Before the twenties American women could men did. in big cities, not vote like 3. Read the mixed up parts of the text and put them in a logical order to get a complete story. James I and the Gunpowder Plot a) The effigy is known to such children as “Guy Fox”, though the real name of the man who it-represents was Guido Fawkes. Although he was born at York, he had served in the Spanish army, and used the Spanish form of his name in his signature. Who was he, this man who is still burnt every year, hundreds of years after he lived? This is his story, the story of Guido Fawkes and King James I. b) When the Great Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 she was unmarried. So the Scottish King James VI became King James I of England. He was not a pleasant man. Not only was he of ungainly appearance, he was also untrustworthy and deceitful. James I who believed in absolute monarchy insisted that the Members of Parliament were there simply to do as he told them. In addition to his frequent quarrels with Parliament, James earned the hatred of many of his subjects by his treatment of people with religious views differing from own. From this hatred came the famous Gunpowder Plot less than two years after his coronation. c) Thus died a man whose name has quite wrongly and mistakenly come to mean anyone of queer or foolish appearance. Only Guido Fawkes was neither. He was a brave man and a gentleman, a faithful friend to the limit of endurance, ready to die for the faith in which he believed. We can be sure that never again were the cellars under the House of Lords let during the reign of James I. Nor have they ever been let since. Even to this day a careful search is made of them before the opening of Parliament. d) He was what is called a soldier of fortune. That is a man who is prepared to fight for any country which will pay him. Guy Fawkes was a gentleman of good family, brave and religious, who was ready to risk everything for a cause in which he believed. The conspirators UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал had rented а house next door to the Houses of Parliament and under the House of Lords and proposed that they should dig a tunnel. There they would pile barrels of gunpowder, and when the King and all the Members of Parliament were assembled on the 5th of November, there would be an explosion which would leave nothing but a smoking ruin. That would be the awful result of the explosion. e) Everyone in England knows that the fifth of November is Bonfire Night. For day, often weeks before the date, children may be seen carrying through the streets the stuffed effigy of a man, and singing a verse which begins: Please to remember the fifth of November, Gunpowder, treason and plot. Very often the effigy is dressed in old clothes of the present day, but occasionally some attempt has been made to imitate the costume of an earlier age. In either case the clothes are old, because the effigy is due to be burnt over a bonfire. f) On November the fourth, the day before that arranged for the opening of Parliament, Guy Fawkes was found in the cellar as well as the thirty or more barrels of gunpowder. The plot had failed. Guy 6 UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Fawkes was barbarously tortured to make him give the names of the other conspirators, which he refused to do. He was dragged out on a sledge to place of execution and hanged. g) This was a plot to blow up Parliament whilst^ King James was opening a new session. It was a most wicked undertaking, because although it would have put an end to King James, many innocent people would have been killed at the same time. This does not appear to have worried the original conspirators, who did not care how many people suffered, so long as they got rid of King James. Amongst^ this group of gentlemen who were determined to rid the country of the King was Guido, or Guy Fawkes. h) Guy Fawkes was used to explosions and to the idea of hundreds of men being killed in battle. It was to be his task to set fire to the fuse, and then to escape as best he could. A man of iron nerve, he had no doubts about his part in the conspiracy. But some of the conspirators began to have serious doubts about what they were doing. Several of them had friends or relations who would be in the House on the opening day, and they naturally wished to warn them to stay away. A letter was sent to warn some of the Members of Parliament. 4. Read the text “James I and the Gunpowder Plot” and find in it the sentences to support these ideas: 1) Guy Fawkes was a brave man. 2) Some of the conspirators let the information about the plot get to the ruler of the country. 3) Guy Fawkes didn’t betray the conspirators. 4) Guy Fawkes didn’t belong to the English army. 5) Guy Fawkes was arrested on the eve of the opening of Parliament. 6) The English people hated James I for various reasons. 7) Guy Fawkes and Guido Fawkes is one and the same person. 8) Every year oti the 5th of November the effigy is burnt. 5. Read the text and complete it filling the missing parts of the sentences (a—k) part. Fill in the table after the text. a) a narrow-minded English king b) were discovered the blanks (1—10) with One of them is an extra 1 2 whilst [wailst] (formal) = while amongst [o'nMQst] (literary) = among UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал c) trade with China and the Far East d) a colony in the New World e) saw the real beginnings of what afterwards f) forty thousand pounds of his own money g) China could be reached by going round Cape Horn h) because of the bitter persecution which he imposed i) importing the silks and spices to the East j) the days of Elizabeth and James I k) to colonise the new lands to the West England’s Expansion in the 16th—17th Centuries Very little had been done in England to encourage 1. until the reign of Elizabeth, although stories of its wealth had been current since the travels of Marco Polo, two hundred years earlier. The ports of Bristol, Boston and Hull were already sending ships to the Scandinavian countries, and as early as the reign of Richard III trade had been increasing in the Mediterranean. Now the merchants began to dream of rich profits to be made by 2.__________ There were always sailors in England ready to brave distant seas. Now the merchants were more than ever ready to fit out ships for 8 UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал what they hoped would be prosperous voyages. Everyone now knew that the earth was round and that 3. ----- or the south of Africa, These passages were long and dangerous, and many of the voyages in 4. ____ were attempts to find a way to India and China by the northwest passage, round the north of Canada. All failed, but many new lands 5._______ More important for the trade of Britain, goods began to arrive from China and the East in greater abundance than ever. Already in Queen Elizabeth’s reign attempts had been made 6. ____, now the United States of America. Sir Walter Raleigh and his cousin had obtained a patent from the Queen in 1578 to found 7. ____Although the attempt failed, this adventure paved the way for the beginnings of the British Empire. Sir Walter Raleigh is said to have spent 8. ____ in colonising ventures, chiefly in Virginia, so named after the Queen. It was not until the sailing in 1620 of the Pilgrim Fathers, men and women who found life in England under King James impossible 9. ____, that the first permanent British Colony was founded. Thus the United States of America really owes its beginnings to the stu- pidity of 10. 1 ^-nr- 4 ——1 5 6 7 8 9 10 extra 6. Find in the text “England’s Expansion in the 16th—17th Centuries” (Ex. 5) the words and phrases which mean the following: 1) to provide conditions that helped to develop 2) the period of time when a king or a cpieen rules a country 3) money that you make by selling something 4) to go too far away and face risk there 5) to put equipment into ships 6) successful sea journeys bringing riches 7) a journey by ship to a place 8) a very large quantity of something 9) to get an official document that gives the legal right to make or sell some invention 10) to create a situation that makes it possible or easier for something to happen 11) a new business or activity 12) an extremely bad treatment of someone, especially of their race or religion UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 7. Read the text and make it complete with the help of the derivatives formed from the words written on the right. Fill in the table at the end of the task. Louis XIV Part One 1. In the middle of the 17th century the most --------------------------form of govern- ment in Europe was absolute 2. __________ . The archetype of this kind of ruling was Louis XIV, king of France (1643—1715), whom many of other 3. --------- took as their model. Before his reign for much of the first half of the 17th century, France had been ruled by two chief ministers. Louis XIII (1601—1643) had given great power to Cardinal Richelieu, and when Louis died, his widow acted as regent for his son Louis XIV, then a child. Nevertheless a lot of power was in the hands of another chief minister. Cardinal Mazarini. When Mazarini died in 1661, the 23-year-old Louis declared that henceforth he would rule ------He did so until his death __________________________ owed a 4. in 1715. His 5. great deal to his belief (6. held at that time) that kings ruled by divine right, receiving their power from God, and so must rule 7. ______________ in person. This belief is summed characterize monarch rule personal persistent common j list 10 UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал up in the 8. _________ XIV “I am the state words attributed to Louis Louis had a number of capable ministers, but ___________ and made it clear that they were his 9. 10. on his favour. He also adopted the Sun as his 11. commissioned 12. emblem and and 13. to 14. him as the Sun King'. fame serve depend person art, write glory Part Two Louis’ 1. with the state was most 2. ------------------------ in his foreign policy. He was always 3, ----------- of his personal reputation or glory which he con- of himself identify evidence sidered to be 4. from that of France. Louis’ main concern, however, was France’s 5. _ reason he had great fortresses built along the 6. __________ and northeastern borders. Between 1667 and 1713 Louis fought a series of increasingly large-scale and 7. ----------------------- wars in an effort to 8. France’s 9. 10. and assert his own prestige and ____rights. 11. When Louis died in 1715, he left France _________________________strengthened, but at a heavy 12. and social cost. French influence in Europe was great. Other rulers envied Louis’ authority in France and his success abroad. Those who had not already intro- _________________ measures copied his jealousy separable and for this i vulnerable east expense strength front dynasty territorial economy duced 13. bureaucracy, his tax system, his standing army, his academies, and his style of personal rule. In absolute 14. of Versailles many set | imitate UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал up court in great new places away from their capitals, and 15. ______________________ fashions and manners, were 16. imitated. France wide Part One 1. 8. 2. 9. 3. 10. 4. 11. 5. 12. 6. 13. 7. 1 14. Part Two 1. 9. 2. 10. 3. 11. 4. 12. 5. 13. 6. 14. 7. 15. 8. 16. 8. Use future simple or present sirnple to complete the sentences: 1. If he (apologise) for being late. Miss Jackson (forgive) him. 2. If she (tell) you that Mary is a sympathetic girl, (not, believe) her. 3. Jane (be) very much hurt if you (mention) her big nose. 4. If the novel (not, have) a happy end, I (not, read) it. 5. Ask her when she I 12 UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал (return) the books to tlie library. 6. If your work (not, be) satisfactory, you (have to) rewrite it. 7. If somebody (phone) while I (be) out, (ask) them to call back in an hour. 8. When he (finish) his new novel, he (give) it to his wife to read. 9. Jack (not, be) sure when he (finish) his new novel. 10. When Alice (return) from Australia, she (come) to see us. 11. They never tell their granny when they (come) back for her not to worry in case they (return) late. 12. If the service in the hotel (not, be) very good, I (complain) to the manager. 13. I am not sure he (find) learning English very easy after he (begin) doing it. 14. If Grace (marry) William, I don’t think they (live) in happiness. 15. If Pauline (give) me a hand with the dishes, we’ (clean) the kitchen much earlier. 16. I hope they (not, be) very tired when they (arrive). 9. Open the brackets to complete the text. Use the present tenses. The main character of this much-loved story is a young girl called Beauty. Beauty lives with her father in a lonely house, she has siblings and her mother is dead. Beauty often (stay)^ alone because her father (travel)^ as part of his job. At the beginning of the story Beauty (stand)'^ at the window. She just (say)** goodbye to her father and (wave)^’ to him from the window. When she (be)^’alone, she (Ue)^down on the bed (cry)®. She (fall)'* asleep and (have)^^ a dream. In her dream she (see)^* a big castle and a handsome young Prince. Prince (speak)^^ to her (ask)^® for help. When the girl (wake)'^ up she (know)^^ that she must find Prince. no UNIT ONE 13 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Beauty is as good as her word: she (find)^® the castle of her dream but it is empty. She (walk)’^ through the rooms. In one of them she (see)^** a table and a delicious meal on it. Beauty is hungry and the dishes (look)^° tempting. While Beauty (eat)^^ the meal she (hear)^’ some sound behind her. Somebody (enter)^^ the room! Who (be)^® it? Beauty (turn)^"* round and ... (see)^'’ a terrible beast. Beast’s eyes (flash)^® and his long claws (scratch)^^ the table. What a terrible picture! But Beast (speak)^^ softly and kindly to Beauty. He (look)^® in the girl’s eyes and (say)'^®> “Beauty, I (love)^^ you, I (make)'^^ up my mind to marry you. You (love)^^ me? Give me an honest answer. Do you remember how the story (finish)^^? 10. Translate the sentences to revise the present tenses: 1. Секретные агенты не носят форму. 2. Темза протекает через Лондон. 3. Не уноси эту газету! Я ее все еще читаю. 4. Я не слышу (не могу расслышать), что ты говоришь. Здесь очень шумно из-за транспорта. 5. Чай скоро будет. Чайник вот-вот закипит. 6. У тебя будет вечеринка в субботу вечером? 7. Ты любишь путешествовать налегке? 8. Как ты обычно добираешься до работы? Я всегда езжу на автобусе, но завтра Давид подвезет меня на своей машине. 9. Алиса знает, где живет новая девочка? 10. Он никогда не слушает, что я ему говорю, так как он всегда думает о чем-то еще. 11. Если ты дашь Лиз карманные деньги, она их все истратит на конфеты, 12. Когда Джон придет, я попрошу его объяснить мне все, но я не знаю, когда он придет. 13. Никто ничего не знает об этом. 14. Нет никакого сомнения, что эти деньги его, не так ли? 15. Каждый это знает, не так ли? 16, Мой папа не пьет чай с сахаром, поэтому я не купила ему сахар. 11. Use the right forms of the verbs in present simple or present progressive to complete the sentences. 1. Julia (think) of moving to London next summer. 2, Are you sure it’s chocolate? It (taste) very bitter. 3. Well, Paul, you always (lose) your keys. You’ve lost at least three keys recently! 4. Can’t you hear what I (say)? I (ask) you to help me. 5. Have you got any idea when our exams (begin)? 6. May I ask you to dance with me? — Sorry, I (not, dance). 7. I’m afraid I (forget) when the film (start): at 5.30 or 6,30. 8, Well, James, there’s one thing I know for sure: you constantly (lie) to me! 9. The airplane (arrive) at seven. We won’t be late, don’t worry. 10. I (hear) you (get) married. Take ray congratu- UNIT ONE FrengNsh.ru - образовательный портал lations. 11. I know that on Saturdays the museum (close) an hour earlier than usual. 12. I’ve read all your books, Mr Clark. And what you (write) now? 12. Use the articles where necessary to complete the text. Thaiiks)^ivin^ Every year on 1. November 3. ______ fourth Thursday in 2. Americans celebrate 4. so-called ___________ first people to celebrate this day were Pilgrims. In November, 1621, they sat down to eat together and to give thanks to 7. _____________ God for enabling them Thanksgiving, 5. 6. __________ to survive 8. 9. ______ America __________ Pilgrims were joined at their feast by 10. ------- Amerindians.^ 11. ___________ people of 12. ---------- near forests had shared 13. shown them 15. corn with 14. _________ best places to catch 16. Pilgrims and _______ fish. Later the Amerindians had given 17. ------------ seed corn to 18. __________ English settlers and shown them how to plant 19, __________ crops that would grow well in 20. ---------- American soil. Without them there would have been no Thanksgiving. ' Amerindians = Native Americans, The word an Amerindian is used especially in books about Native American society or languages. UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 13. Complete the sentences using the words and word combinations from the boxes. Use the right articles with the nouns. Box 1 Box 2 medieval, notorious, 19th century, famous, small brown, young savage, popular modern, new blue, large expensive, big Australian, large round boy, one, fruit, astronomer, writer, bird, book character, car, singer, pirate, city 1. The robin. , is a symbol of winter and is often shown on Christmas cards 2. Zola, __ 3. Tarzan, , described life in a realistic manner, is a character from Edgar Rice Burroughs’ stories about a boy raised by apes. 4. Range Rover, ______ 5. My neighbour’s car, 6. Peter Pan, ________ 7. Elton John, _______ , can be driven on rough ground. ____, always looks clean and shiny. , fights with Captain Hook, , has written many successful songs, including “Crocodile Rock” and “Candle in the Wind 8. Copernicus, 9. The melon. _, is known for the Copernican system, , is often eaten as a first course, but can also be eaten as a dessert. 10. Perth, , is the capital of the state of Western Australia 14. Some of these sentences have mistakes. Correct them. Remember how articles with nouns in the function of apposition are used. 1. The Dutch painter Rembrandt is considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time. 2. The colonel Sanders developed the recipe for the fried chicken sold by Kentucky Fried Chicken. 3. The president of France is going to speak to the parliament. 4. He became the king after the death of his father. 5. The President Franklin Roosevelt is the only American president to have served more than two terms. UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал of 6. She got a job as personal secretary to the company chairman. 7. He was elected the chairman of the education committee. 8. Head is busy at the moment. Could you call back a little later? 9. Johnson was made the President’s budget director. 10. My dentist is called Doctor Steel. 11. Jonathan Swift, who wrote Gulliver's Travels, was the Dean St Paul’s Cathedral in Dublin. 12. That was a terrible meal; I’m going to complain to the man- ager. 15. Express the same in English. Revise the use of function words expressing time. Л. for or during? 1. Мне предстоит выполнить всю эту работу в течение недели. 2. Часть этого старинного города была ра.1рушена во время войны. 3. Я не осознавал этой простой истины (truth) в течение долгого времени. 4. Во время урока у меня несколько раз была возможность высказать свое мнение. 5. За эти годы город стремительно вырос и стал значительно красивее. 6. Во время фестиваля в гостиницах города не было свободных номеров. 7. Почему этот певец не достиг успеха в течение этого времени? 8. Сначала никто не замечал работ этого художника, но вот уже в течение нескольких лет ситуация постепенно меняется. 9. Мой папа журналист и уже много лет работает в местной газете. 10. В течение зимы семья живет в городе, а лето проводит на природе. B. ап time or in time? 1. Тим вечно опаздывает, но на этот раз он появился вовремя. 2. Вы как раз успели к ужину, садитесь за стол, пожалуйста. 3. Ты пришел вовремя; я как раз собираюсь уходить. Тремя минутами позже ты бы не застал (find sb in) меня дома. 4, Это будет очень важная встреча. Прошу вас всех прийти вовремя. 5. Постарайтесь сдавать свои работы вовремя. 6. Мне пришлось бежать всю дорогу, чтобы успеть к началу спектакля. 7. Мы начинаем ровно в 11. Смотри, не опоздай. 8. Я так рад, что я пришел вовремя, чтобы помочь больному. Спустя полчаса все было бы кончено. 9. Церемония начинается в 6. Я никогда не прощу тебя, если ты опоздаешь. 10. Смотри же, не опоздай к началу шоу. C. at the end or in the end? 1. Мы долго спорили, но в конце концов пришли к общему решению. 2. В конце представления на арене появились дрессированные львы- и тигры. 3. Наконец все коллеги заметили его до- TTS--1 C.I UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал стижения и поверили в него. 4. Читатель узнаёт правду только в конце книги. 5. Прошло несколько лет, и в конце концов они встретились вновь. 6. В конце прошлого тысячелетия человечество столкнулось с новыми проблемами. 7. В конце парка есть небольшое озеро, в котором плавают лебеди. 8. Роман нравился мне все больше и больше и наконец полностью захватил мое воображение. 9. В конце архивных записей (chronicle) была упомянута Первая мировая война и все последующие события, 10. Этот политик долго храни.а молчание, но наконец обнародовал (to make sth public) свою точку зрения. D. in or on? 1. Вечером вся семья собралась в гостиной. 2. В то дожд.ливое утро было особенно трудно подниматься с постели. 3. Днем обычно гораздо теплее, чем рано утром. 4. Эти события начались хмурым холодным утром в начале зимы. 5. В то ясное солнечное утро было обидно (а shame) сидеть дома, 6. Не могли бы вы перезвонить мне вечером? 7. Вечером в субботу кто-то позвонил в дверь. 8. Мы позвонили днем в гостиницу, чтобы узнать, есть ли там свободные номера. 9. Мы не можем забыть события, которые начались в то теплое и солнечное июльское утро, 10. В дождливый вечер не хочется выходить из дому. E, after or afterwards'? 1. Впоследствии он никогда не вспоминал об этом ужасном дне. 2. Я пойду гулять после того, как сделаю уроки. 3, Я сейчас занят, но обещаю вымыть посуду потом. 4. Сначала Мэри делала массу ошибок, но впоследствии стала высокопрофессиональным секретарем. 5. Я поговорю с ним потом. Сейчас я не готов к этому разговору. 6. Я позвоню тебе после того, как закончится фильм, и мы обменяемся впечатлениями. 7. Возможно, впоследствии человечество пожалеет о многих новых изобретениях, 8. Давай встретимся после уроков. 9, Мы часто делаем что-то, а потом сожалеем об этом. 10. Он рано нача.а сотрудничать в газете, а впоследствии стал профессиональным журналистом. 16. Read the text and make it complete choosing the best items to fill in the gaps. The first Viking to (1) ___ in Iceland was a Norwegian (2) -------, Ingolfur Arnarson, in 874 AD. The Vikings soon found that living in Iceland was just as difficult as living in Scandinavia, because they had to search (3) ________ to find strips of fertile land where crops could be grown and cattle grazed. (4) ____ these 18 UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ^ Лш, > i ;#* >. ■jt hardships and the cold, wet, windy climate, the Vikings settled down, set up farms, built huts and erected houses. About ten years later, though. Viking history began to repeat (5) -______.. In Iceland, as in Scan- dinavia, good farming land became scarce, food became short and some of the Iceland Vikings began to look further west for new homes. They found them in Greenland, which (6) _________ in 982 AD by Erik the Red. Four years (7) -----------, Erik left Iceland for Greenland with twenty-five ships, full of settlers, but only fourteen ships reached Greenland (8)___________Within (9) ------------ years, the Vikings had set up three hundred farms in Greenland, some with as many as twenty cows, (10) -------- goats and (11) --------, and Erik the Red had (12) ___________ cows on his large farm at Brattahlid. The Vikings made (13) butter and cheese to eat, and they found the hunting in Greenland was very good: there were caribou and bears and (14) _________ whales, seals and (15) --------- in the sea. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) d) was exploring come b) place c) settle d) position boss b) leader c) president d) chieftain hardly b) hard c) heavily d) heavy Despite ft) In spite c) Though d) Nevertheless herself ft) himself c) themselves d) itself explored ft) exploring c) was explored latter ft) later c) latest d) last safely ft) safe c) safety d) safeness few ft) little c) a few d) a little well ft) as well c) as d) as well as ft) sheeps c) ship d) ships ft) forty c) forties d) fourth ft) plenty of c) a good many d) a great number of ft) a lot c) a good deal of d) plenty ft) many fishes c) many fish d) a lot of fishes sheep fourty plenty plenty of much fish UNIT ONE 19 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 17. Change these sentences so that you could use the phrasal verb fo pick. 1. Children easily learn new words. 2. Will you help me to choose a dress for the New Year party? 3. I think Alec hates me: he is constantly finding fault with me. 4. I can collect you on the corner of the road at 6.30. 5. Jane always eats very little and never has appetite for food. I’m rather worried about her. 6. You can get your suitcase from the hotel on your way to the airport. 7. The film director held a casting and selected a young actor for a part in his new film. 8. He bent down and raised the newspaper from the floor. 9. Stop being unfair to me! 10. All the pictures were wonderful. It was so difficult to choose the best. 18. Complete the sentences with the right words from the box Revise your Active Vocabulary. a) subsequent difficulties b) new system c) contemporary reports d) first smile e) wild nature f) this investment g) world record h) rapid results i) benefit concert j) self-portraits k) up-to-date methods 1) important contribution m) generation gap n) available ambulance o) nearby town 1. The school promises ___________ in language learning. 2. -------- of past events are often more interesting than modern historians’ view of them. 3. It was a --------- to raise money for the famine victims. 4. We made plans for the visit but ___________ with the car prevent- ed it. 5. I’m well aware how risky IS. 6. It would improve our efficiency if we used more __________ 7. I captured my baby daughter’s _________ on film. 8. The company has established a __________ for dealing with cus- tomers’ complaints. 9. He has made an __________ to the company’s success. 10. How can teachers help to bridge the _________ between parents and their teenage children? 11. Every --------- was rushed to the scene of the accident. 12. He has broken the —________, which is quite an achievement. 13. One day man will tame____________ 14. Rembrandt’s _________ are works of genius. 15. They used to do their shopping in the___________ 20 UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 19. Use these word combinations in sentences of your own 1. a rapid growth of population 2. quick with his hands 3. fast music 4. 5. a quick acting medicine rapidly changing world 6. a quick look 7. five minutes fast 8. come quickly 9. the fast growth of the oil industry 10. to make a rapid recovery 20. Express the same in English. Use history^ historic or historical. 1. Историческая встреча глав двух государств состоялась в прошлом году. 2. Мы недавно ходили в Исторический музей и получили огромное впечатление. 3. Вальтер Скотт считается отцом исторического романа. 4. Парламент расположен в историческом .здании на центральной площади. 5. Люди не забыли историческую битву за Берлин. 6. Все туристы останавливаются, чтобы взглянуть на этот исторический памятник. 7. В нашей школе есть замечательный учитель истории. 8. Мой приятель очень любит исторические фильмы и никогда не пропускает новый фильм, 9. 1945 год был историческим годом для нашей страны. 10. Давайте взглянем на эти события в их историческом контексте. 11. Мне очень нравятся уроки истории, по-моему, это один из самых интересных предметов, 21. Write these nouns in the plural. In some cases two forms are possible. 5. criterion 11. medium A. 1. basis 2. curriculum 3. phenomenon 4, datum 6. stratum 7. analysis 8. cactus 9. formula 10. index 12. memorandum 13. antenna 14. genius 15. appendix B. 1. ox 2. cuckoo 3. child 4. roof 5. fly 6. key 7, leaf 8. zero 9. piano 10. ski 11. woman 12. deer 13. sheep 14. mouse 15. house 22. Write in the singular; 1. data 2. ters-in-law 7. 13. pennies 19. cacti 20. cliffs 3. species 4. merry-go-rouncls 5. phenomena 6. sis-bridges 8. Swiss 9. berries 10. boots 11. feet 12. boxes 14. deer 15. strata 16. genii 17. indices 18. media formulae UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 23. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Revise your Topical Vocabulary. a) kidnapped b) unleashed c) repelled d) declared e) remained f) capture g) destroyed h) suffered i) broke j) bombed k) united 1) continued in) proved n) retreat o) laid 1. The whole area was heavily __________ during the conflict. 2. Using water cannons and tear gas, police ____________ protesters outside the US Embassy. 3. The Allies are the countries that to fight against out. Germany in the First and Second World Wars. 4. He clearly remembered the time when the war 5. The enemy bombers _________ a terrible attack on the city. 6. It ----- to be one of the most crucial battles in the whole war. 7. The terrorists hostages. 8. They _________ the children and are keeping them as dignified in defeat hastily. 9. The defeated army had to 10. The castle was very well fortified and not easy to_________ 11. King Henry --------- siege to the castle in 1275, 12. He was in Germany when war was ____________. 13. The church was —________ by a bomb during the war. In that prolonged civil war ordinary people _______ terribly. 14. 15. Antiwar demonstrations after the outbreak of hostil- ities. 24. Express the same in English. Use your Topical Vocabulary. 1. Президент страны является одновременно верховным главнокомандующим. 2. В начале войны войскам с трудом удавалось отражать атаки противника. 3. Осада Трои (Troy), которая длилась много лет, вошла в историю. 4. Поначалу войска несли тяжелые потери, но затем ситуация радикально изменилась. 5. В результате боевых действий сотни людей становятся беженцами. 6. Солдат учат, как вести современную войну. 7. Война была выиграна, но стоила многих человеческих жизней. 8. В те дни тысячи людей пошли в армию. 9. Нелегко вести военные действия одновременно на нескольких территориях. 10. Во время войны он пропал без вести. Как выясни.дось позднее, он был взят в плен. 25. Write what people say when they utter these phone numbers: 1) 2666 2) 7133 3) 08064 4) 391047 5) 2799 6) 7888 7) 3811 8) 185790 9) 777243 10) 504833 UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 26. Write these numbers using words. Mind the contexts. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The number of my credit card is 00968 457 832 777. The temperature today is about 0° Fahrenheit. My team has won the basketball game with the score 3:0 (BrE). My team has won the basketball game with the score 3:0 (AniE). Can vou do this sum? 13 13 0 (BrE) 6. — In tennis people don’t say nil or zero for zero then? — They say 0. 7. He was born in the year 1906. 8. — What’s your flight number? — What do they say SU 303. 27. After leaving school you are going to work at some foreign firm and you are asked to fill in the form. Preliminary Application Form N nme (as shown in the passport) i 1 1 1 1 Address Date of Birtii J Place of Birth . Religion Telephone (with code) E-mail School number, years of study Work experience Native Language Ability in English skill „ fluently 1 ' well with difficulty 1 speaking reading writing Signature i UNIT ONE 23 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 28. Fill in the Customs Declaration which is a must for those who arrive in the USA. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES CUSTOMS SERVICE CUSTOMS DECLARATION PRESENT TO THE IMMIGRATION AND CUSTOMS INSPECTOB EACH ARRIVING TRAVELLER OR HEAD OF A FAMILY MUS WRITE IN THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION. PLEASE PRINT. 1. P’AMILY NAME GIVEN NAME MIDDLE INITIAL 2. DATE OF BIRTH (Mo./Day/Yr.) 3. VESSEL OR AIRLINE & FLT.No 4. CITIZEN OF (Country) ________ 5. RESIDENT OF (Country) 6. PERMANENT ADDRESS 7. ADDRESS WHILE IN THE UNITED STATES 8. NAME AND RELATIONSHIP OF ACCOMPANYING FAMILY MEMBERS 9. Are you or anyone in your party carrying any plants, meats, other plant or animal products, birds, or other live organisms of any kind? fruits, snails, 10. Have you or anyone in your party been on a farm or ranch outside the USA in the last 30 days? YES NO □ YES □ NO П 11. Are you or any family member carrying over $ 5 000 (or the equivalent value in any currency) in monetary instruments such as coin, currency, traveler’s checks, money orders, or negotiable instruments in bearer form? (If yes, you must file a report on Form 4790, as required by law.) Note: It is not illegal to transport over $ 5 000 in monetary instruments; however, it must be reported. 12. I certify that I have declared all items acquired abroad as required herein and that all oral and written statements which I have made are true, correct and complete. SIGNATURE: __________________ UNIT ONE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Unit Two People and Society 1. Listen to the text about the two main political parties of the USA and say which of the statements below are fri/e, false or not mentioned in the text. 1. The United States has only two political parties. 2. The US President always represents the political party which has a majority in Congress. 3. The Republican and Democratic parties do not differ much. 4. The Democrats tend to have support from women. 5. The society of the 21st century is more complicated than it used to be. 6. Nowadays people in the US have become less enthusiastic about voting. 7. Nowadays candidates tend not to explain their views in detail. 2. Listen to the five texts about American newspapers and match the names of the papers with their characteristics. Fill in the table at the end of the task. 1. 2. tUdsljington post 3. THKWAIiSTREl'n'.IOIlRNAl 0 U i t ^ i 4. Cos Anflcles Злте5 5. a) This paper used to have a wider circulation than it does now. b) This paper once uncovered a case of corruption in government. c) This newspaper’s reputation has been improving recently. d) This newspaper once had to turn to law for help. e) This paper was considered as a paper connected with money matters. 1 2 3 4 5 UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 3. Read the text and complete it filling the blanks (1—5) with the missing parts of the sentences (a—f). You don^ need to use one of them. Fill in the table after the text. a) Although much less has been achieved by the women’s movement b) All through the 20th century women continued efforts c) Feminism is a movement in Britain and the US that has tried to change the present system d) to get jobs, to improve girls’ education and to reform the property laws e) Suffragettes campaigned for the right to vote f) became the first university to admit women to all its examinations and degrees Feminism in Britain In Britain, feminists started to organize in the 1850s and 1860s. Their aims were 1.____Dr Elizabeth Garrett Anderson became the first woman medical practitioner in 1865, in spite of strong opposition from medical profession. In 1878 London University 2.____ A radical legal reform occurred in 1882 when married women got the right to have their own property. The suffrage movement in Britain began in 1866 when the radical member of Parliament and philosopher John Stuart Mill presented the first female suffrage petition to Parliament. 3. _ using con- stitutional and peaceful means. ■;/ UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал By the early 20th century women were also campaigning for social reforms such as baby clinics. Women workers tried to improve their economic position with the help of trade unions, 4. to improve their position. Women’s movement today is dif- ferent in style and aims from the first wave of feminism. Today women are trying to solve such problems as male violence, the role of men and women in the home. They have raised questions as to how and why men and women are different. The main problem is if women are different from men because of their genetic make-up or because of their upbringing and education. The women’s movement is very much a global phenomenon now with organized activity on all continents. 5. -- much remains to be done. In England, for example, women’s average earnings are lower than men’s. With the exception of Scandinavian countries women are not as active in government and trade unions as men. 1 2 3 4 5 1 extra 4, Read the text and choose the right items to complete the sentences after it. Fill in the table at the end of the task. The Denial Rule The main rule of behaviour on public transport in Britain is the Denial Rule: we try to avoid acknowledging that we are among a scary crowd of strangers, and to maintain as much privacy as possible, by pretending that they do not exist — and, much of the time, pretending that we do not exist either. The Denial Rule requires us to avoid talking to strangers, or even making eye contact with them (eye contact in public places in England is never more than a fraction of a second: if you do accidentally meet a stranger’s eye, you must look away immediately — to maintain eye contact for even a full second may be interpreted as either flirtation or aggression). At the same time, the rule imposes an obligation to avoid drawing attention to oneself and to mind one’s own business. It is common, and considered entirely normal, for English commuters to make their morning and evening train journeys with the same group of people for many years without ever exchanging a word. The more you think about this, the more utterly incredible it seems, yet everyone I spoke to confirmed the story. Sometimes a particularly “outgoing” person might start to greet you with a nod after see- UNIT TWO 27 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ing you every morning for a couple of inontlis, but many people would regard such a behaviour a bit forward, a bit pushy and that would make them a bit uncomfortable. This information I received from a young woman working as a secretary for a PR (public relations) agency in London. She was not an especially shy or retiring person. In fact, I would have described her as quite the opposite: friendly, lively and gregarious. 1 am quoting her here because her responses are typical — almost all of the commuters I interviewed said that even a brief nod constituted a fairly drastic escalation of intimacy, and most were highly cautious about progressing to this stage, because, as another typical commuter explained, “Once you start greeting people like that — nodding, I mean — unless you’re very careful, you might end up starting to say “good morning” or something, and then you could end up actually having to talk to them,” But what would be so awful, I asked each of my informants, about a brief friendly chat with a fellow commuter? This was clearly regarded as an exceptionally stupid question. Obviously, the problem with actually speaking to a fellow commuter was that if you did it once, you might be expected to do it again — and again, and again: having acknowledged the person’s existence, you could not go back to pretending that they did not exist, and you could end up having to exchange polite words with them every day. You would almost certainly have nothing in common, so these conversations would be highly awkward and embarrassing. Or else you would have to find ways of avoiding the person — standing at the other end of the platform, for example, or hiding behind the coffee kiosk, and deliberately choosing a different compartment on the train, which would be rude and equally embarrassing. The whole thing would become a nightmare. 1. The author of the text is a) American b) Australian c) British d) Canadian 2. British people on public transport regard_______ a) every fellow passenger as a stranger b) every fellow passenger as a potential danger c) noticing unknown commuters undesirable d) being noticed by unknown commuters undesirable UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 3. Eye contact in public places in England --- a) should be accepted as a symbol of danger b) should be prohibited c) should last a second d) should last less than a second 4. Commuters on English trains-------- a) never talk to each other b) choose not to give any sign of recognition to strangers c) prefer to draw attention of others to themselves d) always travel with the same group of people 5, An outgoing person is a person who -------- a) enjoys going out b) is friendly and enjoys meeting people and talking to them c) is open about his problems d) is willing to consider many different possibilities 6. English people avoid greeting with a nod commuters who they might see every morning on the train because--------- a) they are afraid of being involved into a conversation b) they are arrogant and don’t want to mix with other groups of people c) they have nothing in common with them d) they are embarrassed 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 5. Read the text and answer the questions after it. American Newspapers: How They Began After the country had gained independence from Britain in 1776, the early independence of the United States moved to protect the press from government interference. Thomas Jefferson, for one, believed a free press was an essential guardian of liberty. “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I shoxild not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter,” he wrote. The First Aiiiend- UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал merit to the US Constitution, approved in 1791, guarantees freedom of the press. With that protection, many newspapers that supported political parties criticized their opponents severely- Fed up with it, the ruling Federalist Party soon passed an act, under which anyone who criticized the government in print could be fined or imprisoned. Several opposition publishers were convicted while the law was operating. The US newspaper industry grew dramatically along with the new country. At the turn of the 19th century, fewer than 200 newspapers were published in the United States. By 1825 there were more than 800 — twice as many as in Great Britain — making America “by far the greatest newspaper country in the world,” according to the historian David Paul Nord, In 1833, the New York Sun became the first of a new type of newspaper — inexpensive, sold on the street by newsboys, and written by paid reporters. The Sun’s motto was “It Shines for ALL”. Known as the “penny press” because each issue cost just one cent, the Sun and its imitators were wildly popular. Within two years, three “penny papers” in New York were selling twice as many copies as 11 other city papers combined. The penny press included not only politics and international developments but sports, crime, and society doings as well. As the Sun’s editor, Charles Dana, 30 UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал . . J put it in 1882: “When a dog bites a man, that is not news. But when a man bites a dog, that is news.” The penny papers also signalled a tension between public service and profit. Publishers could sell newspapers cheaply because most of their income came from advertising. To attract advertisers and make money, the papers had to appeal to the widest possible audience, which meant giving people what they needed. Newspapers became a business, but they remained a bulwark of democracy. Questions: 1. How did the Founding Fathers^ see the press in the US? What law did they pass to put this idea into life? 2. Was the act passed by the Federalist Party democratic in its nature? 3. When did the newspaper boom take place in the country and why? 4. What was the reason holding back the development of newspaper industry before 1833? 5. In what way did the Sun become a newspaper of a new kind? 6. What was the origin of the nickname “penny papers”? 7. What information did penny papers add to the traditional newspaper information? 8. What is meant by “a tension between public service and profit”? 6. Find in the text “American Newspapers: How They Began” the words and phrases which mean the following: 1. to get freedom {from another country) 2. a protector of freedom 3. the second of the two things mentioned 4. having had enough of it ^ Founding Fathers The group of men, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and others, who wrote the US Constitution and Bill of Rights and thus started the US as a country. UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 5. to make someone pay a sum of money as a punishment for breaking the law 6. to prove somebody to be guilty of a crime by a court of law 7. to supply (the material) 8. an agreement to pay a sum of money so that you will receive something such as a magazine or a newspaper 9. having a large amount of money, rich 10. a radical change 11. a boy selling newspapers in the street 12. taken together 13. events happening in a community of people 14. to let people know about sometliing 15. money that you make by selling something or from your business (2 words) 16. something that protects or defends a belief, idea or way of life 7. Read the text and make it complete with the help of derivatives that are formed from the words written on the right. Fill in the table at the end of the task. Civil War and Human Rights Although the terms “human rights”, “civil rights” and “civil liberties” are often used 1. , there are 2. s in emphasis. The term “human rights” is used 3. ------------ in international law to mean the rights to which all human 4. s are entitled. These are often divided into civil and 5. rights (such as the right to free speech and the right to vote) which 6. ---------s should not restrict, and 7. social and 8 rights (such as the right to health care and 9. ) which 10. should strive to provide. “Civil rights” and “civil liberties” are 11. __________s m о re often to describe 12. ______________ the laws of a particialar country. s protected by intercliange, differ most be politics govern economy culture educate, govern express free UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 1 5 9 2 6 10 3 7 11 4 8 12 8. Use past simple or past progressive to complete the sentences. 1. When we (arrive) at the liotel there (be) no rooms available. The conference of ecologists (open) that day. 2. When I (enter) the dining room Kitty (sit) at table. Not being hungry she (pick) at her food. 3. We (walk) along the street when suddenly we (see) Graham. He (drive) a brand-new Mitsubishi. 4. Jane (sit) in the armchair for a quarter of an hour and then (fall) asleep. 5. John was an obedient child as a rule but that day he (be) extremely naughty. 6. The boys (play) football all day long. 7. We all (stay) in the sitting room during the ceremony. 8. The whole day all members of the family (prepare) their cottage for the occasion. 9. The old gentleman (stroll) along the path for a while, then abruptly (turn) back and (start) for the house. 10. Jack (tell) me that his elderly aunt (feel) much better at the moment. 11. I (phone) you several times in the morning but nobody (answer). 12. I wonder what he (do) at nine o’clock in the evening. 13. While Jenny (clean) the floors her little sister (play) on the computer. 14. It (be) early autumn. The sun (shine) in the bhie sky but the trees (get) yellow and the birds (fly) to warm countries. 15. Mrs Evans (stand) on the edge of a cliff admiring the view. 9. Use past simple, present perfect or present perfect progressive to complete the sentences. 1. Jane just (return) from Berlin. She (pick) up a few German phrases while staying there. 2. “The plane (take) off exactly on time,” she said glancing at her watch. 3. “I (know) Mary since my childhood,” said Sam. 4. I can say that she really (achieve) popularity and I’m sure she will win the competition. 5. We are all aware of the fact that John (contribute) articles to this magazine for some time already. 6. We can’t say we (establish) good relations with our business partners. 7. When I was in the US, I (take) the opportunity of visiting Washington D.C. 8. I can’t believe my eyesi Alice (tame) Karai, that scary dog. 9. When we (be) younger, Uncle George (tell) UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал us unbelievable stories about his contemporaries. 10. Until the 1960s most children in Britain (take) an exam at the end of primary school. The school system (change) since then. 11. They (work) on the project for more than two years but I can’t see any positive results. 12. Victorian attitudes about how children should be brought up largely (disappear). 13. 1 love you. I (love) you all my life. 14. Jane (write) her essay for two weeks already and 1 don’t think she is completing her work. 15. We (live) in this area for nearly 15 years. 10. Use present tenses to complete the sentences. 1. John is usually very polite. What (happen) to him? He (be) so rude. 2. I don’t recognise Ann. She (be) always so quick with her decisions. But I (not, receive) her final word yet. Evidently she still (think) about what answer to give. In my opinion she (be) very slow. 3. Sports never interested Matilda but now she (be) so inquisitive about various sports and games. — I wouldn’t wonder. The girl (grow) up. I (think) it (be) quite natural for her to be interested in many different things. 4. I (have) this bag for several years and I am not going to change it yet, 5. The Adams family (own) this mansion for several centuries but I (hear) they are going to sell it. 11. Open the brackets to complete the text. The sun (shine)^ brightly on the morning of the big day, but the ground (be)^ still white with snow. Outside the gates of Wonka’s factory, enormous crowds of people (gather)® (watch)"* the five lucky ticket holders (go)® in. The excitement was trejnendous. It was just before ten o’clock. The crowds (push)® and (shout)' and policemen (try)® to hold them back from the gates. Right beside the gates, in a small group that carefully (shield)® from the crowds by the police, (stand)*® the five famous children, together with the grown-ups who (come)'* with them. The tall bony old figure of Grandpa Joe coiild (see)*® (stand)*® quietly among them, and beside him, (hold)** tightly onto his hand, was little Charlie Bucket himself. Behind him, Charlie Bucket could hear the shouts of the people in the crowd as they (push)*’’ and (fight)*® to get a glimpse of the famous children. “There’s Violet Beauregardel” he (hear)**^ someone (shout)*®. you know what? She still (chew)*® that dreadful old piece of gum she (have)®® for three monthsi You look at her jawsi They still (work)®* on it!” And a Which one is Charlie Bucket? UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал “Charlie Bucket? Не must (be)^^ that skinny little shrimp (stand)^’ beside the old fellow who (look)^"* like a skeleton. Very close to us. Just there! See him?” “Why he (not, have)^^ got a coat on in this cold weather?” “(Not, ask)^*^ me. Maybe he can’t afford (buy)^^ one.” “Goodness me! I think he (freeze)^®!” Charlie (glve)^^ Grandpa Joe’s hand a squeeze, and the old man (look)®‘* down at Charlie and (smile)^'. Somewhere in the distance, a church clock (strike)®^ ten. Very slowly, with a loud creaking of rusty hinges, the great iron gates of the factory (swing)®® open, (After Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl) 12. Express the same in English. Use past s/mp/e, past progress sive, present progressive^ present perfect or present perfect progressive. 1. Она взяла с собой Эндрю, чтобы показать ему, что из себя представляет клуб. 2. Я знаю, что он преодолел все трудности и весьма успешен сейчас, 3. Я веду свой дневник с 15-летнего возраста. 4, Ричард, ты сегодня слишком храбрый! 5. Сара сказала мне, что не узнаёт Стива. Он очень застенчив. 6. Несколько минут мы шли молча, затем неожиданно Мэри начала смеяться. 7. Вчера целый день шел дождь. 8. Я обычно не ем помидоры. Они мне не нравятся. 9. Слышала, он вернулся из своей поездки и, к несчастью, чувствует себя плохо, 10. Мы здесь неделю, а так мало видели. 11. — Сколько времени ваша семья владеет этой фермой? Не знаю. Я всегда жил здесь. 12. Мы оставались в зрительном зале в течение перерыва. 13. Сегодня вечером Дик всех раздражает своим поведением. Думаю, я отведу его наверх и почитаю ему его любимую книжку, чтобы он успокоился. 14, — Какое милое колечко. Оно новое? — Нет, оно у меня вечность. 15. Он работает журналистом с 1999 года. 13. Use the articles where necessary to complete the text. The great glass lift was now hovering over the town. Inside 1, _____ lift stood Mr Wonka, Grandpa Joe, and little Charlie. “How I love my chocolate factory,” said Mr Wonka, gazing down. Then he turned around and looked at Charlie with 2, -------- serious expression on his face. “Do you love it too, Charlie?” he asked. “Oh, yes,” cried Charlie, “I think it’s 3. ---- most wonderful place in 4. ----- world!” “I am very pleased to hear you say that. You see, my dear boy. UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал т у»- J _ I have decided to make you 5. present of 6 As soon as you are old enough to run it, 7. ______ whole place. factory will become yours.” “Giving 8. factory to him?” gasped Grandpa Joe. “You must be joking, “Listen,” Mr Wonka said, “I’m 9. old man. I’m much older than you think. I can’t go on for ever. I’ve got no children of my own. So who is going to run 10. ______ factory when I get too old to do it myself? Mind you, there are thousands of clever men who would give anything for 11. ----- chance to take over from me, but I don’t grown-up person at want that sort of person. I don’t want 12. ____ all. 13. ---- grown-up won’t listen to me; he won’t learn. So I have to have 14. ------- child, I want 15. _______ good sensible loving child, one to whom I can tell 16. ________ secrets — while I am still alive.” “So that is why you sent out 17. Charlie. most precious sweet-making Golden Tickets!” cried 44 Exactly!” said Mr Wonka. “I decided to invite 18, five chil dren to 19. end of 22, factory and 20. _ day would be 23. one I liked best at 21. _ winner!” (After Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl) 14. Use a, the or zero article to complete the sentences. 1. ----Abraham Lincoln served his pie began to call him _ Honest Abe. one of ____ state for eight years and peo-2. ----- James Marshall was first to find gold in California. 3, John UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Sutter, ______ Swiss soldier, had a large rancli in --------- Northern California. 4. _____ Robert Kennedy was ________ real Kennedy. 5. This car isn’t _____ Ford. What is its make? 6. ______ Grandma Richardson is celebrating her seventieth birthday. 7. What is ------- little Sarah doing? 8. ______ Andrew Jackson made a name for himself in the War of 1812 in Florida and was elected ------- President. 9. -----Old Mrs Alice sweet Clark is getting better. 10. Everybody called -- Alice because she was nice and caring. 11. My cousin is going to buy _____ Opel, but I don’t think it is____ best choice. 12. --- Ford I’ve bought was really cheap but it soon broke down. 15. Some of these sentences have mistakes. Correct them. 1. Jane, dear, there’s a Mr Davis wishing to speak with you on the phone. 2. The writer Cronin described the life of his contemporaries. 3. The uncle jack often invites us to his country house. 4. We were quite surprised to find a genuine Repin in that small picture gallery. 5. — What’s the make of this car? — I’m not sure. It may be Lincoln. 6. The poor Lizzy was left behind when the whole family went to the circus. 7. I’m proud of you: you have acted as a true McKenzy. 8. — Who is she? — I have no idea. A Mrs Willson or Williams. 9. An honest Julia was unable to think of a suitable excuse for being late. 10. This famous book by Dreiser is called “The Sister Carrie”. 11. The Judge Briggs is known for his stainless reputation. 12. I’m speaking now about the student Alex, not the student Adrian. 16. Insert in, on, as, like to complete the sentences. 1. She is a very obedient person and always does ---- 2. The president was never -------- the plane at all. 3. Clark? — He is ______ the car, waiting for you. 4. Jimmy works a porter. 5. Jerry looks _________ his father. 6. She looked she was going to cry. 7. We jumped — about to leave. 8. She’s travelling ------ she is told. - Where is the train just as it was the same train you. yours. 10. Write __ us. 13. Dance 9. I went and bought myself a new pen just ------- _____ her. 11. Write ______ she does. 12. Dance — _____ we do. 14. Henry is late again _______ we expected. 15. Kate, _____ you know, is a librarian. 16. No matter what you ask Chuck to do, this stubborn child never does ----- he is told. 17. Nina is a great cook: nobody can prepare a meal ----- her. 18. You don’t know how to dive? Do it _______ this. ITl show you! 19- If you’re in two minds, always do the right thing, which means behave ---------- you should do. 20. I can’t sing ____ Jane, she is the best singer I know. UNIT TWO 37 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 21. I didn’t know the rules of the game ing the other children and playing_______ bition, just ----- you advised. but quickly learned by watch them. 22. I went to the exhi 17. Read the text and make it complete by choosing the best items after the text to fill in the gaps. 2. The next day, while 1. her belongings, he came across that was addressed to him in Aunt Glosspan’s handwriting. He opened it and drew out two fifty-dollar bills and a letter. “Darling boy,” tlie letter said, “I know that you have never yet been down the mountain since you were thirteen days old, but as soon as I die you must put on 3. ------- of shoes and a clean shirt and 4. _____ to the village and find the doctor. Ask the doctor to give you a death certificate to prove that I am dead. Then take the certificate to my 5.------ who has a copy of my will. He will 6. ______ everything. The cash in this envelope is to pay the doctor and to cover the cost of your 7. ------ to New York. You will get 8. _______ money when you ______ your to work upon that great book of get there, and it is my earnest wish that you use it to 9. researches and that you 10. _______ d) a pile of yours until you are satisfied that it is complete in every way. Your loving aunt — Glosspan. 1. a) washing b) tidying c) closing d) settling 2. a) an envelope h) an email c) a telegramme 3. a) a pair of h) a set of c) a couple d) a lot 4. a) jump b) head c) walk d) wander 5. a) priest b) lawyer c) confessor d) witness 6. a) set up b) wind up c) handle d) arrange 7. a) escapade b) journey c) way d) adventure 8. a) lot b) many c) more d) most 9. a) far h) farther c) furtherest 10, a) continue b) stop c) fulfill d) further d) overcome 18. Read the text and complete it changing the words in brackets or deriving new words from them. The life of Margaret Bourke-White was one of adventure and (achieve)^ As a (photograph)^ she helped to define the new profession of photojournalism; and over a forty-year career, she produced numerous (document)® photo essays and wrote ten books. (Bear)'* in New York City in 1904, Margaret was an active child bursting with (curious)". At university she got (interest)** in photography and began to work in it (profession)^. 38 UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал In World War II Margaret was the (oiie)^ accredited woman war correspondent. She photographed the war of the battlefields and (fly)^ on combat missions. She did not want to (treat)*" any (different)** from her male colleagues and complained when they were too protective of (she)*^. After the war, Bourke-White covered the Indian (dependence)*’* movement for Life magazine. Over a two-year period, she photographed M. Gandhi and greatly (influence)*'* by his (believe)*®. She said: “He cared a great deal about reshaping the ^^ I human heart, and calling out the (good) in every man.” In her work Bourke-White tried images of (man)*^, (woman)*^ and (child) (drama)^*, and historic. to do that this too, creating were (person)^". 19. Change these sentences verb to cut. so that you could use the phrasal 1. How can you reduce the traffic noise? 2. “That’s rubbish,” Kate interrupted Andrew’s explanation. 3. The doctor advised John to start doing less work than he was used to. 4. Why did you remove all the tops of the carrots? 5. The piece of meat is too big for little Lizzy. Somebody should cut it into several pieces for her. 6. We must make this dry tree fall down. 7. Remove this picture from the magazine and glue it on this yellow piece of paper. 8. She is trying to eat fewer chocolates. 9. After the operation she is too weak. Could you please cut the food into smaller pieces for her? 10. Why did all his friends stop having a close relationship with Gerald? 20. Complete the sentences with the right words from the box. Revise your Active Vocabulary. a) inherited b) restrict c) proposals d) aim e) flourishing f) foresee; g) emerged h) shortcoming i) significance j) deals k) identity 1) comprises 1. If you feel what will happen in the near future, you can -------- it. 2. His sole _________ in life is to enjoy himself. 3. The lawyer refused to reveal the of his client. 4. They failed to appreci- UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ate the true of these discoveries. 5. My cousin money from her mother. 6. They suddenly into brilliant sunshine. 7. Australia tories. 8. I know that his business has been ______ some from the darkness government outlined a new set of _____ shop ----- with second-hand books. 11. Please six states and two terri-__________lately. 9. The on human rights. 10. The your speech to three minutes. 12. The habit of being always late is definitely a________ 21. Use these word combinations in sentences of your own. 1. in case of emergency; 2. a long-term aim; 3. to restrict oneself to one chocolate a day; 4. to unite behind sb; 5. to be of no significance; 6. it emerged that...; 7. to be discontented with sb; 8. to accept sb’s proposal; 9. to reveal a secret; 10. to inherit sth from sb; 11. to aim at sth; 12. to deal with sb; 13. a united family; 14. to take aim at sth; 15. to flourish in the garden, 22. Express the same in English. Use your Active Vocabuiary. 1. Ричард — один из печально известных коррумпированных политиков. 2. Озорной мальчишка нацелился камнем на собачонку, но его брат не позволил ему бросить камень в животное. 3. Новое правительство начало бороться против коррупции в городе. 4. Миссис Ричардсон унаследовала это поместье от своих бабушки и дедушки. 5. Их абсолютно не удовлетворяет (Они абсолютно не удовлетворены) предоставленное им обслуживание. 6. С ними трудно иметь дело. 7. Вся нация сплотилась вокруг президента. 8. Розовые кусты прекрасно растут в моем саду. 9. Этот документ на самом деле имеет большое значение. 10. Адамсы — очень дружная семья. 11. Я знаю, что не должна была выдавать твою тайну, но, к сожалению, я это сде.яала. 12. Луна появилась из-за облаков. 13. Чарли, почему ты так недоволен поведением своих племянников? 14. В случае опасности (При чрезвычайных обстоятельствах) позвоните по этому номеру. 15. Я решила ограничить себя двумя пирожками или двумя булочками в день. 23. Choose the right word in appropriate forms to complete the sentences. A. join or unite? 1. How many people --------------- the library last year? 2. There was an advertising campaign to persuade people to _________________ the armed forces. 3. In the war the Allies were able to ___________________ UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал against а common enemy. 4. Doctors had to use a metal plate to ______________ the two pieces of bone together. 5. In those days most of the party _________________ behind the leader. 6. During the strike the workers ________________ in asking for a pay increase for everyone. 7. The accident happened just outside Philadelphia where the two roads________________8. What _________________ them was their love of art. B. policy or politics"} 1. It is not our _________________________ to reveal our clients’ names. 2. James says his future career will be connected with _____________________3. ____________________ has never interested me. 4. How much do you know about the US foreign ------------------------? 5. Our ________________________ here is to employ only qualified staff. 6. The government is busy working out a new ._________________________ on immigration. 7. The guests could talk about nothing but _____________________8. The University runs a course in modern European ______________________ 24. Complete the sentences with much, many or far. 1. There are more nice stories in this new collection than in the old one. 2. With the help of the Internet we can get access to ____________ more information and do it quickly. 3. This artist is __________ less known in Russia than Picasso. 4. I hope that within a few years Г11 know English --------------- better than By the end of the year we’ll be able to discuss more problems in English. 6. I’m afraid Paul is pay-__ less attention to his lessons than he should. I do now. 5. too important for me to be _________ more friends than ing ------------ 7. Language learning is ----------- taken as a hobby. 8. I’d like to have I do now. 9. The tourists have visited five cities but there are still ___________ more to see. 10. I must say I’m --------------- less interested in politics than in visual arts. 25. Use economic or economical to express the same in English. 1. Твердое топливо было бы более экономичным. 2. Эта новая плита более экономична. 3. Президент, выступая по телевизору, говорил о новой экономической программе. 4. Машина, которая считается экономичной, не тратит много бензина. 5. Их новый экономический проект провалился. 6. Я не думаю, что Эмма экономная хозяйка. Она тратит так много денег на еду (на продукты). 7. Он скуп на слова. 8. Появятся новые возможности, если экономичес- UNIT TWO 41 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал кий климат в стране изменится. 9. Экономический рост страны значительно увеличился. 10. Мы не можем сказать, что мы не удовлетворены экономическим развитием страны. 11. Они решили, что будут более бережливыми в будущем. 12. Было бы более экономично выключать это приспособление ночью. 26. Complete the sentences with the words and word combinations from the box. Revise your Topical Vocabulary. a) international terrorism i) foreign control b) Treaty of Rome j) peace agreement c) any details k) a million dollars d) separatist forces 1) generation to come e) prisoner of war m) political refugees f) all humanity n) peace policy g) new summit h) women’s rights o) refugees and hostages 1. The suffragettes were people who led the fight for wanting to become — 2. Some governments think that many people ________________________ are coming to Europe for economic reasons. 3. The _________________________ made in 1958 between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands established the Common Market. 4. Governments should unite to oppose . 5. It is the respon- sibility of all people of good will to save _____________________ from the horrors of a new war. 6. They have pledged that - given to them will remain confidential. 7. Some peoples are fighting to gain their freedom from _____________________ ------------. 8. __________________________ may threaten the integrity of a nation. 9. A number of countries have declared their support for ______________________________10. Rebel forces say they will no longer observe the______________________________11. He was captured but his family believed him __________________ should be and became ___________________________ to be missing in action. 12. _________ treated with humanity. 13. Weapons of mass destruction continue to be a threat to __________________________ 14. The international com- munity pledged tion. 15. The _ next July. for economic reconstruc-will be held in London UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 27. Write an answer to this letter. Follow the rules of personal letter writing (see pp. 108—109 of your textbook). У/ F . ’ •V,- jy r-.". ..'f •* ' |Л•' jr ■« ** > .,5^ - r '<‘v • / ^ .f' T>' 4 Apple Street Hal/iford 22 May 200_ AC4 DE5 Alice! I have Just got your letter. Hope you and your parents are well. I Just thought / would write to you and tell you about my visit to St. Petersburg which I liked very much. / had such a wonderful experience! ... ... could you tell me when you are coming to Britain? What places would you like to visit? How long are you going to stay? who is coming with you? A f у J. < Looking forward to seeing you soon. Yours, Mary 28. Write a personal letter to your American pen pal. Inform him/her of your coming school exams. Write to him/her about your plans for the future. Explain what helped you to take the decision you’ve made. Mention what you are going to do in August. UNIT TWO Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Unit Three You Are Only a Teenager Once 1. Listen to the text “School Uniforms: Pros and Cons” and choose the right item to complete these statements. 1) In modern world school uniforms are_ a) a b) a c) a must topic for discussion thing soon to be introduced as obligatory 2) The main reason for schools to use uniforms is to_______ a) bridge the gap between different classes of society b) differ from other schools c) argue less about fashion 3) There are main reasons why students do not support the uniform. a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 4) The usual moral aspects of not liking uniforms are a) lack of individuality and comfort b) lack of freedom of choice c) lack of individuality and freedom of choice 5) The physical aspects of not supporting uniforms are a) money matters and no physical comfort b) the problems of fitting and comfort c) the shortage of money and lack of proper size 6) There a compromise between use and non-use of uniforms a) will appear b) exists c) doesn’t exist 7) Students may not wear uniforms after the age of 12 because fl) they leave school at that age b) they become more tolerant towards others c) they stop thinking of clothes UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 2. Listen to the text “Famous People’s Youth” and say which of the following statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text. 1) Eddie Miirphy started talking in different voices when he was 9. 2) Eddie went to school to learn from teachers the skill of joking. 3) His parents divorced when he was a toddler. 4) Murphy was voted president of his class in secondary school. 5) He started earning money by being a comedian when he was 15. 6) Eddie left school because he became badly # 7) According to his own words, Eddie sacrificed studies for his career. 8) It took Murphy six tries to appear at Manhattan show. 9) Eddie sees no point in drinking because he thinks people can have fun without alcohol, 10) Murphy’s voice can be easily recognized as the Puss in Boots’s from “Shrek”. 3. Read the mixed up parts of the text and put them in a logical order to get a complete story. Youth Organizations in Great Britain a) It protests against nuclear weapon tests, sea and soil pollution, etc. Sport clubs are characteristic youth organizations in the UK. They unite people who are interested in baseball, football, golf, etc. There also exist interest clubs. You can attend any club: from theatre to bird-watching clubs. By the way, bird-watching clubs are very popular in Great Britain. There are several youth organizations associated with political parties. b) The two largest non-political youth organizations are the associations of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides. There are about 1,300,000 boys and girls in them. The membership is voluntary. The Scout Association was formed in 1908 by General Baden Powell. His idea was to train boys in mapping, signalling, first aid and all the skills that would arise from camping and outdoor activities. Most important of all for a Scout was to make a promise that he would do his best to do his duty to God and the Queen, to help other people and to obey the Scout Law. c) As you see, all these organizations aim at preserving and strengthening the social and political system existing in the country. UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ?%*• Many of them have done and still are doing useful work in providing leisure facilities for young English people. d) The Boy Scouts had a left-handed handshake, a special badge and the motto “Be Prepared”. The Scout Law embraces honour, obedience, cheerfulness, thrift and cleanliness in thought and deed. The Scout movement was intended for boys from 11 to 14—15, but in 1916 Baden Powell introduced a programme for younger people. He called them Wolf Cubs, They had special uniforms, badges, a special train-ing system and the motto “Do your best!”. e) Youth and youth movement have become important factors in the life of the country. Numerous youth organizations have been formed since the Second World War, uniting young people from all classes and sections ol the population. There are about 60 youth organizations in Great Britain. Youth Council represents the youth of the country both nationally and internationally. All youth organizations can be divided into three large groups: non-political organizations, youth organizations associated with political parties, youth organizations controlled by religious bodies. f) The Girl Guides Association was founded by Baden Powell in 1910. It’s divided into three sections: Brownies (from 7.5 to 11), Guides (from 11 to 16), Rangers (from 16 to 21). The programme of training is planned to develop intelligence and practical skills including cookery, needlework, childcare. g) Like a Scout a Girl Guide must be a friend to animals. The Girl Guides Association has extensive international links. There are some other non-political organizations: the Combined Cadet Force, the Sea Cadet Corps, the Woodcraft Folk, the Youth Hostels Association, the National Federation of Young Farmers Clubs, Greenpeace. Youth Organization Greenpeace deals with most urgent ecological problems. 4. Read the text “Youth Organizations in Great Britain” (Ex. 3) and find in it the sentences to support these ideas: 1) Youth organizations in Great Britain concentrate on all spheres of modern life. UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 2) The main aim of the Boy Scout Association is to teach boys how to survive in case of emergency. 3) Girls can also be Scouts. 4) Young people care about healthy condition of nature and people. 5) Young people enjoy participating in youth organizations. 6) The most popular youth association in Great Britain is Scouts. 7) Youth organizations have their own mottos. 8) Youth associations bring out the best in teenagers. 5. Read the text and complete it filling the blanks (1—10) with the missing parts of the sentences (a part. Fill in the table after the text. k). One of them is an extra a) finding a date g) tuxedos b) rent a limousine h) the obligatory part c) dress up in fancy dresses i) invitation card d) a group affair j) a special occasion e) to attend k) vintage clothing shops f) a junior prom Proms in the United States At the end of school years there’s 1. known as a ball, or a party, where everyone celebrates the end of the most important part of their life. In the USA it’s called a prom (from the word promenade)^ Sometimes it happens twice: at the end of school and after 2. __________________________ of one’s school years, that is the 9th form. This one in the USA is called 3, ------------- Not all schools in America have an official junior prom. If you attend a small high school, there is only one prom and students from all grades are invited 4. ___________________________ __________ If you go to a larger high school, there is usually a senior prom that only graduating seniors and their guests are invited to, and a junior prom that underclassmen can attend. UNIT THREE , and Prom Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Like the senior prom, girls 5. _________________________ the guys usually wear suits or 6._________________________ is a fun reason to get dressed up, go all out, get your hair done, go out for a fancy meal, maybe even 7. _________________________ in high style. Guys have it pretty easy when it comes to prom because they can always rent their clothes, but it doesn’t work that way for girls. They check out 8. -------------------------------- for a prom dress that’s completely different from anything anyone else is going to be wearing. Probably the most nerve-wracking thing about junior prom, or any other school dance for that matter, is 9._______________________ It is a tradition in the USA to go to a prom as a couple. If you’re not attached to someone wlien prom time rolls around and you still want to attend, the best way is to try making junior prom 10. __ -------------------------Then you can attend with a group of guy and girl friends, where there are multiple unattached people. This way everyone gets to enjoy the fun of the prom without the pressure of having to find a date. Directly before going to prom, most people go out to dinner and after that dance the night away. Prom is a lot of fun and will give students a night full of memories to last for the rest of their life. ГЕ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ' 10 extra 1 . ' i — 6. Find in the text (ex. 5) the words and phrases which mean the following: 1) free 2) to be present at some event 3) the type of school that follows secondary school 4) to find someone to go to a prom with 5) a man’s dinner suit 6) to put on smart dresses 7) a lot of people gathering together for a specified aim 8) a ball which happens at the end of the main part of edxication 9) to borrow a posh car for money 10) a problem which causes you a worried feeling 11) numerous UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 7. Read the text and make it complete with the help of derivatives that are formed from the words written on the right. Fill in the table at the end of the task. School Education in Great Britain Part One The 1. system of Great Britain is the result of its 2. for over a hundred years. It is a complicated system with wide 3. between one part of the country and another. The main 4. of British schools includes state and private schools. Every state school has its own governing body. Such boards of governors consist of 5. , parents, local 6, businessmen and members of the local communi- ________________ to state schools is not ty. 7. ----------------- based on 8. ____________ range of 9. ____________ or most of the children in a district. However, as a result of the 10. s and they provide a wide _______ education for all reor- ganisation and change in their status of some of the state schools in 1990s, many of them were closed. About 5 per cent of Britain’s children attend , or private schools. 11. Some parents choose to pay for private education in spite of the 12. education. of free state education develop vary subdivide teach, politic admit able second consider dependent exist UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал In both types of schools but for some excep- tions the school year 13. in early September and continues into the 14. July. The year is divided into three terms of about 13 weeks each. The principal 15. age of 16 and aim at the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). It assesses pupils’ abilities to apply their 16. practical problems. begins ! normal follow are taken at the ; examine to solving know Part Two If students choose to continue education after the age of 16, there’s a wide range of universities and colleges waiting for them. 1. ___________ to universities is carried out by 2. ____________, or interview. Applicants for places in nearly all the universities are sent 3. _____________________ to the Universities and Colleges Admission Service (UCAS). In the 4. ______________ an cant can list up to five universities or colleges in order of 5. to each of the universities or colleges named. Each university selects its own students. A great role in the 6. tional system is played by the Parent Teacher 7. . Parental 8. through it and other links between 9. ___________ parents and schools are growing. The association forms both a special focus for parents and much valued 10 resources for the school. Schools place great value on it as a further means of listening to parents and 11. 12. between home and school. admit select initial apply . The UCAS sends a copy prefer educa- ^ Britain associate, involve interest add the I develop partner 50 UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Part One 1. 9. 2. 10. 3. 11. 4. 12. 5. 13. 6. 14. 7. 15. 8. 16. Part Two 1. 7. 2. 8. 3. 9. 4. 10. 5. 11. 6. 12. 8. Use future simple or future-in-the-past to complete the sentences: 1. When I come to see you tomorrow, I (bring) the tapes. 2. She (be) in New York in two months if she gets the visa. 3. He (lend) it to you if you didn't lose everything. 4. I (talk) to you later when I have more time. 5. I (give) you a ring before I leave. 6. Jack ordered dinner for me because he knew I (be) hungry. 7. If he takes my advice he (not end) up being last in class. 8. I promised I (visit) my friends that summer in case I happened to be nearby. 9. The storm is getting worse. Do you think it (pour) in the evening? 10. I (go) and buy some bread. 11. Her teacher said she (play) more naturally if she practiced more. 12. Don’t leave the gate open UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал because people (get in). 13. If your aunt sees you, she (tell) you off. 14. The instruction read that the grass (look) better if you watered it once a week. 15. Unless it is a nice day, we (not go) anywhere. 16. He’ll be here at half past three. It (take) Andy two hours to drive here from London. 9. Open the brackets to complete the text. Use past tenses. One morning Mrs Jones (find)^ herself in possession of fifteen dollars. This was an enormous sum of money in those days and she (jump)^ with joy as she (touch)'^ her purse. She (not, feel)'^ so happy in years. It (take)“ her some time to decide how she (can)** spend the money. First of all, her daughter (need)^ a new pair of shoes. Mrs Jones already (see)® some in a shop window — a real bargain! Then the boys, of course, they (want)® new caps so much. All these plans (keep)’® her awake with anticipation. Poverty (teach)” her to know the value of a good bargain. Mrs Jones (walk)’^ along the street (peer)”* at the shop windows. In fact she even (forget)’’ to swallow a light breakfast at home! A sign nearby (arinounce^’^ that leather gloves (reduce)’® to $ 1.98. When Mrs Jones (hold)’' them in her hands, they (be)’® so smooth ' ^ IQ and smart and she could not resist the temptation and (buy) them. It was a long time since she (be)^® fitted with gloves and the sensation (make)^' her (feel)^^ a little dizzy. A few paces down the street she (buy)^® two expensive magazines and suddenly (realise)’^’ she (die)^® of hunger. She (go)^® into the restaurant which she often UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал (pass)^^ but never (enter)^^ before. She (choose)^® a light lunch (enjoy)''*® herself and the day very much. The waiter (bring)^^ the bill and she (leave) the restaurant (find) the next temptation in the form of a theatre entrance. The driver who (take)^"* her home rarely (see)^^ such a longing on the face of a passenger that the car would never stop. 10. Translate the sentences to revise past tenses. 1. Я сделал все так, как ты мне посоветовал. 2. Вчера мы написали маме подробное письмо о нашем путешествии. 3. Ник был голоден, потому что ничего не ел с самого утра. 4. Когда я ее увидел, мне показалось, что мы где-то встречались раньше. 5. Ребята сказали Тому, что не знают, куда исчез его портфель. 6. Когда она услыша.па шум, то повернулась, чтобы посмотреть, что это было. 7. Джейн была очень расстроена, потому что сделала в контрольной работе массу ошибок. 8. Я все-таки отправил посылку, которую забыл отослать накануне. 9. Он сказал мне, что такого не видел никогда. Ш. Когда мы пришли в кинотеатр, кино уже началось. 11. В детстве он провел несколько лет в Испании и прекрасно говорил по-испански. 12. Мистер Карпентер начал читать газету, которую купил на углу. 13. Доктор осмотрел ногу пациента и обнаружил, что она сломана. 14. Я не мог войти в свою контору, потому что забыл ключи дома. 15. Соседи увидели, что к дому Питерсонов подъехала полицейская машина и один из полицейских разговаривает с хозяином. 16. Мы побывали в Эдинбурге, где никогда не бывали прежде. 11. Use the right forms of the verbs in past continuous^ past simple or past perfect to complete the sentences. 1. Hardly I (get) to the office when the boss (come). 2. They (build) a lot of factories in this part of the town by 1990. 3. She (write) several e-mails and (sit) thinking what to do next. 4. I wanted to borrow this car but she (already lend) it to someone else. 5. Hardly Jean (leave) the airport when she (realize) her passport (miss). 6. Mike (do not remember) the names of his classmates because a lot of time (pass) since they (go) to school together. 7. We (meet) at the Pushkin museum yesterday afternoon where we both (visit) the exhibition. 8. Hardly it (stop) raining when a rainbow (appear) in the sky. 9. He (be) tired because he (work) all the previous night long. 10. Thomas (say) he hardly (learn) the poem. 11. Hardly Laura (find) a new position at the advertising company when the owner (decide) to sell it. 12. Mrs Phelps (water) her plants and (stand) looking through the window. UNIT THREE 53 Frenqlish.ru портал 12. Use the articles where necessary to complete the text. The Computer Jungle Though you can make 1. __ _________________________________ decision on purely economic grounds, buying 2. _____ computer is often more like 3. _____ religious cult. Buy 4. _____ Apple, for example, and almost by 5 default you join Apple chair- man Steve Jobs in his crusade against 6. _____ IBM. Every “users* groups” and 7. ______ band of loyal enthusiasts who advertise its merits. That makes it all 8. ________ more difficult for 9. _____. novices to decide what machine to buy. 10. _ have 11. ______ huge advantage, however. The computer companies are so eager for 12. _____ students’ business, which builds loyalty” that many offer huge discounts. In 13. ______ past six months, IBM, Apple, and others have brought out 14, _____ new computers, and 15. ______ tion has forced prices down. Also, time is on your side; 16. _____ next year at 17. _____ time youTl have even more choice and more computing power and features for 18. _____ same price. On 19. ____ other hand, this will probably be true for many years. So for those who need or want 20. _____ computer now, it’s a great time to buy one. 13. Complete the sentences using the countable and uncountable nouns from the box. Put the words in the right form and use the proper article. hair, light, noise, paper, room, time, juice, work, glass, youth , tea. 1. There are two in my coffeel 2. Close the curtain. There’s too iniich for us to 3, It’s difficult to work when there is 4. Have you got ______________________ 5. Is everywhere. to 6. We had great for me in the car to squeeze in? _____ at the party last night. UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 7. We’d like , two and , please. 8. Macbeth is by W. Shakespeare, the most promi- nent English playwright. 9. The door was made of green transparent 10. He was polite, good-looking 14. Some of these sentences have mistakes. Correct them. Remember how articles with countable and uncountable nouns are used. 1. I’ve caught cold lately. The saddest thing is that no one will even bring me glass of water. 2. Can I have strawberry ice cream for my daughter and vanilla one for me? 3. Do you sell a perfume here? 4. This house is made of the brick and that one of the stone. 5. Where are the money 1 brought yesterday? I saw them on the table just now. 6. For Jim it's extraordinary behaviour. ГИ go and find out what the matter is. 7. I don’t feel like eating a chicken. 8. There are a lot of deers in Australia. 9. The youth came up to me and begged for help. 10. Modern medicine all over the world is becoming extremely expensive. 15. Express the same in English. Revise the use of prepositions with nouns. A. to 1. Учителям нравилось отношение Джона к учебе. 2. Незамедлительный ответ, который леди Марбелл дала на вопрос судьи, вызвал всеобщее удивление. 3. Как публика отреагировала на изменения в концертной программе? 4. Эта поправка к конституции была принята без голосования. 5, После долгих стараний нам наконец удалось найти решение этой проблемы. 6. Он был так счастлив, когда получил приглашение на ее день рождения! 7. Бабушка боялась грабителей и всегда прятала ключи от всех дверей. 8. Это прекрасная книга и ценное дополнение к вашей коллекции. 9, Ущерб, причиненный дому, был весьма значительный. 10. Из каждого правила бывают исключения. UNIT THREE 55 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал B. for 1. Мэри испытывала глубокую привязанность к детям. 2. По какой причине вы каждый день опаздываете в школу? 3. Министр говорил о том, как важно уважение к законам. 4. Его требование о личной встрече ни к чему не привело. 5. Больше всего ученикам понравилась тема для дискуссии «Желание быть счастливыми». 6. В чем необходимость вставать так рано? 7, Мы возлагали на нее большие надежды. C. on 1. Победители отправятся на экскурсию по городу. 2. В библиотеке нельзя разговаривать по телефону. 3. Чтобы похудеть, многие садятся на диету. 4. Он поехал в командировку в США с целью участия в переговорах. 5, Как только загорелся первый этаж, им велели немедленно покинуть офис. 6. На следуюгцей неделе мы едем на экскурсию в Поленово. 7. На Рождество все работники фирмы уходят в отпуск. 16. Read the text and make it complete choosing the best items to fill in the gaps. In the past teenagers had very (1) choice in the way their rooms were decorated. The fact that families had (2) ------ than they do now was an important consideration. This there was not (3) _______ money to pay for more than the children that basics — UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал paint or wallpaper. (4) ______, children of different ages and tastes had to share a room and when it (5) ________ to decorating, not much thought was put into the job. Times change, (6) ------, and now parents spend plenty of money on home decorating. Families have acquired (7) ______ spending power and children have more of a voice; in other words parents have to take notice (8) ----- what they want. What has become very clear is that most teenagers are aware of the latest (9) ______ and they real- ly do have a very good idea of the way they want their personal space decorated. Money is (10) going to be a consideration. But there are bargains available throughout the year, so everything can be done quite (11)------Parents may argue that their child’s (12) _____ are not appropriate, but this is the teenager (13) with it, not them. (14) ______, if the teenager (15) has to live for a colour or furniture that the parent does not like, this can always be discussed. 1. a) few b) little c) a few d) small 2. a) much more i?) a lot of c) many more d) much 3. a) any h) much c) more d) some 4. a) What’s more b) Moreover c) Beside d) Nevertheless 5. a) went b) come t‘) said d) came 6. a) although b) however c) therefore d) meanwhile 7. a) greatest b) biggest c) greater d) great 8. a) from b) to c) about d) of 9. a) models b) sales c) trends d) news 10, a) however b) also c) even so d) still 11. a) commercially b) economic c) economically d) profitably 12. a) choosing b) choices c) taste d) choice 13, a) what b) which c) he d) who 14. a) in the end b) afterwards c) after all d) at the end 15, a) goes b) thinks c) chooses d) decide 17. ChariQe these sentences so that you could use phrasal verbs with to speak. 1) 1 will scold that boy the minute he gets in. 2) She has often supported the rights of working mothers. 3) “We went on a really boring trip.” “I don’t quite agree with you! I had a wonderful timel 4) Could you speak louder please? We can’t hear at the back. 5) If no one gives their opinion about this problem in public, things will never improve. 6) You must choose one person to represent the whole group. 7) The results of the exams are clear. 8) Speak in UNIT THREE 57 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал а louder voice so that people can hear you. 9) Our teacher always says good things about us. 10) Nothing will be done until more people have the courage to air their views. 18. Complete the sentences with the right words from the box. Revise your Active Vocabulary. a) cheap accommodation b) voluntary c) cast a glance d) rebel e) dedicate f) willing participants g) notorious h) provide i) absolute obedience j) tramping k) rebelled 1) refer m) spread n) castoff clothes o) adiilt life 1. She put on a red hat and _______ at the mirror. 2. _________ to the dictionary when you don’t know how to spell a word. 3. Harry had to wear his cousin’s-------- 4. Jessica _______ against her parents’ plans and dropped out of school at the age of 16. 5. She spent most of her ---- 6. There’s a shortage of ____ 7. The company is ______ for paying its bills late, 8. He demands _______ from his soldiers. 9. The doctor wants to ------ working as a guide in Australia, in the area. ____ his life to curing the sick people in _____ poor families with social services. ___ in this environmental project. 12. We didn’t expect that the peacock would ------- its tail. 13. She does __ work for the Red Cross two days a week. this war-torn country. 10. The government will 11. He was one of the _ the streets of Boston, looking for suit-when he was a teenager and dyed his 14. We spent a week ______ able accommodation. 15. He was a bit of a ____ hair pink. 19. A. Match the following idioms with the verb to cast with their Russian equivalents. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. cast cast cast cast cast cast cast light on one’s mind back sth from one’s mind doubt on sth a/one’s vote a spell on sb sb aside a) околдовать b) порывать c (кем-либо) c) опустить глаза d) жребий брошен e) потерпеть крушение f) проливать свет g) напомнить, вспомнить UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 8. the die is cast 9. be cast away 10. cast one’s eyes down h) подвергать что-либо сомнению i) голосовать j) выбросить из головы В. Complete the sentences with these combinations. 1. Peter joined the opposing political party and ____ supporters. 2. Three sailors were _____ on a desert island. 3. She _____ his former when a handsome young man came into the hall. 4. The discovery of the dinosaur skeleton has became extinct. 5. New evidence has ______„ the verdict. why they 6. If you this ring. , you will remember that I never promised to buy 7. When everyone ________, the counting will begin. 8. Let us ______ this embarrassing situation. 9. When the decision was taken, ________ and war was inevitable. 10. At 15 jazz records. on me and I spent all my pocket money on 20. Use these word combinations in sentences of your own. 1) notorious for 2) It is well known that 3) a celebrated opera singer 4) to be well known for 5) a world-famous actress 6) a well-known local artist 7) a famous building 8) a most notorious criminal 9) to become famous for 10) a celebrity 21. Express the same in English. Use wood, forest or timber. Sometimes two variants can be used. 1. После обеда Алиса ускользнула из дома, чтобы прогуляться по лесу. 2. Эти деревья предназначены для использования в качестве древесины. 3, Мы медленно продолжали наш путь через густой сосновый лес. 4. Строевой лес — это древесина, предназначенная для строительства. 5. Этот туристический путеводитель по тропическим лесам мира читается с большим интересом. 6. Повсюду стоял запах влажной древесины и машинного масла. 7. Россия экспортирует много древесины? 8. Пожалуйста, соберите хворост для UNIT THREE 59 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал костра. 9. Кислотные дожди уже уничтожили значительные лесные массивы в Северной Европе. 10, Эта антикварная мебель сделана из настоящего дерева. 22. Write the and V^g forms of the following verbs: 1) regret 2) visit 8) occur 9) remember 14) rebel 4) refer 5) develop 6) cancel 7) admit 10) prefer 11) offer 12) permit 13) conquer 23. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Revise your Topical Vocabulary. a) clumsy b) rebellious c) bullied d) self-conscious e) outrageous behaviour f) neglect school g) intolerant h) get over i) get along with j) self-esteem k) dedicate 1) become unsupportive m) gambling n) treat o) lifelong friends 1. Everyone in Green Gables regarded Ann as a trouble-making girl. 2. When Alex started working he began to ________ and homework. 3. One of the most important things in life is to find 4. His _____ at the theatre surprised everyone. 5. Sometimes it is difficult for a teenager to ---- adults and peers. 6. Our survey indicates that one in four children is ---------- at school. 7. Catherine has decided to ________ her life to abolishing social injustice. 8. That’s the third cup you’ve broken this week. You are so _______! 9. John looked uncomfortable, like a _______ teenager who has come to the wrong party, 10. He can be very _______ of people who don’t understand what he’s talking about. 11. George had to borrow money from friends to pay off his ________ debts. 12. The compliments she received after the speech boosted her with 14. 15. My parents say that I have housework. because I don’t help them It’s not an easy thing to _____ your complexes. Young people should learn how to _________ fashionable tenden- cies in a sensible way. UNIT THREE ru - 'U 1И портал 24. Express the sarne in English. Use your Topical Vocabulary. 1. Мистер Адамс обнарул^ил, что в его новом классе училось много агрессивных и жестоких подростков. 2. Джейн была из бед- ■J НОИ семьи и плохо одевалась, за что ей часто доставалось в школе. 3. Ему всегда было легко с одноклассниками. 4. Тейлор посто- янно чувствовал давление со стороны друзей и родителей, и ему было сложно принимать решения самому. 5. Вы рискуете провалить все свои планы на будущее. 6. Джек много работал в ночное время и совсем запустил занятия в школе. 7, Всю свою жизнь она посвятила своему сыну, который стал известным на весь мир дирижером. 8. Мои родители не хотели, чтобы меня смущало их присутствие на вечеринке с друзьями, и они уехали пораньше. 9. Фред устал от того, что к нему относятся как к ребенку. 10. Идеальный учитель должен уметь поддерживать дисциплину, даже если некоторые ученики ведут себя дерзко и невоспитанно. 25. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Revise words with the prefix self-. a) self-centred b) self-protection e) e) self-importance f) self-sacrifice pline i) self-made j) self-esteem self-respect d) self-expression g) self-controlled h) self-disci- 1. She music as a form of 2. On the one hand, this is a selfish society, on the other, there is so much kindness, _______ and generosity. 3. Barbara always seemed very ________, so I was amazed by her out- rageous behaviour at the airport. 4. My sister is interested only in her own activities. She is so ______t . ft 5. Ill-mannered and impatient teenagers need a lot of _______ when they are doing something on their own. 6. My best friend is talented and handsome. I have no idea why he has such a low _______. 7. Bill never took a penny from his wealthy mother. He is a _______ man. 8. She’s a polite, patient girl, without a trace of 9. Wilson suddenly felt that his ______ him. had been taken away from 10. The rebellious ers claimed that they needed guns for UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 26. А. Decide whether the words are formal or informal: a) scruffy b) impertinent c) untidy d) cocky e) awkward f) clum sy g) self-assured h) hubby i) cheeky j) tummy B. Give formal equivalents to the informal words from part A. 27. Match the correct beginnings and endings of the following three letters. 1. 2 r ■* Л* . _j-_ » 'jtjA ■i Л*.‘ ' Vii". / : v4- ^ i : I ,, Ш ..V .> ууа # Ш 9. %■: .-> V,. Сй.. Ф. r/j, Л- Щ ^ Л' « / J ■I .lai I r •• 3 .7 •Xr- ^ from t'g Г.* • VT'*' ’ -*■ 5. Dear Jane, lot+f^r It was lovely to hear Many thanks for ^ ^ Moscow now and you after such a long time. Dear Rick, f I I I i 1111111 i i ^ 11 il i i ^ A thousand thanks for your letters, the one I was greatl Now I am home on vacation and wi g University on September 1 ... I f % I % % к V- i I i a) I can make it this weekend. Write soon. Always yours, Ann b) Do get in touch soon and give all the teachers my warmest regards. Yours ever, Nat c) It would be great to meet some time. Are you coming to Moscow? You must let me know. Love, Tom UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 23. Arrange the sentences in the right order. 11iISI111 Si iIf i i i S11S SI it11i11 i with love, I do hope you will say "yes". As my greatest friend 1 should reaWy like to have you by me on the most important day of my fife, well, i am wnting to ask you whether you will agree to be my bridesmaid. It seems more than two weeks since you left Moscow. That is a long, long time since I last saw you. You know that I am to be married on the 7th of June. ‘K6 pear Julia, Kate I I' I I Й- I i t $ I 29. Write a letter to a friend who you haven’t been in touch with for a long time. Give your news, describe some things you have recently done and your future plans. Suggest spending summer holidays together. Offer to go to the seaside, to the country, to Europe. Write about meeting in the near future. UNIT THREE Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал УУ- ^ i ш ^ Family Matters 1. Listen to the text “The Family in Britain” and say which of the statements are true, faise or not mentioned in the text. FilJ in the table at the end of the task. 1. The idea of a typical English family has changed recently. 2. The life expectancy of the British has grown longer. 3. Britain has one of the highest divorce rates in Western Europe. 4. Marriages are not popular nowadays. 5. In Britain there are now over a million single parents looking after their children , 6. Nowadays people prefer to be independent of their parents. 2. A. Listen to the five speakers (1—5) and decide which of them mentions these facts: a) The family has three generations living together. b) One of the children has mixed feelings towards the other. c) The child seems to have behaviour A. d) The family is going to change their place of living. e) One of the parents is too fussy about their child. UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал В. D. 1 С Е В. Fill in this table Speaker 1 2 3 4 i t 5 Facts С. Try and match the pictures with the texts. 3. Read the text and complete it filling the blanks (1—6) with the missing parts of the sentences (a—g). There is one part you don’t need to use. Fill in the table after the text. life a) with bringing up children b) an important part of c) away from their parents d) more as equals than they used to e) different now f) leisure facilities and more money g) gives financial support The Individual and the Family Relationships within the family are 1 _______. Parents treat their children 2 _____ and children have more freedom to make their own decision. The father is more involved 3 er goes out to work. Increased 4 _________ ____ often because the moth- mean that there are greater UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал opportunities for the individual to take part in activities outside the home. Although the family holiday is still 5 _ (usually taken in August, and often abroad) many children have holidays 6 _ often with a school party or other organized group. 1 2 3 t 4 5 6 1 extra 1 ' ■■ ■■ ■■ ■ 4. Read the text and answer the questions after it. A family is a group of people who are related to each other by blood (for instance a brother and sister), or by marriage (for instance a husband and his wife’s sister). A wider group of related families is referred to as kinship system. Family relationships are universal in the sense that everyone has blood relations. However, the patterns of family, marriage etc. vary both geographically and historically. Marriage is the bond that makes families possible. Typically it involves a legal agreement between a man and a woman to enter into a long-term relationship for the purposes of establishing a home and raising children. Marriage also creates rights and responsibilities, such as the economic support of spouse and offspring. In Western societies marriage is the final stage in a social process that involves dating, courtship and engagement. Marital relationships are usually formalized and solemnized by an elaborate ritual, known as a wedding ceremony, often with relatives of the couple in attendance. This can take place in a building officially recognized for holding such events, such as church, temple or registry office. In many non-western societies, for example in rural China, marital partners are selected by parents or other matchmakers rather than the couple themselves. All known societies prohibit marriage between certain categories of relatives (incest). Rules concerning the number of husbands or wives a person is allowed at one time vary between societies. Basically, there are two types of marriage: monogamy^ where the individual has only one spouse at a time; and polygamy^ where two or more spouses are recognized socially. Polygamy is particularly widespread in Islamic areas of Africa, where Muslim men are allowed to have up to four wives. Monogamy is characteristic of Western societies. Divorce rates vary considerably in different societies. There are also many other ways of ending a marriage, including desertion, separation and annulment (legal cancellation). Consequently, divorce rates are imperfect measures of marital breakdown. 66 UNIT FOUR ru - 'U 1И портал A person who marries leaves the family of origin to set up his or her own family of procreation. In the process he or she simultaneously becomes a member of a kinship system consisting of three families: the family of origin, the spouse^s family of origin and the new family of procreation. A family comprising three generations living together, namely parents, children and grandparents is known as an For most people the need for social and makes it impractical to share a household with a large atives throughout their lives. Consequently, the in contemporary western societies is not the extended type, but the modified extended family, ly is characterized by a nuclear family household social economic and emotional ties with wider kin. mobility number of rel-family form nuclear or type of fami-that maintains Moreover it is a and family form that seems to be spreading with i urbanization. Questions: 1. What is a family? 2. How can you explain the term kinship system! 3. In what way do patterns of family vary? 4. What kind of family used to be a typical family in Western societies at the beginning of the 20th century? 5. How has the family pattern changed since then? 6. What stages does a usual process of 7. Who selects marital partners in modern societies? 8. What is understood by monogamy and polygamy marriages? 9. How can people end their marriage? 10. How can you explain the terms the family of origin and the family of procreation! 11. What is the most typical family form nowadays in Western societies? In Islamic countries or religions? 5. Find in the text (Ex. 4) the words and phrases which mean the following: 1) 2) 3) a husband or wife someone’s child or children to take care of children while they the period of time when a man and are growing up a woman have a romantic 5) a formal agreement to get married 6) a ceremony in which two people get married 7) relating to marriage UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 8) а place in the UK where ficially registered and where ceremony births, deaths, and marriages are of-you can marry without a religious 6. Read the mixed up parts of the text and put them in a logical order to get a complete story. A Self-made Man a) Charles, the son of a steel worker in Manchester, left school at sixteen. After working for several years in an advertising office, he discovered he had a gift for salesmanship. He was taken on by a firm making a rather poor quality soap powder, and went from door to door persuading people it was just what they needed. b) When he was forty-five Charles bought up a chain of supermarkets in the south, and moved to the south with his family. He bought a house in a pleasant area not far from London and found himself a neighbour of Charles and Anne Blankeney. Being hospitable and friendly, he at once made friends with them. c) With the money he saved he bought a small shop in a busy street, painted it and stocked it with sweets. He had noticed that there were a lot of children in the neighbourhood, but no sweet shops. 68 UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Не was tough, ambitious and never afraid of saying what he thought. After a few years, the sweet shop grew into a food store. Ten years later there were a lot of his stores all over the north. d) Charles is glad to have Henry and Anne as neighbours because he recognizes in Henry a businessman who, like himself, believes that everyone has the right to get rich, and the more money a man earns the more Charles respects him. He has no patience with some of today’s young people who “expect to be fed with a spoon and are afraid of a bit of honest work and sweat.” Having made his own way in the world, he is a strong believer in free enterprise. 7. Change active forms of the verbs into passive where it is possible. 1. It snowed heavily last Sunday. 2. Ann dropped the plate. 3. The plate fell onto the floor. 4. Tommy has broken your favourite cup. 5. The earthquake of 2008 in China destroyed a lot of towns and villages of the country, 6, The children really seemed happy. 7. Lightning caused the fire. 8. That incident happened long ago, 9. I will give Tom something to eat. 10. Who brought the mail? 11. Nobody is translating the article. 12. We informed the Head that we had travelled to that place before. 13. Our teacher always collects our papers at the end of the class. 14. Most people don’t obey these rules. 15. Your plan has succeeded at last. 8. Express the same in English using passive forms. 1. В ресторанах посетителей обслуживают официанты и официантки, 2. Я знаю, что доклад готовят. 3. Ты уверен, что новый проект предложат? 4. Он сказал, что на свадебную церемонию пригласят всех членов семьи. 5. Эту пьесу написал Шекспир? 6. Письмо было подписано не тетушкой Энн. 7. К этому времени завтра заявление будет сделано. 8. Вам строят новый гараж? 9. Документы уже подписали? 10. Меня не обманули его трюки. 11. Он заверил меня, что работа выполнена. 12. У Джона сейчас берет интервью сам директор. 13. Увы, твою любимую вазу разбили. 14. Капитан сказал, что враг окружен. 15. Сейчас всех пассал^иров оповещают о времени нашего отъезда. 9. Use the right passive forms of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences. Fill in the table after the sentences. 1. “Guernica” is a wonderful example of cubist art. It (paint) in 1937. 2. I see your room (not, do). 3. The candidates (interview) in a quarter of an hour. 4. Is the report ready? — Almost ready. UNIT FOUR 69 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал It (type). 5. I know John (sack). His employer is an awful man. 6. Oh dear, look. Mum’s favourite cup (break). 7. I (make) to work late yesterday and the day before yesterday, 8. All the questions must (answer) in writing. 9. I can’t see my bike. It must (steal). 10. The other day Jack (to give) a kitten as a birthday present. 11. They said the terrace (add) to the main building not so long before. 12. The students were analyzing the inscriptions which (carve) on the great monuments of the past. 13. He was told a new school (build) in their street at the moment. 14. I’m sure we (meet) at the railway station. 1. 8. ! 2. 9. 3. 10. 4. 11. 5. 12. 6. 13. 7. 14. 10. Open the brackets to complete the text. Use active or passive forms of the verbs. Fill in the table after the text. I Alternatives to the Family The problems and pressures of modern Western society put a great strain on family life. Parents (expect)^ to provide love and discipline as well as the basic care, support, and training, and sometimes there is conflict and emotional stress within a family. Some people (believe)^ that the strain is too great and that alternative ways of raising children should (find)^ outside the traditional family. In Russia after the revolution, the government (attempt)'^ (abolish)'’ the family. This move^ generally (regard)^’ as a failure. One reason was that people (use)' to doing things in a particular way, whatever the shortcomings. In addition, no adequate alternative forms of child care (pro- V X vide) by the government. Similar attempts (create)^ a family-less society (make)^*^ by the pioneer farmers of the Kibbutz in what is now the Jewish state of Israel. Now they (consider)^ ^ a failure too. The children of the pioneers. 70 UNIT FOUR ru - 'U 1И портал when they (grow)^^ up, (begin)^'^ to want (spend)^^ time with their children. Thus the family (reappear) . In the West some people (found)^® communes. They are large groups of adults whose members live together with their children. The tasks of child care (share)^^ by the adults. But these experiments also mostly (fail)^®, basically because there is no real reason for the people to live together. 1. 10. 2. 11. 3, 12. 4. 13. 5. 14. 6. 15. 7. 16, О « 17. 9. 18. 11. Express the same in English; A. Use present simple passive or present progressive passive. 1, — Я голоден. Завтрак готов? — Да, Джон. Твою кашу остужают. 2- — Как насчет цветов, чтобы украсить комнату? Не беспокойся, их покупают, 3. Его всегда приглашают принять участие в таких концертах, 4. Рис выращивают в Индии. 5. — Что вы мне можете сказать по поводу жалобы? — Генеральному менеджеру как раз сейчас сообщают о ней, 6, В этом магазине словари больше не продают, 7. Ты уверен, что мою статью переводят? 8. — Можно чашечку кофе? — Конечно. Его уже готовят. 9. Зал украшают. Он будет готов через полчаса. 10. Такие вопросы часто задают. B. Use past simple passive or past progressive passive. 1. Когда я вошел в комнату, свитер был куплен в подина Брауна в тот момент красили там . 3. обсулсдали мой проект. 2. Я не был уверен, что дом гос-4. Электрическая лампочка UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал (electric light bulb) была изобретена Томасом Эдисоном. 5. Когда ты позвонил, у Джона брали интервью. 6. Анкеты (forms) заполняли, когда я присоединился к группе. 7. Седьмую симфонию Бетховена (Beethoven) исполняли на концерте вчера вечером. 8. Эти картинки нарисовали ваши дети. 9. Когда я вернулся в свой родной город, на улице Хай-стрит строили новую библиотеку. 10. В прошлом году в Москве построили много новых школ. С. Use present perfect passive or past perfect passive. 1, Эти вопросы только что обсудили. 2. Я не уверен, что телеграмму отослали. 3. Управляющий сказал мне вчера, что документы подписаны. 4. Я никогда не приезжал в свой родной город после того, как мою семью заставили из него уехать. 5, Не могу войти в гараж. Ключ потерян. 6. Джон сразу же заметил, что скамейку починили, 7. Загляни в Анин альбом. С утра в нем ничего не нарисовано, 8. Дядюшке Роджеру не сообщили, что его проект выбрали для экспедиции, 9. Мы знали, что наши пожитки уже упаковали, 10, Тесты проверили? D. Use future passive or future-in-the-past passive. 1. Перевод закончат через неделю. 2. Новый торговый центр построят на нашей улице. 3. Ей сообщили, что гостей встретят. 4. Занавес поднимут через минуту, и концерт начнется. 5. Джейн, тебе дадут мороженое после обеда. 6. Я знал, что решение о моем отъезде вскоре будет принято. 7. Мы не были уверены, что новую игровую площадку откроют в конце месяца. 8. Я чувствовал, что меня спросят об этом. 9. Нас проинформировали, что новость о его отъезде будет сообщена после свадебной церемонии. 10. Детей проводят до дома? 12. Use the verbs in brackets in past simpie passive or present perfect passive. 1. The table just (lay). We are sitting down to dinner. 2. The house (sell) three months ago. 3. Are you sure the tickets (buy)? 4. The other day all the decorations (prepare). 5. When they (inform) about the incident? 6. Everything is ready for the trip: the car (hire) and the food for lunch (buy). 7. The novel (wrote) in the 19th century. 8. His latest novel (finish) already. 9. I know the new dictionaries (choose) for the library. 10. This landscape (paint) by Isaak Levitan. UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 13. Express the same in Russian. 1. She is considered to be a talented pianist. 2. Mr Richardson is believed to be leaving tomorrow. 3. The delegation is reported to arrive on Saturday. 4. They are supposed to finish the job at the end of April. 5. The students were expected to begin their studies on the fifth of September. 6. The meeting is agreed to begin at five. 7. The dictionary is hoped to appear at the end of the month. 8. The novel is believed to sell well. 9. He is known as one of the best singers of the city. 10. The museum is expected to be closed in August. 14. Use perfect or progressive infinitive of the verbs in brackets. 1. The plane is hoped (land) in several minutes. 2. Aunt Polly is said (grow) a new kind of lilac that has been awarded a special prize. 3. Rachel is known (finish) her new novel. She is going to present it to the public in autumn. 4. The football team is said (achieve) very good results. Its coach is quite satisfied. 5. The Adams are understood (leave) Brighton. They are selling their cottage. 6. Our athletes are reported (refuse) to take part in the competition. 7. The builders are found (repair) the roads. The drivers are satisfied with the result. 8. The actors are reported (finish) the conference. They are leaving in an hour. 15. Use the articles where necessary to complete the text. Family and Household household. 2 household A family is different from 1 ________ is 3 ------ group of 4 -------- people who live together and share 5 ______ domestic tasks and activities. 6 ________ people in 7 ________ household need not be related to one another. In 8 9 10 ______ Europe in Middle Ages, for example, households often included servants, 11 ------ apprentices, and 12 ______ lodgers liv- ing together with 13 erally working as 15 is defined in 17 ___ family of 14 _ single unit. 16 householder, and gen-family, in contrast. _____ terms of 18 members need not live in one home. blood ties, and 19 16. In which cases is the definite article used? 1. ... Bay of Bengal 2. ... Bolshoi Theatre 3. ... Harrods 4. ... Pushkin Fine Arts Museum 5. ... Royal Albert Hall 6. ... Cornwall UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 7. ... Victoria Falls 14. 8. ... Andes 15. 9. ... Everest 16. 10. ... Tower of London 17. 11, ... Gulf of Mexico 18. 12. ... Louvre 19. 13, ... Bombay Restaurant 20. ■ • Р «>Ф Ф fP ■ «• • Ф*Ф Kamchatka Self ridges Hilton Hotel National Gallery Suez Canal Sahara Elbrus 17. Complete the sentences using the indefinite article where necessary. 1. Let’s go for swim, 2. When I was on holiday in St. Petersburg I visited Winter Palace. 3. I have been on Westminster diet since the 1st of March. 4. Do you know where _ Abbey is situated? 5. He greeted me with __________ keep this dictionary at _______ hand. 7, Look! The Smiths’ garage nod. 6. I always IS on fire. 8. Gerald! Your room is in mess again. 9. How shall I get to low voice. Vnukovo? 10. James answered in - . .J ^ t Л I Jr ■' .• I'Jf * * ri- V 18. Complete the text below changing the words in brackets in order to get a logical narration. Thomas" Family Hi! My name is Thomas. I’m fifteen and live in New Zealand. I’m the (young)^ in the family. I can’t say I like it very much (special)^ when my (old)® brothers and sisters try to boss (I)'*' around, but some* times it’s OK because I get away with doing things with them. I think I have some advantages over (they)®. I can learn from (they) mistakes, and they’ve fought some of the battles with my parents for (free)". There are five (child)® in the family. My brother (study)^ at the University in York. Ann is in (she)^° (late)^^ year at school. She (do)^® Biology, Chemistry, Maths “A” levels to become a doctor. Rachel is my other sister. She was born (luck)^®. She does everything quickly and with good results. I’m close to all three but (possible)^^ closest to Rachel. My Dad is a civil (serve)^® and he (work)^® in (centre)^^ Croydon. Mum is a teacher. > ■ . - . - .i - r«- _ . 4vv.. . 74 UNIT FOUk Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 19. Read the text and make it complete choosing the best items to fill in the gaps. In most societies in the past, the family was an 1. ____ unit. The adults, with the help of children, 2. — in making a living, whether that involved farming, spinning, weaving, or manufacture. 3. things by hand children learned about grown-up life 4. ________ their family membership and 5._________ In contrast, present-day Western families do not normally work together. One or two family members may go out to work, but the child at home learns nothing about work outside. 6. , modern Western societies have an advanced and 7. _______ culture, and adults in each family can know only a small part of it. Passing on the culture of a society is therefore 8. _____ in part, to schools and other educational institutions which the children 9._______ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) economical b) economic c) economy d) economizing co-operated b) operate c) combined d) gathered doing b) making c) talking d) bringing tough b) thorough c) though d) through actualities b) actions c) activities of) acts More b) Most c) Much more d) Moreover difficult b) hard c) complicated d) heavy entrusted b) transported c) referred d) transferred go b) walk c) come d) attend 20. Paraphrase these sentences using idioms with the noun head. 1. Old Jolyon always occupied the most important position at the table. 2. Harry is very much in love with Victoria. 3. Under the circumstances it was strange that he was talking nonstop for a long time. 4. I don’t think Sarah is clever. She is really very impractical and ignores the realities of life. 5. Whatever happens, don’t lose your calmness and self-control. 6. This is typical of Arnold. He refuses to think about an unpleasant situation trying to find a way out. 7, The decision has been made. We can’t change the situation. You shouldn’t waste your effort. 8. Victor is a very sensible young man. He is intelligent enough and makes good decisions. 21. Insert the right prepositions to complete the sentences: A. about, from, for, on, to 1. Have you paid ------------ the books, Ron? 2, Children depend __________ their parents- 3. I think I can rely _________ your word. 4. She says they live __________ seafood. 5. Could you please concentrate __________________________ the task you are doing. 6. Write _ me UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал your new school. her ___________ 7. I think you should apologize your behaviour. 8. I’m going to apply admission to the University. 9. I have never him ___________my own problems. 10. In future don’t com _____ me ___________ your friends. B. about, at, from, of, to 1, I haven’t heard ______ him for a long time. 2. The conductor shouted something _______ the passengers. 3. Don’t shout _________ him! He hasn’t done anything wrong. 4. I am thinking _________ another way to solve this problem. 5. — Have you read Angels and Demons” by D. Brown? — No, but I’ve heard a lot _________ the book. 6. We shall think_______your decision and let you know the result. 7. Last night I was dreaming ______ my first и visit to the theatre. 8. I would never dream you. 22. Use your Active Vocabulary to complete the sentences. 1. In modern families mothers are also b____________— s. 2. That was really a s_________________ ceremony. 3. Alice came up to the window to d________________________ the curtains. 4. Those were r_______________ postage stamps and they cost a lot. 5. I know that he is making the inquiries to s____________________ his curiosity. 6. Unfortunately Mr Robinson t_____________________ us very coldly. 7. James was back at home and felt quite c________________________ 8. The weather was d ..............., my spirits were low. I wished were different. 9. We were f________________ to go out. In the 19th century people had really big h__________________s. 10. 11. How many new g____________________ 12. I’m really busy, Emma. A__________ 13. When did he tell you he was not s sion? 14. What made you d. have been invented recently! ______ yourself with this toy. _______________ with our deci- such an incredible con-__ address. elusion? 15. I don’t know his p 23. Write some words which you can derive from these amuse 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 76 UNIT FOUR Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал solemn treat forbid 1. 2. 1. 1. 24. Write your own sentences using these: 1. arausing/amused 2. satisfying/satisfied 25. Express the same in English using the phrasal verb to put: 1. Никогда не откладывай на завтра то, что можешь сделать сегодня. 2. Поднимите руки, когда хотите что-то спросить. 3. Я не приму «нет» в качестве ответа. Я просто не могу мириться с таким решением. 4. Молодых людей попросили потушить сигареты. 5. Эти здания построили несколько веков тому назад, 6. Я собираюсь надеть это платье на наш костюмированный вечер. 7. Пожар потушен. 8. Он притворялся, что говорит с американским акцентом. 26. Choose one of the synonyms in its proper form to complete the sentences: gfance, gaze, staro, glare. 1. Andy sat near the fireplace ______________ into the flames. He was deep in thought. 2. Fred knew why his sister was _______________ at him. He had torn her favourite book. 3. Don’t ________________ ____. at at each at him. people. That’s not polite. 4. The boys were ___________ other as if they were going to fight. 5. I just _______ I’m not sure I will recognize him when we meet again, 6. The young mother was —_____________ at her newly-born son. 7. Vanda’s costume was so absurd that his friends just ______________ at her and could not say a word. 8. How can you say that I’ve made a good job of the essay? You have just _______ at it. 27. How will you write these words using AmE spelling? 1. jewellery _____________________- 2. favourite__________________________________. 3. theatre_____________________________________ 4. skilful __________________________ 5. programme _________________________. 6. humour _____________^____________ 7. litre_______________________________________ UNIT FOUR 77 ru - образовательный портал 8. pretence 9. instalment 10. offence 28. Write these word combinations in Engiish to revise your Topical Vocabulary. 1. дальние родственники 2. племянники и племянницы 3. родители и дети 4. ухаживать за кем-то/оказывать знаки внимания (о браке) 5. принять/отвергнуть предложение 6. стать невестой/женихом 7. брак по расчету 8. жениться «на деньгах»/вступить в брак ради денег 9. стать молодоженами 10. без роду и племени (без родни) 11. чьи-то предки 12. чьи-то потомки 13. чьи-то отпрыски 14. дети от первой жены 15. вступить в брак по любви 16. получить развод 17. получить опекунство над ребенком 18. платить алименты 19. воспитывать (поднимать) детей 20. быть добропорядочным по отношению к другим людям 21. лишать кого-либо самоуважения 22. иметь любимчиков 23. проблема отцов и детей 24. предлагать помощь родителям , баловать детей 29. Write а paragraph devoted to the description of the day when one of your relatives got married. In your paragraph — describe the weather on that day; mention the things you wore; write what you gave your relative as a gift. 30. Make the skeleton paragraph more colourful. My sister was going on a date. She felt a bit nervous. She was not sure what to wear. She didn’t know where she would like to go with her bridegroom. UNIT FOU8 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Keys Unit One 1. 1 с), 2 a), 3 в), 4 a), 5 с), 6 в), 7 с) 2. true: 1, 5» 6, 8, 10; false: 2, 4, 9; not mentioned; 3, 7 3. 1 e), 2 a), 3 b), 4 g), 5 d), 6 h), 7 f), 8 c) 5. 1 c, 2 i, 3 g, 4 j, 5 b, 6 k, 7 d, 8 f, 9 h, 10 a, extra — e 6. 1) to encourage 2) reign 3) profit 4) to brave distant seas 5) to fit out ships 6) prosperous voyages 7) passage 8) abundance 9) to obtain a patent 10) to pave the way 11) venture 12) persecxition 7. Part One. 1. characteristic 2. monarchy 3. rulers 4. personally 5. persistence 6, commonly 7. justly 8. famous 9. servants 10, dependent 11. personal 12. artists 13. writers 14. glorify; Part Two. 1. identification 2. evident 3. jealous 4. inseparable 5. vulnerability 6. eastern 7. expensive 8, strengthen 9. frontiers 10. dynastic 11. territorially 12. economic 13, absolutist 14. imitation 15. French 16. widely 8. 1. apologizes, will forgive 2, tells, don’t believe 3. will be, mention 4, doesn’t have, I won’t read o. will return 6. is not, will have to 7. phones, am, ask 8. finishes, will give 9. is not sure, will finish 10. returns, will come 11. will come, return 12, is not, will complain 13. will find, begins 14. marries, will live 15. gives, will/shall clean 16. won’t be, arrive 9. 1. stays 2. travels 3. is standing/stands 4. has just said 5. is waving 6. is 7. lies 8. crying 9. falls 10, has 11. sees 12. speak/is speaking 13. asking 14. wakes 15. knows 16. finds 17. walks 18. sees 19. look 20. is eating 21. hears 22, has entered 23. is 24. turns 25. sees 26 are flashing 27. are scratching 28. speaks 29, looks 30. says 31. love 32. have made up 33. do you love 34. finishes/is finished 10. 1. Secret agents don’t wear uniforms, 2, The Thames flows through London. 3. Don’t take the newspaper away, I am still reading it. 4. I can’t hear what you are saying. The traffic is making so much noise here. 5. The tea won’t be long. The kettle is nearly boiling. 6. Are you having a party on Saturday night? 7. Do you like travelling/to travel light? 8. How do you usually get to work? I always go by bus but tomorrow David is giving me a lift in his car. 9. Does Alice know where the new girl lives? 10. He never listens to what I say, as he always thinks about something else, 11. If you give Liz some pocket money, she will spend it all on sweets. 12. When John comes, Г11 ask him to explain everything to me but I don’t know when he will come. 13. Nobody knows anything about it. 14. There is no doubt that this money is his, isn’t there? 15. Everybody knows it, don’t they? 16. My father doesn’t take sugar in his tea that’s why I have not bought any for him. 11. 1. is thinking 2. tastes 3, are always losing 4. am saying; am asking 5, begin 6. I’m not dancing 7. forget; starts 8, are constantly lying 9. arrives 10. hear, are getting 11. closes 12, are you writing 12. 1. the 2. — 3. — 4. the 5. The 6. the 7. — 8. the 9. the 10. — 11. The 12. the 13. — 14. the 15. the 16. — 17. — 18. the 19. — 20. the .ru - \J 1И портал 1. a small brown bird 2, the 19th century writer 3. a young savage boy 4. a large expensive car 5. the new blue one 6. a famous book character, a notorious pirate 7, the popular modern singer 8. the medieval astronomer 9. a large round fruit 10. a big Australian city 14- Right: 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12. Wrong', 2. colonel Sanders; 4. He became King 5. President Franklin Roosevelt 7. elected chairman 8. The Head 11. was Dean 15. A. 1. I’ll have to do (complete) all this work during a/the week. 2. (A) part of this ancient town was ruined during the war. 3. I wasn’t aware of this simple truth for a long time. 4. During the lesson I had several opportunities to express my opinion. 5. During these years the town has grown rapidly and become much more beautiful. 6. During the festival there were no available hotel rooms in the city. 7. Why hasn’t this singer achieved any success during this time? 8. (At) first nobody took any notice of this artist’s works but the situation has been gradually for some years. 9. My father is a journalist and he has been con-to the local newspaper for many years. 10. The family live in town during the winter but they spend summers in the country (side). B. 1. Tim is always late but for once (this time) he (has) turned up on time. 2. You are just in time for supper, sit down to table, please. 3. You’ve come in time, I’m just going to leave. If you had come three minutes later, you wouldn’t have found me in. 4. This will be a very important meeting. I ask you all to come on time. 5. Try and hand in your works on time. 6. I had to run all the way to be (come) in time for the beginning of the performance. 7. We are beginning at 11 sharp-Try to be on time. 8. I’m so glad that I’ve come in time to help the patient. In half an hour everything would have been over. 9. The ceremony begins at six. I’ll never forgive you if you don’t come on time. 10. Make sure to come in time for the beginning of the show. C. 1. We argued for a long time but in the end we achieved a general decision. 2. At the end of the performance there appeared tame lions and tigers on the arena. 3. In the end all the colleagues noticed his achievements and believed in him. 4. The reader finds the truth only at the end of the book- 5. A few years passed and in the end they met again. 6. At the end of the last millennium the mankind faced new problems, 7. At the end of the park there’s a small lake where swans swim (float), 8. I liked the novel more and more and in the end it completely captured my imagination. 9. The First World War and all the subsequent events were mentioned at the end of the chronicle. 10. This politician kept silent for a long time but in the end he made his opinion public. D. 1. In the evening all the family gathered in the living room. 2. It was especially difficult to get up on that rainy morning. 3. It’s usually much warmer in the afternoon than early in the morning (in the early morning). 4. These events began on a dark cold morning in early winter. 5. On that bright and sunny morning it was a shame to stay at home . 6. Could you call me back in the evening? 7. On Saturday evening someone rang at the door. 8. In the afternoon we phoned hotel Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал to find out if there were any available rooms there. 9. We can’t forget the events that began on that warm sunny morning in July. 10. On a rainy evening nobody wants to leave home. E. 1. Afterwards he never remembered that awful day. 2. I’ll go for a walk after IVe done my lessons. 3. Now I’m busy but I promise to wash up afterwards. 4. (At) first Mary made a lot of mistakes but afterwards she became an efficient secretary. 5. I’ll speak to him afterwards. Now I’m not ready for this talk. 6. I’ll call you after the film is over and we’ll share our impressions. 7. Possibly afterwards the mankind will regret many new inventions. 8. Let’s meet after classes. 9. We often do something and regret it afterwards. 10. He began to contribute to a/the newspaper early and afterwards became a professional journalist. 16. 1 c)t 2 d), 3 b), 4 a), 5 d), 6 c), 7 b), 8 a), 9 c), 10 d), 11 a), 12 b), 13 b), 14 a), 15 c) 17. 1. pick up 2. pick out 3. picking on 4. pick you up 5. picks at 6. pick your sTiitcase up 7. picked out 8. picked up the newspaper 9. picking on 10. pick out 18. 1 h), 2 c), 3 i), 4 a), 5 f), 6 k), 7 d), 8 b), 9 1), 10 m), 11 n), 12 g), 13 e), 14 j), 15 o) 20. 1. The historic meeting between the leaders of the two countries took place last year. 2. Recently we’ve been to the History Museum and got a great impression of it. 3. Walter Scott is considered to be the father of the historical novel. 4. The parliament is situated in a historic (historical) building in the central square. 5. People remember the historic battle of Berlin. 6. All tourists stop to look at this historic (historical) monument. 7, We have a wonderful history teacher in our school. 8. My friend is fond of historical films and never misses a new one. 9, 1945 was a historic year for our country. 10. Let’s look at these events in their historic context. 11. I love history lessons. I think it’s one of the most interesting subjects. 21. A, 1. basises/bases 2. curriculums/curricula 3. phenomenons/pheuomena 4. datums/data 5. criterions/criteria 6. stratums/strata 7. analyses 8. cacti/cactuses 9. formulae/formulas 10. indexes/ indices 11. media/ mediums 12. memoranda/memorandums 13. antennae/antennas 14. genii/ geniuses 15, appendixes/appendices; B. 1. oxen 2, cuckoos 3. children 4. roofs 5. flies 6. keys 7, leaves 8. zeros/ zeroes 9. pianos 10. skis 11, women 12. deer 13. sheep 14. mice 15. houses 22. 1. datum 2, cliff 3, species 4. merry-go-round 5. phenomenon 6. sister-in-law 7. bridge 8. Swiss 9. berry 10. boot 11. foot 12. box 13. penny 14. deer 15. stratum 16. genius 17, index 18, medium 19. cactus 20. formiila 23. 1 j), 2 c), 3 k), 4 i), 5 b), 6 m), 7 a), 8 e), 9 n), 10 f), 11 o), 12 d), 13 g), 14 h), 15 1) 24. 1. The President of a country is simultaneously its commander-in-chief, 2. At the beginning of the war the troops could hardly repel the enemy’s attacks. 3. The siege of Troy, that lasted many years, has gone down in history. 4. At first the troops suffered heavy casualties (losses) but then Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал the situation changed radically. 5. Hundreds of people become refugees as a result of hostilities. 6. Soldiers are taught how to carry out modern warfare. 7. The war was won but it cost the lives of many people. 8. In those days thousands of people joined (enrolled in) the army. 9. It is not easy to conduct hostilities on several territories at the same time. 10. He was listed as missing in action during the war, As it turned out later he had been taken prisoner. 25. 1) two treble six 2) seven one double three 3) oh eight oh six four 4) three nine one oh four seven 5) two seven double nine 6) seven treble eight 7) three eight double one 8) one eight five seven nine oh 9) treble seven two four three 10) five oh four eight double three 26. 1) Double oh nine six eight four five seven eight three two treble seven 2) zero (degrees) 3) three to nil 4) three to zero (nothing) 5) Thirteen minus thirteen equals nought (zero) 6) love 7) nineteen oh six 8) SU three oh three Unit Two 1. true: 3, 5, 6, 7; false: 1, 2; not mentioned: 4 2. 1 d), 2 b), 3 e), 4 a), 5 c) 3. 1 d), 2 f), 3 e), 4 b), 5 a), c) — extra 4. 1 c), 2 c), 3 d), 4 b), 5 b), 6 a) 6. 1. to gain independence 2. a guardian of liberty 3. the latter 4. fed up 5. to fine 6. to convict 7. to provide 8. subscription 9. wealthy 10. a revolution 11. a newsboy 12. combined 13. society doings 14. to signal sth 15. profit, income 16. a bulwark 7. 1, interchangeably 2. differences 3. mostly 4. beings 5. political 6. governments 7. economic 8. cultural 9. education 10. governments 11. expressions 12, freedoms 8. 1. arrived, were, was opening 2. entered, was sitting, was picking 3. were walking, saw, was driving 4. sat, fell 5. was being 6. were playing 7. stayed 8. were preparing 9. strolled, turned, started 10. told, was feeling 11. phoned, answered 12, was doing 13. was cleaning, was playing 14. was, was shining, were getting, were flying 15. stood 9. 1. has just returned, picked 2. has taken 3. have known 4. has really achieved 5. has been contributing 6, have established 7. took 8. has tamed 9. were, told 10. took, has changed 11. have been working 12. have largely disappeared 13. have loved/have been loving 14. has been writing 15. have been living/have lived 10. 1, has happened, is being 2. is, have not received, is still thinking, is being 3. is being, is growing, think, is 4, have had 5, have owned, hear 11. 1, was shining 2. was 3. had gathered 4. to watch 5. going/go 6. were pushing 7. (were) shouting 8. were trying 9. was carefully shielded 10, stood/were standing 11. had come 12. be seen 13. standing 14. holding 15. were pushing 16, (were) fighting 17. heard 18. shouting 19, is still chewing 20. has had 21. are still working 22. be 23. standing 24. looks 25. hasn’t he got 26. Don’t ask 27. to buy 28. is freezing 29, gave 30. looked 31. smiled 32, struck 33. swung 82 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 12. 1, She took Andrew with her to show him what the club was like. 2. I know that he has overcome all the difficulties and is quite successful now, 3. I have been writing my diary since the age of 15. 4, Richard, you’re being too brave (bold) today! 5. Sarah told me she couldn’t recog' nise Steve. He was being very shy. 6. For some minutes we walked in silence, then suddenly Mary began laughing. 7, It was raining all day yesterday. 8, I don’t usually eat tomatoes. I don’t like them. 9, I hear he has returned from his trip and unfortunately he is feeling bad. 10. We have been here for a week but we have seen so little. 11. How long has your family owned (had) this farm? I don’t know. I have always lived here. 12. We stayed in the hall during the interval. 13. Dick is being very annoying this evening. I think I’ll take him upstairs and read his favourite book to calm him down. 14. — What a nice ring. Is it new? — Oh, no. I’ve had it for years. 15. He has been (working as) a journalist since 1999. 13. 1. the 2. a 3. the 4. the 5. a 6. the 7. the 8. the 9, an 10. the 11. the 19. the 20. the 21. the 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 22. 23. 12. a 13. a 14. a 15. a 16. the 17. the 18. 22. the 23. the 1.—, — 2. —, the. 3. a. 4 a 5. a 6.— 7, 8. 9. 10, —, — 11. an, the 12. The Right: 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 12 Wrong: 3. Uncle Jack 5. a Lincoln 6. Poor Lizzy 9. Honest Julia 10. Sister Carrie 11, Judge Briggs 1. as 2. on 3, in 4. as 5, like 6. like 7. on 8. on, as 9. like 10. like 11. as 12. like 13. as 14. as 15. as 16. as 17. like 18. like 19. as 20. like 21. like 22. as 1 b), 2 a), 3 a), 4 c), 5 b), 6 d), 7 b), 8 c), 9 d), 10 a) 1. achievement 2. photographer 3. documentary 4. born 5. curiosity 6. interested 7. professionally 8. first 9. flew 10. be treated 11. differently 12. her 13, independence 14. was influenced 15, beliefs 16. best 17. men 18. women 19. children 20. personal 21. dramatic 1. cut down 2. cut in 3. cut down 4. cut off 5. cut up 6. cut down 7. cut out 8. cut down on 9. cut up 10. cut off 1 f), 2 d), 3 k), 4 i), 5 a), 6 g), 7 1), 8 e), 9 c), 10 j), 11 b), 12 h) 1. Richard is one of notoriously corrupt politicians. 2, The naughty boy aimed a stone at the/a little dog but his brother didn’t let him throw it at the animal. 3. The new government began to fight corruption in the city. 4. Mrs Richardson inherited that estate from her grandparents. 5. They are absolutely discontented with the service given to them. 6. He is a difficult man to deal with. 7. The whole nation united behind the President. 8. The rose bushes are flourishing (flourish) in my garden. 9. That document is really of great significance. 10. The Adamses are a united family. 11. I know I shouldn’t have revealed your secret but unfortunately I’ve done it. 12. The moon emerged from behind the clouds. 13. Charlie, why are you discontented with your nephews’ behaviour? 14. In case of emergency phone this number, 15. I decided to restrict myself to two pies or buns a day. A. 1. joined 2. join 3. unite 4. join 5. united 6. united 7, join 8, unites (united) Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал В. 1. policy 2, politics 3. politics 4. policy 5, policy 6. policy 7. politics 8. politics 24. 1, many/far 2. much/far 3. far 4. much/far 5. many/far 6. far 7. much/far 8. many/far 9. many/far 10. far 25. 1. Solid fuel would be more economical. 2. This new oven is highly economical- 3. The president spoke on television about the new economic programme. 4. A car that is economical doesn’t use much gasoline (petrol). 5. Their new economic project (has) failed. 6. I don’t think Emma is an economical housewife. She spends so much money on food. 7. He is economical with words. 8. New opportunities will emerge if the economic climate in the country changes, 9. Economic growth of the country has been much increased. 10. We can’t say we are discontented with the economic development of the coTintry. 11, They have made up their minds to be more economical in the future. 12. It would be more economical to switch off this device at night. 26. 1 h), 2 m), 3 b), 4 a), 5 1), 6 c), 7 i), 8 d), 9 n), 10 i), 11 e), 12 o), 13 f), 14 k), 15 g) Unit Three 1. 1 b), 2 a), 3 c), 4 c), 5 a), 6 b), 7 b) 2. true: 1, 5, 7, 9; false: 2, 4, 6, 10; not mentioned: 3, 8 3. 1 e), 2 a), 3 b), 4 c), 5 d), 6 f), 7 g) 5. 1 j), 2 h), 3 f), 4 e), 5 c), 6 g), 7 b), 8 k), 9 a), 10 d), extra — i 6. 1) unattached 2) to attend 3) a high school 4) to find a date 5) a tuxe- do 6) to dress up in fancy dresses 7) a group affair 8) a junior prom 9) to rent a limousine 10) pressure 11) multiple 7. Pa?'t One. 1. educational 2. development 3. variation 4. subdivision 5. teachers 6. politicians 7. admittance 8. abilities 9. secondary 10. considerable 11. independent 12. existence 13. normally 14, following 15. examinations 16. knowledge Part Two. 1. admission 2, selection 3. initially 4. application 5. preference 6. British 7. association 8. involvement 9, interested 10. additional 11. developing 12. partnership 8. 1. will bring 2. will be 3. would lend 4. will talk 5. will give 6. would be 7. won’t end up 8. would visit 9. will pour 10. will go 11. would play 12. will get in 13. will tell 14. would look 15, will not go 16. will take 9. 1. found 2. jumped 3. touched 4. had not felt 5. took 6. could 7, needed 8. had seen 9. (had) wanted 10, kept 11. had taught 12. walked 13. peering 14. had forgotten 15. announced 16. had been reduced 17. held 18, were 19. bought 20. had been fitted 21. made 22. feel 23. bought 24. realized 25. was dying 26. went 27. (had) passed 28. (had) entered 29. chose 30, enjoying 31. brought 32. left 33. to find 34. took 35. had rarely seen 10. 1. I did everything the way you had advised. 2. Yesterday we wrote a detailed letter to Mum about our trip. 3. Nick was hungry because he had not eaten since morning. 4. When I saw her it seemed to me we had met somewhere before. 5. The boys told Tom they didn’t know where his bag Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 11. а 12. had disappeared. 6. When she heard the noise she turned to see what it was/had been. 7. Jane was very much upset because she had made a lot of mistakes in the test, 8. I rnanag'ed to post the parcel which I had forgotten to send before. 9. He told me he had never seen anything like that. 10, The movie had already started when we arrived at the cinema. 11, He spent several years in Spain when he was a child and had a perfect Spanish. 12. Mr, Carpenter started to read the newspaper he had bought on the corner. 13. The doctor examined the patient’s leg and found that it was broken. 14. I couldn’t get into my office because I had left the keys at home. 15. The neighbours saw that a police car had arrived at the Petersons’ house and that one of the policemen was talking to the host. 16. We came to Edinburgh where we had never been before. 11. 1. had I got; came 2. had built 3. had written; sat 4. had already lent 5. had Jean left; realized; was missing 6. didn’t remember; had passed; went 7. met; were visiting 8. had it stopped; appeared 9. was; had worked/had been working 10. said; had learned 11. had Laura found; decided 12, had watered; stood. 12. 1, a 2. a 3. a 4. an 5. — 6. — 7. a 8. — 9, — 10, — 13, the 14. — 15, the 16. — 17. the 18. the 19. the 20. a 13. 1, hairs 2. light 3. noise 4. a paper 5. room 6. a great time 7. sample: a coffee, a tea, two orange juices, a lemonade 8. a work 9. glass 10. a polite good-looking youth 14. Right: 9, 10; Wrong: 1. a cold, a glass 2. a strawberry ice cream, a vanilla one 3. perfume 4. of brick, of stone 5. Where is the money? I saw it. 6. an extraordinary behaviour 7. eating chicken 8, deer 15. A, 1. His teachers liked John’s attitude to his studies. 2. Lady Marbell’s prompt answer to the judge’s question caused everybody’s surprise. 3. What was the reaction of the public to the changes in the concert programme? 4. This amendment to the constitution was agreed without a vote. 5. At last, after hard work we managed to find the solution to the problem. 6. He was so happy when he received the invitation to her birthday party. 7. Grandmother was afraid of burglars and always hid the keys to all the doors. 8. This is a fine book and a worthy addition to your collection. 9. The damage done to the house was extensive. 10. There are exceptions to every rule. B. 1. Mary had a deep affection for children, 2. What is the reason for coming late to school every day? 3. The minister spoke about the importance of respect for laws. 4. His demand for a private meeting was useless. 5. Best of all the pupils liked the topic for discussion entitled “The desire for happiness”. 6. What’s the need for getting up so early? 7. We had high hopes for her. C. 1. The winners will go on a sightseeing tour of the city. 2. You mustn’t speak on the phone in the library. 3. Many people go on a diet to lose weight. 4. He went to the US on business to take part in the negotiations. 5. They were told to leave the office immediately when the first floor caught on fire. 6. Next week we’re going on an excursion to Polenovo. 7. All the workers of the firm will be on holiday at Christmas. .ru - \J 1И портал 18. 19. 16. 1 b), 2 c), 3 a), 4 b), 5 d), 6 b), 7 c), 8 d), 9 c), 10 d), 11 c), 12 b), 13 d), 14 c), 15 a) 17. 1) speak to 2) spoken up for 3) Speak for yourself! 4) speak up 5) speak out/up 6) speak for 7) speak for themselves 8) speak up 9) speaks for 10) speak out 1 c), 2 1), 3 n), 4 k), 5 o), 6 a), 7 g), 8 i), 9 e), 10 h), 11 f), 12 m), 13 b), 14 j), 15 d) A. 1 f), 2 g), 3 j), 4 h), 5 i), 6 a), 7 b), 8 d), 9 e), 10 c) B. 1, cast aside 2. cast away 3. cast her eyes down 4. cast light on 5. cast doubt on 6. cast your mind back 7, casts their votes £ 9. the die was cast 10. cast a spell 21. 1. After dinner Alice slipped away for a walk in the forest (in the wood(s). 2. These trees are being grown for timber. 3. We proceeded slowly through the thick pine forest. 4. Timber is wood used as structural material for construction. 5, This tourist guide to world tropical forests is a good read. 6. There was a smell of damp wood and machine oil everywhere. 7. Does Russia export much timber? 8. Will you please gather wood to make a fire? 9. Acid rain has already destroyed large areas of forest in northern Europe. 10, This antique furniture is made of genuine wood. 22. 1) regretted, regretting 2) visited, visiting 3) travelled, travelling 4) referred, referring 5) developed, developing 6) cancelled, cancelling 7) admitted, admitting 8) occurred, occurring 9) remembered, remembering 10) preferred, preferring 11) offered, offering 12) permitted, permitting 13) conquered, conquering 14) rebelled, rebelling 23. 1 b), 2 f), 3 o), 4 e), 5 i), 6 c), 7 k), 8 a), 9 d), 10 g), 11 m), 12 j), 13 1), 14 h), 15 n) 24. 1. Mister Adams discovered that there were a lot of aggressive and violent teenagers in his new class. 2. Jane was from a poor family and her clothes were shabby, for which she was often bullied at school. 3, He never had difficulties getting along with his classmates. 4. Tailor felt constant pressure from his parents and friends and it was difficult for him to make independent decisions, 5. You are putting at risk all your future plans. 6. Jack worked a lot at night and neglected school completely. 7. She dedicated all her life to her son who became a world-famous conductor. 8. My parents didn’t want to embarrass me in front of my friends at the party and so they left earlier, 9. Fred was tired of being treated like a child. 10. An ideal teacher must have a complete control of his class even if some of the pupils are ill-mannered and 25. 1 d), 2 f), 3 g), 4 a), 5 h), 6 j), 7 i), 8 e), 9 c), 10 b) 26. A. Formal: b), c), e), g). Informal: a), d), f), h), i), j) B. a) untidy b) self-assured c) awkward d) husband e) i f) stomach 27. 1 c), 2 a), 3 b). 28. Dear Julia, It seems more than two weeks since you left Moscow. That is a long, long time since I last saw you. 86 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал You know that I am to be married on the 7th of June. Well, I am writing to ask you whether you will agree to be my bridesmaid. I do hope you will say “yes”. As my greatest friend I should dearly like to have you by me on the most important day of my life. With love. Kate Unit Four 1. true: 1, 2, 6; false: 4; not mentioned: 3, 5 2. B. 1 d), 2 e), 3 b), 4 c), 5 a) C. 1) B, 2) C, 3) D, 4) A, 5) E 3. 1 e), 2 d), 3 a), 4 f), 5 b), 6 c), extra g. 5. 1) spouse 2) offspring 3) raise children 4) courtship 5) engagement 6) wedding (ceremony) 7) marital 8) registry office. 6. a), c), b), d). 7- 1. — 2. The plate was dropped (by Ann). 3. — 4. Your favourite cup has been broken (by Tommy). 5. In 2008 a lot of towns and villages were destroyed in China (by the earthquake). 6. — 7. The fire was caused by lightning. 8. — 9. Tom will be given something to eat. 10. Who was the mail brought by? 11. The article is not being translated. 12. The Head was informed that we had travelled to that place before. 13.Our papers are always collected at the end of the class by our teacher. 14. These rules are not obeyed by most people. 15. — 8. 1. In restaurants ciistomers are served by waiters and waitresses. 2. I know the report is being prepared, 3, Are you sure the new project will be sxiggested? 4. He said all the members of the family would be invited to the wedding ceremony. 5. Is/Was this play written by Shakespeare? 6. The letter hasn’t been/wasn’t signed by Aunt Ann. 7. The announcement will have been made by this time tomorrow. 8. Is a new garage being built for you? 9. Have the documents been signed yet? 10. I wasn’t fooled/haven’t been fooled by his tricks. 11. He assured me that the work had been done. 12. John is being interviewed by the director him-self. 13. Alas, your favourite vase has been broken. 14. The captain said the enemy had been surrounded. 15. Now all the passengers are being informed about the time of our departure. 9. 1. was painted 2. has not been done 3. will be interviewed 4. is being typed 5. has been sacked 6. has been broken 7. was made 8. be answered 9. have been stolen 10. was given 11. had been added 12. had been carved 13. was being built 14. will be met 10. 1. are expected 2. believe 3. be found 4. attempted 5. to abolish 6. is generally regarded 7. were used 8. were provided/had been provided 9. to create 10. were made 11. are considered 12. grew 13. began 14. to spend 15. has reappeared 16. have founded communes 17. are shared 18. have mostly failed 11. A. 1. — I’m hungry. Is breakfast ready? — Yes, John. Your porridge is being cooled. 2. — What about the/some flowers to decorate the room? — Don’t worry, they are being bought. 3. He is always invited to take Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 12, 13. 14. part in such concerts. 4. Rice is grown in India. 5. — What can yoii tell me about the complaint? — The general manager is being informed about it right now. 6. Dictionaries are not sold in this shop any more. 7. Are you sure that my article is being translated? 8. Can I have a cup of coffee? — Certainly. It is being made. 9. The hall is being decorated. It will be ready in half an hour. 10. Such questions are often asked. B. 1. When I entered the room my project was being discussed. 2. My sweater was bought in Scotland. 3. I wasn’t sure that Mr Brown’s house was being painted then. 4. The electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison. 5. John was being interviewed when you called. 6. The forms were being filled in when I joined the group. 7. Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony was performed at the concert last night. 8. These pictures were drawn/painted by your children. 9. When I retiirned to my native city, a new library was being built in the High Street. 10, A lot of new schools were built in Moscow last year, C. 1.These questions have been just discussed. 2, I’m not sure that the telegram has been sent. 3. The manager told me yesterday the documents had been signed. 4, I never visited my native city after my family had been made to leave the place. 5. I can’t enter the garage, the key has been lost. 6. John noticed at once that the bench had been mended/repaired/fixed. 7. Look into Ann’s album. Nothing has been drawn in it since morning. 8. Uncle Rodger was not informed that his project had been chosen for the expedition. 9. We knew that all our belongings had been already packed. 10. Have the tests been checked? D. 1. The translation will be finished in a week. 2. A new shopping centre will be built in our street. 3. She was informed that the guests would be met. 4. The curtain will be raised in a minute and the concert will begin, 5. Jane, you will be given an/some ice cream after dinner. 6. I knew the decision about my departure would be taken soon, 7. We were not sure the new playground would be opened at the end of the month, 8. I felt I would be asked about it. 9. We were informed the news about his arrival would be announced after the wedding ceremony. 10. Will the children be accompanied home? 1. has been laid 2. was sold 3. have been bought 4. were prepared 5. were they informed 6, has been hired, has been bought 7. was written 8. has been finished 9. have been chosen 10. was painted 1, Ее считают талантливой пианисткой. 2. Полагают, что господин Ричардсон уезжает завтра. 3. Сообщают, что делегация прибывает в субботу. 4. Предполагают, что они закончат работу в конце апреля. 5. Ожидается, что студенты начнут занятия 5 сентября. 6. Согласовано, что встреча начнется в пять. 1. Надеются (Есть надежда), что словарь появится в конце месяца. 8. Полагают, что этот роман продается хорошо. 9. Его знают как одного из лучших певцов города, 10. Ожидают, что музей закроется в августе. 1. to be landing 2. to have grown 3. to have finished 4. to have achieved 5- to be leaving 6. to have refused 7, to have repaired 8. to have finished Frenqlish.ru - образовательный портал 15. М- о. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 25. 26. 27. 28. 6. The, 7. а, 8. 16. а, 17. 1. а, 2. а, 3. а, 4. —, 12. —, 13. the, 14. the, 15, а I. the, 2. the, 3. —, 4. the, 5. the, 6. II. the, 12. the, 13. the, 14, —, 15, 19. the, 20. — 1. a, 2. , , 3. a, 4, 5. a, 6. , 7 , 9. the, 10. 18, —, 19. the 11. 7. the, 8. the, 9. —, 10. the, , 16. the, 17, the, 18. the. 8. a, 9 —, 10. a their, 7. freedom. 1. young'est, 2. especially, 3. elder, 4. me, 5. them, 6, 8. children, 9. is studying, 10. her, 11. last, 12. is doing, 13. lucky, 14. possibly, 15. servant, 16. works, 17, central. 1 b), 2 a), 3 b), 4 d), 5 c), 6 d), 7 c), 8 a), 9 d) 1. Old Jolyon always sat at the head of the table. 2. Harry is head over heels in love with Victoria. 3. Under the circumstances it was strange that he was talking his head off. 4. ... she has her head in the clouds, 5, Whatever happens, don’t lose your head. 6. He buries his head in the sand and refuses to try and find a way out. 7. ... you shouldn’t knock your head against a brick wall. 8. ... he has a good head on his shoulders. A. 1. for, 2, on, 3. on, 4. on, 5, on, 6. to, about, 7. to, about, 8, for, 9, to, about, 10. to, about B. 1. from, 2. to, 3, at, 4. of, 5, of/about, 6. about/of, 7. about/of, 8. of 1. breadwinners 2. solemn 3, draw 4. rare 5. satisfy 6. treated 7. contented 8. dull 9. forbidden 10. households 11. gadgets 12. Amuse 13. satisfied 14, draw 15. permanent 1. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. 2. Put up your hands when you want to ask something. 3. I won’t accept “no” for an answer. I simply can’t put up with such a decision. 4. The young men were asked to put out their cigarettes. 5. Those buildings were put up several centuries ago. 6. I’m going to put on this dress for our fancy-dres.s party. 7. The fire has been put out. 8, He was putting on an American accent, 1. staring/gazing, 2. glaring, 3. stare, 4. glaring, 5. glanced, 6. gazing, 7. stared, 8. glanced 1. jewelry, 2. favorite, 3. theater, 4. skillful, 5. program, 6. humor, 7, liter, 8. pretense, 9. installment, 10, offense 1. distant relatives 2. nieces and nephews 3. parents and children 4. to court smb 5. to accept/reject the proposal 6. to become bride/bridegroom (fiance) 7. marriage of convenience 8. to marry for money 9. to become newly married/newlyweds 10. without kith or kin 11. someone’s ancestors 12. someone’s descendants 13. someone’s offspring 14. children by the first wife 15. to marry for love 16. to get a divorce 17. to get a custody of a child 18, to pay alimony 19. to raise children 20. to be virtuous to other people 21. to deprive smb of self-respect 22, to have favourites 23. a generation gap 24. to render help to one’s parents 25. to spoil children 89 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 9 Scripts Unit One No. 1, Ex, I The First Discovery of America It is common knowledge that Vikings were great travellers. There is a story that proves it. Erik the Red was a rich farmer of Iceland. Once he got into trouble and had to leave the country. He had heard that there was another island to the west, so he set out to find it. He took with him fiis family, his servants, and some friends. He also took horses, sheep, and cattle. The little company sailed and sailed. They finally саше upon a lonely island. Part of the island was covered with ice, but there was a place with grass for the animals. Erik and his people settled there and gave the island the name Greenland. Erik the Red had two sons, one of whom was known as Leif [li:f]. Leif was born about 980, more than a thousand years ago. Leif went to sea as a boy. His father gave him a ship when he was nineteen. In the year 1000 Leif sailed to Norway, where he became a Christian. When he sailed for home he took along two priests to teach the Cliristian religion to the people of Greenland. According to a legend, Leif and his men were in a hurry to get home, but they ran into storms and fog. Eventually they saw land, but it wasn’t bare and gloomy Greenland. All about them were forests. The Northmen liked the place very much and decided to stay there until spring. They built shelters in which to spend the winter. There was little snow and ice. The streams were full of fish and the woods were full of game.' The next summer they found open fields where wild grain grew. They picked wild grapes. These made such good wine that Leif called the country Wirieland or Vinland. The men took samples of the wild grain and grapes and found their way home to Greenland. They used the samples to prove to their families they had found a new land. As far as we know, Leif never went back to Vinland, The people who heard of Leif’s adventure told the story to their children. Years later this saga was written down. Not all folk tales arc true, biit scholars believe there is much truth in the saga of Leif Erikson. Scholars believe that Leif really discovered a new land — a part of the world no one in Europe knew aboiit before that time. The land that Leif and his men named Vinland was probably North America. It means that Northmen had discovered America about 500 years before Christopher Columbus, game [geim wild animals, birds, and fish that people hunt, usually for food 90 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал No 2, Ex. 2 The Roaring" Twenties The years between 1920 and 1929 are often called the Roaring Twenties. Perhaps that is because of the way the 1920’s came roaring to life right after World War I, Daily life began to move faster than it ever had before. Trains raced across the quiet countryside. Automobiles were taking the place of horses and buggies. Airplanes began to flash across the sky. The modern age was above all an age of noise and speed. The new age was reflected in changes in daily living, too. Clothing styles changed to meet the faster pace of life. Even jazz, the popular music of the twenties, seemed to show the influence of noise and speed. The graceful waltz was replaced by such dances as the “Charleston”. People began to go more often to see moving pictures. The pictures in those days were black and white and there was no sound with the picture until the late twenties. What the actors said was flashed on the screen in writing. In many theatres a man sat near the screen and played the piano to “set the mood". He played sad music for sad scenes and fast music for storms, fights, and races. At home more and more people began to enjoy a new invention called radio. The listener needed a high aerial and earphones to pick up the broadcast. Later, a speaker was put on top of the radio so that several people could hear the programme at the same time. By 1920 people knew that the automobile was here to stay. In Europe and America they began to build roads suitable for auto traffic. These highways were soon filled with thousands of cars. The cars were not comfortable by modern standards. They bounced around terribly. The early cars ran at safer speeds than they do today. In the United States, the most important political event of the 1920’s was acceptance of the Nineteenth Amendment, guaranteeing to women the right to vote. This came about after a long and hard-fought campaign by many women. Unit Two No. 3, Ex. 1 Two-Party System The United States has two main political parties Democratic and Republican. Many other smaller parties play little or hardly any role. Voters elect the president, as well as senators, representatives, governors. A voter can choo.se candidates from different parties. For example, they can vote for Republicans for President and Vice-president and a Democrat for senator. So the President does not have to be from the party that has a majority in Congress. There are not clear differences between the Republican and Democratic parties. The Republicans tend to be more conservative and to have more sup- Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал port among the upper classes, while the Democrats tend to be more liberal and to have more support among the working class and the poor. Nowadays society has become more complex, the American government has become much more active. In recent yeai's fewer people are voting. Some experts think television may have contributed to the problem. Candidates today often campaign mainly through brief TV appearances and commercials. Instead of explaining their views in detail, they try to make their opponents look bad. Understandably, in the end many voters may not feel enthusiastic about any candidate. No. 4, Ex. 2 1. The Neuf York Times first published in 1851 is one of America’s oldest newspapers. For many years it has set a high standard in the newspaper publishing business. At the moment the Times is publicly owned. The newspaper made history when in 1971 it printed the Pentagon papers, top-secret information about American involvement in Vietnam. The US Supreme Court supported the newspaper’s right to publish the documents. The Times is known in America as the “Gray Lady” for its reserved tone. It is printed at plants across America and has a national circulation. 2. The Washlngto?! Post writes about politics and government. It is primarily a metropolitan newspaper serving the Washington D.C, area. The paper was founded in 1877 and was almost bankrupt when Eugene Meyer bought it in 1933. Thirty years later, control of the now profitable newspaper passed to Meyer’s daughter, Katherine Graham. She built its reputation by supporting investigative journalism. For example, the Washington Post reported on the Watergate political scandal in the 1970s that led to US President Richard Nixon leaving office for the misuse of his power. 3. The Wall Street Journal is well-known for its busitiess and finance coverage. The paper was established in 1882 as part of the Dow Jones Company. Gradually the newspaper developed its own style. Today the Journal is considered a national newspaper, known for its conservative editorial voice and its well-written feature stories. 4. The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper. It has the largest circulation in the western United States. The paper is famous for its coverage of national and international events. Founded in 1881, it was controlled by one family until the year 2000. Though now it is published in fewer numbers, it remains a highly respected publication. 5. USA Today is one of the youngest newspapers in America and is the most widely read. Its national daily circulation is over two million. Founded in 1982 it used to be criticized for being not deep enough. Critics called it “McPaper”, suggesting it served up news like McDonald’s serves up fast food. But its shorter stories illustrated by colour photographs, appealed to American readers and its style began to influence other newspapers. In recent years, USA Today has gained respect for its solid reporting. 92 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Unit Three No. 5, Бх. 1 School Uniforms; Pros and Cons The great debate continues all over the world whether students should wear school uniforms or not. There is no definitive answer as it entirely depends upon the person’s beliefs. There are benefits for some children who wear uniforms and disadvantages for others. The main reason schools choose not to allow their students to wear their own clothes is because it helps to stop violence and stimulates a sense of pride in the students. It also helps to break down the barriers between different socioeconomic groups. Some students believe they should keep to the uniform. It sets an example of the school and represents the community. It is easy to point out students from different schools and also there would be fewer arguments about fashion. Many schools in English-speaking countries force students from kindergarten uj.) to twelve years old to wear uniforms. Students who attend public scliools may be reluctant to wear uniforms for several reasons. P’irst, school uniforms suppress students’ individuality. Young people often express their feelings through the clothing that they wear. Uniforms take away this form of expression. Then, a school uniform policy limits a student’s freedom of choice. Thirdly, there is the issue of cost. Many parents shop for their children’s clothes at second-hand and discount stores. Uniforms can cost much more money than these families might be able to afford. Also, these students would need to buy additional clothing to wear after school and at the weekends. That can double the amount of money a family is able to spend than they would without the uniforms. The last reason is comfort. Students enjoy wearing comfortable clothing to school. Uniforms are not necessarily comfortable. Besides, wearing a uniform might make the student uncomfortable around people outside the school who don’t have to wear a uniform. There is a compromise between the “for” and “against” views on uniform. For example, in America schools share an opinion that students should wear uniform up to a certain age, usually 11 or 12 but when they reach the 6th form they become old enough not to consider people’s clothes in the first place or at least be more tolerant towards the others. No. 6, Ex. 2 Famous People’s Youth The famous Ainerican comic actor Eddie Murphy has achieved his dream: “When T was young, 1 couldn’t wait to get famous.” Almost every movie Eddie stars in becomes a hit. But he had to overcome a lot of difficulties as a youngster to become what he is now. When Eddie was nine, he spent a lot of time watching TV and soon began imitating what he was watching. He did imitations of cartoon characters, Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал such as Bugs Вшшу and Tom and Jerry. “My mother says I never talked in my own voice — always cartoon characters. I used to do Sylvester the Cat all the time.” Eddie didn’t care much about school. He was studying, but not what his teachers taught him. Eddie was developing his comedy skills at the time and he used school to try out his jokes. Eddie Murphy was the class clown and was voted “most popular” in his high school. At the age of 15, Eddie took part in a youth centre talent show, and was a big hit with the audience. “Looking out to the audience, I knew that it was show business for the rest of my life.” Soon Eddie was doing comedy in some clubs around town. He was earning between $25 and $50 a night at nightclubs. It’s no wonder that his schoolwork became worse. Instead of doing homework after school, he tried out his jokes on his classmates. “My focus was my comedy,” he says. Eventually Eddie didn’t pass his 10th grade exams. “As vain as I was, 1 don’t have to tell you what that did to me. Well, I went to summer school,^ to night school, I doubled up my efforts, and I graduated only a couple of months later.” In his yearbook, Murphy declared his career plans: comedian. Here is the quote he put in the yearbook: “In reality, all men are sculptors, constantly cutting off the unwanted parts of their lives, trying to create a masterpiece.” After high school, Eddie began appearing in Manhattan. Unlike other entertainers of that period, however, Eddie Murphy has always believed in clean living. He avoids alcohol, tobacco and drugs. Lots of films can be named to show what Eddie Murphy has achieved but probably the best example of his young restless spirit is a recent role as a manic donkey in the animated fairy tale parody “Shrek”. Unit Four No. 7, Ex. 1 The Family in Britain A typical British family used to consist of mother, father and two children. However in recent years there have been many changes in family life. Some of them have been caused by new laws and others are results of changes in society. For example, since the law made it easier to get a divorce, the number of divorced people has increased. This means that there are a lot of one-parent families. Society is now more tolerant than it used to be of unmarried couples and single parents. You might think that marriage and family life are not so popular as they once were. But the majority of divorced people marry again, and they sometimes take responsibility for a second family. Another change has been caused by the fact that people are living longer nowadays, and many old people live alone. As a result of these changes in the pattern of people’s lives, there are many households which consist of only one person or one adult and children. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Members of а family — grandparents» aiinta, uncles, cousins — keep in touch, but they see less of eacli other than they used to. This is because people often move away from their home town to work, and so the family becomes scattered. Christmas is the traditional time for reunions. Relatives often travel many miles in order to spend the holiday together. As a rule each generation is keen to become independent of parents in establishing its own family unit, and this fact can lead to social as well as geographical difference within the larger family group. No. 8, Ex. 2 Speaker 1. We live in the East End of London, in a street of terraced houses called “Royal Row”. The houses in our street were built during Queen Victoria’s reign. They are far from “royal”. Each one has two small rooms upstairs and two rooms downstairs. All the houses in the street are due to be pulled down next year. We don’t like the idea of being rehoused in a block of flats. We would like to be put in a council house that’s got a garden back and front. Speaker 2. Hi! My name is John. I live with my parents and I’m an only child in the family. I have problems which worry me deeply. I am not happy at home. I know I am ambitious and want to win a place at a university. My parents, I think, are proud of me. I am fond of my father but I find my relationship with mother less satisfactory. It is difficult for me to bear her love and her pride. She never leaves me alone. Speaker 3. My family is a nuclear family which means I live with my parents and have a brother. But I have nothing in common with Rob who is a college student. I left school as soon as I could, at sixteen in particular, and I’m already earning a fair wage as a packer in a small firm, 1 admit I’m both jealous and scornful of my brother. Jealous, because Rob is cleverer, and scornful because, although Rob is older, he is still at school and not earning money. Speaker 4. We belong to what they now^ call low-income family which means that we do not always have an adequate income. My husband is the only breadwinner in the family. I’m not employed because of my health. My son Greg feels little sympathy for his family. He keeps himself to himself, spends much time with his bike and his gang, which we do not approve of. He is often rebellious and runs out of the house banging the door. I’m afraid this is the first step towards breaking ties with his home. Speaker 5. We live in a north London suburb, I’m a working mother and travel to the City each day by underground. It’s a tiring journey. My husband Edward is a clerk in a local bank. I am able to work full-time only because Edward’s mother lives with us. Mrs. Garrison helps with the housework and takes care of the twins when we are at work. Sometimes she annoys me by telling me what I should do or criticizing my ways with the children because she thinks I’m too soft with them. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Contents Unit One. Pages of History: Linking Past and Present . . . Unit Two, People and Society........................ « « * » 3 25 Unit Three. You Are Only a Teenager Once............... 44 Unit Four. Family Matters.............................. 64 79 Keys.................................................. Scripts................................................... 90 Учебное издание Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна Михеева Ирина Владимировна Баранова Ксения Михайловна Петрова Наталья Юрьевна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Рабочая тетрадь IX КЛАСС Пособие для учащихся школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев и гимназий Центр группы германских языков Руководитель Центра В. В. Копылова. Зам. руководителя Н.И. Максименко. Редакторы О. И. Гре.ндаль. Е. Ю.Туйцына. Художественный редактор Н.В.Дождева. Художники Н.Л. Жигулина, К. В. Волков. Техническое редактирование и компьютерная верстка Л. В. Марухно, Корректор И, Б.Окунева Налоговая льгота — Общероссийский классификатор продукции ОК 005-93— 953000. Изд. лиц. Серия ИД № 05824 от 12.09.01. Подписано в печать 13,07.09. Формат 70X90Vte- Бумага писчая. Гарнитура SchoolBookA. Печать офсетная. Уч.-изд. л. 6,04. Доп. тираж 15 000 экз. Заказ № 4179. Открытое акционерное общество «Издательство «Просвещение*». 127521, Москва, 3-й проезд Марьиной рощи, 41. Отпечатано в ОАО «Тверской ордена Трудового Красного Знам:ени полиграфкомби-нат детской литературы им. 50-летия СССР*. 170040, г. Тверь, проспект 50 лет Октября, 46. t