Английский язык 6 класс Учебник Афанасьева Михеева часть 2

На сайте Учебник-Школа.ком ученик найдет электронные учебники ФГОС и рабочие тетради в формате pdf (пдф). Данные книги можно бесплатно скачать для ознакомления, а также читать онлайн с компьютера или планшета (смартфона, телефона).
Student's book (стьюденс стьюдент бук) - Английский язык 6 класс Учебник Афанасьева Михеева часть 2 - 2014-2015-2016-2017 год:


Читать онлайн (cкачать в формате PDF) - Щелкни!
<Вернуться> | <Пояснение: Как скачать?>

Текст из книги:
о. V. Afanasyeva I. V. Mikheeva Student’s Л -iS '•n i' . m prosv.ru PROSVESHCHENIYE ■ ' PUBLISHERS ■ E о. в. Афанасье И. В. Михее АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК VI класс Учебник для общеобразовательных организаций и школ с углублённым изучением английского языка в двух частях Часть 2 Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации 5-е издание Москва «Просвещение» 2015 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А94 На учебник получены положительные заключения по результатам научной (заключение РАН №10106-5215/203 от 12.10.2011 г.), педагогической (заключение РАО №186 от 29.01.2014 г.) и общественной (заключение РКС №195 от 07.02.2014 г.) экспертиз. Условные обозначения — задание с использованием аудиозаписи — задание для подготовки к экзамену (State final assessment) Афанасьева О. В. А94 Английский язык. VI класс. Учеб, для общеобразоват. организаций и шк. с углубл. изучением англ. яз. В 2 ч. Ч. 2 / О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева. — 3-е изд.— М. : Просвещение, 2015.— 176 с. : ил.— ISBN 978-5-09-035921-4. Учебник написан на основе принципов коммуникативно ориентированного обучения иностранным языкам в контексте диалога культур. Объём знаний, умений и навыков в области английского языка соответствует требованиям Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта основного общего образования. В учебнике значительно расширен и усложнён материал, предназначенный для развития каждого из видов речевой деятельности. Учебник построен на цикличном повторении пройденного ранее материала. Одним из нововведений в учебнике для VI класса является наличие раздело Project Work. Задания раздела дают учителю возможность расширить рамки изучаемой темы, а ученику — проявить свои творческие способности. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АПГЛ-922 ISBN 978-5-09-035921-4(2) ISBN 978-5-09-035920-7(общ.) Издательство «Просвещение», 2013, 2014 Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение*. 2014 Все права защищены Great Britain • The USA •Australia $т>у »>1*Х*.*.*. Unit 10 Shakespeare's Land LET US REVIEW KWA*. ?е>ЖФ> •_ ^Listen to the recording, ® 37, and put down the right ending; -ty or -feen. fif... reptiles six... reasons seven... pigeons thir... insects Look at the dates, read them and check yourselves with the help of @38. four. .. mammals eigh., .. species nine., .. habitats for... creatures 1831; 1915; 1900; 2000. 1979; 1501; 1997; 1804; 1016; 1700; 1222; Match the definitions with the words they describe. to win a victory in a war to defeat making a feeling of pity to touch to get in contact with something or somebody a crown a king or a queen to remind a sign of royal power worn on the head a monarch to be a king or a queen a residence the place where one lives touching to bring to memory to reign Look at the pictures and say what places or what people they remind you of. к к j Example: The Statue of Liberty reminds me of New York. Use the table and speak about the four English monarchs. Name Birth Marriage Henry VIII Greenwich Palace ['gnnicfe ■p^hs], 1491 1) Catherine of Aragon ['кжбэпп 3V 'аегэдэп] 2) Anne Boleyn ['aen 'bulin] 3) Jane Seymour ['фет 'si;mo:] 4) Anne of Cleves ['asn 3V 'kli:vz] 5) Catherine Howard ['каебэпп 'hauad] 6) Catherine Parr ['kaeOonn 'po;] « ч Мм хотели, чтобы вам было удобно, 6. Ей не хотелось бушки. 5. советы. 7. Я не ожидаю, что они вернут- бы, чтобы мы давал way). 8. Мои родители не хо- ся рано: дорога дальняяа long^way^ хо^ тят, чтобы я ч ^ ------ сг «п vnuv. чтобы онв сдвлала Гта п^казГим новыГфильГЬ. Я не хочу, чтобы она сделала (таке) эту ошибку ещё раз. fa) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. 1 Hp makes ffloves. He is a glove-maker ['gUv.meiko], 2 Their rompanv ['клтрэш] was not big. There were four of them. The Rj^^dShkkespeare Company is well-known all oyer the world. 3. Young people from 13 to 19 years old are called teenag^ 4 He”haf ^not done anything crimind ['krimml]. He is not a cnminal. Prison is a place for punishing criminals. He is the country’s most wanted criminal.^ u- xt. , 5. Would you like a book of poetry ['рэиПп] for your birthday? b) Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right. Read the words, look them up and study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. a twin [twin] (n): a twin sister, a twin brother. My brother and I look so alike that people often think we are twins. These twins are as like as two peas.^ Have you met my twin brother? a deer [di9] (n): one deer, three deer, many deer. The deer is a grass-eating animal that can run very fast. People say that deer are gentle and kind animals. Do you know that there is a famous Disney film about a deer called Bamby? to please [pli:z] (v): to please sb, as you please. This new picture pleases me. Stay here as long as you please, pleased [pli:zd]: to be pleased with/about sth, to feel/look pleased. Are you pleased with your new car? I am pleased to see you, Ann. Do you know why John looks so pleased? stupid [’stjuipid], more stupid, the most stupid (adj): a stupid person, a stupid idea, to be stupid, to look stupid, it is stupid of you. What a stupid question to ask! It was stupid of you to put that -funny hat onl ^ a thief [0i:f] thieves [0i;vz] (n): a car thief, jewel thieves.^ A thief has taken my bike. I think I know the thief who has stolen Mrs Richard s bag. a ^ost wanted criminal преступник, которого полиция хочет арестовать в первую очередь t- ... t' а pea [pi:] — горошина jewel thieves [Узи:э1 '9i.-vz] — похитители бриллиантов * usuaUv h help, to scream loudly. People,: screamed whil! P“" °*' frightened. She ‘ wicked saw a snake “Get out of here!" I screamed, man it 5 '^*‘=hed witch, a wicked stepmother, a wicked the played the part of the wicked witch to the wS dass.™“‘'®‘ “ ^ ' wickedly (adv): She smiled at us wickedly but said nothing. Й+* [jgzaskt] (adj): the exact time, the exact place, the exact route, ' о (more) exact. Can you tell me the exact time? He was looking for the exact word in his vocabulary. Let s meet at about five, at five fifteen, to be exact, exactly Please tell me exactly what you saw. “So she lives in South Cornwall.”-“Exactly.” “I hear that tomorrow you are leaving for London,” she said. “Not exactly. First we are going to Farm for a day or two,” John answered, to act [$kt] (v): to act quickly/fast, to act slowly, to act correctly, to act your age, to act on the stage. We’ve talked enough, it’s time to act! A trained dog can act as a guide to a blind* person. Stop crying like a baby, act your age. a law [b:] (n): to be against the law, to break the law, to make a Isw, the laws of nature. If you break the law, you must expect to be punished. Parking here is against the law. The British Parliament makes laws for the country, a bank [Ьзедк] (n): the bank of the river, the left/right bank, a grassy bank, a high/low bank. The town is on high banks on both sides of the river. I got out of the boat onto the bank, to earn [з-п] (v): to earn money, to earn 400 dollars a week, to earn one’s living. To earn means to get money for doing work. Working at school she earned 800 pounds a month. What do you do to earn your living? a top [tnp] (n): at the top of the page, on the top of the mountain, at the top of one’s voice, at the top of the class. The mountain tops were hidden in mist. Her name is at the top of the page. He is always at the top of the class. He got angry and shouted at the top of his voice. for a while [wail]: I can’t answer your question now, let me think for a while. m ♦ ♦ • ♦ Guess the meanings of these words and check yourselves. See the vocabulary at the end of the Student’s Book. glove-maker shoemaker dressmaker coffee maker lawmaker clock-maker troublemaker holidaymaker уШ * blind [blaind] — слепой «> * • I -wv%v/. WAV.* CvXv.’ KVX ^♦:*:*:* KwX*.'. №x Ш:х 8CvX*.‘. Ж->:- KwX’.' fe:;' »I4% • _• • v*%*«*.* Complete the sentences. Use the words from ex. 10, ex. 11, 1. A boy or a girl between the ages of 13 and 19 is a — 2. A bio-’ -ji-u bnrns is called a — 3. If son------------------- ■ • • - - -L ~ ,v curtain ^^iDalcony (circle) gallery . box «4Щ .a xo Ы .... Л I If someone acts nr ^ild an^mll wiTh long horns - -.;Vat he or she is 4. Two speaks foolishly at the same time are .... 5 A river ig oeoole born to one mother ar 6. A person who takes things a^^Tg stream is a .... 7. If you cry at th\ 4V>>>3 * • - - ir a big stream of water oetwecxi — belonging to other people (who steals) is a top of your voice you .... 8. Poets write .. Say how they earn their iiving. Example: A pilot flies a plane. A dressmaker makes dresses. 1. A pilot 2. ____ makes dresses. stage^ _ o™s'a .♦i*i*i*i** »I« Alice: writes for a newspaper, sells vegetables and fruit. 6. A doctor 7. A teacher 8. ___________ 9. _ Box-office clerk: Alice: Box-office clerk: writes novels, stories plays in a theatre. 10. A glove-maker 11. ______________ 12. _______________ makes shoes. plays professional football. Alice: Box-office Alice: Box-office Say: Alice: Box-office Isn’t there? Oh, sorry. My mistake. Then, I’d like to have two seats for Sunday. Would you like them in the stalls?^ Haven’t you got anything cheaper? Certainly. I’ve got some free seats in the dress circle^ and two seats in the gallery^ which are even cheaper. Are there any seats in the boxes?"* No, I’m afraid that’s all there is. Fine. How much are the seats in the dress circle? clerk: Would you like the third row? The seats there are £7.50 each. OK, I’ll take them. Here is £15. Thank you very much. clerk: There you are. I hope you will enjoy the performance. clerk: .♦.♦.♦I' ►Wi , Xvl •XwJ уШ 1) when your parents last looked pleased; 2) why teachers often ask ... their pupils “Act your agel”; 3) which of your friends comes to meet Make up your own dialogues replacing the underlined words, you at the exact time you expect him; 4) what people are called twins; 5) what questions you think are stupid; 6) what you usually LEX IIS REAO do to please your mother; 7) what faury tales about wicked witches you remember. a) Look at the picture of a theatre hall. What are the Russian equivalents for the words in the picture? b) Listen to the dialogue, 039, read it artistically and then learn it by heart. Alice: Are there any seats for Saturday night? Box-office clerk:^ There isn’t a performance on Saturday. Before you read the text think and say what you know about Wil liam Shakespeare. Do you know: — when and where he lived? — what he did to earn his living? — if he had a family? * ♦ 1 * in the stalls [stDilz] — в партере ^ in the dress circle [,dres's3.kl] — в бельэтаже (первый ярус) а box-office clerk ['boks ,Dfis’klcrk] — театральный кассир “ in the gallery ['gaebn] — на галёрке "* in the boxes [boksiz] — в ложах *>ч«ч. ^ •=>* »I э ж: complete the sentences. Use the words from ex 10, ex. Ц. l.Aboyora gM ^ 3. If someone'act flike^a fool) we say that he or she is .... SSe Ьогп?о"^1е mother at the same timejre^... . _5. A rive> m m Ш stream of w^ter between two . 6^ A person who takes Vhi;;: belonging to other people steal^) is a .... 7. If you cry at th® top of your voice you .... »• t"°ei;s wnie .... how they earn their living. Example; A pilot flies a plane. A dressmaker makes dresses. A pilot A baker doctor teacher makes dresses. writes for a newspaper, sells vegetables and fruit. writes novels, stories, plays in a theatre. • « > ■Jii^Say: makes shoes. plays professional football. thp7r nlib 2) why teachers often ask twi^s people are called twins, 5) what questions you think are stupid; 6) what you usually Jou гелГ' ^bout wicLd Ses equivalents for ^eatre hall. What are the Russian equivalents for the words m the picture? it^by heart? dialogue, ®39, read it artistically and then learn Alice: Box-office clerk:^ curtain ________balcony (circle) gallery , box •:*»s f there? Oh, sorry. My mistake. Then, I’d like to have two seats for Sunday. Box-office clerk: Would you like them in the stalls? ^ Alice: Haven’t you got anything cheaper? Box-office clerk: Certainly. I’ve got some free seats in the dress circle^ and two seats in the galleiw^ which are even cheaper. Alice: Are there any seats in the boxes?** Box-office clerk: No, I’m afraid that’s all there is. Alice: Fine. How much are the seats in the dress circle? Box-office clerk: Would you like the third row? The seats there are £7.50 each. Alice: OK, I’ll take them. Here is £15. Thank you very much. Box-office clerk: There you are. I hope you will enjoy the performance. Make up your own dialogues replacing the underlined words. УУ>Ш ууШ тй :>Ш| ■у>:ш W с* ■ !♦»: 4£Р Saturday night? There isn t a performance on Saturday. LET US READ Before you read the text think and say what you know about Wil liam Shakespeare. Do you know; — when and where he lived? — what he did to earn his living? — if he had a family? ‘ a box-office clerk ['boks ,Dfis'Ышк] — * in the stalls [sto:lz] — в партере ^ in the dress circle [,dres's3:kl] — в бельэтаже (первый ярус) 3 театральный кассир in the gallery ['дгеЬп] ** in the boxes [boksiz] - - на галерке в ложах т т I К-: — why he became famous? — what monarch reigned in the country in those times? — when and where he died/ If you don’t know all the answers, read the text and find them. On April 23. 1564 a son, William, was born to John and Mary Shakespeare in Stratford-upon-Avon. His mother was the daughter of a farmer. His father was a glove-maker. William went to a grammar school in Stratford and had quite a good education. There he learned to love reading. While still a teenager, William married Anne Hathaway, a farmer's daughter some years older than himself. We don t know how he earned his living during these early years, perhaps he helped his father in the family business. During these years his three children were born; Susannah [sui'zaena], the eldest, then twins — a son, Ham-net ['hasmnit] (not Hamlet [haemlit]), and another girl, Judith ['d3u:die]. In 1587 Shakespeare went to work in London, leaving Anne and the children at home. We don’t know exactly why he did it. Some people say that the reason was his love of poetry and theatre. But there is another story which says that he had to run away from law because he killed some deer belonging to a rich man. In London Shakespeare began to act and to write plays and soon became an important member of a well-known acting company. Most of his plays were performed in the new Globe Theatre built on the bank of the River Thames. In 1613 he stopped writing and went to live in Stratford where he died in 1616. Four hundred years later his plays are still acted — not only in England but in the whole world. THE ACTORS COME TO TOWN (from the book **William Shakespeare** by Jennifer Basset) is told by Will Shakespeare’s friend, Toby [’tsubi]. ® 40. Will married Anne Hathaway in November and she came to live in Henley [henli] Street. John Shakespeare was pleased that his oldest son was married but I don’t think Will’s mother wanted him to marry so young: Will was only eighteen All babies look the same to me but Will was very pleased with her. as ЫаиШЫ my eyes,” he said happily. “She’s going to be f as King Solomon.” I kn?w wfll’J S' »bout their children.” I knew Will s wife Anne didn’t like me. To her, I was one of Will’s wi into trouble. She came from a very seri- •;• ous, A lot of church-going and no singing or danc- ;' in^ Hut Will and I still went around together when we could. Soon was another baby on the way^ and one evening in :• February 1585 I hurried round to Henley Street to hear the news. ;• Will s sister, Joan, opened the door, and then Will came running '• down the stairs. ; said. “Twins! A girl and a boy. Isn’t that ;• wonderful! Will called the twins Hamnet and Judith. John Shake- * speare was very pleased to have his first grandson and everyone was ■! happy. For a while. Will was still reading and writing but he had changed. He was ■: twenty-three now and he was not happy with his life. Stratford’s too small, Toby,” he said. “Too slow. Too quiet. Too ^ boring. I’ve got to get away.” “Yes, but how?” I asked. “You’ve got a family — three young ! children, remember.” He didn’t answer. In the summer months companies of players often came to small ; towns and in 1587 five different companies came to Stratford. Will * and I always went to see the plays. Will loved to talk to the actors • and to listen to all their stories of London. The Queen’s Men came to Stratford in June and we went to see the play. I don’t remember what it was. I know that I laughed a lot, and that Will said it was a stupid play with not a word of poetry in it. “Why don’t you write a play yourself?” I asked him. “Write a play?” he laughed. “Anne will never speak to me again.” I didn’t say anything and Will looked at me and laughed again. It happened a few months later. I walked into the Shakespeares’ kitchen one evening and there was Anne with a red, angry face, shouting at the top of her voice. “How can you do this to me? And what about the children?” Then she saw me and stopped. Will was sitting at the table and looked pleased to see me. “I’ve told Anne,” he said quietly, “that I’m going to live in London. I want to be an actor and to write plays if I can.” “Plays!” screamed Anne. “Acting! Actors are dirty, wicked people! They’re all thieves and criminals! They drink all day and they never go to church ...” “Don’t be stupid, Anne. You know that’s not true. Listen. Г11 come home when I can but I must go to London. I can’t do anything in Stratford.” He looked at me across the room. “Are you coming with me, Toby?” “How soon shall we start?” I asked. ® Ш I m Ш Ш ^ puritan ['pjuontan] — пуританский ^ soon there was another baby on the way — они ждали ещё одного ребёнка Q.a\i if it is true or fsise. * ' ^ in the 16th century. 2. Shakespeare’s fa 1. Shakespeare was born ^ j poorly ed^ucated, but Ьу?. ther was a ^b^-maker daughters. 5. In ig? reading. 4. William S • ^London. 6. William Shakespeare wrot! X Shakespeare wei^ to w ^ ^ ^ William Shakespeare never act- plays for the f°|e Theatre Stratford the last t^L ¥ died ™ti„. his last pla,. 10. v' by Shakespeare are acted only in Brita . ^Get ready with test reading of Toby’s story (ex. 18, ® 40). rt^Read the last part of the text (ex. 18) beginning with the words ■^“fhe Quien’s Men came to Stratford in June” in reported speech, If LET US TALK Speak about Shakespeare’s married life in Stratford before he left for London. a) This is a list of some of Shakespeare’s great plays. Guess which of them are tragedies and which are comedies. Find out what these plays are called in Russian. I 1593 “The Comedy of Errors”^ 1600 “Twelfth Night” 1595 “Romeo and Juliet” 1601 “Hamlet” ['гэитюи 3n'(feu:lj9t] 1603 “All’s Well That Ends 1596 “A Midsummer Night’s Well” Dream” 1604 “Othello” [эи'веЬи] 1597 “The Merchant^ of Venice” 1599 “Julius Caesar” 1600 “As You Like It” 1606 “King Lear” [Im] 1606 “Macbeth” [тэкЪев] Have you heard about any of these plays or read them or seen them at the theatre? Tell your friends about them. ^Shakespeare was born and spent a great part of his life in Strat- pictures of Stratford, use the infor-and act as a guide. Let groups ^ ^ tourists visiting Stratford. Work in small ^ an error ['егэ] — ошибка ^ a merchant ['maUjgnt] — купец Mary Arden’s house, three miles northwest of Stratford, Here lived Shakespeare’s mother. This is a typical farm house of the period. Shakespeare’s birthplace in Henley Street. John Shakespeare lived and kept his shop in this house. His eight children were born here. Two of them died young. This is the schoolroom where Shakespeare was educated, as many people believe. It is still in use. Anne Hathaway’s cottage, a mile from Stratford, where she was born in 1556 and lived until she married William Shakespeare in 1582. - е This is the place where the house in which Shakespeare died used to be It was a big Sui bought by William Shakespeare fo? ' bi4 family when he was still in London. Here he spent the last years of his life. Un- ' fortunately, the house was destroyed. This is the Holy Trinity Church^ where Shakespeare was buried. Visitors coming to Stratford admire the beauty of the church and honour his memory. It’s interesting that he died on his birthday, 23 April, ' 1616. Another memorial to William Shakespeare is the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. The present building was constructed in 1932. The first building was opened on Shakespeare’s birthday in 1879 and destroyed by fire in 1926. The bronze statue of Shakespeare, presented to Stratford by Lord Ronald Sutterland Gower [’даиэ] in 1888. Shakespeare’s figure is high above the ground, and on the ground there are small figures of Shakespeare’s famous characters. the Holy Trinity Church [дэ hauli 'trimti ’tfsitj] — церковь Святой Троицы LET US WRITE Do ex, 7, ex, 8, ex, 9, ex. 13, ex. 14 in writing. 3. Use to where necessary. ^ going ... read one of Shakespeare’s plays in school, I think the teacher said “Hamlet” or “Omelette” — I’m not sure. — She certainly wants you ... read “Hamlet”. 2. Let us ... visit Stratford on 23 April, that’s the day when Shakespeare was born. — I expect you ... finish reading “Romeo and Juliet” by the end of January. I don’t think I will be able ... finish the play so early. Don’t forget ... visit Anne Hathaway’s cottage when you come to Stratford. — I would love ..., but I’m not sure we’ll have time ... do it, I can’t read Shakespeare in the original, — Nobody expects you ... do it. But you should ... read at least some of his plays in Modern English. a) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. a glove-maker, a company, a teenager, a criminal, poetry, a twin, a deer, to please, pleased, stupid, a thief/thieves, to scream, wicked, wickedly, exact, exactly, to act, a law, a bank, to earn, a top, for a while ■----^—- * ♦ ‘•TV b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctly? Are you pleased with your result? LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS a) Make sure you know this word: to wave [weiv] — махать b) Listen to the recording, ®41, and say “true”, “false” or “not stated”. ; 1. Kevin lived in a small village on the bank of a river. 2. Kevin’s uncle lived in the country. 11 WAS Mr Ronald Smith. 3 Uncle beautiful poetry. 1 Kevin could write be t f ^ his village. 5. Uncle Rona d didn t к animals. ?: S К.И«“Ч'» ““ ‘° ”«I.,. ’ ing their drives. *sk КЫП 5 questions about his stay in the country. This is an outiine of the story. Deveiop each of its Items. ■ f in fhp citv and what he felt about it. 2’ Svin’s Jtay with his uncle and the way he spent his time ther, 3. Uncle Ronald’s idea of how to make everybody happy. Say what you remember about; • the Lake District • Land’s End • Hadrian’s Wall • Oxford • Brighton Heathrow Airport the County of Kent Oliver Cromwell Stratford-upon-Avon beth’4 Prince William, Queen Eliza ask bin? Prepare 8—10 questions that you would like to pictures*! know London? Give names to the places in these .*.v;va ^v.%v5i Ш •.•♦wJ Ш - илч w Ш ■m Ш .*.vJv5 шт •%^>5 Say where in London you can: the changing of the • watch Guard. • see the Crown Jewels. • feed the pigeons. • see a very large clock at top of a tower. the listen to concerts of classical music. listen to a speaker talking to the public, do some shopping, see collections of English and European pictures. m Ш Ш Work in pairs. Read the questions and let your partner answer them. Don’t forget to change over. 1. What famous politicians do you know? 2. What city is Alexander Pushkin’s birthplace? 3. What do you think is the most famous university in Russia? 4. How can you prove that Russia is a country of lowlands and highlands? 5. What theatre in Moscow is built in the shape of a star? 6. What is St. Petersburg famous for? 7. What’s the most touching film you have ever seen? шГAct ГеЛодие S @ the recording, Ben: Well, Alice, did you enjoy the playi” Alice: Ben: Alice: Ben: i'think it was wonderful. I ^ ways wanted to see “Romeo and Juliet in Stratford. Oh, yes. The actors were really good, especially the actress Alice: How dfd you like the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre? It’s the biggest I’ve ever seen. Ben: Yes, it’s huge. I’m glad our seats were •••• Alice: Now I understand why we have come to Stratford all the way from London. I enjoyed every minute of the play. So ... I. Just wait, tomorrow we are going to visit the house in Henley Street. ...? Don’t you know? It’s — Really? Did Shakespeare live all his life in the same house? Not quite.... I didn’t know that. Did Shakespeare have a large family? Ben: Alice: Ben: Alice: Ben: Alice: Ben: Alice: I’d like to know more about William Shakespeare and see all his plays in the theatre. Describe the pictures using the words. a) a ceremony, an avenue, a procession, a royal coach^ a monarch residence, a crown, at the exact time, a politician, to rule the country a royal coach ['гэ1э1 'kautj] — королевская карета b) teenagers, to scream, at the top of one’s voice, for a while, such an exciting film, tragedy, to hold up, the ship, wicked pirates c) highlands, holidaymakers, a waterfall, scenery, to admire, a val-ley/meadow/plain, to attract/attractive, exciting/to be excited >»3 * ШШ >уШ Role-play the situation. a) You are taking part in a TV programme “My Discovery of England”. Everyone is asked to speak about the place in England that he/she has discovered for himself/herself. The list of characters: 1. The host or hostess of the programme.^ He begins and finishes the programme making it interesting, talking to guests, asking them questions. Remember: the programme should move fast. у>Ш a host [h$ust]/hostess [hsostis] of the programme — ведущий передачи i V- I I 2 A group of Russians who have just come back from England (they abou. ше 4. iTactress who is going to play in a historical film about Wil- 5. geographer who is working on a book about the British Isles. 6. An archaeologist interested in the problem of Romans in Britain. b) Imagine you are taking part in a British TV programme “My Discovery of Russia”. What places in Russia will you describe? LET US READ Read the text and say: a) what you think about the tradition de scribed in it; b) if Russian people have such a tradition. GREETINGS CARDS To know a country we should know its traditions. Sending greetings cards is one of them. Greetings cards are very popular in Britain. The most common kinds of greetings cards are birthday cards, congratulations cards, sympathy cards,^ get-well cards, and cards for special days. Birthday cards. There are special family birthday cards for moth-ers, fathers, sisters, and brothers. There are cards which are special for friends, teachers, and other people. Children’s cards often have a large number on them showing how old the children are. Cards tor adults have pictures of flowers or scenery, or humorous cartoons. ‘ предназначенные для выражения со- greetings cards are used for such can even buv я f ^ wedding* or an anniversary.^ You house or a n^ew card for a person who gets a new card^to^Snerlnn someone dies. You should send the means “I’m sympathy card и ® at home or in hospital, you feel Tetter s!?n7 of friends on some example, on Christmas, Val-Mother’s Day, Father’s Day, Halloween. On 14 February some children give valentines to each other in their classes in school. Teenagers and grown-ups sometimes send valentines to their girlfriends, boyfriends, husbands or wives. ^Answer the questions to see if you understood the text well. are five different kinds of greetings cards? Z. What kind of cards do people buy most often? 3. Are there different kinds of birthday cards? 4. What are congratulations cards used for? 5. When do you send a sympathy card? 6. What does a get-well card mean? 7. Can you name some special occasion cards? 8. What kind of special occasion cards is most popular with young children? LET US TALK •Kv !♦!&& m •.vJv >»Й m ж .*.%%% >!♦?« %v;. Say what kind of greetings card British people send when: 1) someone they know is getting married; 2) someone they know is in hospital; 3) it’s February 14th; 4) it’s December 25th; 5) someone they know has flu and has to stay in bed for a week; 6) some people they know have been married for 20 years today; 7) someone they know has a baby; 8) someone they know has died; 9) someone they know is 13 years old today; 10) someone they know has got a new flat. * a wedding ['wedioj — свадьба ^ an anniversary [,8eniV3:s3n] — юбилей, торжество •>>Т •«« ■»• ♦ • ♦ ■ • ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦% Ш Ж к a) Read the text on the postcard and say who wrote the postcard, to whom and why. Deor Mary and Jobn, is c short note to thank you ,„/tKe «onderful time you hove g.ven me. live seen - much of your lovely c,ty, you hove looked after me so »ell but most of oil you hove made me one of your family. With love to you both from your friend 6reta b) Say if you think it is a good idea to send such cards to people to thank them for their kindness, help and hospitality.^ Why? Speak about the tradition of sending postcards in Russia. Say: — when Russian people send postcards; — to whom they send such cards; — what traditional cards are like; — if the greetings cards have changed; — where you can buy such cards; — if they send cards to people who are ill; — if you like to send or to get greetings cards; — if you always buy cards or make them yourself. LET US WRITE Postcards are usually short. Write a postcard to your friend about the place that impressed you most in England. hospitality [,hDspi'taIati] — гостеприимство you to write. The lines on them conH +Л Rewrite the lines to have greetings cards you can send to your friends. ^ •.*Kv5 m ■■yy>x4 m m Good Luck! In everything you do A little card to wish "Good luck". In the years ahead of you Bringing you every happiness. Goodbye and Happiness Always! The best of good wishes go with you, too But wherever you go -Sorry to hear that you are leaving, Whatever you do. WH,e: what У-^ |,ГиГд'Й,"!>'^о“%'о.Тва than 'з sentances); b) what you think your mother (father, granny) doesn’t want you to do. (Not less than 6 sentences.) + л/г n u. Example- I would like my mother to take me to McDonald s one Example, ^ mother doesn’t like me to shout loudly. LET US LISTEIU АИ1Р DISCUSS a) Make sure you know these words; to prefer [рпТз:] (preferred, preferred) — предпочитать nearby ['niabai] — поблизости b) Listen to the recording, ®43, and answer these questions, 1 Why did Jim become a thief? 2. What people worked for him? 3. Why did Jim have to explain to them exactly what they should do? 4. What information did Jim get one day? 5. Why did Jim send one of his people to the house? 6. What did he see through the window? 7. Why did he tell Jim that the family they were going to rob was the wrong family? ^Tell the story of “The Wrong Family” to your friends. SUMMING UP TWO 1. What new things did you learn from Units 7—11? 2. Which topics did you find interesting and useful to discuss? What did you enjoy doing most of all? 3. What did you practise doing in English? Which of these are you good at? What are your weak points? -----------------_ PROJECT WORK 1 1. Work on your own or in small groups and prepare a presentation on the fourth part of Great Britain — Northern Ireland. Some of the interesting points may be the country’s: 1) symbol; 2) population; 3) geography; 4) famous person or people; 5) capital and big cities; 6) interesting fact or facts. presentation as attractive as possible. Decide whose story was better than the others and why. Where can your get your information? Ask your teacher and parents and try: M • your home library • www.britannika.com * your school library • www.encyclopedia ru • www.wikipedia.org pcuia.iu ► Unit 12 Holidays LET US REVIEW IT Answer these ^estions, then listen to the recording to check your answers, 044. ' 1. When is Christmas celebrated in Europe? 2. Do Russians celebrate this holiday? When do they celebrate it? 3. Whose birthday is celebrated at Christmas? 4. What country gave us the tradition of decorating the Christmas tree? 5. Who introduced the tradition to decorate the Christmas tree in Russia? 6. When was the custom of decorating Christmas trees with candles and presents introduced into Britain? 7. Where does the most famous Christmas tree stand in London? Whose present is it? 8. What do they call Father Frost in the West? Where does he live? 9. What does Santa Claus look like? 10. How does Santa Claus travel? 11. How does Santa Claus enter houses to give children Christmas presents and where does he put them? 12. What are the traditional Christmas colours? 13. Why do little children sometimes write letters to Santa Claus? 14. When did the custom of sending Christmas cards to friends, colleagues and relatives appear? 15. What is the traditional Christmas food? 16. What are Christmas carols? 17. What is the day after Christmas called? 18. How do people decorate their houses at Christmas? LET US READ AMD LEARM Listen to the traditional Christmas song “Jingle, Bells! then sing it. 1 « Jingle, BellsI”—«Звените, бубенчики!* JINGLE, BELLS! ^ Chorus: ^ t_. XU u i-u JrwLft™ Л'.о ride O-er the fields we go. In a one-horse open sleigh.' Laughing all the way. II Bells, on bobtail^ ring. Making spirits bright.^ What fun it is to ride and sing A sleighing song tonight. Chorus. LET US READ iF Follow your teacher reading the text (Part I and then Part II) and say a) what the main idea of the text is; b) why Mr Scrooge changed. A CHRISTMAS CAROL (after Ch. Dickens) Have you ever heard about Christmas carols?** They are religious songs sung at Christmas. At Christmas time groups of people sing carols, both indoors and outdoors. They usually collect money for ^ a one-horse open sleigh [slei] открытые, запряжённые одной лошадью саяя а bobtail [bobteil] - лошадка с коротким подстриженным хвостом making spirits bright — поднимая настроение ^ а carol ['к$гэ1] — рождественская песнь, гимн Ш vKl if homeless and poor people. Sometimes carol singers, especially children, go along the streets from house to house, singing in front of each house and asking for money. But there is a Christmas carol which is not a song or a hymn [himn], it is a story told more than; a century and a half ago by one of the most wonderful storytellers; in the world — Charles Dickens, the famous English writer. Part I Once upon a time, old Ebenezer Scrooge ['ebi'ni:z3 'skruicfe] was busy in his office. It was Christmas Eve. The weather was cold and foggy. The door of Scrooge’s office was opened so that he could keep an eye on his clerk,^ Cratchit ['krastju], who was writing letters. Scrooge paid him less than a pound a week. That was not half enough for Cratch-it’s large family. Scrooge did not like to spend his money, that is why the fire in his office was very small and Bob Cratchit’s hands were so cold that he could hardly write. Suddenly a young and cheerful^ voice cried, “Merry Christmas, uncle! God save you!” It was Scrooge’s nephew. “Humbug!”^ said Scrooge, using his favourite word. “Merry Christmas! You have no right to be merry.** You are poor.” Scrooge was telling the truth: his nephew was poor, but he was a happy man because he was married to a woman whom he loved. Scrooge could not understand that. He thought that love was even sillier than a Merry Christmas. Scrooge’s nephew wanted to invite his uncle to have Christmas dinner with him and his young wife, but Scrooge * clerk [klak] — служащий ^ cheerful ['tjiafl] — радостный ^ humbug ['ЬлтЬлд] — чушь ** merry ['men] — весёлый t 1. i i ► ♦ • * did not want to hear about it and the young man left wishing his uncle and Cratchit a Merry Christmas again. Five minutes later Scrooge had two more visitors with papers in their hands. They were collecting money for poor people and told Scrooge that thousands of people were in need of the simplest things, even food and clothes. This time Scrooge got really angry and refused to give money for charity.^ He said that the place for poor people was in prison or the work house. Seeing that it was useless to say anything more, the two men left. , , , i It grew colder and colder outside. The fog and darkness thickened so that the ancient church tower was hardly seen. A boy sang a Christmas carol outside the front door of Scrooge’s office. Scrooge got even angrier. He picked up a big ruler and opened the door so quickly that the frightened small singer ran away as fast as he could. Part II At last it was time to shut up the office. The next day was the twenty-fifth of December and the office had to be closed for Christmas Day. As soon as Scrooge walked out, Bob Cratchit closed the office and ran home. He didn’t put on a coat as he didn’t have one. He ran home to play Christmas games with his children. Scrooge took his melancholy^ dinner in his melancholy tavern ['tasvan]; read several new papers and went г ' a home to bed. His house was old and dark for nobody “ lived in it but Scrooge. He was sitting alone before his small fire when he heard his doorbell ring. Then the heavy door of Scrooge’s room opened and Scrooge saw ... a ghost. Scrooge recognised him at once: it was the ghost of Marley his partner, who had died several years before. Marley’s Ghost was wearing a long and heavy chain^. Scrooge became very frightened. “Why do you trouble me?’’ he asked the ghost. Marley’s Ghost explained that he had been very selfish when he was alive**. He had been interested only in money and had not cared about people outside his office. Now he had no rest and no peace. “I wear the chain I made in life link by link^. Do you know Ebenezer Scrooge, the weight and length of the chain you wear yourself? I am here tonight to tell you that you still have a chance and hope not to go my way. Tonight you will see Three Spirits*; 2 charity [‘t/asriti] — на благотворительные цели melancholy [’mebnksli] — грустный, унылый ^ a chain [t/ein] — цепь * alive — живой ® link by link — звено за звеном a spirit — дух The first will come tomorrow at one in the morning.” With these words the Ghost walked to the window and disappeared into the dark night. And Scrooge went straight to bed, without undressing, and fell asleep at once. On the next day Ebenezer Scrooge had three visitors — the Ghost of Christmas Past, the Ghost of Christmas Present and the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come. With the first Ghost Scrooge travelled to the past and remembered how lonely and unhappy he was once long ago when he was a schoolboy. He remembered his kind sister who brought him home from school on Christmas Eve many years ago and they were together and had the merriest time in the world. His sister had a large and kind heart, but she was not very strong and died soon after she had a child — Scrooge’s nephew. The Ghost of Christmas Present changed Scrooge’s home completely. He hung the walls with evergreens*: holly, mistletoe^ and ivy.^ He made a bright fire in the fireplace, filled the room with turkeys, geese, meat, pies, puddings, cakes and fruit. Then the Ghost took Scrooge to Bob Cratchit’s poor house. Bob, his wife and their six children were at home. They could not see Scrooge but he could see and hear everything. The smallest boy called Tiny Tim was a very weak child and it was clear that he would not live long. Mrs Cratchit cut up the goose and then brought the pudding in. There was not enough food for such a large family, but nobody noticed that. Everybody said to Mrs Cratchit how much they loved the goose and the pudding. “A Merry Christmas to us all, my dears,” Bob Cratchit said. “God bless us!”^ “A Merry Christmas!” said Tiny Tim. “God bless us, everyone,” said everyone. Suddenly Scrooge heard his own name. “Let’s drink to Mr Scrooge who gave us this dinner,” Bob Cratch-, it said. “Long life to him! A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!” They were not a rich family; they were not well-dressed; their shoes were cheap. But they were happy, grateful and pleased with one another. The Ghost showed Scrooge his nephew’s home too. There Scrooge’s nephew was talking to his wife. They were talking about him. “He is a funny old man,” said his nephew, “and he isn’t very pleasant either. His money is of no use to him. He can’t do any good with it. I can’t be angry with him. I am sorry for him. I’d like to drink to his health, A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to the Old Man!” m Ш m Ш 1 ■Ш Ш an evergreen — вечнозеленое растение ^ mistletoe ['misitau] — омела ^ ivy ['aivi] — плющ God bless us! — Да хранит нас Господь! The Ghost disappeared and Scrooge saw the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come, the Ghost of the Future. This Ghost was very silent, he just took Scrooge to the centre of London, not far from his office. The Spirit showed him a group of businessmen, and Scrooge came up to them to listen to their talk. They were also talking about him. The Ghost showed him a grave with his name, Ebenezer Scrooge, on it. There were no flowers there. Nobody came to remember him. ‘*N0, Spirit! Oh no, no!” he cried upon his knees. “I am not the man I was. Good Spirit, Г11 start a new lifel I will keep^^^ Christmas in my heart all the year, I will live in the Past, the Pre-sent and the Future. I will always remember this lesson!” Suddenly the Ghost disappeared and Scrooge was in his room again. Scrooge felt very happy: the time before him was his own, “A Merry Christmas to everybody! A Happy New Year to all the world!” said Scrooge. Ebenezer Scrooge kept his word: the very first thing he did was to send a huge turkey to Bob Cratchit's house. Then he put on his best clothes and got out into the street. He smiled at everyone he met. He met the gentleman who had walked into his office the day before asking for money for the poor Ч Scrooge gave him a lot of money. “My dear sir,” said the gentleman shaking hands with him, “I don’t know what to say to such kind- Part [I 1. Then the Ghost took Scrooge to Bob Cratchit’s poor house. 2. On the next day Scrooge had three visitors. 3, The Ghost showed Scrooge his nephew’s home too. 4. Scrooge gave him a lot of money. 5. “I will always remember this lesson.” 6. Suddenly the Ghost disappeared and Scrooge was in his room again. 7. With the first Ghost Scrooge travelled to the past. Say “true,” “false” or “not stated”, X, At the beginning of the story Ebenezer Scrooge was a nice and kind man, always ready to help people. 2. Scrooge had a wife and six children. 3. It all happened on Christmas Eve. 4. Bob Cratchit got three pounds a week. 5. The small singer came to the door of Scrooge’s office to ask for some money. 6. Scrooge learned his lesson and changed completely. 7. Scrooge gave Bob’s family a Christmas tree as a present. 8. Scrooge’s nephew was not at home when Scrooge came to visit him. 9. The story has a happy ending. P LET US TALK ness. In the afternoon Scrooge went to his nephew’s house. And that _ was wonderful. He felt at home in 5 minutes. Everybody was happy as could be. Epilogue Scrooge did it all and much more. And to Tiny Tim, who did not die, he was a second father. He became as good a friend, as good a master, as good a man, as the good old city knew. Ghosts did not visit him anymore, and people said that he knew how to keep Christmas better than^^^ anybody else. And so, as Tiny Tim said, God blesstf^F jH&m IHi Щ L us, everyone Put the sentences in the right order. Describe these places adding as many details as you would like. 1. London at Christmas (in the times of Charles Dickens). 2. Mr Scrooge’s office. 3. Mr Scrooge’s house before the Ghost of Present visited it. 4. Mr Scrooge’s house during his visit. 5. Bob Cratchit’s house. Imagine the three ghosts and describe them. Describe the best New Year party you’ve ever had. Don’t forget to write an outline of your story. LET US WRITE Part I , 1, Marley’s Ghost was wearing a long and heavy chain. 2. Suddenly, a young and cheerful voice cried, “Merry Christmas, uncle!" 3. As soon as Scrooge walked out, Bob Cratchit closed the office and ran home. 4, “I wear the chain I made in life link by link.” _______ 5. Scrooge went straight to bed, and fell asleep at once. 6. He was^?^ _ . ^ ^ i. . . ....... sitting alone before his small fire when he heard his doorbell ring.®"^ ghosts (one you like/dislike most) 7. It was Christmas Eve. 5-10 sentences about it. бедняки IP Write a short story about Tiny Tim. 2 — ЛфгшАсьеш), G КЛ. Ч. 2 w**. ш V.*. v.% ш- yv Unit 13 ^ a glove-maker. ;;:;^ 4) a deer, pleased, for a while, to scream at the top of to earn the girl’s love.^ one’s voice, •‘•%V •****%v Scotland LET US REVIEW Give it a name. The word box can help you. a deer, to please, stupid, to earn, the top, a thief, to act, to scream, a glove-maker, twins, a teenager, a bank 1. The highest point or part of something. 2. Two children born of the same mother at the same time. 3. A grass-eating animal that can run very fast. 4. To make somebody happy. 5. Silly or foolish. 6. The raised ground along the river. 7. A person who steals. 8. To cry out loudly. 9. To do something, to take action. 10. A person who makes gloves. 11. To receive money in return for work you do. 12. A young person of between 13 and 19 years old. Say which of them can be: a deer a thief a bank poetry wicked, strong, stupid, bad, young, famous well-known, terrible, old, big, high, calm touching, classical, attractive, exciting international, fast, slow, fat, ugly Example: a wicked thief, a strong deer, etc. Make up short stories using the words and phrases: 1) a thief, a criminal, to scream, wicked, at the top of one’s voice stupid; 2) a company, poetry, exact (exactly), to act, to earn, a teenager as you please, for a while; Bemern^r the of these verbs in Past Simple and say what Peter did for a while yesterday. Example. Peter woke up, lay in bed for a while and then got up- To lie in bed, to draw pictures, to look for pens and pencils, to build up a toy castle, to keep silent, to learn a poem by heart, to make supper, to ride a bike, to write poetry, to read a novel, to stand on one’s head, to speak on the phone, to swim in the lake. Nick has a large family. His father is a builder^ his mother is a cook, his uncle is a bus driver, his aunt is a dressmaker, his Granny is a shop assistant at the baker’s, his granddad is a journalist. Nick’s elder sister is a ballet dancer. Nick himself is an actor. Say how they all earn their living. Example: Nick earns his living by acting in a theatre. a) Read the title and think what the text can be about. Read the text to see if you are right, b) Open the brackets and make the dialogue complete. AN INTERVIEW WITH THE HEADMASTER Interviewer: Excuse me, may I (ask) you a few questions? Headmaster: All right. Go ahead.^ Interviewer: Can you (speak) English? Headmaster: I’m ^raid my English is not very good, but I’d like all the pupils of the school (speak) good English. Interviewer: What were your favourite subjects and what subjects did you not (like) at school? Headmaster: Do you expect me (name) all the subjects? Interviewer: Oh, no. We would like you (mention) only a few. Headmaster: I liked French, literature and economics. I didn’t like maths and physics. Interviewer: What did you want (be) when you were a boy, and what did your parents want you (become)! Headmaster: I wanted (become) a teacher. And so did my parents as both of them were teachers. Ш m ■ Ш .4V»J m Я * v-Ш to earn the girl’s love — завоевать любовь девушки Go ahead. — зд. Ну что же, давайте, (разг.) V.*. ♦ ♦ « « • « ♦ • » * Look through the “Interview with the Headmaster ex. 6). Imag. ine vou Ж read it in your school newspaper. Tell your friends who'^haven’t read the newspaper about the interview. Work in pairs. Make up your own interview with a school head- master and find out: л, . , — what he/she would like his/her students to know and/or to do; — where he/she would like them to travel; __why he/she would like them to visit these places, — what he/she wouldn’t like them to do; — what books he/she expects his/her students to read; — what languages he/she expects them to learn; — what kind of people he/she wants his/her students to become. Express the same in English. 1. Тереза хочет, чтобы близнецы помогли ей по дому. 2. Учитель не ожидал, что его ученики так полюбят поэзию. 3. «Я не хочу, чтобы ты кричал во всё горло», — сказала мама сыну. 4. Мы бы хотели, чтобы вы немного (некоторое время) погуляли на берег) реки. 5. Никто не ожидает того, что подростки будут зарабаты вать себе на жизнь. 6. Мне бы не хотелось, чтобы ты читал криминальные рассказы. 7. Родители У. Шекспира хотели, чтобы ов стал перчаточником? 8. Ты действительно ожидаешь, что в на-шем лесу скоро будет много оленей? 9. Я не хочу, чтобы ты дру-^Д жил с этим противным мальчишкой. 10. Я ожидаю, что ты бу-*^ дешь поступать по своему усмотрению (as you please). LET US READ AND LEARN to make sb + Adj (happy, sad, etc.) ‘Til make you happy,” he said. The Christmas present made the boy pleased. Fresh air and a lot of exercise made the child healthy. The long walk made the old man tired. Make up sentences. The snow The present Tommy The new toy The old film 1 the garden makes little Ann made his sister will make me him them beautiful. happy. angry. sad. white. pleased. L FOCUS ____ InaEe^ somebody >6 do something Jack always lets me help him. Mother never makes us wash up, we do it ourselves. Who will make her come on time? I will let you come back late tonight. Daddy, let them join usi The news made everybody feel sad. BUT! to be allowed/made to do something The pupils were made to learn the poem by heart. The children were allowed to watch the football match on television. I am never allowed to come home late. Robert was made to clean the floor again. See Reference Grammar, part 2, p. 159—160 Complete the sentences. Use to let, to make, to be allowed, to be made. 1. Your brother’s trousers look terrible. You should ... him clean them. 2. I didn’t want to do the room. My father ... me help him. 3. I can’t come. My parents won’t ... me. 4. Why do you always ... your children do whatever they like? 5. We ... to write Exercise Five in class. 6. The children ... to take part in the show. to I want you to go there. We expect them to arrive at five. Tom would like me to visit Scotland. We were allowed to play outside. The girl was made to tell the truth. I’ll make you go there. We made them arrive at five. My parents will let me visit Scotland. They let us play outside. The girl’s friends made her tell the truth. See Reference Grammar, part 2, p. 159—160 Insert to where necessary. 1. Let me ... join you. 2. He is always allowed ... do as he pleases. 3. We expected the tourists ... move fast for a wnile. 4. The sea voyage made the boy ... feel pleased. 5. * I wouldn’t like her ... scream so loudly. 6. She never expected John ... look stupid. 7. What exactly was Tim made ... repeat? Express the same in English. 1. Нам разрешили посетить королевский дворец. 2. Тома Кенти (Kenty) заставили управлять Англией, хотя он не был королём. 3. «Я заставлю тебя помнить это1» —закричала женщина. 4. Мы хотим, чтобы вы сделали именно то, о чём мы вас просим. 5. Я не ожидала, что он знает поэзию так хорошо. 6. Детям хотелось, чтобы родителя почитали им книгу о пиратах. 7. «Я заставлю тебя рассказать мне правду!» —закричала Нелли изо всех сил. Read and guess what the underlined words mean. The boy was looking through the window and couldn’t concen^ trate [’konsantreit] on the work. There is a great contrast ['kontrcrstj between life in the county and life in the city. On May, 9 there is usually a military [’militon] parade in Moscow. You already know the adjective busi/ and you can easily understand such a sentence; “I’m very busy tonight, I have a lot of things to do”. But what does bus^ mean in these word combinations: a busy street/square ('there is a lot of traffic there)\ a busy town (full of work and activity)! Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 1. 2. 3. 4. b) devotion [di'vaufn] (n)\ devotion to the family, devotion to one's friends, devotion to one’s parents. You can easily see their devotion to their children. to bury [ben], buried, buried (v)\ to be buried. He was buried in the church yard. To bury is to put a dead body into a grave. Where is your granny buried? to hang [haeo], hung, hung (v)\ to hang curtains, to hang a picture. Hang your coat on the hook.^ prosperous [’prDspsras] (adj): a prosperous farmer (lawyer), a prosperous family, a prosperous city. A person who is prosperous is wealthy and successful. picturesque [.piktja'resk] (adj): picturesque scenery, a picturesque valley, a picturesque village. The Lake District is one of the most picturesque places in the North of England, isn’t it? modest ['mndist] (adj): a modest house, a modest flat, a modest person, a modest dress. The young actress is very modest about her success. My uncle has got a lot of medals but he is too modest to wear them. smart [smcut] (adj): 1) {Br. English “pleasant to look at”) a smart dress, a smart blouse, to look smart, to wear smart clothes. You look so smart in that new shirt. When did they buy their smart new car? 2) {especially Am. English “clever, quick”) a smart boy, a smart servant, a smart answer, a smart child. If he is as smart as he says, why have they caught him? to strike [straik], struck, struck (v): 1) to strike (on) the table, to strike somebody, to strike one’s enemy, to strike a blow.^ Who struck the first blow? George struck his enemy in the face. 2) (about a clock) to strike ten. It has just struck twelve. Listen! Is the clock striking? His hour has struck. 3) to be struck, to strike sb as clever (unusual, important). When Linda came to Edinburgh, she was immediately struck by romantic beauty of the city. How does it strike you? striking ['straikiq] (adj): That was a striking thing to happen! The most striking character in “Alice in Wonderland” is the Queen, to be lined with something: a street lined with trees, a road lined with modern houses. TP V.tJS .4v;%v у>ш yy.* m ^^^Read the words, look them up and study the word combinations Complete these sentences with so ... that Choose an adjective and sentences to know how to use them. | Kr,v trade [treid] (n, uncount.): international trade, foreign trade, a centre of trade, a trade centre, the development of trade with Europe. Trade is the process of buying, selling or exchanging goods between countries. a grave [greiv] (n): the writer’s grave. Amy wants to see Shakespeare’s grave. a rock [rok] (n): a high rock, to look at the rock, to take pictures of the rock. Do you see that rock over there? Holmes looked at the rocks below. from the box. Example: Peter is ... he can’t stand on his feet, (tired) Peter is so tired that he can’t stand on his feet. .v*wl striking, modest, picturesque, prosperous, smart, busy, high ' a hook [huk] — крючок ^ to strike a blow [Ыэи] — нанести удар уШ^ mm • 1 к**. Р we couldn’t Ьб‘ 1 Alice’s dress was ... we all admired it. 2. The contrast between the two brothers was Ч Th^tJaffic in High Street is ... I never let my son cross it alone. 4! ?ou dS ber: she is ... she’ll never speak about her suc- cess. ^ Thp rock was ... we couldn’t climb it. 4. , б! The scene in front of us was ... we stood for a few moments ad- miring it and then took a few pictures. j. 4. 7. The city of Venice was ... many people came to trade there. Write the degrees of comparison of these adjectives. Example: smart — smarter — (the) smartest; prosperous — more prosperous — (the) most prosperous. Busy, prosperous, picturesque, modest, smart, striking, fragile, exciting, attractive, touching, stupid, wicked. Say: 1) where William Shakespeare was buried; 2) what streets are usually lined with; 3) which country is more prosperous — the USA or Greece; 4) when you prefer to wear your smartest clothes; 5) what city in Russia you can call especially picturesque; 6) how often the Kremlin clock strikes. Add as many words as you can to each line. 1. Devotion to 4. Smart your mother,,. answer... 2. Prosperous 5. Striking country... idea... 3. Picturesque 6. Street lined with valley... houses... Express the same in English. 1. Мало людей знают, где находится могила Пушкина. 2. Пушкин был похоронен в Святогорском монастыре (Svyatogorsky Monastery [munastari]). 3. Какая поразительная женщина! Она знает шесть иностранных языков. 4. Не надевай это нарядное платье в школу. 5. Во время нашего путешествия мы видели множество огромных гор и живописных долин, 6. Я не могу назвать этот город процветающим: в нём слишком много бедных людей. 7. В противоположность своей старшей сестре она всегда носит скромную одежду, 8. Какая преданность! 9. Мы хотим повесить ваши рисунки в классе перед новогодним вечером. 10. Замок стоял на вершине скалы и казался огромным и угрожающим. a) Read the title of the poem. What do you think it is about? b) Listen to the poem “My Heart’s in the Highlands”, ^46, and read It. Was your guess right? Learn it by heart. MY HEART’S IN THE HIGHLANDS (R. Burns) My heart’s in the Highlands, my heart is not here, My heart’s in the Highlands a-chasing* the deer, A-chasing the wild deer and following the roe^ — My heart’s in the Highlands, wherever I gol Farewell^ to the Highlands, farewell to the North, The birthplace of valour,"* the country of worthl^ Wherever I wander,® wherever I rove. The hills of the Highlands for ever I love. Farewell to the mountains high cover’d with snow. Farewell to the straths^ and green valleys below, Farewell to the forests and wild-hanging woods, Farewell to the torrents® and long-pouring^ floodsi*® My heart’s in the Highlands, my heart is not here. My heart’s in the Highlands a-chasing the deer, A-chasing the wild deer and following the roe — My heart’s in the Highlands, wherever I go! У ’^Listen to the song “My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean”, sing along. 47, and One of the most famous Scottish songs, known all over the world is “My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean”. It is a song about Prince Charles Edward Stewart who was known as Bonnie Prince Charlie because he was young and good-looking (“bonnie” means “good-looking”). He was also Scotland’s national hero who fought against the English in the 18th century but Charlie’s army was defeated. i * a-chasing [s'tjeisio] — в погоне ^ a roe [гэи] — косуля ® farewell [Teswel] — прощайте ** valour [Vaeia] — доблесть ® worth [w3:0] — достоинство ® to wander [VDads] — бродить ^ a strath [stneG] — широкая горная долина ® a torrent ['torant] — горный поток ® long-pouring [1ос,ро:по] — большой, мощный flood [flud] — зд. река {обычно произносится как [fUd]) LET US READ Learn to read the proper names, ®48. Highlands ['haibndz], Lowlands ['laolondz], burgh ['edinbsra], Athens ['aeOinz], Athens of the Nor^, Holyrood ['hnlTruid] Palace (House), Princes [pnnsiz] ®**'®®*’ 'S3: 'wD:lt9 'sknt], the Clyde [бэ klaid],i the Clyde Valley, the Royal Mile, the Cannongate ['kaenangeit], the Scott Monument [Оэ skm 'mnnjumDnt]. Before reading the text say what you know about Scotland. See if you can answer these. 1. Where is Scotland situated? 2. What is its capital? 3. What other big cities in Scotland can you name? 4. What is the national symbol of the country? 5. Who is its patron saint? 6. What is Scotland washed by? 7. What rivers in Scotland do you know? 8. What else do you know about Scotland? If you don’t know the answers to some of the questions read the text (ex. 25) and find them. Read the text and explain its title. SCOTLAND THE BEAUTIFUL He who has not seen Scotland does not really know Great Britain. @49. Scotland is a country in the United Kingdom to the north of England. Its symbol is a thistle, its patron saint is St. Andrew. The country is divided into Highlands and Lowlands. Most of the industry is concentrated in Lowlands, in the Clyde Valley. Glasgow is its largest and busiest town, Edinburgh is its capital. Glasgow and Edinburgh are the two great centres of Scotland. There is only 45 miles between them, and it will take you about an hour to get from Glasgow to Edinburgh by train, but the cities are very different. Holyrood Gate ^ the Clyde—p. Клайд Edinburgh Castle Glasgow is the heart of industry. It is a centre of business and trade. It is very busy, prosperous, dirty in some parts and smart in others, it is beautiful and ugly with its large port and busy streets. Edinburgh is rather cold but attractive, very proud but friendly and has a great past. Edinburgh is known as the Athens of the North. It is an ancient city and if you walk around it, you can feel history at every step. Practically every building has a tale to tell. The most interesting parts of the city are the Old Town and the New Town. The Old Town lies between the Castle and Holyrood Palace. The Castle hangs over the city like some Disney cartoon — but it is real. The Castle, in fact, is older than the city. No one can say exactly when the first settlers came to live on the huge rock that stands high above Edinburgh. Later they built a castle that used to be a fortress and then a royal palace. It looks good in any weather but at night when it is floodlit^ it looks just like a castle in a fairy tale. It is not surprising that the Castle attracts a lot of tourists. The Edinburgh military tattoo^ takes place every August and September and is known throughout the world. For 90 minutes on five or six nights a week, 600 people perform in the square in front of the Castle. The performers play military music and march to it. At the same time as the tattoo, you can go to the famous Edinburgh festival. The festival started in 1947. Every year the best performances from all over the world can be seen in Edinburgh. @ A line of streets, which runs from the Castle to Holyrood House, is called the Royal Mile. Holyrood House is a big royal palace which is the resi- ^ floodlit ['flAdlit] — подсвеченный, освещённый огнями ^ tattoo [ts'lu:] — an outdoor military show with music, usually at night 5*::: ш i i Greyfriars Bobby Hence of the Queen when she is in Edinburgh. The most picturesque part of the Royal Mile is the Can-I nongate, which gives a good idea of what the 01^ A ШШ . was like. Closes (narrow passages) lead to little Л yards and attractive historical buildinp. One of the ^ most modest and yet one of the best known monuments in Edinburgh is a monument to a dog called Bobby. The dog belonged to John Gray. When he died, Bobby lived near his grave for twenty-six years. Later Bobby was buried near his master, and hig statue in the Old Town has become a symbol of devotion. The Old Town is a striking contrast to the New Town with its white and beautiful streets lined with trees. Princes Street is the most beautiful street of the New Town. It has a lot of gardens on one side and it is also Edinburgh’s popular shopping centre. Princes Street is connected with the name of the famous writer, Sir Walter Scott. A monument 200 feet high rises among green trees. They call it a poem of stone. It is the Scott Monument. Inside it there is a marble^ statue of the writer and of his favourite dog. Princes Street lies between the New Town and the Old Town. The modern town is on the lower side, the old one — on the higher. They look at each other across the valley under Scotland’s blue sky. The Scott Monument Match the proper names and their definitions. Ф is a festival of performances that started in 1947. is a show that takes place five or six nights a week in August and September, is the oldest part of Edinburgh, is a line of streets that connects the Castle and Holyrood Palace, is a royal palace. is an industrial centre of Scotland, is connected with the name of Walter Scott, is the most picturesque part of the Royal Mile. Now you have learnt some more facts about Scotland. Could vou answer these questions? ^ o* what parts is Scotland divided geographically? 2. Where are most of the factories and plants situated in Scotland? The Edinburgh military tattoo The Royal Mile The Cannongate Princes Street Holyrood House Glasgow The Castle The Edinburgh festival 41 ^ marble ['mtrbi] — мраморный; мрамор 3. What big river flows across the country? 4. What are the two largest and busiest cities in Scotland? 5. The cities are far from each other, aren’t they? 6. Which of the two cities has a large port? 7. Which of the two cities has got a longer history? LET US TALK Work in pairs. Imagine that one of you is a visitor to Edinburgh. He or she wants to get some information about the city. Your partner answers the questions. Find out; — if Edinburgh is a young or ancient city; — what the two most interesting parts of the city are; — if the Castle is older than the city of Edinburgh; — where exactly the Castle is situated; — whose monument tourists can see in Princes Street; — what palace is the residence of the Queen. 'Complete the dialogue, give it a title. In pairs act it out playing the parts of Mike and Duncan. Mike: Excuse me, I don’t think we’ve met before. I’m Mike Craw- ; ford from London. Duncan: ... Mike: Edinburgh? I’ve never been to Scotland, but I’d love to go there some day. Is Edinburgh bigger than London? Duncan: ... Mike: If everything you say is true it must be a great place to live! When I’m in Edinburgh, what should I see first? Duncan: ... Mike: That will take me several days, I’m sure. And what’s the best place to buy souvenirs? Duncan: ... , • .i_ v. i. Mike: Princes Street. I must remember that. When is the best time to come to Edinburgh? Duncan: ... , Mike: The military tattoo? What is it? What a strange name! Duncan: ... , , i. Mike: Thank you. I’ll talk to Dad and ask him if we can go to Scotland instead of Spain next August. . ♦ ♦VW-Л УУУЛК^ - Шй m »>3 :-y>M Х!:Ш Imagine that one of your classmates has not read the text “Scotland the Beautiful”. Tell him or her everything you know about Glasgow and Edinburgh. .. .%%♦♦♦? 5*::: ш i i Greyfriars Bobby Hence of the Queen when she is in Edinburgh. The most picturesque part of the Royal Mile is the Can-I nongate, which gives a good idea of what the 01^ A ШШ . was like. Closes (narrow passages) lead to little Л yards and attractive historical buildinp. One of the ^ most modest and yet one of the best known monuments in Edinburgh is a monument to a dog called Bobby. The dog belonged to John Gray. When he died, Bobby lived near his grave for twenty-six years. Later Bobby was buried near his master, and hig statue in the Old Town has become a symbol of devotion. The Old Town is a striking contrast to the New Town with its white and beautiful streets lined with trees. Princes Street is the most beautiful street of the New Town. It has a lot of gardens on one side and it is also Edinburgh’s popular shopping centre. Princes Street is connected with the name of the famous writer, Sir Walter Scott. A monument 200 feet high rises among green trees. They call it a poem of stone. It is the Scott Monument. Inside it there is a marble^ statue of the writer and of his favourite dog. Princes Street lies between the New Town and the Old Town. The modern town is on the lower side, the old one — on the higher. They look at each other across the valley under Scotland’s blue sky. The Scott Monument Match the proper names and their definitions. Ф is a festival of performances that started in 1947. is a show that takes place five or six nights a week in August and September, is the oldest part of Edinburgh, is a line of streets that connects the Castle and Holyrood Palace, is a royal palace. is an industrial centre of Scotland, is connected with the name of Walter Scott, is the most picturesque part of the Royal Mile. Now you have learnt some more facts about Scotland. Could vou answer these questions? ^ o* what parts is Scotland divided geographically? 2. Where are most of the factories and plants situated in Scotland? The Edinburgh military tattoo The Royal Mile The Cannongate Princes Street Holyrood House Glasgow The Castle The Edinburgh festival 41 ^ marble ['mtrbi] — мраморный; мрамор 3. What big river flows across the country? 4. What are the two largest and busiest cities in Scotland? 5. The cities are far from each other, aren’t they? 6. Which of the two cities has a large port? 7. Which of the two cities has got a longer history? LET US TALK Work in pairs. Imagine that one of you is a visitor to Edinburgh. He or she wants to get some information about the city. Your partner answers the questions. Find out; — if Edinburgh is a young or ancient city; — what the two most interesting parts of the city are; — if the Castle is older than the city of Edinburgh; — where exactly the Castle is situated; — whose monument tourists can see in Princes Street; — what palace is the residence of the Queen. 'Complete the dialogue, give it a title. In pairs act it out playing the parts of Mike and Duncan. Mike: Excuse me, I don’t think we’ve met before. I’m Mike Craw- ; ford from London. Duncan: ... Mike: Edinburgh? I’ve never been to Scotland, but I’d love to go there some day. Is Edinburgh bigger than London? Duncan: ... Mike: If everything you say is true it must be a great place to live! When I’m in Edinburgh, what should I see first? Duncan: ... Mike: That will take me several days, I’m sure. And what’s the best place to buy souvenirs? Duncan: ... , • .i_ v. i. Mike: Princes Street. I must remember that. When is the best time to come to Edinburgh? Duncan: ... , Mike: The military tattoo? What is it? What a strange name! Duncan: ... , , i. Mike: Thank you. I’ll talk to Dad and ask him if we can go to Scotland instead of Spain next August. . ♦ ♦VW-Л УУУЛК^ - Шй m »>3 :-y>M Х!:Ш Imagine that one of your classmates has not read the text “Scotland the Beautiful”. Tell him or her everything you know about Glasgow and Edinburgh. .. .%%♦♦♦? i=Hinhiirnh and decide which places you would пЛ sle'!’E^xplain your choice to your classmates, say which way you would like to choose and why. i Compare the two capitals — Moscow and Edinburgh. Mention: 1) size; 2) historical centres; 3) monuments; 4) main streets; 5) other streets and squares of the cities; 6) museums; 7) military parades. LET us WRITE Do ex. 4, ex. 9, ex. 13, ex. 17, ex. 20 in writing. Your elder brother is a travel agent, but his English is not very good. At the same time you are very good at English. Help yourl brother to write short notes about Edinburgh, inviting tourists to| visit this city. Make it as attractive as possible. a) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quizi on thern. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words I to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. to concentrate, a contrast, military, busy, trade, a grave, a rock, devotion, to bury, to hang, prosperous, picturesque, modest, smart, to strike, striking b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctlv'^ Are you pleased with your result? LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS a) Make sure you know these words and expressions. to camp [kaemp] быть в походе, останавливаться на ночлег to put up а tent — поставить палатку b) Listen to the recording, @50, and say whose words they are 1. “Here’s some money. Go to the village and buy some meat.” 2. I m so tired. You eo.” 3. “Here’s the meat. Could you please cook it?” 4. “I’d like you to go and get some water.” 5. “I don’t want to get my clothes dirty.” 6. “The meal is ready, come and eat it.” 7. “I don’t like to say “No” all the time.” Describe Jim and Tim. What were they like? Say which of the two friends — was hard-working — was lazy — found a picturesque place at the foot of a rock — was tired — went to the village — bought some meat and bread You can answer “I don’t know”. — made a fire — cooked the meat — cut the bread — got the water — got the meal ready — didn’t like to say the time ‘No” all Tell the story on the part of Jim and on the part of Tim, • Unit 14 vt!: Wales LET US REVIEW Ask questions using; to climb the rock, a modest person, striking news, picturesque seen- vXj ery, to be buried, a smart student, a smart dress, to develop trade, prosperous countries, great devotion. Look through the list of words and group them into four cate, gories. First read out the verbs, then the nouns, adjectives and adverbs. Twin, wickedly, bank, please, strike, act, picturesque, prosperous, trade, scream, bury, rock, grave, exactly, modest, striking, hang stupid, deer, earn, smart, devotion, concentrate, busy, military, thief. Say what or who can be: 1) prosperous; 2) picturesque; 3) wicked; 4) busy, 5) pleased; 6) stupid; 7) striking; 8) smart. Example: Farmers can be prosperous. Companies can be prosperous. Cities can be prosperous. Say what people want (would like)/don*t want (wouldn't like) Jimmy to do. Example: Mr Stones wants Jimmy to stop screaming at the top of his voice. stop screaming at the top of your voice! 7. Jimmy’s granny Complete the table. Example: My mother let me go to the cinema. — I was allowed to go to the cinema. 1. Mr Stones Include all the boys on the list! 3. Jimmy's friend Jimmy's sister 4^ ( Don't stay in, 4. Jimmy’s mother 5. Jimmy’s teacher Active Passive 1. The professor made us set to work. 1. — 2. — 2. The children were not allowed to take part in the procession. 3. — 3. He was made to solve the problem immediately. 4. My friend’s mother didn’t let him buy a collection of beautiful stones. 4. — 5. The doctor made the nurse test the patient’s blood pressure again. 5. — 6. — 6. Most of European governments were made to stop nuclear tests. 7. Our chemistry teacher doesn’t let us mix these two gases. 7. — Ж ♦ k • • ♦ • ♦ • ♦ Ф :::r й': ♦ ♦ » * **•* »*•* • ф ф « ♦ ф ф • ф ф Продолжение Active Passive — — 8. — 8. Sam was never allowed to smoke. 9. I won’t let you give sugar to the dog. 9. — 10. — 10. I was made to act on the stage, though I don’t like performing. have to do something have got to do something + I have to get up at 5. Sorry, we have to go. I’ve got to get up at 5. Sorry, we’ve got to go. Nelly doesn’t have to cook herself. They don’t have to start early. Nelly hasn’t got to cook herself. They haven’t got to start early. Do we have to return at six? Does she have to leave the city? When do you have to arrive? Why does she have to stay alone? Wh? Have we got to return at six? Has she got to leave the city? When have you got to arrive? Why has she got to stay alone? See Reference Grammar, part 2, p. 158—159 Paraphrase using the construction have got to do something. 3 We^donH ^havp ^tn piano every evening. partner has to do something. Let him explain the reason to you. Choose either of the two constructions. Example: 1: P,: IVe got to go. P2: Why have you got to go now? Pp I ve got to go because my mother is waiting for me. I promised her to come at six. Example: 2: P^: I have to wake at five. ^2- Why do you have to wake at five? Pi: I have to wake at five because my father takes me fishing and we are leaving at six. ^ early. 2. I have to stay at home today, 3. I have to call Mary at once. 4. I’ve got to buy new shoes. 5. I’ve got to send a letter to him at once. 6. I’ve got to take my little brother to the zoo. 7, I have to do this exercise in writing. 8. I have to translate this article. 9. I have to write a short story about some animal. 10. I’ve got to run now. LET US READ AND LEARN Phrasal Verb to look 1. to look at — посмотреть на Don’t look at me so angrily! 2. to look for — искать I am looking for my glasses and I can’t find them. 3. to look through — просмотреть, бегло прочитать Look through the newspaper and tell me about the most important sports matches. 4. to look after — присматривать, ухаживать Who looks after your cat when you go away? 5. to look up (in) — посмотреть (в каком-то источнике) If you don’t know the word, look it up in the dictionary. Write for, up (in), at, after, through after the verb to look in each sentence. 1. People like to look ... animals at the zoo. 2. She took a pencil out of the pocket and looked around ... some paper. 3. Will you look ... my garden while I’m away? 4. They will look ... the projects V.*. 1 w**. 1 Ш and you been? I’ve been Wojkjn pairs^^sk^^^ if he/she has ever seen, watched. ing\\/Vualf ovenTWhere'is'little Ann? Who is looking ... the baby? Subject see watch notice hear feel Complex Object the boys the girl me us him her it you them do/doing sth I saw Mother cook/cooking a pie. We did not notice them come/coming in. Did you hear Nick sing/singing at the party? Mr Brown felt the little girl touch his hand. 1. We did not notice them come back. 2. Mother watched the children playing. 3. Who saw Mr Smith swim across the river? 4. I didn’t hear you come in. 5. She suddenly felt someone touch her on the shoulder. 6. Can you hear a child crying? 1. Мы не заметили, как они вернулись. 2. Мама наблюдала, как дети играли. 3. Кто видел, что мистер Смит переплыл реку? 4. Я не слыптал, как ты вошёл. Example: Have you ever seen a hunter shoot an animal? “ No, I haven’t. Have you? — Yes, I have. ■; 1) a hunter shoot an animal; ^ 2) a squirrel climb up a tree; 3) a hare run across the field; 4) a kitten play with a mouse; :• 5) an elephant carry people; * 6) a horse winning a race; 7) a monkey reading a book; 8) a bear dancing; 9) a deer eat green grass; 10) a pigeon sing. !; 4S^ Express the same in English. 1. Я никогда не слышал, как эта девочка смеётся. Я никогда не -■ видел, как она плачет. 2. Мы не заметили, как он вышел из клас- / са. 3. Бетти любила наблюдать, как жёлтые листья падают с де- !■ ревьев. 4. Все любят слушать, как поёт Майкл Джексон? 5. Я по- / чувствовала, как что-то горячее коснулось моей ноги. 6. Ты когда-нибудь видел, как встаёт солнце? 7. Маленький принц каж- ■ дыи день наблюдал за тем, как садится солнце. 8. Мама с гордо- ■ стью наблюдала, как её дочь играла на пианино. 9. Ты любишь • смотреть, как она танцует? 10. Я много раз слышала, как она ■ читает книги своим маленьким детям. 5. Внезапно она почувствова- а) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. ла, как кто-то дотронулся до её плеча. 6. Ты слышишь, как плачет ребёнок? See Reference Grammar, part 2, p. 160 к\ i j x i ^ ^ ^ b) Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 1. Masha has lost her passport ['po:spo:t]. She can’t find it anywhere. ; 2. The president of the company has a lot of visitors [Vizitaz], 3. A party of climbers ['klaimazl was on their way to Everest -['evsnst]. Make up sentences. saw/never saw watched/never watched noticed/never noticed heard/never heard my friend(s) my mother my father my granny my teacher(s) my sister my brother cry/crying scream at the top of his/her voice fight smoke do harm to plants and animals tell lies 4SP Read the words, look them up and then study the word combina- : tions and sentences to know how to use them. to enter [’ents] (v)\ to enter a room, to enter a house, to enter ; a building. Please enter the house by the back door. He stopped ; for a second before he entered the room. Knock before you enter, to enter college, to enter university: My elder brother is going to enter university next year. Is it difficult to enter Moscow State ■ University? L 1 agriculture ['ждп,кл№] (n. no plural): Agficultu^ is farming whici, means growing things and keeping animals. What do you kno^ about agriculture in Britain? rtculturfl airricullunil [.«gnbltfanl] (adj): agricuimrai worKar* a.. ^ural land, an agricultural country, agricultural products. Therf is a lot of agricultural land in the southeast of England, to argue r'a:qju:l (v): to argue with somebody about something. Don’t! with vour teacher about the things you don t understand. aiguc; 1 о--- argue with your teacher about Stop arguing with me, do as I strPflTTi я etr. ^ water, a narrow stream, a mountain щ the valley. A stream is a small river. There were " я nafb wm 7^^?^ running down the streets after the rain. path, a path through the forest, to walk '' nr P^th IS a long narrow line of ground made by -i or people walking. Along the country road there is usually -a narrow path for people to walk on. : say. an >tOP arguing WlUl me, Ciu ao A ocxj. ^1. a.l_ argument ['agjumDnt] (n): a long argument, a strong argument,choose the right item, an argument about something. After a long argument we decided lUt soilieilllllg. rvAi/Ci a iwiig s ^****''**'' where to go on holiday. There should be no arguments betweerij friends. . 1 X - . to injure ['шфэ] (v): to injure people, to injure animals, to injure one’s hand (foot, etc.). Jack fell from the tree and injured his back. to be injured, to be badly injured, to be injured in an accident: Two people were killed and seven were injured when the car hit the bus. injured: an injured person, an injured animal. The injured man was taken to hospital. to rescue [Veskju:] (v): to rescue a person, to rescue an animal, tc rescue a bird. He jumped into the river and rescued the child who couldn’t swim. rescue (n): to come to someone’s rescue, to go to someone’s rescue. The child was alone in the burning house but the firemen саш Example. This path is quite ... . Welsh is not ... spoken in the world. (wide, widely) — This path is quite wide. Welsh is not widely spoken in the world. ^ They drive their cars — (dangerously, dan- 2. He got up ... and left the room without saying a word. She gave us a ... look but did not say a word, (quickly, quick) 3. Do you think his English is ...? Does he speak English ...? (fluent, fluently) 4. His ... speech impressed me greatly. He didn’t give us any details about the trip, he spoke very .... (brief, briefly) 5. Walk across the road .... My father is a ... driver: he has never had any problems, (careful, carefully) ^ *** pl^ri* Many years ago people called this place ___ (differently, different) to his rescue. Rescue Service: The Mountain Rescue Service has to go out to help^ys^^ Make up adjectives on the model. Try and guess their meanings. the climbers who need them, to serve [S3:v] (v): to serve in the army. Did he serve in the army for two years? It serves you (her, him) right. It serves her right that she feels sick — she has eaten too much, a service (n): government service, hotel service. The food in the restaurant was good but the service was poor. Has the town got a good bus service? at one’s service: I’m at your service if you need me. brief [bri.fl (adj): a brief letter, a brief talk, a brief look, a brief holiday, a brief visit. We had a brief holiday last year, we soent only a week in the Crimea, in brief —in a few words: Tell me the story in brief a cathedral [k9'0i;dr9l] (n): a beautiful cathedral, to admire the ca-thedral. — What is a cathedral. Mummy? — It is a big and im- cathedrals do you know in Lon-f /s St. Paul’s Cathedral in the City. R ^ (French, etc.), to speak he can ^ person speaks fluent English, he can speak the language easily and correctly. fluently (adv): The boy could speak two languages fluently Example: music — musical (музыкальный) nature* — nation^ — industry — culture — region — tradition — agriculture — comic — books lectures notes facts stories articles^ FOCUS the history of Scotland on the culture of the country geography exams classes marks lessons in mathematics geography history Ш iS * notice the difference: ['neit/э — ’nat/rsl] ^ notice the difference: ['neijn — 'пае/пЫ] ® you can also use all these words with the preposition about: books about animals, etc. I David reads a lot of books on travels in China Professor Pullin gives wonderful lectures on the history of Coidd ^riiave a look at your notes on Scotland? Do you know any facts on the culture of ancient Greece? What is your mark in French? Who gives you classes in maths? When are you having your last exam in geography/ i *1* • • Choose the right preposition: on or in. 1. Susie is finishing her book ... the culture of ancient Romans. 2. Could I look through your notes ... the agriculture of the region? 3. When do you have classes ... the English Literature? y.-: 4. What mark did Henry get ... PE last term? V- 5. When are you having your final exam ... Latin? 6. Have you ever read any articles ... geography? 7. Tell me Nick’s mark ... music. Listen to the recording, (^51, and read the proverb, then learr it by heart. HE WHO KNOWS He who knows not, and knows not that he knows not, is a fool, Shun^ him. He who knows not, and knows that he knows not, is a child, Teach him. He who knows, and knows not that he knows, is asleep. Wake him. He who knows, and knows that he knows, is wise. Follow him. (a Persian^ proverb} LET US READ » • • » • « 4 • « » 4 • Read the dialogue and give it a title, ® 52. Ann: Susie: Ann: Hi, Susie, haven’t seen you for a long time! What have you been doing? Where have you been hiding? I’ve been working on my talk about Wales for the last week ana spent many hours in the library. Wales? What can be interesting about that part of Britain? No big cities, no picturesque scenery, no interesting facts on tne History of the country. * to shun [|лп] — избегать, остерегаться Persian ['рз;/эп] — персидский Susie: Anglese Ann: Susie: Ann: Susie: Ann: Susie: Aren t there? You can’t imagine, wrong you are here, t reading says: Though visitors don’t need passports to cross the border from England into Wales, they soon realize that they are entering a country with its own geography, culture, traditions and language.” What do you mean? Don’t the Welsh speak English? They do. But the Welsh language is spoken widely, especially in the north of the country and it is still the first language for many people. By the way English is taught side by side with Welsh in schools. Is Welsh different from English? Very much so. Welsh is one of the Celtic' languages, like Scottish and Irish Gaelic.^ Even if your English is fluent you won’t be able to understand Welsh. Interesting. And what about the cities? I hear^ that Wales is agricultural, there are few cities there, and they гиге rather small and unimportant. Let’s not argue, but look it up in the book I’m reading. I know at least one big city in Wales. It’s Cardiff, the capital and the main port. уМ JV*V.*.* »; te:-: tei: 1 te; te; i * « • 4Sf rj[\ Ann (looking through the book)\ You are right. It says: Cardiff j; an industrial city, which also has a castle, a cathedral, a uni versity. There are other big towns in Wales too, Swansea and Newport among them.” OK. But what about the scenery, thf history, the culture? Susie: The west coast, Mid Wales and North Wales are wild and beautiful. Wales has high mountains including Snowdon, thf second highest mountain in Britain. Ann: I have always thought that Wales is a land of green fields, forests and farms. Susie: And you have been right. But it is also a land of mountain and valleys, streams and waterfalls. In North Wales you cai follow mountain paths for miles and miles. Tell me a few words about Mount Snowdon. Got interested? OK. In summer, when the sun is shining, Snowdon looks very peaceful and beautiful. A little trair runs to the top and the walk is not at all hard. But in win-ter the mountains can become very dangerous. But do people climb the mountains in winter? They do, but every year climbers get lost in bad weather or; fall and injure themselves. When this happens, the Mountain Rescue Service* has to go out to look for the climbers. I see. And what about Welsh traditions and the history of ' the country? Susie: Sorry, Ann. I’ve got to run. Here are my notes. I made them during the lecture by Mr Roger Davis, a visiting professor from жЖУ Wales. If you’re really interested, you can look through my notes. They are all on Welsh traditions and culture. Though they are very brief you can find them useful. Remember who said that. 1. “I spent many hours in the library.” 2. “Don’t the Welsh speak English?” Ann: Susie: Ann: Susie: Ann: 3. The Welsh language is spoken widely, especially in the north of the country.” .7 .7 themselves do not understand Welsh.” 5. “Wales is agricultural.” 6. “I know at least one big city in Wales.” 7. Cardiff is an industrial city, which also has a castle, a cathedral, a university.” 8. Snowdon is the second highest mountain in Britain.” 9. “Climbers get lost in bad weather.” 10. “I ve got to run. Here are my notes.” These are the notes Ann made after her talk with Susie. Was Ann attentive? Did she remember everything right? Read Ann’s notes and correct them if necessary. Wales an industrial country. No big cities, except Cardiff, its capital. You need a passport to travel from England to Wales. The Welsh speak two languages (English and Welsh), especially in the south. English is taught in schools, Welsh is not, though the two languages are very much alike. The English can easily understand Welsh. Cardiff is an agricultural town. The scenery in Wales is picturesque and wild, especially in the south. There are few mountains, which are rather low and not dangerous. Climbers seldom visit these places. Mount Snowdon, situated in Wales, is the highest mountain in Britain. Wales is a land of valleys, streams and waterfalls. LET US TALK Prove that Wales is an interesting place to visit. Speak on: a) its scenery b) its cities c) its language Imagine that your friend has got a ietter from his/her Welsh friend inviting him/her to visit Wales. He is not sure that he would like to go. Prove that Wales is an interesting place to visit. Work in pairs. Say what you think is the most interesting about Wales. Sum up what you’ve learnt about it. What places there do you find the most attractive? ■ going to give a talk about Wales in your geography class, dv with interesting facts about this part of Britain. Don’t ' the Mountain Rescue Service ['s3:visj - горноспасательная служба You are Get ready with interesting forget to mention: its symbol, its saint, its location, its language, its capital. You are going to give a talk about the place you live in. Make an outline of your story and get ready with some facts about it. LET US WRITE Do ex. 1, ex. 2, ex. 4, ex. 5, ex. 11 in writing a) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on thern. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. Look through ex. 18 and write what Ann wanted to know ак Wales (10 pieces of information), Example: Ann wanted to know if climbers went to Snowdon ■ Complete the text using the prepositions at, for, through aft», up, in. Was your guess right? THE SECRET OF GOOD HEALTH AND HAPPINESS Doctors say that happiness is the secret of good health. Tb means we all have to look ... ourselves. When we lose some things we shouldn’t get angry but just look ... them trying to find If we don’t understand some words people use, we should them ... ... the encyclopaedias^ and we shouldn’t get angry eithet We should also remember that praise is good for us too. Look your friend and say how wonderful he is. Then he will believe \ is wonderful. Look ... your little sister’s copybook and say she a good child. She will certainly be one. So remember, if we want be happy and healthy, we need people around us who keep tellin us how wonderful we are. This is a traditional Welsh story, a) Open the brackets to make! complete, b) Give the story a title, c) Expand^ the story in writiix to make it more interesting. This story is (set) in Wales in the Middle Ages. There was a princf whose name (be) Llewellyn [lu;'elin]. He (live) in the valley. He (havi\_ a baby son. He also (have) a dog called Gelert. One day the prin (go) hunting. He (leave) the dog (look) after the baby. Some wolvi (come) out of a wood. They (run) to the cottage. The dog (seil the wolves and (hide) the baby. Then he (run) outside and (fightf the wolves. He (kill) two but was wounded. He was tired and (liei down to sleep. The prince (return). He (see) the dog all in blood. Hei (notice) that his son’s bed was empty. He (take) his sword^ and (killji the dog while it (sleep). Then he (hear) the baby (cry) and (findf him. Through the window he (see) the two dead wolves. Then he (understand). He (carry) the dog to the top of a hill and buried it, He (collect) a lot of stones to mark the grave. You can still (see)\\ today at Bedgelert. a passport, a visitor, a climber, to enter (to enter college), agriculture, agricultural, to argue, an argument, to injure (to be injured), to rescue, rescue. Rescue Seiwice, to serve, a service, at one’s service, brief, in brief, a cathedral, fluent, fluently, a stream, a path rr ^ an encyclopaedia [in'saikl3'pi:di9] — энциклопедия ^ to expand [ik'spasnd] — расширять ^ a sword [sD:d] — меч b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctly? LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS a) Make sure you know this expression: weak point [,wi:k ’point] — слабое место, слабость b) Listen to the recording, 0 53, and explain the title of the story. : Listen to the story “Three Answers” again and complete these sentences. 1. Ed was a ... and worked for a____ 2. He wrote about his travels in his __ 3. Ed had one weak point: he liked to ... very much. 4. Stupid people sometimes said ... things. 5. Once a man said something which Ed couldn’t — 6. “There are always three answers to every question: —” Tell the story “Three Answers” on the part of Ed. PROJECT WORK 2 1. Work in small groups and prepare a presentation on England, Wales or Scotland. Some of the interesting points may be the country’s: 1) symbol; 2) population; 3) geography; 4) famous person or people; 5) capital and big cities; 6) interesting fact or facts. 2. Present your material in class. Make your presentation as attractive as possible. Decide whose story was better than the others and why. Where can your get your information? Ask your teacher and parents and try: • your home library • www.britannika.com • your school library • www.encyclopedia.ru • www.wikipedia.org THEIISA Unit 15 How Much Do We Know About the USA? You already know some facts about the United States of America and its people. We would like you to remember certain things about the US. So... LET US REVIEW Choose the right item, 1. Christopher Columbus discovered America in ... a) 1402 c) 1492 b) 1482 d) 1392 2. Christopher Columbus discovered ... a) Central America c) North America b) South America d) the United States of America 3. The first English settlements appeared in ... a) North America in the 17th century b) South America in the 17th century c) Central America in the 16th century d) America in the 18th century 4. The “Mayflower” is ... a) the name of a season b) the name of the first English settlement in America c) the name of a flower Worid Гп^620 Plymouth for the New ► the tradition of ... c) Thanksgiving Day d) Memorial Day US was ... c) Jeffrey Jefferson d) Bill Clinton c) New York d) Philadelphia America in 1773. d) 10 c) Levi Strauss people d) actors in America 5. The first colonists started a) Halloween b) Independence Day 6. The first president of the a) George Washington b) Abraham Lincoln 7. The capital of the US is . a) Washington, D. C. b) Washington 8. There were ... colonies in a) 13 b) 7 c) 21 9. Jeans are clothes worn by a) cowboys in the Wild West b) people all over the world 10. The American flag is often called ... a) Union Jack c) the Red Dragon • b) the Stars and Stripes d) the White Eagle 11. There are ... stripes on the American flag. ■: a) 7 b) 6 c) 50 d) 13 12. The official national symbol of the USA is ... a) the Statue of Liberty c) the turkey b) the eagle d) the “Mayflower” Answer the following questions, if necessary consult Lessons 43— 52 of your Student’s Book 4 and Lesson 14 of your Reader 4. 1. What do you remember about the discoverer of America? (Where was he born? Where did he live? What country was he looking for in 1492 when he discovered the new continent?) 2. What do you know about the first English settlements in America and the first English colonists? (When and why did England become interested in America? When did the “Mayflower” sail to America? What did they call the part of America where they set up their first colony? What kind of life did they lead?) 3. There were 13 colonies in America in 1773, weren’t there? 4. Why did people in America fight for their independence from England? 5. How can you characterize the colonists? 6. What big US cities do you know? 7. How many cents are there in a dollar? What are other American coins? How many cents are there in a nickel, a dime and a quarter? 8. What is the name of the US city where Levi Strauss began making special clothes? What clothes were they? i Ш Ш I гг*:- 13 stripes on it? necessary to make the story OU Siars on tnc ---- ^ 4M„^9 10 national symbol of the изд • in 1782,, didn’t it? What 5mbol IS the ohve branc What com- bol is the arrows? Wre can you see the picture of the eagle; DOl IS axxv*»o. ----- - with an olive branch and arrows г ^ т i 9 11 What do Americans celebrate on the 4th of У 12 The capital of the USA is Washington, D. C., isn t it? What do the letters D. C. stand for? Why do people say Washington, D, C.” when they speak about the US capital. After doing ex. 1 and ex. 2 decide who in your class knows the country (and its people) best. Let him/her be a visiting professoi from New York and ask him: 1) why Washington, D. C. is a special city; 2) what oceans wash the US in the east and in the west; 3) what he/she can tell you about the Statue of Liberty; 4) what he/she can tell you about the American flag; 5) when the story of the “Wild West” began and why people went west 6) who native Americans are; 7) when and why Americans began to celebrate Thanksgiving Day MOTHER’S ADVICE at mv’'sch3^?ikp«^m morning and said to her, “No one HonT 1 ’ Mother The teachers don’t, and the children: “WeU Harrl >> ^^-t^ors hate me.’’ Pprhans’vmi mother answered. “It is such ... sad news.: Perhaps you aren t very nice to them. If ... few ... people don’t like ... person it may not be his fault;* but if ... lot of ... people Sly ieeds “That’s ... good advice. Mother,” Harry said. “But I’m too old to change. I don t want to go to school.” Don t be so silly Harry,” his mother said. “You have to go. You quite well, and you still have ... important things to learn. And besides that, you re the headmaster of the school.” Ш ■ m m LET US READ Learn to read these proper names, @54. и ncountables money hair advice work information weather knowledge progress It is useful information. What wonderful advice! What long hair! It is fresh milk. What fine weather! What big money! What clean air! It is such tasty water. What interesting work! It is such necessary news. It is such great progress. It is important knowledge Countables in the singular It is a poor answer. It is an easy job. It is such a lovely flower! She is such a nice girl! What an interesting trip! What a dangerous road! Kennedy Airport [.kenodi ’еэрэ:1], Hollywood ['holiwuid], Disneyland ['diznilaend], California [,kaeli'fo:ni3], Philadelphia [,fib'delfi9], Texas ['teksas], Manhattan [maen'hsetn], the Bronx Zoo [.bmpks 'zu;], the Metropolitan (Museum) [бэ ,metr9'pDlit9n], the Niagara Falls [69 nai.aegoro 'f9:lz]. .♦Ж • *. ♦Ю Countables in the plural They are short stories. These are attractive ideas. They are such funny boys. What clever animals! Read the dialogue, ®55, and say what other places in the USA the children could visit besides the places that they are going to see. Ш « « A TRIP TO THE USA Teacher: Hi, everybody! I’ve got some great news for you. At the end of April your group — the winners of “English Learners Contest”^ — is going to the USA! It’s fantastic! Wow! I can’t believe it! It’s too good to be true I knew it! I knew it! Please be quiet. I’m here to tell you all you want to know, but if you make so much noise, I won’t be able to do it. Volodya: When are we leaving? What places are we going to visit? Tanya: Misha: Volodya: Irina: Teacher: / together) ^ fault — вина ^ a contest ['kontest] — конкурс i Teacher: We are starting on the 23rd of Apriljnd we^are Tanya: Teacher: Тгог^£у.1Геш:1уе;о to New York, Kennedy Airport. How long are we going to stay in New or Only two days, but it’s long enough to see the inain sights LET US TALK Irina: Teacher: Misha: Tanya: Misha: Volodya: Teacher: Ше Statue of Liberty, Manhattan, the famous skyscraperg^ the Metropolitan and the Bronx Zoo. But New York is in the east and I have always wanted to see Hollywood and Disneyland. Are we going to go to Cali. fornia too? ^ _ X • r> X ^ i Yes, we are, but only at the end of our trip Between Ne» York and California we’ll go to Philadelphia, the birth-place of American democracy, and Washington, D. C. Just Philadelphia and Washington? Aren’t we going U Texas? I’ve always wanted to meet cowboys or even takf part in a rodeo [rou'deiou]. | What’s a rodeo, Misha? | Don’t you know? It’s when cowboys ride wild horses ot| catch wild horses throwing a lasso [Ise'su:]. I saw it it a film. I’d like to see the Niagara Falls. Could we please go there! Sorry, boys, not this time. We’ve got only ten days алс four wonderful places to see. I’m sure you’ll love them' But if you win another contest (and we’re having it ii| May) who knows ... we may have a chance... ! 9 Work in pairs. Imagine that one of you knows everything зЬси*. the trip to the USA (ex. 6) and the other knows very little. Asl questions to find out more. Example: The group of children won the English learners contest. I a) When did the contest take place? — It was in Septenij ber last year. b) How many schools took part in it? — Four. c) Where did the contest take place? — In school 28. 1. They are flying from Sheremetyevo to New York, Kennedy Air port. 2. They are going to stay in New York for two days. 3. They won’t visit Texas. 4. A rodeo is an exciting show. 5. The Niagara Falls is a wonderful place to visit. ^Say what the group of children could see In New York. Philadelphia, Washington, D. C., and California. If necessary, look it up or ask your parents and teachers. ^ Role-play the dialogue from ex. 6. worts a Ж wortt- Example: First the children went to Shannon to make a atop. first, then, after that, later, finally b) Imagine that you are planning a tour around the world. Say where you are going to go and why. Use the following information. Example: First I’m going to Greece to see the Acropolis [э'кгорэЬз]. Then ... Egypt Greece Rome India France Ш the Great Sphinx and the pyramids ['piramidz]. the place of the first Olympic Games the ancient ruins elephants the Eiffel Tower [,aifl 'taua] c) Choose any places you would like to visit and say why. Example: I would like to go to Paris to visit the Louvre ['1игуг(э)]. Ш •.v*%va ^j^^^We are sure that some of you would like to go to the USA. Think of five good reasons why you would like to go there. ► 3* Imagine .ha. you are going .o »lsl. .he USA. Wha. means o. .ran,, port will you choose: »!• 1 Wo ffet to the country; 2) to travel about the country? Why? Retell the story “Mother’s Advice” from ex. 4 in reported speech, let os write tir^'^thliJ^universSr® (friends) at university, when they en-; person^orwhich a character rescued and what book it was; wher^ and^howTw^i;^®'^ animals and; holidaysf ^e/she writes brief letters, has brief talks or brief 8) what languages he/she would like to speak fluently. Do ex. 1, ex. 3, ex. 4 in writing saying what you’d like other people to do instead of you. Use the example. v:?: 'write a short story about the characters from ex. 6 visiting the USA. Example: I don’t want to speak to Mr Winston. I want .... I don t want to speak to Mr Winston. I want my Granny to speak to him. I want her to speak to Mr Winston on Monday. X!ti Express the same in English. 1 Какого цвета волосы твоей сестры? 2. Какого цвета глаза тво ей сестры? 3. Это очень интересные сведения. 4. Это очень инте ресные рассказы. 5. Это очень интересная сказка. 6. Какие nf чальные новости! 7. Какие печальные дети! 8. Какая печальна; женщина! 9. Это такие смешные котята! 10. Это такая смешна; обезьянка! 11. Это такая смешная новость! 1. I wouldn’t like to enter this college. I would like .... 2. I don t expect you to finish the job. I expect .... 3. I don’t want to write a letter to John. I want .... 4. I don’t want to look after Nelly’s cat. I expect .... 5. I wouldn t like to invite Stephen to our party. I would like .... 6. I don’t want to pay for the ticket. I want .... Read the headlines and match the beginnings of the stories with them. lUnit 16 Geographical Outlook A. A Brief Answer B. The Mountan Rescue Service at Work C. A Surprise D. Heart Health Mary’s granny was nearly 70 and Mary’s parents wanted to give the old lady a nice birthday present. But their idea of “a nice present” was different from Mary’s. One day they even had a long argument about... LET US REVIEW Work in pairs. Interview your partner. Find out: 1) if he/she lives in an agricultural area, where exactly; 2) if he/she has ever argued with his/her parents (teachers), when exactly; 3) if he/she has been injured, when exactly; Allan Hobbs was a very lazy student at school. Nobody could make him work or be helpful. He fought with other pupils, was rude to the teachers. One day a letter came to Allan’s parents with his school record^ ... school record — школьная характеристика John’s brother was fast asleep when the telephone rang. He wolT up immediately and in less than five minutes he was ready to start ‘There will be a lot of injured people in this awful snowfall,” thought looking out of the window... ’ When Dave Morgan was young, he played a lot of games and he was thin and strong. But when he was forty-five, he began to get fat and slow down. His speech was not as fluent as before, and when he walked rather fast, he felt a sudden pain in his heart. He did not do anything about this for a long time, but finally... Look at the pictures and ask Mrs Morgan to let these people and animals do what they want. Example: Let Nelly wash up. Nelly Complete the situations saying when and where you saw (heard, watched, noticed) people doing these things. Example: I saw Alice (to play) with her little kitten ... . I saw Alice playing with her little kitten in the yard last Sunday. 1. I noticed Susie (to pass) our school. 2. I heard David (to play) rock music. 3.1 watched Chris (to climb) that dangerous hill. 4.1 saw Peter (to speak) to Mark. 5.1 watched Betty (to put) a white dress on her doll. Express the same in English. 1. Позволь нам остаться с тобой. 2. Мы полагаем, что наши родители вернутся рано. 3. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы ты выпил стакан молока. 4. Я слышала, как кто-то звонил в дверь. 5. Мы наблюдали за тем, как утята плавали в реке. 6. Я хочу, чтобы мой брат поступил в Московский университет. 7. Я заметила, что Николай спит в кресле. 8. Я слышала, как доктор Смит играет на скрипке. 9. Мы полагаем, что скоро придёт весна. LET US READ AI\ID LEARIU The Past Perfect Tense had + Ved/Vj by 5 o’clock; by Sunday; by that time; by the by the second of May My cousin had left by the first of April, My father had written the letter by that time. ... when ... after ... before end of the year; 'T The train had already left when we arrived. Mother had cleaned the flat before her cousin returned. After she had cried she felt better. The students hadn’t finished the test when the bell rang. When we arrived, the train hadn’t left yet. ■ — Had you read the book up to the end before she asked you for it? — Yes, I had. See Reference Grammar, part 2, p. 156—157 » ф ш ♦ Ф I Look at the pictures and say what had happened before ^ came back home from school. p... Bob had cleahod the flat with a vacuum cleaner bet,, ^ Alex came back home from school. 3 ^Granny @1^ 5 Caroline and Ann : 7 Uncle Roger 8 Frieda Ann had lived in London for two years. When she returned to Los Angeles, she understood that many things had changed in her city. Say what had changed. Example: A new school had appeared near her house. a new school/to appear her cousins/to grow up the roads/to become wider the streets/to become cleaner the shops/to get more modern a lot of Japanese cars/to appear a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. \ Grasslands [fq:ml£end] in England is in the southeast. Grasslands [graslaendz] are good for sheep to feed on. ['waildlsendz] left in Britain. Most of them are Ш the north. In the USA people can enjoy the beauty of wild ■*> America in parks, forests and v^dl^. ^ parents [.Qreit'graend.peorants] are our grandparents’ A canoe^ [konui] is an Indian boat, M Siberia is famous for its endless ['endlis] forests. Rivers are used as waterways [‘wo:toweiz]. > b) Look these words up in your vocabulary to make sure that you X have guessed right. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combina- > tions and sentences to know how to use them, mighty [maiti] (adj): a mighty nation, a mighty army, a mighty !•! king, a mighty empire. The Atlantic is a mighty ocean. to rise [raiz], rose, risen (v): The River Volga rises in the Valdai Hills. The Angara rises in Lake Baikal, The Nile rises in Lake Victoria. ■*.' to stretch [stretj] (v): to stretch out one’s arm, to stretch the rope, ■' to stretch one’s legs. The forests stretched for miles. The valley X stretched away into the distance as far as the eye could see. She;-; got out of bed and stretched. He stretched out his arm to try;-; and get the apple. I decided to stretch my legs after dinner. The > wicked children stretched the rope across the path. ;• a shore [fo:] (n): a sea shore, shores of a lake, on the shore of the ocean, to walk along the shore. It is difficult to walk on such ;• a rocky shore. She sells seashells on the seashore. We could see ;• some tall trees on the other shore of the lake. a beach [bi:tj] (n): a sandy beach, a beach ball, a beach chair. They went down to the beach for a swim. We sat on the beach and ate our sandwiches. Some of the beaches are badly^ littered, a desert ['dezot] (n): The Sahara Desert, a hot desert wind, desert areas, a desert island. Do you know where the Sahara Desert, the Gobi Desert and the Karakum Desert are situated? Robinson Cru- \ soe lived for many years on a desert island, a chain [tjein] (n): a. chain of mountains, a gold chain. She always ; wears a gold chain round her neck. Could you show the main ; mountain chains on the map of America? an attraction [a'tra^kjn] (n): The Tower of London is a great attrac- ; tion for tourists. Cinema has little attraction for some people, a skyscraper ['skai,skreip3] (n): a tall skyscraper. New York is a city ; of skyscrapers. Are there any skyscrapers in Moscow? a mixture ['mikstjb] (n): a bottle of cough mixture. I listened to his ■ story with a mixture of surprise and admiration. ^ badly — 3d. очень KV.*.* a mdS pot:'Xerica h^^ a melting pot since its beginning^' ^ ^'«'n9 the words. ШР Match the words with their definitions v;*. ij > ♦ ♦ i .♦ • I « • • ♦ • • a chain mighty a skyscraper great-grandparents a melting pot a mixture to rise a desert grassland a very high building different things put together to begin a number of connected things sandy country with little water and few plants your grandparents* parents wild, open land covered mainly with grass strong, powerful _ a place where there is a mixing of people of different races [’reisiz] and nationalities Describe the picture, use the words: a beach, a sea shore, a mighty river, a chain of mountains, to melt, a valley, a tourist attraction Northern Africa imghty rivers with high banks; endless tall forests; ; portant waterways; wildlands; open lands stretching for miles and miles Siberia high mountains; mighty waterfalls; rocky moun-tain peaks; deep valleys and green meadows; a lot 01 deep lakes with high shores; wild deer the Scottish Highlands farmlands; flat tulip fields; very few wildlands; a lot of short rivers with low banks; no mountain chains; no deserts; green meadows; corn fields East Anglia the Sahara Desert; two mounteiin ranges; bare^ rocky land; dry climate; the world’s highest temperatures; no true winter season '■'Ш ♦>»I« тш :->:Ш •>»Х •»»3 Use the words from ex. 9, ex. 10 to complete the sentences. 1. Rivers have always been used as important____2. A ... is a long, light, narrow boat, first used by American Indians. 3. — What do; children usually do on the ...?—Oh, they make sandcastles, lie in the sun, swim and play with big bright balls. 4. This tea is ... of three different sorts. 5. Disneyland is a place full of ... both for children and grown-ups. 6. At what temperature does ice ...? 7. Do you know where the Moskva River ...? 8. From the deck they could see a beautiful cottage on the ... of the sea. 9. There were some rocks on the eastern ... of the lake. 10. The ... was sandy and we often played there in summer. 11. The eagle flew up to the sky on its ... wings. ш ш mm уШ уШ li Nouns millions of stars thousands of people hundreds of books Numerals five million dollars six thousand cars three hundred letters banks of the river shores of the lake of the sea of the ocean 1. There were hundreds of beautiful flowers in my granny’s garden. I would like you to go to the florist’s and buy three hundred roses. a melting pot 1) тигель, ёмкость для плавки металлов; 2) место, где собираются вместе и живут представители различных рас и национальностей ^ bare [Ьеэ] — зд. пустой, оголённый ♦« « • • * • « « • ' о Qbo hflH flt least four thousand pupils. ?Sousands of pupils visit Disneyland every year. 3. Millions of books are collected in the best libraries of the ^I°know five million answers to your question, Daddy,” said the young princess. Read the text and sav what fnr»te ^ heard before ^ tacts mentioned m it you have never Express it in English. a) Миллионы писем, тысячи вопросов, сотни озёр, миллионы лиц, тысячи улыбок, сотни голосов. b) Пятьсот слов, шесть тысяч домов, семь миллионов деревьев, триста мячей, восемьсот игрушек, три миллиона фунтов, двадцать семь тысяч рублей, двести городов. Listen to the song “This Land Is Your Land”, ®56, then sing it. THIS LAND IS YOUR LAND (words and music by Woody Guthrie) I. This land is your land, this land is my land. From California to the New York Island, From the Red-wood forest to the Gulf Stream waters This land was made for you and me. As I went walking that ribbon^ of highway^ I saw above me that endless sky-way, I saw below me that golden valley, This land was made for you and me. LET US READ Learn to read these words, @ 57. Al^ka [alassks], Hawaii [hs'waii;], Florida ['flnrida], Yosemite [jou'semiti] Valley, Yellowstone [[jebustoun], the Mississippi [misi'sipi], the Missouri [mizuan], the Appalachians [.aspa'leit/ianz], European [juoro'pbn], China [tjaino], Southeast Asia [,sau0'i;st 'ег/э], the Caribbean [kaen'bi.sn] Sea, the Grand Canyon ['kasnjan], the Colorado [,knb'ra:d3u], the Rocky [rakj] Mountains (Rockies). ^ a ribbon ['пЬэп] — лента a highway fhaiwei] ^ шоссе, большая дорога m COUNTRY AND PEOPLE (after Terry Tomsha and Teresa Cox) thele^states АЫк^America. Two of ^X^l states You can see it on connected to the other;::;:::::;::} ^fic Oceaii in tlT^^^SaiS^ SSal! ШШ GrSris! ' In the north ;;:;Щ The US is a ^nrge country with many natural wonders. It goes froin the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to the islands of Hawaii the Pacific, and from cold, snowy northern Alaska to sunny Florida. m the southeast. The US has almost every kind of weather. Also, it has many kinds of land — rorWv nop=t<, ri,-., j_ , 1 • j 1--,----A.i.liu. UX WtJilLUVr. Л.1ЬО, it has many kinds of land — rocky coasts, dry empty deserts, big rivers, wide plains and grasslands, lakes of all sizes, high moun-; tains, great lorests, sunny beaches, lands of endless winter. More than 300 million people live in the US. But the country is very big, so there is still a lot of open space and natural scenery *-*-^-* Abbreviations used in the map: 1 Vermont 6 New Jersey 2 New Hampshire 7 Delaware 3 Massachusetts 8 Maryland 4 Connecticut 5 Rhode Island L District of Columbia * • • « « < » * • « • • »« • i. 4-v»q Americflns hflve tried to S8.ve гпяпу of the Щпо* ЙЙи! wlM States. There are a lot of p.'J^ forests and wildlands where you can enjoy the beauty ai^ power o( wild America. The Grand Canyon, Yosemite Valley, and Yellowstone are amonff the most famous. , .-,1 i_ j. j-г, j Ж 58. Many rivers cross the United States. But the greatest the mighty Mississippi. Native Americans called it the father of waters”. It begins quietly in the north of the country and ends h the Gulf of Mexico, nearly four thousand miles (o4UU km) away, On its journey to the sea, the Mississippi travels though several states, and becomes larger and more powerful, it brings water to farmlands. And the Mississippi has been an important waterway since early times when native Americans travelled on the river ii, canoes. Among other big rivers are the Colorado and the Missouri. The Colorado River rises in the Rocky Mountains or the Rockies that stretch from Alaska down almost to the south of the country. Another big mountain chain is the Appalachians in the east also running from north to south. The Grand Canyon is one of America’s main tourist attractions, It is so big that you must go there yourself to feel its true size and beauty. The Colorado River formed the Grand Canyon over millions of years. Slowly, the river cut down through hard rock. Today thf canyon is one mile deep and 200 miles (320 km) long. It’s interest ing that there are different kinds of plants and animals on oppositt sides of the canyon. The south side is dry and desert country. Tht north side has tall forests. The canyon looks different at different times of day, and in different seasons and weather. At sunrise and sunset the red, gold, brown and orange colours of the rocks an especially clear and bright. In winter the canyon is partly covered with snow. You can walk down into the Grand Canyon, or you can go down on the back of a mule.^ But be careful to carry enough water because inside the canyon it is very hot — much hotter than at the top. The United States is a young country. Its written history is only years old. It is sometimes, in fact, called the “New World”. Over the last four hundred years millions of people have come to start a new life in this “New World”. Americans are not afraid of new ideas. They built the first skyscrapers and they put the first man on the Moon. They like to be modern. They like exciting, modern cities, new houses, and new cars. At the same time, Americans love old things. They like to museums. They build old pioneer houses Lted ГпЫ f я f- Americans are inter- ested in old traditions, but they are good at making new traditions 1^. a mile [mail] = 1,6 kilometre a mule [mju.'l] — мул natToLbfies^ Ат1г1сап^8сЬооГсМЫ of many different ;: States is a big melting pot of countries.United;- a n^w^metar^The^Unite^^sf^t^ melted together to make : rwonnlp wbnco ^ many. In one city you can find ; from China A^ica ч’ or great-grandparents came • from China, Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, and every Eu- - ropean country. These different people brought to their new land!: u - of customs and traditions. The Germans ■ brought St. Patrick’s Day cele- ;: brations. The Scots brought Halloween you have learnt some more facts about the USA. Could you answer the questions? ^ V I® the US situated? 2. What is it washed by? 3. What is the typical weather of the country? 4. What is the scenery of the country? 5. What is the population of the country? 6. What are the: most famous places to enjoy the beauty and power of wild America? 7. What mighty rivers of the USA do you know? 8. What big mountain chains can you name? 9. What attracts people to the Grand: Canyon? 10. Why do people say that the US is a young country? 11. What do Americans like and interested in? 12. How do you understand the phrase “The US is a big melting pot”? Make an outline of the text, compare your outlines and choose the best, put it up on the blackboard and try to remember as much as you can on each point. Ф LET US TALK Work in pairs. Ask questions on the points below and answer them. the number of people living in the US the waters the US is washed by the kinds of land the US has the size of the Grand Canyon the “New World” the days of the “Wild West” rivers in the US mountain chains the number of states in the US the greatest the biggest in the US the big melting pot a mixture of customs and traditions L Look at the map of the US. find the places mentioned in the tex, and speak about them. Get ready to speak about the following: 1) the US geographical outlook; 2) the US scenery and its wild beauty; 3) the US as a melting pot; 4) how the US compares with Russia. Choose the place in the USA you would like to visit and explain to your group why it attracts you. (If you need some extra mfor. mation, look it up.) Choose one of the beginnings of ex. 3 and make up a story. Tell your story to the class. LET US WRITE Do ex. 1, ex. 2, ex. 3, ex. 6, ex. 8, ex. 15 in writing. Write a letter to your friend. Imagine that you have been to a) the Grand Canyon, b) the Mississippi River. Describe one of these places in your letter. Express the same in English, use Past Perfect. 1. К концу августа они заработали много денег. 2, К концу года они разбили вражеский флот. 3. Он напомнил мне об этом событии после того, как Джон уехал. 4. Мы сожгли сухие листья до того, как выпал снег. 5. Радуга появилась на небе после того, как дождь прекратился. 6. Она срезала цветы до того, как мы пришли в теплицу. 7. Додо — вымерший вид птиц. Они исчезли после того, как люди начали на них охотиться. 8. Огонь разрушил зда ние, прежде чем приехали пожарные. 9. Мисс Марпл разрешила сложную криминальную проблему, прежде чем это смогли сделать полицейские. 10. Маленький Роберт испортил новую игрушку, прежде чем папа объяснил ему, как с ней играть. words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz fn JoM Tn parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you m Russian. Practise writing them in English, farmland, grasslands, wildlandc; п-т.о^+_ endless, a waterway, mightv tn Hqo t a canoe, a shore, a beach, a desXa^^chL a mixture, to melt, a melting not fhl Mi * \ skyscraper, Colorado, the Appal.chl.nfAh; wlih yoST’rSo’'"''''" 10,rod,? Are LET US LISTEHI AND DISCUSS ^Us,o„^ to the recording, @59, and say whose words they are: ; 1- \ was born on the shores of Lake Michigan?” 2. ‘Is It true that Mummy was born in Ireland, in a small village : on the coast of the Irish Sea?” > ^ small village then without any attractions...” 4. “Why are you asking me all these questions?” 5. W^hen Granny told me all those things while I was with her, ' I couldn't understand how we had all met...” Describe the place where a) Dick's mother was born; b) Dick’s great-grandmother had a farm. »»z Ш m v:*:; • ♦. Unit 17 Political Outlook LET US REVIEW Choose one of the two forms. 1. Our school gets ... (hundred, hundreds) of letters every year. .. 2. Five ... (hundred, hundreds) new houses were built in our city last year. 3. You can see ... (million, millions) of stars in the night sky. 4. Six ... (million, millions) tourists visited Rome last summer. ; ivL 5 Our library has received four ... (thousand, thousands) Ыокз 6. ... (thousand, thousands) of pupils nowadays try to lea^ two foreign languages. Answer the following questions using the words and word combi, nations of ex. 9, ex. 10 (Unit 16). 1. What do you call your grandparents’ parents? 2. Do lakes have banks or shores? What about rivers? 3. How do Americans describe themselves as a nation? 4. What is the most famous desert in Africa? 5. What buildings are typical of New York centre? At what temperature does ice melt? Where do rivers usually rise? What adjective can you use to describe the Mississippi and the Volga? What is your favourite attraction in Moscow? What mountain chain separates Europe from Asia? Try and form compound words.’ Use the following: weather, green, scraper, maker, lands, land, sun, maker, farm, shine, sky, house, glove, holiday, storm, rain, man, low, wild Say: a) what these people had done before noon and b) what had happened by the end of the day. Use the words below. Look at the pictures and ■ o’clock on Sunday (the ohrasec: by , T.T 1 г, . Phrases m the word box will help you). Exampl^ Nick had washed his bicycle by six o’clock. Nick to wash a bicycle to bake a cake to do the shopping to take the dog for to hang a picture to rescue a fox to watch a film to look through the magazine SIX Before noon Example: Ann: to write the letter — Ann had written the letter before noon. vM/ Bill; to repair his bicycle Nelly: to do her homework Sarah; to dig the garden Tim: to write a story Polly; to cook dinner Sam; to clean his room the children: to plant twenty trees Chris: to lie in the sun By the end of the day Example: the rain: to stop — The rain had stopped by the end of the day. the rainbow; to appear the play: to end the rain; to begin the race: to finish the sky; to clear the concert: to start the storm: to stop the snow: to start 0 ro^=“bedroom^ (compounds [kam'paundz]) - сложные слова, например: bed + Report what these people asked or said. Example: Phil: There were many wildlands in America. — Phil said there had been many wildlands in America. Ann: Did you see any skyscrapers in New York? — Ann asked if I had seen any skyscrapers in New York. 1. Kitty: What did you find on the beach? 2. Oleg: Where did you see a canoe? 3. Frank: How long did they travel in the Sahara Desert? 4. Alice: How far did the plain stretch? V**. ^5 5 Sam: What do you call the mixture you have prepaid? 6 Nick: Were there many people on the bank of the river? 7. Betty: Have you heard anything of the mighty American rivers? LET US READ AMD LEARM Reported Usually Present Indefinite ^ Past Indefinite 1. Mother said, “I want a cup of tea.” Mother said that she wanted a cup of tea. 2. Sam said, “I am in Moscow for the first time.” Sam said that he was in Moscow for the first time. Usually Past Indefinite о Past Perfect 1. My friend said, “We met long ago.” My friend said that they had met long before. 2. Linda said, “My father bought a new car.” Linda said that her father had bought a new car. Speech General truth, facts Present Indefinite ^ Present Indefinite 1. The teacher said, “Water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade.” ; The teacher said that water ! boils at 100 degrees Centi' | grade. I 2. Sam said, “Moscow is a beautiful city.” Sam said that Moscow is a beautiful city. I Exact time in the past | Past Indefinite^Past Indefinite 1. My friend said, “We met on March 2.” I My friend said that they met on March 2. 2. Linda said, “My father bought a car in 1995.” Linda said that her father i bought a car in 1995. Report what these people said. earth moves round the sun. Two by two is four.” The teacher said: ► The student said: | "Nothing can harm a good "The bridge is the Brooklyn ['bruki in famou! Socrates [’sokrotiiz] said; '"WOL Idrr bridge in New York. The professor said: "The War of Independence ЬедапЛ in 1775 and ended in 1783." ) "The Civil Wari T --*—- V 1861 and ended in 1865." The history teacher explained: 'П America began Nick added: ^JTMexander Pushkin was born in 1799^ Kate thought: Nelly mentioned: "It never snows in Africa. "isjeil Armstrong, an American astronaut, /Alimi-i wi 1^» iOCQ " stepped on the Moon ,n 1969. Tom said: The officer added: * Express the same in English. 1. Анна объяснила, что лёд тает при температуре О градусов. 2. Филипп сказал, что приехал в Россию в июле. 3. Анна добавила, что Филипп любит путешествовать. 4. Сюзи знала, что Шекспир родился в 1564 году, и сказала об этом друзьям. 5. Роберт спросил, когда умер Лев Толстой. 6. Учитель рассказал нам, что римляне впервые пришли на Британские острова в первом веке до нашей эры. 7. Джон сказал, что он был в России три раза, 8. Мы все знали, что Колумб открыл Америку в 1492 году. 9. Анна хотела знать, где берёт своё начало Волга. 10. Борис сказал, что никогда не бывал в пустыне. ♦1« ♦ж ♦1« i ♦1« ♦Ж Ш ¥ 42а к т ♦V ♦т« т t a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. 1 The rnnstitution [,konsti'tju;Jn] is the main law of the country. 2. When people elect their government, they take part in the gleg. tion [I'lekjn]. ,. - , . ^ 3. A congress ['koogres] is a large meeting of people coming fro^ different parts of the country. Congressmen and congresswon^ are members of the US Congress.. 4. The Senate f'senit] is one of the houses in the Ub Congress. A senator [’senatg] is a member of the law-making senate. 5. All the newspapers that are published in a country are calleij the Press [pres]. 6. Religion [n'licfesn] is believing in God or gods. 7. A helper is someone who helps. 8. The vice-president [,vais ’prezidant] in the US is elected together with the president of the country. 9. The Cabinet [’kasbinit] is a group of important ministers who help a president giving him advice on different problems. 10. I am sure everything will be all right, I can guarantee [,gasr9n'ti:j it. 11. It’s often easy to begin a war but difficult to end it. 12. Slavery ['slen-anj is a system by which people (slaves) can be owned by other people. b) Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right. Read the words, look them up and study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. a representative [,repri'zent9tiv] fnj: an important representative, representatives of the country, people’s representatives. In the group of tourists there were representatives of many cities, to represent [.repn'zent] f oj: to represent sb at the conference (meeting, competition). Who is going to represent your class at the competition? a trunk [tr/\j)k] fnj: 1. the trunk of a tree, I sat down on a fallen tree trunk. A hole in the trunk of a big tree was a good home for the squirrel and her young. 2. an elephant’s trunk. With the help of its trunk an elephant takes food and water and puts them to its mouth. a support [s9‘po:t] (n): your friends’ support. Will you help me? 1 need your support. to support (V): to support sb in sth. Will you support me in the pofte^X^m wanted to go to the zoo but nobody sup- obey the rules, to obey orders. They obeyed me without a question. Do you always obey your parents? а term [tsrm] (n): 1. to have a 2. A tain are going term is a period of time between two elections whpn president or a political party is in power ^ a cer- an amendment [amendmant] fn;: an amendment tr. tbo n to make amendments. Changes in the •• amendments. ® ® Constitution are called ;;; to declare [diklea] ("у;: to declare war on a country, to declare the meeting open, to declare one’s loyalty to the country Germany didn’t declare war on Russia in 1941 Jack wpq ^ ner of the fight. I now declare S meeting open ^ a bill [bil] (^)- }■ a hotel bill, a restaurant bill, an electricity bill :■ The bill for dinner was over twelve dollars. Last month my fam-ily got a large telephone bill. ^ -■ parliament the Bill of Rights, to pass a bill, to defeat i’: a bill- The American Congress has just passed a new bill on edu- •: cation. The job of any parliament is to study bills and either pass ■-or defeat them. ^ ;• a decision [di^sisn] (n): an important decision, the right decision, the wrong decision, to take/make a decision. I think that I made •: the wrong decision. It isn’t always easy to make a decision, to vote [v9ut] (v): to vote for/against something. When you vote, • you make your choice or give your opinion by raising your hand ^ or writing on a piece of paper. The people voted “yes” on the : referendum [.refa’rendsm]. a court [ko;t] (n)\ the Supreme Court. Silence in court! Her case^ -: will be heard in the court. to judge [cfeAcfe] (v): to judge a case, to judge a competition, to judge ; the dogs at a dog show, as far as I can judge, it’s difficult to ; judge, judging by... Who will judge the next case? Judging by ; what everyone says about him, he will win the race, a judge (n): a court judge, Judge Simpson, a judge at the competi- :; tions, a judge of music, a judge of poetry. She is a good judge:' of character. I’m no judge of music but I know what I like, a citizen ['sitizn] (n): an American citizen, citizens of Moscow. She is a British citizen but lives in India. When did he become a US citizen? no matter how (what, where, when, who, why) means that it makes no difference how (what, where, when, who, why). Г11 finish the job, no matter how long it takes. I’ll go there, no matter what you may say. , , , ; all in all means taken together. All in all we spent ten days travelling in Italy. , armed forces are the military forces of the country. What can you say about the British armed forces? m m § Ш %ViVw ♦ ♦ • »t ♦ ♦ Ш 'Ш .%V< а case [keis] — случай, судебное дело Match the words and their definitions. an amendment a judge a trunk a citizen a term a representative a support a court a person who settles questions brought before a court a change to make a rule (law) better any of three or four periods of time into which a school year is divided a person who lives in this or that city, state or country a person who is chosen to act in place of others a long round nose of an elephant a room or building in which law cases can be heard or judged an active help to get success the Bill of Rights a bill of parliament a bill on education a bill for dinner to pass a bill to defeat a bill to declare war on the country to declare one’s loyalty to the country amendments to the law the rule the order the Constitution to fight for peace to vote for the law to fight against war to vote against the rule to judge in (the) court to judge (sb/sth) at the competition judging by... Complete the sentences using the prepositions against, at, by, tor, in, on, of, to where necessary. of ПЧД twenty-six amendments ... the Costitution in his school \ ^nfif ^ words he is the best football player Botanical ГягНопа v, + voted ... the excursion to the tbo voted ... it. 4 Every bill ... e British Parliament is discussed both in the House of Commons and in the House of Lords. 5. To пачч « kui ;+, 6. Who is going to judge ... the voUoJk* if nieans to vote ... - bill ... education was passed Vn the USA ^ 7. A new Se people all over the world l?gh? .. меГ w"a? *' your loyalty ... your country but helo vour cnimt ' ^ t declare ^an. 10. A bill ... the electricity comes eve^ mSh.® Complete the sentences using these verbs; to support to declare to represent, to vote, to judge, to obey. « oeciare, l.“I came, I saw, I conquered,”' Julius Caesar 2 “Takino-a shower in the morning is a very good rule, I'd like you to it ” father said. 3. My friend Peter is going to ... our schoS at the English Language Competition. 4. We’ll all ... for Liza to be President of the English Speaking Club. 5. I think Mary speaks good French, but I don t speak any French myself, so I can’t really 6. I’m sure you are right and I promise I’ll ... you in the discus-sion. Ш Ш .••Vi ♦ ♦ ♦ Ш * ♦ ♦ ‘ -•-♦.♦I & ё Listen to the song “America, the Beautiful” and sinq it alonq 60. AMERICA, THE BEAUTIFUL {music by Samuel Ward, words by Katherine Lee Bates) О beautiful for spacious skies, for amber waves of grain, For purple mountain majesties above the fruited plain. America! America! God shed his grace on thee. And crown thy good with brotherhood From sea to shining sea! Ш ■ уШ^ b) Try your hand at translating and give your version of the song in Russian. Discuss your versions with the teacher and choose the best one. These words and word combinations can help you. spacious — просторный, бескрайний, огромный amber — янтарный grain — зд. пшеница majesty — величие, величественность fruited — плодородный to shed (shed, shed) — проливать, осыпать thee = you, thy = your to crown — венчать, увенчивать, вознаграждать, завершать grace — милость ш 1 ш ^ to conquer ['коокэ] — побеждать, победить LET US REAP Learn to read these proper names, ®61 The Civil War [дэ ,sivl 'wo:], the US Capitol [Зэ 'ju: 'es ’kaspitl], the US Constitution [бэ 'ju: 'es ,knnsti'tju;Jn], the Revolutionary War [^3 rev3'lu:Jn9n "wo:], the War of Independence [бэ wo: nv .mdipendons], the House of Representatives [бэ ,haus nv .repn'zentotivz], the Commande-in Chief [бэ ks.mandsr in the US Congress [бэ ju: es 'кщдщ the Supreme Court [бэ su,pri:m 'ko:t], the US Senate [бэ Ju: 'es ’senit] a) Read the text to get some new information about the USA and say what the three main parts of the American government are. b) Divide the text into two logical parts and give them titles. WHO RULES THE COUNTRY? As you know the colonies in America won the Revolutionary War or the War of Independence (1775—1783). After that they became free and independent states, but they had a problem: they needed one strong national government. That’s why in the year 1787 all the states sent their representatives to Philadelphia where they wrote the Constitution. The Constitution is the highest law in the United States which describes the powers of the national government and the powers of the state governments. @ 62. The US government is like a tree with a strong trunk and three branches. The trunk is the people. It holds up the tree: without the support of the people there can be no government. People choose the men who make American laws. The first branch on the tree of government is the Congress. The Congress is a meeting of representatives from all states. The people elect those representatives. ► The Congress makes the laws that j • ' gress meets in the US Capitol in Walh^^t^^ Con- :• is divided into two parts, the Senate and ?Ьо"н Congress :• tives. Every state, no matter how iLL Representa- :• to the Senate. These people are called senate^ •: dred senators m the Senate. A senator’' state also sends people to the House of Reor^» ' called congressmen or congresswomen. The numhet^nf'®®' ' from each state depends on the number of of congressmen ; state. The larger states have morrcongSssS'tb'^^® ■ States. All in all there are 435 congressmen sentatives. A representative’s term is two years^ Т^Ггоп gives many powers to the Congress. One imnnrt=I+ Constitution Congress is the power to declare war. ^ power of the The second branch of government *iJ 1 m m 2. The US Congress: • what the word “congress” means; • what the Congress does; • where it meets; • what its two parts are; • what you know about the Senate and senators; • what you know about the House of Representatives and congressmen. 3. The US President and his helpers: • what the President does; • who helps the President; • who can become President; • how long one can be President; • when people vote for their President. 4. The Supreme Court: • what the Supreme Court does; • how many judges there are in the court; • how long the judges work in the court. 5. Amendments to the US Constitution: • why amendments are made; • how many amendments there are; i . .u • what the first ten amendments are called and what they are • what you remember about the 13th and 14th amendments; • which amendments gave the right to vote and to whom. m m Ш Щ * ■ m ■ ■ :1Я Ш т let us write Do ex. 3, ex. 4, ex. 5, ex. 6, ex. 7, ex. 8 in writing. Complete these sentences. 1. The US Constitution was written .... 2. ... is Commander Chief. 3. The judges work in the Supreme Court — 4. The President’s term is .... 5. There are ... amendments to the US Constitution. 6. The Bill of Rights guarantees to people of the USA such important rights as — 7. ...» the 26th amendment .... 8. The second branch of government .... 9. The Congress is .... 10. The Congress meets .... 11. There are ... senators in the Senate. 12. The number of congressmen from each state depends on .... 13. ... declare war. 14. The President ... and then they become laws. a) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling цц\г on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. a constitution, an election, congress, a congressman, a senate, a senator, the press, religion, a helper, a vice president, Cabinet, guarantee, an end, slavery, a representative, a trunk, to support, to obey, a term, an amendment, to declare, a bill, a decision, to vote, a court, a judge, a citizen, no matter how, all in all, armed forces b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctly? Are you pleased with your result? LET us LISTEN AND DISCUSS ^a) Make sure you know these expressions: [klak] — служащий аэропорта VIP [,vi;ai pi;J = a very important person the recording, @63. Say which of these sentences are not true and correct them. 1. It was always difficult to travel by plane. ’ and”Lmy*people!^”^^ needed for government representatives 4 Mr was not a very important person. lectSe Edinburgh to listen to some important 5. A very important same day. ■ * •«w • • ♦>%?4 0^ same aay. 6. Mr Brown had to give his seat to the offirpr 7. Mr Brown was given another seat on ihi f 8. The important officer arrived in EdinbSro-?T®’ • 9. Mr Brown was late for the lecture. a lecture. Answer these questions. 1. Why was it difficult to travel bv ^ War? ^ the Second World 2- during the war-^ 3. Why did very few people know how imnnri=,ni л/г r, 4. Where did Mr Brown have to fly one^av?^ ^ 5. What for did he have to fly to Linburgh? 6. Why couldn t Mr Brown fly to Edinburih? E ri.s;u''r„‘s'b‘“ghr^ •.v;v .•.vJv .\v>} .•.v;v • • «4ni? Л ж Unit 18 » ♦ # ф ♦ ♦ ♦ • • Ф Ф* L I » ф *.v*vl4 * * ^ • * * •.•AW ;» .•♦♦A • ♦ • American Presidents a LET US REVIEW Remember at least five things about the US political system. Com pare them with what the other students have remembered. Example: The US Congress makes up laws. Complete the sentences using the words and word combinations from the box. no matter, all in all, election, leap year, decision, Press, religions, representative, trunk, judge (2), amendments, support, citizen 1 Thirty days has September, April, June and wcyemoer all 1. Thirty days na j^as twenty-eight alone, but for 2t I SIX pupils yet, Гт afraid. 6. time it is going to that the Queen is a June and November, au the rp«t hflve thirtv-one. i^’ebruary паи uwcuy -----: TMt’s the time when February has twenty-nine. 2 I want all tiie I can get, I really need help. 3. He has been a British ... S his life 4 There are 12 girls and 14 boys in our class: twenty. 5^__What’s your ...? — I haven t decided anything Are there any ... to this law? 7* *** ^Uch take we still have to do this job. 8. They say good ... of horses. 9. The court consists of a number of .... Ю. What has a ..., though it is not a tree? 11 America is often described as a melting pot and people of dif. ferent ... live there side by side. 12. The head teacher couldn’t be present himself, but he sent his ... to the meeting. 13. It s difficult to imagine modern life without the ...r newspapers, magazines and journals. 14. At a general ..., the people of Britain vote to choose which party will form the government. The year 1980 was a leap year. Say which of these years were also leap years. 1970, 1976, 1982, 1984, 1989, 1992, 1994, 1996. EF Open the brackets and use the correct forms of the verbs. 1. My friend was sure that Ferdinand Magellan [Тз:6тэп6 тэ'деЬп] (discovered/had discovered) Australia. But I told him he (is/wa^) wrong. 2. Our history teacher explained to us that the Revolutionary War in America (tooh/had taken) place in the 18th century. 3. Betty knew that she (did/had done) everything she could to win the competition. 4. We asked Professor Smith when he (came/had come) to Moscow and how many places of interest he already (saw! had seen), 5. Little John believed that Canada (is/was) in the South of the American Continent. 6. We all wanted to know where in New York the Statue of Liberty (is/was) situated. 7. The children asked what cities in the USA we (saw/had seen), 8. Father told me that I (made/had made) a mistake in my school test. 9. We all knew that Germany (didn*t declare/hadn't declared) war on the Soviet Union in 1941. 10. He said he always (supported/had supported) T +• I,- ^^^tinuous 1. I was meeting him at 3 o’clonV , . 2. While I was cooking, she wa4 va 3. When he came in, I Past Perfect 1. I said I had met him the day before 2. Our boss had signed all the мпЛ/к ^ 3. The meeting had begun before в/ «’dock. came. ^•choose the right item. ^ 1. When we got up, the a) already rose b) had already risen c) has already risen sun me. 11. Not all the pupils knew that the US President (is/was) the/ Commander in Chief of the country’s armed forces. | Incomplete __________ ' 1. When 1 2. Many years ago people .... a) wore funny clothes b) wear funny clothes c) had worn funny clothes 3. I ... home very early yesterday afternoon. a) had come b) was coming c) came 4. When we entered the hall, the music .. loudlv a) was playing b) played c) had played 5. While niy friend I wp watching the birds, a) fished b) had fished c) was fishing 6. He said I ... up the story myself. a) made b) make c) had made 7. My elder brother ... school 3 a) finishes b) finished 8. Before mother called us, she ... the table, a) set b) was setting c) had set years ago. c) had finished FOCUS Past Simple 1. I met him yesterday. cottage, opened the door and looked into the room. 3. We used to travel a lot when we were young. > * * • vW ■ the sentences opening the brackets. и I'^ng, the children (to run) into the classroom and seats. 2. When I opened the door, the lesson (to begin) and the teacher (to explain) something to the class. 3. Before we (to take) the boy to the theatre, he (never to see) a play. 4. I (to clean) the carpet when the dog (to come) and (to shake) himself. 5. By the^ ime we (to arrive) the party (to finish), 6. — What you (to do) when' i (to call) you? — 1 (to cook), 7. When 1 (to get) to the playground,: hiy friend already (to leave) so I (not to see) him that day. 8. We: [to have) a good long holiday after we (to do) all the work. ■ш .4%vJC4 Wm * ♦ ♦чА УЛЛЩ щ ■уШ 4. LET US READ AlUP LEARM Phrasal Verb to take 1. to take after — быть похожим на кого-либо из старших род. ЕуегуЗГ'зауа that I take after my father, but my little brother Paul takes after our mother. 2. to take away — убрать, унести (прочь), увести (прочь) If you are not going to eat the cake, take Could you take the children away: I don t think they should see this film. 3. to take off — a) снимать (об одежде); b) взлетать (о самолёте, вертолёте) . . , Таке your coat and hat off, it’s quite warm in here. When is the time for the aeroplane to take off? 4. to take back — отнести на место, вернуть Don’t forget to take the books back to the library. We made the girl take the dog back to its master. 5. to take down — a) снимать; b) записывать {под диктовку) I hate this picture on the wall up there and I want to take it down. Let’s take the curtain down and wash them. Would you like to take my telephone number down? Complete the sentences using the missing words. 1. He came home, took ... his shoes and changed his clothes. 2, Can I ask you to take this bicycle ... to Peter? 3. I was surprised to see how much the boy took ... his father. 4. We’ve got to take ... all the portraits in the classroom and dust them. 5. I don’t need the magazines anymore, you can take them .... 6. Look, the plane is going to take — 7. What are all these books doing here? Why don’t you take them ... to the bookcase? 8. There are a few words that I want you to take .... 9. The king ordered them to take the boy ... and punish him. Express the same in English. 1. Можно мне снять свитер? На улице очень тепло. 2. Как только самолет взлетел, у меня ужасно разболелась голова. 3. Я хочу, ^^писал мой новый адрес. 4. Все дети похожи на свое-KRMrv веселые и работящие. 5. Пожалуйста, отнеси эту SS снимем^Г старая. . 7. Убери отсюда свои игрушки, пожалуйста. ► enough + N enough money enough time enough water enough books Enough Adj/Adv/V +enough warm enough good enough well enough to earn enough 0 Express the same in a different way. Example: He has a lot of money. He can buy a car He has enough money to buy a car. Jup TteVt HVhfrto"d7thr:e go to ted he did only two. 3. The BardS « trees. He had only three trees. 4. You eat very little Yn f «hn,,T^ eat more. 5 This house is very big and .11 S tamUyl^S own rooms. 6. The boy IS not very strong. He can’t carry this box !‘hfs‘dT,ta7arLf,';' translate IF Complete the sentences, make them true. 1. Yesterday I didn’t have enough time .... 2. My room is not big enough to ... . 3. We didn’t have enough chairs when ... . 4. I’m old enough to ... . 5. I have enough money to .... 6. Last*Sunday I was lazy enough to .... 7. In this classroom we have/don’t have enough .... Express the same in English. Достаточно холодно; достаточно хорошо; достаточно хороший; до-; статочно мила; достаточно зарабатывать; достаточно чисто; доста-; точно еды; достаточно трудиться. а) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. 1. “Good evening, ladies ['leidiz] and gentlemen [’cfeentlman]. I am very glad you’ve all come here!” 2. He is an honest man. I admire his honesty ['onisti], 3. In the USA a militia [mi'lijs] is like an army but its members are not professional soldiers. 4. My granny always tells me stories before I go to bed. She is n good storyteller ['sto:ri,tel3]. 5. He got his education in Oxford. He is a very educated man. A major ['meic{59] is an officer of middle rank in the army. * •-♦-♦I'*’ 1 ж 4* On 'ftraway [fnSve.] place is one that is far from you. If you 1ц 9 h?vf.'afflcs [tfansl to visit London? b} Look those words op to make sore yoo have goessed right. Bead the words, look them "P “"‘‘.•"f, tions and sentences to know how to use the . orivate r'praivitl (adi): a private room, a private shower, a private garden, a private interview, a private discussion, private thoughts, private plMS. Something that is private is for one person only or for a small group of people. I have always wanted to have to shooV^LIkt ™sho’t, shot (v): to shoot well, to s^ot badly, to shoot at something. The men were ready to shoot. He snot at the bird but missed. to shoot an arrow:^ I shot an arrow into the air, to measure ['шезэ] (v)i to measure land, to measure length and width, to measure the room. To measure means to find the size, length and width of things and people. You can measure the length of the box with a ruler. The dressmaker measured lady Ascott. a measure (n): The metre is a measure of length, to trust [trASt] (u): to trust a person, to trust one’s words, to trust one’s advice. Everybody liked and trusted him. She didn’t trust anybody to look after her child. Do you really trust his advice? to respect [n'spekt] fvj: to respect people, to respect somebody’s feelings, to respect somebody’s courage, to respect traditions. If you respect someone, you think well of him and his ideas. Do you respect such people, such politicians? respect {nj: “I had a real respect and admiration for him,” she said. Why do you never show any respect for the lady? wisdom ['wizdsm] (nj: to show a lot of wisdom, a man of wisdom, to speak with wisdom. At least she had the wisdom to keep silent, an event [iVent] fnj: an important event, a possible event, political and cultural events. An event is something that happens. You can’t control the events, can you? shy [Jai] (adj): a shy girl, a shy smile, a shy look. I’ve always been a bit shy in the company of older people. I don’t know why she was so shy at the party and didn’t speak to anyone, о retire [ntaia] (y): to retire from the company, to retire from arming, to retire at the age of 60. When someone retires, he stops doing his job. When did your granddad retire? ^ ^ big/large crowd, a silent crowd. The court of holidflvTTi L- crowds. Did she say there are always crowds 01 holidaymakers on these beaches? ^ an arrow [’аегэи] — стрела to push [puj] (v): to push a door + John pushed the door to open it ® Person to n, i. his bicycle? Why did little Sam ' ^ poverty ['pnvoti] (n): to live in pover+ ^^^e to push There are thousands of peonb suffer fmm she had suffered much f?on? pov^v^® -:v:^ a stepmother [step.mAfls] (n)- A ” say married your father after vm.^r the womnn u stepmother look after the girl? died. Did^Cbin'^^i^®® a stepfather, . stepehild, . sC.ughter . ^ u. ^;;s’^ss‘ir;;wra(wa;;s^Z^^tr^™^ narcl* to borrow [Ъпгэи] rt>;: to borrow a book from the library to borrow •‘••••Й' one’s car, to borrow one’s bicycle, to borrow word7bom otheT-;::*:^ languages. »>l4 1. To borrow means to ask for something that belongs to anoth- '-X'^S er person and promise that you will give it back. Could I borrow your car for tomorrow? 2. to borrow words, to borrow ideas. English has borrowed a lot of words from other languages. - \0 a) Nick h3S 7 friends. Say why he respects them. Example: Bob / to look after his little cousins - Nick respects Bob because he looks after his little cousins. 'УУУШ fXi.-- J T_a..l_ / £ • -П,.-!!»! ' Decause ne iooks alter ms little cousins. Kitty and Jack / to be friendly and kind — Nick respects Kitty and Jack because they are always friendly and kind. ^ 1. Philip / to be brave 2. Sue / to do everything herself Щ Щ — Ш 3. Апп and Polly / to read a lot and to know; iv>K*t^ much A -ШШ 4. Andy and Alan / to be hon- ■ est '♦W 5. Peter / to help birds and animals b) Do you have friends you respect? Say why you respect them. • ?v Ю0с1 8эу« 1) what people encourage small children; 2) how teachers and parents encou ^ 3) what can be pnvate; ^ on hotel and bus (train) service. I! crow* ot people 1„ su„„„ other seasons; . ?! рЙ ?,^?о'ГГр«и.1с.1 events in one county § Kch“hOT?“rs of”,“?‘faveuriS’books spent their ehildh 10) what people usually do to open a door. Sav a few words about the chances you had to do something уоц wanted to do but didn’t use them. Explain why. Example: Last week I had a chance to see ‘ Hamlet > but didn’t (use it) as I had no time (was busy, didn t have the money, couldn’t buy the tickets, etc.). Look at the words and say which of these can be shy, can^t be shy, are hardly ever shy. Example: Generals are hardly ever shy. girls a look kings queens boys a book game poets Gowers a chance generals a smile Mr Brown’s wife died last year. He has a son called Don and a daughter called Alice. In January Mr Brown married Mary, She also has a son John and a daughter called Sara. What is their relationship? Example: John and Sara are Mr Brown’s stepchildren. w 1 Mr Brown ... John’s .... o' Sara .■■ Mr Brown’s .... Don ... Mary’s .... A Mary ... Alice’s .... 5* Mr Brown ... Sara s — g'Alice ... Mary’s .... Listen to the poem “The Arrow and the Sona” ® кл Then learn it by heart. What is the main idea’the THE ARROW AND THE SONG (by H. W. Longfellow) I shot an arrow into the air, It fell to earth, I knew not where-For so swiftlyi it flew, the sight^’ Could not follow it in its flight. I breathed a song into the air, It fell to earth, I knew not where* For who has sight so keen^ and strong That It can follow the flight of a song? Long, long afterward,”* in an oak^ I found the arrow still unbroke; And the song from beginning to end, I found again in the heart of a friend. LET US READ I ▼ Learn to read these words, ®65. Virginia [vo'cfeinia], Philadelphia [.fib'delfia], Mount Vernon [,maunt 'уз:пэп], New York City [,nju: 'jo:k 'siti], Kentucky [ken'tAla], Indiana [,indi'aen9], Aesop’s Fables ['i;sops Teiblz], Robinson Crusoe ['rabinsan ’kiusou], Ford’s Theatre ['fo:dz '0ю1э], George Washington 'wolioton], Abraham Lincoln ['eibrahsem 'liqksln], Abe [eib]. ^ swiftly ['swiftli] — быстро sight [salt] — зрение, взгляд ^ keen [ki:n] — острый afterward ['(xftawsd] — потом, позже ® an oak [эик] — дуб and read it. poem? • • .4%V: •%%V! • . •••%♦>! ..••vlv ■ * * * ♦ • .*.**%v • • * vKi ■ *.v»;?l 1 i. rtf я\\ the American presidents Read the text and why American history) СеД there are more are especially remembered. Washington and Abranam TWO AMERICAN PRESIDENTS The first US President known to all Americans as “The Father of the Nation” was George Washington. George was born in Virginia into a planter’s^ family. When the boy was eleven, his father died. The family had a lot of land but not enough money to send George to school in England as rich families used to do at that time. The boy went to a private school and, later, two private teachers taught him to be a soldier and a Virginia gentleman. George learned to ride a horse, to hunt, shoot, sail and swim. Because he was good at arithmetic, he also learned to measure land. The young man went to faraway parts of the country to measure land for those who built their houses there. He spent hours on horseback in all kinds of weather. He learned to sleep out, cook his own meals, and work hard every day. Everyone liked and trusted young George. George Washington began his career^ in the service of his country as a major in the Virginia militia and later became Commander in Chief of the Colonial Army during the Revolutionary War. He was among those who wrote the US Constitution in Philadelphia. People respected him for his courage, honesty and wisdom. ^ a planter [’plaints] = a plantation owner ^ a career [кэ'пэ] — карьера дfter the Revolutionary War Washington wanted to retire and ' V fat Mount Vernon where he had a beautiful hmiae • Station. But he knew that his duty was to serve his country hI- ''' P f ied off to New York City which was the capital then On' Sil 30. before a large crowd Washington promised to '- ^pWve/.P>:otect and defrad the Constitution of the United-' States”. This is how George Washington became the first President S the country and served two terms. He refused a third term and 1797 he retired to Mount Vernon where he died two years later. ^ Ж 66. Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the USA. Like Georgo Washington, he takes a special place in the list of American . ^’"^дЬе grew up in the Middle West. His first home was a small, ne-room house in the woods. His family were pioneers who helped to fight Indians and push the borders of the United States farther-lest. The family lived in poverty. His parents moved from Kentucky to Indiana when Abe was 7, and this was his home for 14 years. Thomas Lincoln, Abe’s father, hoped to make a better living^ there. Soon the mother died. Abe and his sister were lonely-until their father married again. Abe’s stepmother encouraged the; bov to study. Although he had little chance to go to school, he liked, to read. He taught himself by reading the books he could get, such as the Bible, Aesop’s “Fables” and “Robinson Crusoe”. He often walked miles to borrow a book. Abe grew fast. He learned to do the hard work of the pioneer, such as cut trees and take care of the crops.^ He usually won in tests of strength with other boys. Everyone liked him and everyone said he was a born storyteller. But no one could say that this shy young man with a quiet voice would become one of the greatest American presidents. , x t,i- ■ When Abe Lincoln was twenty-one, the family moved to Bhnois fili'noil From then on,^ Abe called Illinois his home. For a while he worked in a store. Later he joined the militia and fought m an Indian War. After the war he walked home with an educated young bwvpr This new friend gave Abe advice to study law. Abrkham Lincoln became a lawyer and ^ д^е® brought their problems to him. They began to call him bone^^ ^ and trusted him to do what was right and honest. rp^putatives excellent speaker. He was elected to the House of ^ in US Congress. In 1861 he became the 16t In the same year the Civil War began, so Lincoln had to ^lead tne country through the four terrible years о . v slavery, northern and southern states to stay together and he hated slavery ^ to preserve [prr'zaiv] — сохранять ^ to make a better living — начать жить лучше crops = harvest ** from then on — c того времени ♦ ♦ ♦ .44Vj» m Ш '.VAV. •••A*» ■ ■Ш ■Ш m • +inn Proclamation^ the documg., 1ЙЙЯ he signed the Emancipatio ^ event in the histoj In 1863 he sign North won the Civil War. рЛ of fhT united States.^ln Lincoln was shot in Ford’s The' nr% ih0 t0xt* ‘ Answer the questions О 2. What things d'' 1 Where was George Washmgt ^ George Washi le."V 4- Why did people «spect й:: I r. ж • T T . learn to do when he was a boy/ o. wxiau vvasnin + ’ do during the Revolutionary War? 4. Why did people respect v ^ 5. What did Washington want to do after the Revolutionary 6. When did George Washington become the first president ... . ЛЬгяЬят the Sd S^fshington47come the first president 6. When did Geor&e msnij Abraham Lincoln ЬогЙ 8°Hiw did little Abe teach himself? 9. Why did people like you„' Ahe Tincoln*^ 10 Who gave Lincoln an idea to become a lawyer? ts happemnlin the country at the t.me ^ was President? 12. What great event in t e istory happened in 1865? Consult the text (ex. 21) and complete the information about th two American presidents. George Washington • was the ... American president • was born into a ... family • ... teachers • when a young man he learned to ... • took part in the ... War • he was a professional ... • people had a lot of respect for him because ... • people remember him because Abraham Lincoln • was the ... American president • was born into a ... family • ... no teachers • when a young man he learned to ... • took part in the ... War • he was a professional ... • people had a lot of respect for him because ... • people remember him because Compare the two presidents and say which of the two: 1) was born into a rich family 2) went to school 3) enjoyed reading 4) took part in the Revolutionary War 5) became a lawyer 6) was shy 7) wrote the US Constitution 8) was called “The Father of the Nation” 9) made the slaves free 10) died in his home 11) was president during a war 12) grew up in the Middle West Proclamation [i.mffinsi'pei/n .proklo'meijn] — закон об отмене рабства let us talk I Work in pairs. Ask each other ^bout a) George Washington- ы ak®"® 9et того , should use the teblee below a)^george ex. 30. Born February 22, 1732 ~~ Birthplace ? Parents Occupations ? Married Martha Custies ['kAstisL 17.5Q Children ? Age when he became President 57 Died ? b) Abraham Lincoln Born ? Birthplace near Hodgenville ['hocfeanvil] Parents ? Occupations lawyer Married ? Children four sons Age when he became President ? Died April 15, 1865, age 56 • • ♦ ♦-f * • ♦ . • 1,1T4 • • ♦ Л .4%%V •*.v;v • * ♦ * * ♦ ф^ф Lincoln. Say all you can about a) George Washington; b) Abraham Li Don’t forget to write an outline of your story. I^What other US presidents do you know? What do you know about * them? Ш i? Кг:- К-:- ► ♦ ♦ # ♦ « * ♦ ♦ ♦ • • • • ♦ ♦ « ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ • • а, Match the P»rt-«'jJ,rem“" and the information ^im/her about KJsT?SS«Te!,Th./h^-li' you can. One Of a) Bill Clinton b) John F. Kennedy c) Abraham Lincoln d) Thomas Jefferson e) George Washington f) Franklin D. Roosevelt Born: February 12, 1809. Died: April 15, 1865. Occupation: lawyer. Important event in his term: Civil War. Interesting fact: the tallest president (6,4 feet =1,95 metres). The 16th American president. В Born: May 29, 1917. Died: November 22, 1963. Occupation: politician, writer. Important event in his term: Cuban Crisis ['kjubsn 'kraisis]. Interesting fact: got a prestig* ious [pre'stict59s] prize for newspaper writing; was the youngest person ever elected president. The 35th American president. Born: April 13, 1743. &: 4, 1826. Occupation: lawyer, inventor. Important event in his term: Louisiana Area was bought from France. Interesting fact: had a nickname “Red Fox” (can you guess why?). The 3rd American president. E Born: August, 1946. Died: Occupation: university lecturer, lawyer, governor.* Important event in his term: a terrorist air attack at the World Trade Centre in New York (September, 2001). Interesting fact: didn’t want to serve in the Vietnam War; can play the saxophone [’sasksofoun]. The 42nd American president. dS December U, 1^1 Sr. Int5est?ng & The 1st American president. 'January 30, 1882. Died: April 12, 1945. ticcupation; lawyer Important event in his term: World War II. Interesting fact: the only pres- 3 terms. ine d2nd American president. • . • * • * * ■•^v*vb •.44%W ■•••VAV *-‘*V*%V •*.v#v5 ■•••VAV •••♦VAV Ш •-♦ТА • • • •.v*VA •.••♦♦♦аФ * • ♦« • . » « • • ♦ ♦ • • •♦♦Л? ’ * • Ф yyyMfi •^VA♦AI •■•V*VA2 »:a% Щ Ш & 0 Say if you know the names of the Russian Presidents Who was the first Soviet President and when? Who was the first Rissian President? • • ♦ AW • • • A%T»_ • • • « * ■ > » Ф * ‘ • ♦ Ф Ф^А| •AV>A •'.•♦•♦❖a Ш if See ex. 25. a) George Washington •.%VAi •.*.VAV Born ? Birthplace Bridges Creek, Virginia Parents ? Occupations land measurer, soldier, planter Married 7 '.v*v>5 * .-.vlvj .-.4VA 'M governor [’длуэпэ] — губернатор • VAV •/AVV • • • ♦л' ш Children -T Martha’s two children bvT^ first marriage, no chiia”®’’ of his own nren Age when he became President ? Died December 14, 1799, h) Abraham Lincoln Born February 12, 1809 " Birthplace ? ^ Parents Thomas ['tomos] and Hanks Lincoln Occupations ? " Married Mary Todd, 1842 Children ? ' Age when he became President 52 Died ? ' LET US WRITE IP Do ex, 6, ex, 8, ex. 9, ex, 10 in writing. Express the same in English. никогда не уважал таких людей. 2. Нелл дедушка пойдёт на пенсию. 3. Джон хоте прежде не житт п сестра. 4. Боб сказал мне, что никог; ряют своему новом^дру^ру 6 дТ велосипед. 7. Она скаЕ^«-г« ^ попросил меня подтолкну! ИХ учеников 8 Аииа всегда пытается приободрить св( слуГбе "Sib я» о проработала*^» гост*иничн. лять? 10. Она сказала' что я просил тебя не стр( (этим шансом). ’ воспользовалась этой возможность! я» Look at the words again and get reariw ■ on them. Ask your parent, relative or friln^ tT!!® ® ®Р®"'П9 quiz you in Russian. Practise writing thej!^n the words Я gentleman, hnnoo+tr ------- toj^" _________________ willing them in English miol’ farlway, hoiiebSf a’ chm?e‘’ private'?’"l, courage, to borrow stepmother, to en- b) Write the quiz. How many words did vou writ<> you pleased with your result? correctly? Are let us listem aiud discuss a) Make sure you know these: b) Listen to the recording, @67, and say which of these sentences are not true and correct them. emenc •.VAWJ •%%4W3 •.44V>>b ■‘У>Ш \%VtVa 1. Henry was an officer in the US Army. 2. Henry went to London to get educated. 3. In London Henry went to visit his friend who was a doctor 4. Dr Martin Smith was a very good doctor. ’ .-.v.sjra 5. Dr Smith’s patients paid him fifty pounds for their first visit. 6. Henry decided to save five pounds. 7. The doctor explained to Henry that he had to take five different medicines. Listen to the story again and answer the questions. 1. What was Henry’s occupation? 2. How well did Henry shoot? 3. Where did Henry decide to go once? 4. How did he feel in London? 5. What did Henry ask the clerk at the hotel? 6. Why did the clerk recommend Henry Dr Martin Smith? 7. How much did the patients pay for their visits when they came to Dr Smith? 8. Why did Henry say he had already visited Dr Smith? 9. What did the doctor tell Henry to do? 10. Do you think the doctor’s advice will help Henry to recover? m Ш ■ Tell the story “How He Saved 5 Pounds” to your friends. Unit 19 Consolidation Three LET US TALK Say what you remember about: a) • the geography of Scotland • its capital • the Edinburgh festival b) • the geography of Wales • the languages spoken Wales its capital in c) • the US scenery • the US rivers and mountains • the big melting pot • the Revolutionary War • the US Constitution • some of the American presidents iP imaaine that you are going to meet a US Congressman. Prepare 8—10 questions that you would like to ask him about his country. ^ b) Work in pairs. Act out the dialogue with the US Congressman for whom you have prepared your questions. How well do you know Scotland? Give names to the sights in the pictures. Hr t •**v*wji •^VAvJi :*!*%%й4й * * * • • • * • * 1Г1г1Л * • • ^Give five reasons why you would like to go to Wales. Work in pairs and complete the dialogue, give it a title, then act it out. Ludmila: Hi, Dmitry! Where have you been? I haven’t seen vou for^ ages. ^ Dmitry: and then LudmilcL* To the United States? Great! Some people are luckier than others. Did you like it there? Dmitry: Yes, it was wonderful. Our group visited several big cities in the US. Ludmila: ...? Which of them did you like most? Dmitry: We^went to .... But the most interesting was Washington,: Ludmila: Why Washington? I was sure it was not so important as; New York. Dmitry: Washington, D. C. is very important; .... Ludmila: Did you go to the place where the US government works? Dmitry: What do you mean by the US government? It is not as easy as you think.............. Ludmila: All this is very interesting but I didn’t quite get what they do in the Capitol and in the White House. Dmitry: .... Ludmila: I hope I’ll have a chance to go to the US some day, see the White House and walk about the Capitol. Comment on this: ‘The USA: one nation, many different people.” 5 — Афппйсьвпа, e КЛ. Ч.; •.VAVje *.4vIvS *.**%*4%.^A y.>>m УУУЖ4 у.«Щ .4vIwS .■гШ ш •уЛЩ уулШ 1 work ,n pairs. R.ad .he ppes»»"' »"« ans^, them. The USA of the twentieth century do yon ](n 1. What American presid where are American laws What are they ^ty American rivers? What Ire 3. Can you name any mign у ^ Where do they rise a almost every kind of erL^ty^'‘Ve°VrS£»y"n one o, Ашег.оа-е attractions? Scotland 1 What is the symbol of Scotland? 2. What city is the largest and busiest in Scotland? 3. What are the most interesting attractions? Scotland? 1. What Welsh cities can you name? 2. Will you call Wales an ag-ricultural or an industrial country. Why/ LET US READ Read the text and say what you think about American food and drink; if there are any fast food restaurants in the place where you live. AMERICAN FOOD AND DRINK (by Terry Tomsha) 0 68. What is “American” food? The answer is that it is part Italian, part British, part German, part Mexican, part Chinese... When people from other countries came to live in the US, they brought different cooking traditions. Some of them opened restaurants. Today Americans enjoy food from all oyer the world. Over the years some foreign dishes changed a little. Doughnuts^ were originally from Holland. But doughnuts with a hole in the middle are American. In 1847 a young American boy told his mother that doughnuts were never cooked in the mid- cooked them - and they we?e%e?y resSante le'J^ed foods”. The first fast food __________________^burgers, but now they serve other kinds of ' a doughnut [Уэипл!] - пончик vourseu ----yuu want.* “ J-”** oan help ^ Americans eat a lot, and when they go tn p * expect to be hungry afterwards. Most restaurantsdon’t food on your plate - sometimes it can be too Luch R t^ of finish it all, don t worry: they will gWe you У°^‘ oan’t pan take it home. ^ У"»^ ^ doggy bag” and you Most Americans now have a light brpptfQc^. • . tioifal eggs, bacon, toast orangeluice and cfffee St °t there is more time, and a large late breakfpcV ^ weekends (‘Vunch”) is often eaten with family or friends a) Say why you think: n American food is part Italian, part British r.a.-+ n 2) much famous food in America is “fast food”^ ^ German, etc.; 3) there are usually ‘“salad bars” inside fast food restaurants- 4) restaurant people bring “doggy bags” to those who Jp^u V- • u all the food on their plates; why “doggy bag^ +W ^ 5) Americans now have a light breakfast ^ ^ b) Say how American food and drink compares with Russian. ymm * * * 9 ■Шщ ■у>>Ш • • ♦ ♦ ллт ;.4v;$ * vw Express the same in English. 1- В воскресенье я буду готовить праздничный обед. 2. Вечером мы не будем смотреть телевизор, мы будем читать новую книгу. В семь часов мы будем встречать маму на вокзале. 4. Когда вы придёте, они не будут обедать, они будут ждать вас. 5. Завтра VW%V.‘. утром мы будем сажать цветы около школы. 6. Ученики fi са не будут писать диктант на следующем уроке английск ^ ка, они будут читать новые тексты, 7. Приходите на с этим писателем, он будет рассказывать о своих книгах вы будете делать завтра после обеда? 9. Они будут танцев * концерта? 10. В следующем году мой старший брат буд^^ французский язык. ^ ^Ить at 6 o’clock yesterday 1. I was watching the match on television. 2. Were you working when I phoned you? 3. Nick wasn’t typing his article. ▼ at 6 o’clock tomorrow 1 I will be watching the match on TV. 2. Will you be working when I come? 3. Nick won’t be typing his article. Choose the right item. 1 Tom (wasn't/won’t be) using his bicycle this evening. You may take it. 2. Be quick! In five minutes granny (was/will be) telling us my favourite tale. 3. Ann looked so beautiful. She (was/will be) wearing a new blue dress. 4. What (will you be/were you) doing after the film? Can you take the dog for a walk? 5, She says probably she (was/will be) having a sea voyage in May next year. 6. (Will you be/Were you) reading when Nick phoned? Phrasal Verb to give 1. to give back — отдавать назад, возвращать It’s my school bag. Give it back. I have read all these books and I want to give them back. 2. to give out — раздавать Could you, please, give these exercise books out? Now I’d like to give you out some books. 3. to give away — отдавать, дарить She has given away all her best books. I don’t want to keep this money, I prefer to give it away. 4. to give up a) отказаться, бросить, перестать заниматься чем-то Ь) отказаться от мысли решить какую-то проблему (сдаться) Don’t give up hope. *° ®''’' to n„d Guess what it means: I don’t know, I give up. What is it? give up the idea of doing something At last we gave up the idea of travelling in such had Why did you give up the idea of learning FrLch?^“ weather. out, Complete the sentences using the right word; back away, up- 1 Where is your collection of badges? — Oh, I’ve given it I’m not interested in badges anyinore. 2. My friend Liza said she would never give ... singing. And I think she is right. 3. I want to ask Mike to give me ... my bicycle: I d like to ride it after school. 4 Who can help me to give this food ? 5. Please don’t give ... the idea of joining our basketball team. You are one of the best players I’ve ever met. 6. She always gives ... old newspapers and magazines after she has read them. 7. Have you given the books ... to the library • yet? 8. My father gave ... skiing after he broke his leg. Express the same in English. 1. Мне можно раздать все эти тарелки и чашки? Помогите мне, • пожалуйста. 2. Никогда не расставайся с надеждой. 3.—Угадай, какой из двух городов — столица Австралии: Сидней или Канбер-ра (Sydney or Canberra)? — Не знаю. Я сдаюсь. Скажи мне. 4. За- : чем ты отдала этот журнал? Я ещё не читала его. 5. Я перестала : заниматься танцами (dancing), когда мне было десять лет. 6. Я не ; могу отказаться от мысли съездить в Лондон, чтобы увидеть этот ; город собственными глазами. 7. Катя вернула книгу рассказов, теперь ты можешь взять её. 8. Попробуй ещё раз, не сдавайся.. Ты можешь это сделать. а) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. 1. — Can you give me another name for a “car”? Of course I can., A car is the same as an automobile [‘о:1этэЫ:1]. ^ 2. In this climate we need greenhouses to grow tropic^ [trppikl] plants. 3. There are many beautiful places on the territojY ['terotsn] of this country. , « . 4. Agriculture plays the leading ['ltdii)] role in the economy о country. ^ 5. The orange, lemon and grapefruit are citrus [sitras] rui '•••vJvi • • •» • • « « • ••.•.vJv •-.’.vlv ■У.\Ш Ш 6. ice - icy: Icy winds blew from the north and brought winter wiu them. 7. general — generally: — Do you go to school by bus? — j erally walk. u . 4.1, + ^ 8. natural — naturally: I knew about the present they had ргепа^ л so, naturally, I wasn't surprised. 9. near — nearly: Do you know how old he is now? He is yearly b) Look these words up and make sure you have guessed right. ^ .hpm uD and then study the word combina-Read the words, ^’’^^w^how to use them. Ш&:- fol fn)- the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern a hemisphere ^ Hemisphere, the Western Hemisphere. КЙьеЛ one^ of the earth. Russia is situated in the Northern Hemisphere. golden wheat. This bread is made wheat (.i:tl *'‘f /Jed Й’ Sle flour and other food. ueach tree, a peaeh flower, peach jam, pea.h a peach IPt® ьЛ„„е „opderful peaches for dinner. Peacha Trl i toouS * »“ »" fn)- an apricot tree, apricot juice. Apricots an apricot [ep J L Apricots grow in the south of this coun- S нйе you eC se^ricot trees in bloom? They look fan- tds^icl a pear [реэ] (n): a pear tree, a plate full of pears, a green pear, a sweet pear, half a pear. Pears are my favourite fruit. Would you like some pears for dessert? 1 . i? v a berry [Ъеп] (n): berry — berries; to pick up berries, a lot of berries, wild berries. Did you know that a tomato is a berry? There are very few berries in the forest this year: it s too dry. a swamp [swnmp] (n): a cold swamp, a swamp in the forest, a dangerous swamp. Long ago the whole country was forest and swamp. These berries grow in the swamp. A swamp is land which is full of or covered with water, swampy (adj): a swampy place. sand [saend] (n): yellow sand, warm sand, a sandcastie. The little children played in the sand. sandy (adj): a long sandy beach, sandy hair. The sandy beaches i the South of England are quite famous, vast [verst] (adj): a vast territory, a vast plain, a vast country. Something that is vast is very large. What is this vast country called? The vast plains stretch for hundreds of miles, humid ['hjumid] (adj): a humid day, a humid climate, humid air, humid weather. — What’s the weather like today? — It’s hot and hu- in 0 „id The air is so humid here. Are humid? -^re summers in iw lonely [bunli] (adj)-. a lonely girl ^ i . Moscow very * the country. If you are lonelv *°nely tree я Inn i . alone or without friends. You^can'f '^"^appy ь bouse in except [ik'sept] rprep;: Everyone except «re „ -b- The family occupied a little Lnon”’ occupy the nn x occupied? Is the seat free? ® ^be beach b to inhabit [in'haebit] (v): to inhabit a ™ the forest. a country. Many birds 1пЬяКч inhabited/uninhabited: an uninhabited h inhabit an inhabited island an uninhabited cSf’ ’""Inbabited place ^ejeaat inhabited area. It h.ppenii ^1‘';Й„'‘ГеТваГ“““. least ef alb No one listened, leas, a„ yyyli • v*v^ • *v;v Work Let к in pairs. Ask your friend which of these he/she likes better, him/her answer. Don’t forget to change over. Example; apples/pears — Which do you like better — apples or pears? — Pears, I think. They are my favourite, peaches/apricots; wild berries/garden berries; juice/mineral water; crowded beaches/lonely beaches; sandy beaches/rocky beaches; most difficult exercises/least difficult exercises; dry weather/humid weather most most populated most important most developed most discussed most mentioned least least populated least important least developed least discussed least mentioned .‘.V» •4VJv • ♦ ♦ w •V*%V5 .v*W *»%%%♦; •.\v>2 *.%vK • • * 4Г1Г • « Фw ••.v*v ♦ • ♦ Ф • • ♦ 4 4 ♦* ♦ ♦ 4 4V .%4vZv \%\\\* •‘.wZv .\v*vv .%v*w Х-Ш .•.vlw Make up true sentences with the word combinations above. Jnv.’-4C%v* .• 8C%v.*. 5«vn. wvv»'» 4v#v»*‘ 4v#v.‘. Лг# • ♦ • 5Cv*v. a berry humid a pear wheat i with then u^... very larg’e a fruit that looks like a bell plant from which flour is made a small soft fruit a Match the words with their definitions. a swamp an apricot to inhabit vast j a small — a hemisphere to populate I land filled or covered with water a round soft orange or yellow fruit like but smaller ^ Peaclj with a lot of water (about air and wpn+>.^ ч one half of the earth rather) Listen дгех- Boris: Alex: Boris: Alex: Boris: ,h, dialogue, ®70, read I. and ,Пе„ i, WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT AOSTRALiA^ ' Have you had a nice evening? «>». on TV, About the largest island in the world The largest island? Do you mean Au4tT=r о I do. Though Tm sure that AuotoufK Alex: , largest isiana: uo you mean Australia? A Though I’m sure that Australia is the biggest island V ow that many people think it’s a continent. I kTiow^^^^^ ^vhat I think: it’s the smallest enntineet on the ууА уМ •.%%v Wux:uv 1 one naiA ^Answer the questions using the words ^ 1. In what half of the earth is Australia situated? 9 WhHt fruit can be grown in warm climate/ 3. What is the climate like in South America near the Amazon River? 4. Where do cranberries' usually grow/ 5. What fields look golden in August/ 6. How can you describe a tree standmg alone in the middle о 7. What is the name of the pinky-orange colour? 8. What do little children often build on the sea beach? «г* ♦ * • Boris: Alex: Boris: I know that many people think it’s a contir,»„A Ve.Jh.fs What . thiah: if, the еЖ„"Л„е„. And it is an independent country too I know that. What is its capital? Sydnev-? No. It’s Canberra, but Sydney is the largest city in the coun- Alex: Boris: try. Is English the official language? Yes, it is, though it is a bit different from i speak in the USA and Britain ^ language they let us reap unknown — unknown educated — uneducated populated — unpopulated cooked — uncooked covered — uncovered declared — undeclared spoken — unspoken comfortable — uncomfortable hospitable — inhospitable complete — incomplete dependent — independent formal — informaP definite — indefinite expressive — inexpressive ♦ ♦ • ^_________________________ m In the table above find the words which go together with these I’lv Example: dress/party — a formal/an informal dress/party ---------------------------------------1------------------------- address/city/writer/territory article/time/place child/student/population dinner/lunch/supper war/battle/decision story/sentence/fable/fairy tale artist/poet/architect house/castle / palace country/man/government/Press chair/shoes/coat/room ▼ Learn to read these proper names The Indian ['indion] Ocean the Pacific [po'sifik] Ocean the Murray ['тлп] River the Gibson [’gibsn] Desert Europeans [juaro'pranz] Australia [o'streilio] Antarctica [asn'ta’ktiko] Sydney ['sidni] Canberra [‘каепЬэгэ] Melbourne fmelbon] Darwin ['da'wrn] the Great Sandy Desert the Great Victoria [vik'to:no] Desert - - - the Southern Hemisphere the Australian [n'streilian] Capital Territory New Zealand [,nju: 'zi;land] New South Wales Queensland [’kwLnzland] Brisbane [’brizban] Adelaide [’aedsleid] Western Australia Northern Territory Alice Springs Tasmania [isez'meinja] ./•VA? ■УАШ Read the text and say what new things about Australia you have learned from it. Which of the three titles is the best for it? i;^r^ * cranberry ['krasnbsn] — клюква . j ^formal [Тэ:т1] — официальный, служебный, вечерний (об одежде)\ то [m'fo:m]] — повседневный, дружеский, неофициальный a) Australian Economy b) Australian Population c) The Geography of Australia K«v.* Ш ф • * ' Ф # Ф * WV* SAr<»% »v. ®72. Even in medieval^ times there were stories about a large continent in the Southern Hemisphere. But Europeans had never seen it. They wondered what it was like and whether^ it was inhabited. They called this land terra australis incognita,^ or “the unknown southern land*’ — Australia. Nowadays, when people speak of Australia, they can mean three things: 1) Australia as a continent; 2) Australia as an island and 3) Australia as an independent country. Australia is the world’s largest island and its smallest continent. Asia is the continent nearest to Australia in the north. The icy shores of Antarctica lie to the south. New Zealand is to the east. To the west of Australia stretches the vast Indian Ocean. In the east the continent is washed by the Pacific Ocean. Australia is a land of striking differences. In the centre of the continent and in the west more than 50% of the land is desert — dry and uninhabited. There are three deserts there ~ the Great Sandy Desert, the Great Victoria Desert and the Gibson Desert, situated between them. Naturally very few people live there. Most of them live on the narrow coasts of the east and southeast. Main cities, * medieval [,medi‘in^l] — средневековый ^ whether ss if terra australis incognita (Latin) ['tera ausfrcriis in'kognita] 1 where people live among tall office buildings, automobile nlants' and busy factories, are also situated there ^ “ In the northeast tropical forests cover the coast. In the mountains of the southeast the snow lies for seven months of the vear ^ Australia is divided into six states and two territories ’ New South Wales is Australia’s leading industrial state. Most people live east coast, and most of them are in Sydney Sydney IS also the largest city in Australia. In Victoria most people live in the south. Melbourne is the capital of the state and the largest city. Sheep and wheat are the main products here. Citrus fruits, grapes, peaches and apricots are grown along the Murray River. Queensland is Australia s second largest state. Brisbane, its capital, is situated on the east coast. Queensland has long beautiful sandy beaches. Its coast is a popular place for holidaymakers. The climate along the east coast is hot and humid. It is the tropica] corner of Australia. Bananas and other tropical fruits are growr here. Most of the land in the south is too dry for farming. Some of Australia’s most unproductive desert lands occupy the biggei part of the state. The state of Western Australia is dry and inhospitable except the southwestern corner of the state. Nearly all of the state’s farms, sheep stations^ and fruit gardens are situated there. The rest of the state is dry desert land with very few towns or lonely cattle stations.® .V. • ♦ < • 4 a plant [p]a:nt] — завод sheep stations — овцеводческие фермы в Австралии cattle stations — скотоводческие фермы в Австралии 4 iJV.V- Ш #J«v. !Лг* • * i-i, iViirH larfi'est state* Most of South A^o. South Australia is the third 1 southe^tern part of tralia’s people, farms and indu ^,ty. Most of South the state. Adelaide is the Farming very much depends o„ . 5c too dry for ,farmu Australia’s most •'•VO да: tralia's реирю, *— the state. Adelaide IS t e "parming’very much depe SIS; i’n“e,/al i ^TalmanL^Th'^ isknd state, is sometimes called the apple isle be-caus^rproduces most of Australia’s apples. Tasmania is one of the few places in Australia that have enough rain all ^smania is Australia's leading producer of pears and berries of different kinds. Pntfltoes are also grown in some areas. Northern Territory is the least populated and least developed pan of Zstralia. Crocodiles still live in some of the swamps a ong the coast. Darwin is its capital and the only large settlement in the north. Alice Springs, generally called Alice of the Alice, is the only town in the south, i , The capital of Australia is Canberra. The city doesn t belong to any state. It is situated on the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), ft*.-- which occupies an area of 2,358 square kilometres. K^^IFsay “true”, “false” or “not stated”. Correct the false statements. ■*‘*‘*‘*'' 1, Australia is the largest continent in the world. 2. Australia is situated in the Southern Hemisphere. 3. Vast areas of desert cover most of Central and Western Australia. 4. Melbourne is the capital of Victoria. 5. The official name of the country is the Common-wealth of Australia. 6. There are 6 states in Australia. 7. Tasma-iv! nia's an island state. 8. Australia is washed by the waters of three л:; oceans. 9. Most people live in the north of the country. 10. Queens-,v*;- land’s beaches are a popular place for holidaymakers. ♦ « ' Answer the following questions. 1. Where is Australia situated? 2. What bodies of water wash the continent? 3. What are the three Australian deserts? 4. What places in Australia are least populated and least developed? 5. In what way is Australia divided? 6. Can you name the Australian states and territories? What are they? 7. Which of the states is the leading industrial state? 8. In what places of Australia are fruit, wheat and potatoes grown? 9. Why do people from the south of the coun-t2*y often spend holidays in the northeast of Australia? 10. What city is Australia’s capital? Where is it? Australia is often called “the land of striking differences”. Find in the text some facts to prove this. ijCv/. Jv*v. ЦЕТ US TALK ж ^ Look at the map of Australia anT^ 1) how many countries are ^ Australian deserts are situated- 2) where thp th ►V*!» tucil ox Oiicxn uixxixiv la vutj most imoortflnt* national capital; 6) what cities are state capitab-ies you can find on the map of Australi^ a) Look at the map of Australia and find on it th« t n • Canberra, Sydney, Melbourne, AHce SormoV^n following cities: Perth, Adelaide. ’ Springs, Brisbane, Hobart, S'o? b°e“w.°"- 4« Worm.- CANBERRA • an important centre of learning; • the seat of the federal^ government* • built in 1923—1927; • over 350 000 people; • a lot of government buildings; . the place where the National University of Australia is situated. SYDNEY • Australia’s largest city; 4,8 min people; • founded on January 26, 1788; • the first Europeein settlement in the country; • Australia’s leading seaport; • a city of old and new buildings; • a lot of lovely parks and gardens. MELBOURNE • Australia’s second largest city; over 4 min people; • the financial centre of the nation; • from 1901 to 1927 — the seat of the federal government; • stone buildings remind visitors of cities in England; • an industrial city; • factories produce many goods. ADELAIDE • over 1 min people; • famous for Adelaide’s Festival of Arts held every two years; I I .чу I *#*< • « . • • • . » • • a large centre exporting wine, federal [Tedarsl] — федеральный ♦ ♦ • * ф-♦ • • ♦ ♦ * Ь»уу %♦♦%*.'•' v*% • • • Ai • Ф • • К*л*.*.' 1гФ% ♦ Ш; PERTH • the major west coast city, over 1,5 min people, . the most beautiful Australian city which reminds many Americans of cities in Southern California; • a sea port. HOBART • founded in 1804; • Australia’s oldest city; • surrounded by a small ag'ricultural area, • fruit, dairy products, wool — are exported through the city. BRISBANE • over 2 min people; • the only large Australian city with subtropical climate; • very beautiful, with a lot of parks and gardens; • an important export centre exporting wool, meat, wheat, sugar ALICE SPRINGS • one of the most important cities; • a cattle centre; • is connected with Adelaide by the railroad line; • the only town in the south of the Northern Territory. Choose the place in Australia you would like to visit and explain why Imagine that you are having a geography lesson tomorrow. Get ready to speak about Australia. Don’t forget to mention; • the geographical position of the country; • its main states and territories; • the main Australian cities; • the most and least populated areas; • mountains and rivers in Australia; • things the country produces. Imagine that you have to tell an Australian about Russia. Make an outline of your story and speak about your country. LET US WRITE Do ex. 2, ex. 3, ex. 5, ex. 7, ex. 10 in writing. Fill in least or most to make the sentences complete. 1. The eastern coast is the ... populated part of Australia, the centre of the continent is its ... populated part. 2. I don’t think it is the ... important problem of aii of the ... important. 3. The todav т K^r part of Australia if we speak^of^H®*"" '^erritory^is the is one of the ... often industry. 4 тЪвVn discuss the history of the US Const ‘^“«ume^nts^^^en water and air pollution are the 5. pSme meetings of different ecological ciub?^^осГеИез at ®аП I Л write eight sentences with these word comh .■ I An uncomfortable chair, an incomnl t "’binations. independent country, an informal nivf “ unknown land an populated territory, an inhospitablf Й^е^ aJ’un Л Complete the sentences using Future s,m„. sive. ^ Simple or Future Progres- 1. —What you (to do) tomorrow after». Nothing special. — Why? — i (to . 6 o’clock? — the party everybody dancttXiTalTL ^hSt at 3. — What a huge pile of books! — I themselves). to the library. 4. Australia (to be) the firet „ ' take them to visit. country they are going a) Look at the words again and apt ra-iH* * *^on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend tTdfctate?h'"® to you m Russian. Practise writing them in EngMsh ® ® a berry (berries) swampy sandy, vast,’ humid, lonely except® K’ to occupy, to inhabit, inhabited, uninhabited, least of all ’ b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctlv"» Are you pleased with your result? eciiy. Are <« уЛ •.vj ••vj ’♦vj >4 Ш • • • • Щ m i i i • • ♦ 4 vy vy .%v LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS .%V a) Make sure that you know these words and word combinations: a funfair [’fAnfeo] — парк аттракционов eager ['1:дэ] — желающий, стремящийся к чему-либо а ride [raid] — аттракцион а roller coaster ['гэиЬ .kausta] — аттракцион «Американские горки» the sentences. .. 2. First Mr Ha^ family went to К тт ЬГ1( 5. Mr'Harrk ^ 7 Mrs Harris ^ after Ы Listen to the recorlng, ®73, • j ‘АлА in tflke her children to .. 1. Mr. Hams dmdrf 3 3.^^ ris ... to 8®> territory of the park ... park in .... 4. me xernt у ^ ^ joyed the ’g' mVs Harris was tired the children looked •••• « worse than a small child because .... Pretend that you are talking to Mr Harris and ask him at leas, 5 questions about the funfair. Speak about the visit to the funfair on the part 1) Mr Harris; 2) Mrs Harris, 3) one of of: the children. Unit 21 Climate and Wildlife LET US REVIEW Say what you will be doing tomorrow at: 7 o’clock a. m. 4 o’clock p, m. 10 o’clock a. m. 7 o’clock p. m. in the afternoon 11 o’clock p. m. Think and say what your relatives will be doing when you come home from school. Example: When I come home from school, my little sister will be playing with her new doll. Look at the pictures and say what Mary’s relatives will be doing when she arrives at work. Example: When Mary arrives at work, her granny will be getting up. Granny son daughter husband 0 Mr Wilson is flying to Sydney, Australia. It’s a very lonq wav Sav what Mr Wilson will be doing during h^ fhght Example: the passengers occupy their seats/to read — When the passengers occupy their seats, Mr Wilson will be reading. 0 1. the plane takes off/to play a computer game 2. lunch is brought/to talk to the passenger next to him 3. the “no smoking” notice appears / to sleep 4. the video is turned on/to watch a film 5. the plane starts ianding/to look through the window Use the verbs in brackets (in Present Indefinitej Present Continuous, Future Indefinite or Future Continuous) to complete the sentences. (In some cases more than one tense is possible.) 1. Г11 phone you when I (to arrive) in Moscow. 2. Come at seven: we (to have) dinner and you (to be able) to join us. 3. What you (to do) when you (to arrive) at the hotel? 4. If mother (to come) home early, we (to go) to the cinema together. 5. You /fo see) us when we (to climb) that hill over there. 6. Who (to play) football tomorrow? 7. You (to look) at me when I (to dance) on the stage? 8. When you /to tell) me what I should do with these books? я Look at the pictures and name the fruits. Say which of them are citrus fruits. 3 4 . $!>%%• • * 8 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. In some sentences you can use more than one. when if before as soon as miriy 1. She won’t come to the party ... you don’t invite her. 2. We’ll go on holiday ... father comes back from his business trip. 3. ... my brother comes home from school, we’ll be watching a new video film. 4. I always do my lessons ... I go for a walk. 5. ... spring comes, the snow starts melting and we see the first flowers and young grass. 6. It’s very difficult to survive in a foreign country ... you don’t know its language. 7. People can’t be happy ... they don’t learn to keep their environment clean and healthy. 8. ... I saw him, I understood that he was in shock and unhappy. a) Make adjectives from these nouns. Say what they mean and use them in sentences of your own. Example: me — icy (ледяной, льдистый, покрытый льдом): Be careful, the roads are icy this morning, sand cloud — snow — swamp — grass — salt — rain sugar — mist — water — wind — 1 b) Find antonyms to these wordc your own. and use them in sentences of Example: hospitable — inhosnitabb- \kt that the people who met us werliEDHaW surprised inhabited — definite — inhospitable and unfriendly, occupied — covered — comfortable — dependent — populated — knwn —~ Express the same in English. 1. Учитель спросил меня, кто няг>о1т,т^ -I страны. 2. Цитрусовые деревья обьтно этой огромной мате, верно? 3. Он хотел знать гд^ в Растут в тропическом кли- :■ ниду. 4. Это побережье известно св^ми пй” ®“ращивают пше- : 5. Из всех фруктов я люблю груши меньт^“'’^**“*1” пляжами, глоговорящие страны, кроме Британии и ГШд кие континенты расположены в ™ энаешь? 7. Ка- ведущие промышленные страны ты можешГназ“ать LE^U^READ А|\|р LEARIU who(rn^^^ (when^ оестоат«яьсгм »Р«М«Н11 Every morning Nick has lunch in the kitchen every morning. 1 2 3 4 i Ann borrowed some books - - from the library i 2 3 Nelly has been in London 1 2 3 We’ll be flying — - over the ocean yesterday. Mol*!* • ♦« • * Ш-:-; жоГ* • То!*.*. Ш: .. ..jnhf nrdGf to тэкб SOntGflCGS. Put the words in the right Put tne w environmental problems. 1. tod.y/tav. August. 2. has met/a lot of Australia. 3. Vhedges/huve 1990/was born. t IttraTt/tTeS/ara Falls/a lot of tourists/every summer II a) before the main verb подлежащее often usually always never sometimes generally seldom already ever just still both all also сказуемое Nellv often comes home late. She sometimes feels sad and unhappy They have just arrived. We all live in Moscow. They both know English. They don’t often go shopping. Have you both been to Italy? Isn’t still raining? Do you also ride home on a bike.'’ We have never seen dodos. b) after the verb “to be”; often sometimes still глагол “io be usually generally both подлежащее (am, is, are. always seldom all was, werey never ever already just also She is always on time. We were not usually late. Are they all so independent? Bill is also ill. Are they both doctors? Use the words from the box and put them in the right places. often usually sometimes always never ever still generally already just both all also 1- borrows books from the local library. 2. Are they well educated? 3. People in many countries live in poverty. 4. Real gen-tlemen stand up when a woman comes in. 5. Mary Drake is a congresswoman. 6. Have you seen skyscrapers? 7. Do they choose picturesque places for their picnics? 8. The climate here is humid. 9. You can t see big crowds of people on this lonely beach. 10. Are they fluent in English? FOCUS Phrasal Verb to make 1. to make up ~ a) сочинять, придумывать, b) гримировать, накладывать косметику Come here, children, and listen to my new story. I’ve just made it up. They made him up as an old man for the last act of the play, to make up one’s face — краситься to make up with somebody — помириться c кем-либо They kissed and made it up. _ 2, to make out — разобраться, понять (с трудом) I can’t make out what he is saying. 3. to make off — быстро уйти, убежать, сбежать Where is Jack? — He made off soon after dinner. Complete the sentences using the missing words: up, out, off, 1. She is a very strange girl, I can’t make her__2. The boy gave ; the letter to Sherlock Holmes and made .... 3. I don’t like it when • young girls make themselves — 4. Do you know what wonderful '• poem Ted made ... for Christmas? 5. Please make it ... with your brother. You both look so unhappy. 6. I don’t believe you. You’ve : made it all .... 7. Don’t make .... I’ve got something to tell you. : 8. Let’s make him ... as a pirate, dress him in a pirate costume and ; ask him to sing a loud pirate song. Express the same in English. 1. Мы очень скоро помирились и отправились гулять вместе. 2 Он всегда сам сочиняет песни, а потом сам исполняет их. 3. Ты ,;, не поможешь мне? Я не могу разобрать без очков, что здесь на-писано. 4. Она очень молода. Будет трудно загримировать ее под старуху. 5. Ты удрал так быстро, что я не смог попрощаться с то-бой. 6. Что он сказал? Я ничего не понял. а) Read and guess what the underlined word means. So do reptiles, up, you tell him/her They grew up in the Й* anim.l. that are now on ihe earth came from almitlve Ы word op to make sore ,oo have poessed right. ,1 innk them up and then study the word combina. Read the know how to use them, tions and . a >. an extraordinary life, an extraordi- extraordinary [Ik stradn И unusual is extraordin^ nary success. book I’ve ever read. This is the t. extremely well, extreinely important extremely [ikstn.mli] (a Л an extremely serious man’ extremely serious. He has У^^ towards £ s'hore^on^the top of a big wave standing or lying on a surfboard. lay^^the^ table: I always help mother to lay the tabb before dinner, ill Sgs! Do only birds lay eggs? - Not only. Яо Hn г.пЫо. to grow up (V): If you tell someone to grow to stop behaving in a silly or childish way. early days of television, grown-up (adj): grown-up children. a grown-up (n): The boys stood laughing while the grown-ups watched them. I saw a grown-up enter the room, to resemble [ri'zembl] (v): to resemble your father, to resemble a situation. Both you and your father resemble uncle Jack. Does the cottage resemble the place where you lived last summer? a bush [ЬиЛ (n): 1. a rose bush, a low bush. A bush is a low plant which is smaller than a tree. 2. the bush. The bush is the wild, uncultivated area of Australia. I went for a walk in the bush, bushy (adj): a bushy tail, bushy hair — very thick hair, to beat about the bush; Stop beating about the bush, tell me exactly what you want. curious ['kjusnss] (adj): to be curious to know, a curious child, curious children. Someone who is curious is interested in things and wants to know more about them. Are you curious to know how that old clock works? graceful ['greisfal] (adj): a graceful dancer, a graceful figure. Tigers are very graceful animals. I have never seen anybody who is as graceful as Margaret. to notice [’nautis] (v): to notice a man, to notice a change in somebody. Suddenly Ralph noticed that it was raining hard. Did you notice a fat man sitting at the front? a notice (n): In the hall there was a notice which said “Visitors welcome at any time.” 0 OP suitable [sjatsbl] (adj): suitable men, a suitable f\яi tn k« ■* ui for something. Do you think she is suitaSe fS^he^nh^q^^ flats are not suitable for large families Sue! to escape [I'skeip] (v): to escape from the police, to escane fron prison. Even if he can escape, where will he go? ^ * constant [knnstant] (adj)- constant success, constant pains a con tKto'ZcT'^'"' constanrpainfh Divide the words in three categories (N; V; Adi) and make uo vou, own sentences with them. (Some words can fit both categories Extraordinary, primitive, bush, bushy, graceful, notice, surf erov up, resemble, escape, suit, suitable, constant. Say: 1) what extraordinary things you know; 2) where people can surf; 3) who lays the table in your family; 4) which of your relatives you resemble; 5) what animals have bushy tails; 6) what people are called curti ous; 7) if it is good to be curious^l 8) what animals can be called, graceful; U 9) where people can escape from; 10) names of what bushes you know. Look at the pictures and say which clothes are suitable for school a picnic skiing a PE lesson a seaside holiday a formal party Match the to surf to notice to lay to resemble to escape to beat words in the two columns. the difference :Smething that you saw before on the waves eggs . „ from prison let us reap ^ (^74 and learn to read the names of •T Listen to tn. -ее?'-™ ® these animals and plant. Шо: kangaroo [.kaepga'ru:] - кенгуру duckbill ['dAkbil] - утконос platypus ['ptetipas] or a an emu ['i:mju:] эму an echidna [I'kidna] or a spiny anteater ['aent,i:t3] ехидна, или колючии муравьед а rat [raet] — крыса а koala [кэи'а;1э] — коала ап eucalyptus [juka'liptas] — эвкалипт а dingo ['dipgau] — дикая собака динго а kookaburra ['кикэ,Ьлгэ] (а laughing jackass) зимородок-хохотун ш а lyrebird ['laiabaid] _ лирохвост а cockatoo [,квкэ'ш:] - какаду (аестралиискии попугаи)^ а buffalo [ЪлГэ1эи] - буйвол а rabbit [ raebit] — кролик т **л Ш» Read the text and complete It with the phrases n-I n„. S“" e«!ao?di' a) shoot thousands of them b) about the size of a large dog c) swim and surf in the ocean d) lives in the water e) has a bushy tail f) emu and the kangaroo I THE MOST EXTRAORDINARY COUNTRY TO EXPLORE • • ••V Sometimes Australia is called “the upside down* world’’. Can you guess why? Because Australia lies in the Southern Hemisphere, where winter comes in July and summer begins in December. During the Christmas holidays people often sunbathe on the beach or Australia is the hottest place in the Southern Hemisphere. In July the usual temperatures are from 12° to 20° C. In January the temperatures are from 20° to 30° C above zero or higher. Most parts of Australia do not receive enough rain. Only one sixth of the continent — a belt of land along the north, east and south coasts — is comfortably humid. This narrow belt of land is the place where summers are warm and sunny and winters are mild. Most of the dry land is uninhabited, which explains Australia’s small population — about 23 million people (compare: the UK population is about 63 million people). I * upside down [,Apsaid ’daun] — перевёрнутый вверх тормашками Bsvlv.** mm Ж;; e Ш<У. Шт 1<к«< Ш»: tei шт шт KwX%*. Рй"й%*: »S РЙч-- Brisbane Sydney Number of people per sq. km Uninhabited Under 1 ®75 It is interesting to notice that though most of the terri-toiTis too dry or too hot Australia has an extraordinary collection of birds and animals. Many of them are found only there. Early explorers were so surprised by 2) -------^they described the continent as the land where birds ran instead oi flying and animals hopped^ instead of running.'* , . . Australia is the home of two of the world s most primitive mammals — the duckbill or platypus and the echidna or spiny anteater. They are the only mammals that lay eggs. The kangaroo is perhaps the best known of Australia’s animals. There are more than 40 different kinds of kangaroos in Australia, in many different colours and sizes. The big red kangaroo and the grey kangaroo may be as tall as a grown-up man. Some kangaroos are 3) __________________. The smallest kangaroo is the rat kangaroo. Another well-known Australia’s animal is the koala that resembles a teddy bear. It spends most of its life in eucalyptus trees and eats only the leaves of these trees. Among other animals found in Australia is the dingo, a wild dog which is yellowish brown and 4)_______________. The emu, Australia’s largest bird, is also one of the largest in the world. It cannot fly but is a good runner. Another curious bird is the kookaburra that is often called the “laughing jackass”. The bushy country^ rings with its laughter. Australians like this bird so much that they even made up a song about it: 2 подпрыгивать, передвигаться скачками the bushy country [ bufr 'IcAntn] — лесистая местность в Австралии 144 • • COCKATOO BUDGERIGAR • ♦ I :*5 'У1 •y ■УЛ TASMANIAN DEVIL Kookaburra sits on an old gum tree.^ Merry, merry king of the bush is he. Laugh, Kookaburra, laugh, Kookaburra, Happy your life must be. Other Australian birds are graceful lyrebirds, brilliantly coloured parrots and the great white cockatoo. Two animals were brought to the country by the Europeans and have become wild in Australia. These are the buffalo, brought from India, and the European rabbit. Buffaloes were brought to the north coast as work animals early in the 19th century. They escaped and multiplied and now inhabit the swampy river valleys around Darwin. Each year hunters 5) Rabbits were brought more than 100 years ago. There are now so many of them in Australia that sheep farmers have constant wars against the rabbits because they destroy so much grass. ^ a gum tree ['длт ,tri:] — эвкалипт 6— Al|l[U|nCLCBn, 6 КЛ. Ч. 2 No matter how from^urope Austra_^_^ becau?e^|® -^rh^?fxtrt’ ® Ш say if these statements ®”; 'Mk 4av f these siaieiii«^i'*- — ^ ^ ж,, ■ ® ^ in Australia is summer. 2. All parts of Aus- 1. The hottest season in A д gtralia’s population is larger than tralia receive enough mn. 3. Austf^^^/g eggs. 5. There are the population of the ’ ^og — and small. 6. The koal many different kinds ^f ^ ^ name of Australia’s will SL'ibfngo"“e* ?£ br.„.b. to Australia tro™ ,„S. Remember the text (ex. 21) and complete the sentences. .... A iG rяllpd .... 2. In Australia winter comes 1. .... 3. During the Christmas holidays people 4 Australil is the hottest place .... 5. Only one sixth of the continent is comfortably .... 6. ... which explains Australia’s small population. 7. Australia has an extraordinary collection of Гваг^у described Australia as the land where birds ... and animals .... LET US TALK m Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions about Australia. Example: the upside down world / Why ...? — Why is Australia often called the upside down world? — It is called like that because it is situated in the Southern Hemisphere; the hottest season is winter ... . 1. found only in Australia / What animals ...? 2. lay eggs/What mammals ...? 3. kinds of kangaroos / How many ...? 4. a teddy bear / What animal ...? 5. brought from India / What’s the name of the animal ...? 6. become wild/How ...? 7. constant wars against the rabbits/Why ...? 8. an extraordinary place to explore / Why ...? Imagine that you have just come back from Australia. Talk to your friends about your impressions of the country. You have read two texts about Australia. They give you some important information but not everything you may want to know. Work in groups and make up a list of things you would like to find out about Australia. At home every pupil should try to find out about these things. Share your information in class. Say why Australia can be a good examnio , pie broke the ecological balance and are should people remember for it not to hapS aga?n^'^°"' Compare the wild animals of Russia and Australia .ь animals you can find in both countries? Are there any LET US WRITE ip Do ex. 4, ex. 9, ex. 10, ex. 11, ex. 13 in writing. ■F* Express the same in English. 1. В моей семье взрослые никогда не курят. 2. Мои дедушка и ба- •: бушка недавно вышли на пенсию. 3. На острове Тасм^ия часто •; идут дожди? 4. Вчера у меня была возможность (шанс) покататься ■: верхом на лошади в парке. 5. Приёмные дети господина Брауна ■ никогда не жили в бедности. 6. Они оба полны мудрости и добро- -ты. 7. Мне иногда бывает грустно по вечерам. 8. Иногда по утрам ■ мой брат ест слишком много. iP Imagine that you have a chance to visit Australia. Write what places you would like to visit (see) and why. iP a) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. primitive, extraordinary, extremely, to surf, to lay (laid, laid), to lay the table, to lay eggs, to grow up (a grown-up), to resemble, a bush, bushy, curious, graceful, to notice, suitable, to escape, constant b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctly? Are you pleased with your result? LET us LISTEN AND DISCUSS Listen to the recording, @76, and answer the questions. 1. What was the old gentleman’s job before he retired? 2. What did. he do in his free time? 3. Why did he go to the park? 4. What did. he notice in the park one day? 5. What kind of competition the boys having? 6. Who won in the competition? 7. How win? Retell the text on the part of: 1) the old gentleman; 2) one of the boys; 3) the cat. Unit 22 41 Give five reasons why you would like to go to Australia. Comment on this: Australia is the land where birds run instead л, • hop instead of running, flying and animals Consolidation Four let us talk ▼ Look at the pictures and name the animals. Example: Number one is an emu. a) Imagine that you are going to meet an Australian writer. Prepare 8—10 questions that you would like to ask him about his country. b) Work in pairs. Act out the dialogue with the writer for whom you have prepared your questions. Then answer his/her questions about Russia. ing, @77, and check your version record- — Your English is very good. __Wonderful. That’s very kind of you. • --- -- J vyj. — No. I live in Canberra, I’m here to visit my grannv — Two weeks ago. I’ve been here since May 5. — Oh, please. Could you hold my bag while I’m taking this pic ture? — You’re welcome. Ralph: Masha: Ralph: Masha: Can I help you? Ralph: Masha: Ralph: Masha: Ralph: Masha: Ralph: Masha. Certainly. It’s not at all heavy. OK. I’ve done it. Thanks for your help. Sydney looks gre in this light. Thank you again. I Are you from Sydney? No, I’m from Russia. Russia? When did you come here? Thanks. I am learning English at school. I hope that aft my stay in Australia I’ll speak English better. Ralph: Do you find it difficult to understand Australian Pn Masha: Quite. The accent is a little bit unusual. Though j stand nearly everything. And you? Do you live here?^^^**’ Ralph: ... And what is Russia like? ^ Masha: ... b) Act out the conversation and continue it. ^Find the right place for the words in brackets. 1. Mary has been an extremely polite girl, {always) 2,__uo-l mother? — She’s gone out. (Just)- 3. Nick resembles my uhcIa о is (often) 4. Is it raining? (still) 5. They were late for the Enfrij u yesterday, (both) 6. My aunt doesn’t eat out. (generalliA do you have for breakfast? (usually) 8. My elder brother is n er) 9. They stay at the same hotel every summer. (also\ in tJ* xif J ^ *• __ two cousins. We live in Moscow, (all) a) Look at the pairs of verbs and remember what they mean ve got to take off to make off to take away to give away to take back to give back to give up to make up b) Make the right choice and complete these sentences with the verbs given above. 1. Bill, ... off your hat when you enter the room. 2. He asked me to ... him back the money I had borrowed. 3. Don’t forget to ... the bike back to Helen. You have been keeping it too long! 4. I think you should ... up the idea of going there. It’s too dangerous. 5. Hurry upl The plane is ... off in half an hour. 6. If you are not going to eat the salad, I’ll ... it away. 7. The story Nick ... up was the best, 8. He took a gun and ... off. 9. If you are not going to collect stamps anymore, ... your collection away to your little brother. 10. If you can’t do this crossword at once, don’t ... up, try it again! LET US READ Read the text and say: a) what ways people use to make new words; b) how many words the most complete dictionary от me English language has. WORDS WE USE ^ 78. As you know one of the very good ways to get new words is to borrow them from other people. English is full of words bor rowed from other languages. The possibilities for borrowing word are endless. ISO ,4 People can a so make new words by usina places or the characters in stories. The wnr,i because long ago on a famous collectinn '■^at name >: ture of the Greek god Atlas holding un the wX « Pi«- People can make words by cuttinf ^ • " When you say a mechanical person is я mh/f* p°°"es. :• a cut-down form of robotnik, which means • languages Nowadays people often say doc ^ instead of telephone; fridge ~ instead of refrig^aL^ ~ You cut down long word combinations nr 1 them into short words by joining together the first make •; word. UNESCO» comes from the United Nations each ■ tific and Cultural Organization. MP stands for ment, USA-for the United States ofTmerIL ’’ : One of the most complete dictionaries of tv.s ’vr„i- u , Webster’s Third New InternatioZf mcUonarv^^^^ rooooo words. No person knows all of them^but m^t are able to understand about 35 000 words In fact about one-tenth of the words they understand ® ^ ^ Say “true”, “false” or “not stated”. 1. English has got a lot of borrowed words. 2. Some words came to English from Holland. 3. There are no Russian borrowings in English. 4. Sometimes names of people or places are used to make new words. 5. The word atlas came from Italy. 6. There are 550 words in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, 7. People usually use about 3 500 words when they talk. 8. MP stands for “a member of Parliament”. 9. VIP stands for “a very important person”. LET US WRITE Express the same in English. a) 1. Я видела, как Анна накрывала на стол. 2. Мы наблюдали, как дети занимались серфингом. 3. Я хочу, чтобы ты нашла подходящее место на берегу. 4. Не ходи вокруг да около! Я ожидаю, что ты всё мне объяснишь. 5. Позволь мне посетить Австралию, папочка. ^ atlas ['aetlas] — атлас ^ Slavic ['s!a:vik] — славянский ^ UNESCO [ju:'nesk3u] — ЮНЕСКО, организация при ния, науки и культуры ООН по вопросам образова* Ш кк« iVWV* ♦ . т ш W <*>» ту- т i b)l. несколько ядерных мы7агряТнГн7яГружающ^^^ среды будут обсуждаться на ко^ |еревд™^Мельбур^. 3. Члены королевской семьи бьш^ глашены посетить Россию снова. 4. Мама сказала, что стол будет накрыт вовремя. 5. Эта необитаемая земля редко посе-щается исследователями. Yesterday Mrs Nelson and her two sons, e go- ing to Sydney by bus. It was very noisy in the bus and the boys didn’t often hear what their mother was saying. AM the way they asked each other one and the same question. What did she say?” These are the things that Mrs Nelson said or asked. Report them. 1. “Did you hear anything of that mysterious Mr Hyde? 2. “Have you read May’s periodicals?” ^ 3. “Yesterday I received a lot of mail.” 4. “We shall go to the opera house in two days.” 5. “When did you send a telegram to your uncle Peter?” 6. “When we arrive in Sydney, we will take a taxi.” 7. “I am sure your granny will get over the pain in her leg.” 8. “Your cousin is nearly sixteen.” LET US LISTEIU AlUD DISCUSS know these words and word combinations: *. • ‘ Hо Tt- fmrxn rm ^___________ m V.- Ш:- don’t speak too soon — не торопись с выводами the Alps [aelps] — Альпы a rucksack ['глкзэгк] — рюкзак b) Listen to the recording, ® 79, and say whose words they are: 1. Sitting on a chair for eight hours every day is not very good for your health.” 2. “The map is flat and the mountains are not.” 3. I am going to America in August.” 4. “Can I borrow your rucksack?” Answer the questions. suimme^^hoM 4*^ during his waXto Sow he visit one day? 4. What did Jack couldn’t walk frnm n p* How did Nick explain that Jack couldn t walk from one place to another in one day? TeU the story to your friends on Nick' s part. SUMMING UP FOUR 1. What new things did you learn from Units 20—22? 2. Which topics did you find interesting and useful to discuss? What did you enjoy doing most of all? 3. What did you practise doing in English? Which of these are you good at? What are your weak 4. points? PROJECT WORK 3 1. work in small groups and prepare a presentation on the USA or Australia. Some of the interesting points may be the country’s- li svmhol-2) population; 3) geography; 4) famous person or рдер1е- 51 coital and big cities; 6) interesting fact or facts. ^ ^ 2. Present your material in class. Make your presentation as attractive as possible. Decide whose story was better than the others and why. Where can your get your information? Ask your teacher and parents and try: your home library your school library www.wikipedia.org WWW .britannika. com WWW. encyclopedia. ru iV*V.' V* • • • •т*г* • vv% wM*. wn.*. wX*. 1 1 WA’. m •« « V*' •V.-. ►A-:- a;v;* REFERENCE GRAMMAR ГЛАГОЛ (THE VERB) S 1. Глагол в английском языке обладает большим количеством форм, обозначающих грамматическую категорию времени. Глагольные формы указывают не только на то, когда происходит действие в прошлом, настоящем или будущем, но также свидетельствуют о некоторых особенностях протекания действия. Так, неопределённые времена (simple tenses) говорят о том, что мы имеем дело с обычным^ постоянно повторяющимся действием (We often play football in the schoolyard.). Эта же глагольная форма используется для описания законов природы., общеизвестных истин, бесспорных фактов. (In autumn days will be shorter than in summer.) Продолженные времена (progressive/contimious tenses), как правило, обозначают действия, протекающие в определённый момент или определённый период времени. (John is talking at the moment. Colin was not listening to me then.) Перфектные или совершенные времена (perfect tenses) описывают законченные, завершившиеся к моменту речи действия. (Tim has become а champion this season. I had lived there 3 years by 2000.) Кроме того, принято различать совершенные продолженные времена (perfect continuous tenses). Они описывают действия, которые длились определённое время в прошлом и продолжаются в момент речи. (She has been staying here for a week.) Таким образом, английский глагол может обладать следующими формами: 1) simple, 2) progressive/continuous, 3) perfect, 4) perfect continuous. Однако любое действие может протекать в настоящем, прошлом и будущем. Поэтому в целом классификация глагольных форм в активном залоге может быть представлена следующим образом: Настоящее Прошедшее Будущее present simple past simple future simple present progressive past progressive future progressive present perfect past perfect future perfect present perfect continuous past perfect continuous future perfect continuous с помощью простых формул, где буква V можно проследить, как образуются данные глагол. ; ^___________________________мапные глагольные формы Simple V/V-s Progressive to be (am/is/ are) -t- Ving Perfect have/has + V3 Perfect continuous have/has -b been -t- Ving V-ed to be (was/ were) + Ving had + V. had + been + Ving will/shall +V to be (shall be/ will be) + + Ving shall/will -f have + Vg shali/will + have + been + Ving Если посмотреть на вышеприведённые формулы внимательно мож- ' но вывести некоторые закономерности. Например, для образования ' буд^^их времен всегда используются вспомогательные глаголы shall и will.^a для образования продолженных времён — глагол to be в нужной форме и смысловой глагол с окончанием -ing, § 2. Яе менее важно понять, что глагольные формы отличаются : друг от друга. Например, различие между present progressive и past progressive (настоящим продолженным и прошедшим продолженным) заключается в форме глагола to be. Для настоящего времени —am, is, are; для прошедшего — was, were. Сравни: We are playing a new game now. We were playing a new game then. Первая из двух форм означает действие, протекающее в настоящий момент или настоящий период времени, вторая обозначает действие в какой-то момент в прошлом. § 3. The present perfect tense (настоящее совершенное время) бывает двух видов: present perfect resultative и present perfect durative. Present perfect resultative используется для обозначения действия, завершившегося в прошлом, но связанного с настоящим через результат. При этом говорящему не важно, когда происходило данное действие, важен лишь его результат и связь результата с настоящим. (I have lost my key. I can*t open the door. She hasn't come home yet, we can’t begin.) В тексте на present perfect resultative указывают такие слова и словосочетания, как just, already, yet, never, ever, today, this month, this year, this morning и т. д. Время present perfect не используется, если в тексте есть указание на то, когда и где происходило действие. В этих случаях пользуются глагольной формой в past simple. i ж?;? Ш • • «Л!.!.*. Present perfect durative, вторая КАГ*!*! Ш*х [НОГО Вр1^МС11У1у •— г, рое началось в прошлом и продолжается в момент речи, (I have had these gloves for two years.) Данная глагольная форма исполь-глаголами, которые в своём основном значении но ^ обозначения действия, котп. шейного времени, используется ^ момент печи п ЮСЬ ( glov Геют УоГолженТоГформы to have, to know. Очень чac^; Гнная глашльная форма встречается » гами since (с определённого времени) и ного времени). При этом на русский язык подобные предложения переводятся при помощи глагола в настоящем времени. John has been in Moscow since last Sunday. (Джон находится в Москве с прошлого воскресенья.) We have known truth for a long time. (Мы уже давно знаем правду.) Кроме рассмотренного выше случая, форма present perfect durative служит для описания действия, которое началось в прошлом, продолжалось какое-то время в прошлом и только что закончилось. (We have lived in this town for 5 years. (Мы прожили в этом городе 5 лет, но больше не живём.) § 4. По своему смыслу форма глагола в present perfect durative весьма близка к глагольной форме present perfect continuous. Однако present perfect durative подчёркивает законченность действия, а present perfect continuous — его продолжительность. Сравни: We have played 3 games this season. (B этом сезоне мы сыграли три игры.) We have been playing football since 4 o’clock. (Мы играем в футбол с четырёх часов.) Вопросительные предложения в форме present perfect continuous образуются с помощью изменения порядка слов в предложении и соответствующей вопросительной интонации. При этом вспомогательный глагол have или has выносится на первое место и ставится перед подлежащим: Has he really been doing lessons for an hour? В специальном вопросе предложение начинается с вопросительного слова или слов: How long have you been cooking? В отрицательных предложениях к вспомогательному глаголу добавляется отрицание not (пЧ): They haven4 been talking to each other for years. вспомогат№.^гп^ форм^а past perfect образуется c помощью гола; had + V -^^гола had и третьей формы смыслового гла- Му friend said he had seen the new film. Вопросительные предложения образуются с помттт^г^ порядка слов, при котором вспомогательный глаг^ перед подлежащим, а отрицательные предложения - с^ппмГ"'®" прибавления к нему отрицания not (пЧ). ^ помощью Had the teacher answered your question? They hadn4 told us the truth. Past perfect часто используется в предложениях с предлогом bv (к какому-либо времени) и в предложениях с придаточнымГвое мени, вводимыми словами when, before, after, если речь ил&г о прошлом: MCI V I had done the work ^ evening. She had already told us the news when the working day began. Had they learned the words before the test? After we had read the book, we began to understand the material better. § 6. Грамматическое время future continuous служит для обозначения действия^ которое будет происходить в определённый момент будущего. Образуется future continuous с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в будущем времени и причастия первого (ing-form) смыслового глагола; shall/will be + Ving: I think I will be shopping in the afternoon. We shall be finishing the work at five. Вопросительные предложения образуются путём изменения порядка слов, когда вспомогательный глагол will (shall) ставится перед подлежащим, а отрицательные — с помощью добавления к нему слова not — will/shall not или won4/shan4. Will your friend be staying at the hotel next week? I’m afraid I won4 be travelling with you. § 7. Страдательный залог (passive voice) — это такая глагольная форма, которая указывает на то, что действие производится над каким-либо предметом. Для образования форм страдательного залога используется глагол to be в нужной форме и причастие второе основного глагола. Общая формула страдательного залога вы глядит так: to be + V3. В этой формуле V3 остается всегда неизменяемой частью, а меняется только глагол to be. It is done. It was done. It will be done. It has been done. The house was built on the bank of a river. (Дом построили на берегу реки.) > •!.!? I I I I 1 Ж:: KfX***». *»»»:■ >>I»> • • ■ v*% ♦ « • .vKv.*. ivtvX*. . i%v->>>: m « S Лля обоазования формы future indefinite passive использует-f« ™ to^ ь“уд?щем времени и третья форма смыслового глагола (participle II): shall/will be з» We shall be driven to school this morning. New stories will be told tomorrow. В вопросительных предложениях глагол will (shall) ставится перед подлежащим, в бавляется отрицание not — will not/shall no / han t. Shall I be given any help? When will the book be bought? The film won’t be shown tonight. § P. Глаголы в страдательном залоге часто сочетаются с модальными глаголами или их эквивалентами. При этом глагол to be после модальных глаголов используется без частицы to и не изменяется по лицам и числам. must (not) -I- be + V3 can (not) Ч- be + V3 may (not) + be + V3 should (not) + be + Vg ought (not) 4- be + Vg have/has to/(don’t/doesn’t have to) + 4* be 4- Vq Ш Ш These exercises must be done today. В вопросительных предложениях модальные глаголы ставятся перед подлежащим, в отрицательных предложениях к ним прибавляется отрицание not: Сап the work be finished later? These vegetables shouldn’t be boiled. § 10. Модальный глагол must имеет в качестве эквивалента структуру have/has to (do something), другими словами, они имеют приблизительно одинаковое значение. Сравни: I must help my little sister. I have to help my little sister. Sue has to work hard. Важно заметить, что вопросительные и отрицательные предложения с nave to строятся с помощью вспомогательного глагола do/does. Does Sue have to work? Sue doesn’t have to work hard. В современном английском языке структура have ffot/has ^ot to do something имеет то же значение, чтГи hre/has to Sam has got to do a lot of shopping. :-X В вопросительных предложениях в этом случяр rттaт,r^ и ^ ставится перед подлежащим, а в отрицательно^ have/has нему добавляется отрицание not (пЧ). ^ предложениях к .-У. Have the children got to get up early? iv My brother hasn4 got to learn English. Структуры have to и have got to означают необходимость сделать что-то в связи с определенными обстоятельствами, как п^ло не зависящими от человека, который должен выполнить действие х: §П. В англшйском языке различают два вида причастий — •> Participle I №ичастцс первое) и Participle II {Причастие вто-рое). Participle I образуется с помощью прибавления окончания ^ -ing к основе глагола, а Participle II представляет собой третью форму глагола. У правильных глаголов она образуется с помощью окончания -ed, а у неправильных глаголов — это одна из форм •* которую следует запомнить. Participle II несёт в себе значение пас- ■* сивности (страдательности) и завершённости действия. Сравни: falling snow — падающий снег fallen leaves — опавшие листья :• boiling water кипящая вода boiled water — кипячёная вода Оба причастия могут использоваться в предложении в качестве !■! определения: Which is the winning team? ■; We looked at the gathering clouds. We were surprised to see the opened windows of the old house. ■; I thought about my lost papers. §12. Конструкция complex object {сложное дополнение). Данная конструкция состоит из имени существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже (те, him, her, them, you, it) и глагола в неопределённой форме (с частицей to или без неё) или причастия первого. I want Jim (him) to help me. (Я хочу, чтобы Джим мне помог.) Don saw the children (them) playing in the yard. (Дон видел, ; как дети играли во дворе.) Who сап таке them go away? (Кто может заставить их уйти?) Complex object употребляется после трёх групп глаголов. 1) Первая группа включает такие глаголы, как to tell, to ask, to want, to expect, структуру would like, после которых в кон^рук ции сложного дополнения используется неопределенная форма глагола с частицей to. •S >1-в ^ I ■ I I К: Ж %ж5С*л*«*** i®iKKK*y. шчш<- 55vCv**#*. * Шй*:-:-; SvIvX*. 5ЙЙ%-:*:-: ЗйЛ>> • • Jane asks them to come later. We’d like you to play with us. Nobody expected me to come on time. a b™p., .p.™, - - “ГрГяТ/-“.о«гТо rs.‘r:-o£- ЗояГбея яасиць. ... л„6. частие первое. Everyone saw the car stop. (Все видели, что машина останови-лГь.Тста„овплась-глагол совершенного вида.) I heard the children (them) singing their favourite srag. (Я слышал, как дети пели свою любимую песню. Пели глагол не-совершенного вида.) 3) Третья группа глаголов включает глаголы to let и to make, после которых в конструкции complex object используется неопределённая форма глаголов без частицы to. Our teacher makes us learn English words. My mum let them stay with us. Однако в пассивных структурах с глаголом таке частица to всегда используется, а глагол to let в страдательном залоге не используется совсем. Вместо него употребляют глагол to allow. They were made to stop fighting. My brother was allowed to choose a new pet. § 13. Reported/indirect speech {косвенная речь) передаёт содержание того, что было кем-то сказано. При переводе предложений из прямой речи в косвенную соблюдаются определённые правила согласования времён. Например, если в главном предложении используется прошедшее время, то в придаточном настоящее время также меняется на прошедшее, а будущее — на будущее в прошедшем. We knew that Kate was right. They thought that the train had arrived. Everyone believed that the story would have a happy ending. Однако в двух случаях правило согласования времён в языке не соблюдается. речь идёт об общеизвестных истинах или фактах. ЧпгпрЬ^н'!. earth moves around the sun? oomebody told me that penguins don’t fly. Evervone иного события, in space on 12 Арги! 196L adj — adjective — прилагательное adv — adverb — наречие conj — conjunction — союз n — noun — существительное pi — plural — множественное число abbey [’aebi] аббатство above [э'Ьлу] prep над above zero выше нуля accent 5 [’seksant] акцент accept [ak'sept] принимать to accept the invitation принимать приглашение according [a'koidio] prep согласно, соответственно accident ['aeksident] происшествие, несчастный случай across [a'kros] 1. adv через 2. prep через act 10 [sekt] действовать action [’aekjn] действие activity [ak'tiviti] деятельность, активность add [asd] добавлять, прибавлять admire 8 [od'maia] восхищаться advice [ad'vais] совет advise [adVaiz] советовать afraid [a'freid] испуганный to be afraid of sb/sth бояться ко-го-то/чего-то Africa ['asfrika] Африка African [sefnkan] африканский after ['aifto] после, потом agree [o'gri:] соглашаться agricultural 14 [,аедп'клиХэгэ1] сельскохозяйственный agriculture 14 ['эедп.клк/э] сельское хозяйство airmail ['esmeil] авиапочта Alaska [a'laesks] Аляска alien ['eiljion] чужестранец, иноземец; инопланетянин prep - preposition ~ предлог sb ~ so^m7odT ~ — something verb — глагол all [d:1] pron весь '=’■•4 e «MOM allow [э lau] позволять to be allowed to do sth получит разрешение сделать что-л. j already [o:l‘redi] уже If amendment 17 [a'mendmant] поправк (к конституции) America [э'тепкэ] Америка Central America Центральная Ам< рика North America Северная Америк South America Южная Америка American [э'тепкэп] американский among [э'тло] prep среди, между amount [a'maunt] количество ancient ['emjant] Д1№вний |f anorak ['аепэгаек] тёплая куртка с К1 пюшоном answer ['oinss] п ответ; и отвечать Antarctic [®n'ta:klik] Антарктика anteater 21 ['aent,Lt3] муравьед appear [э'р1э] появляться applaud [d'pbid] аплодировать applause [э'р1э:г] аплодисменты apricot 20 t'eipnkol] абрикос -'' Arctic Ocean, the [,o;ktik 'зи/п] Севе| ный Ледовитый океан 1| area ['еэпэ] площадь, пространство | argue 14 ['o:gju:] спорить argument 14 ['o:gium3nt] спор ® aristocrat ['aenstskraet] аристократ armed forces [,o:md 'fo:siz] вооружё! ные силы I arrival [a'raivl] прибытие ^ I arrive at/in [a'raiv] прибывать в | A ч «tiii JV*V**.‘ {wK**- W*:*; Wk*:* te* ж Ш-Х Ш:У- :Ж- iKvX*.' т article [’oitikl] 1. статья 2. артикль Asia ['ei/9] Азия ask [o:sk] спрашивать, просить, при глашать to ask for sth просить что-то Atlantic Ocean, the [st.laenlik sujnj Атлантический океан attract 8 [a'traskt] привлекать attraction 16 [3'tr$kt/n] привлекательность attractive 8 [d'traktrv] привлекательный audience [’o:di9ns] аудитория, зрители Australia [o'streilis] Австралия automobile ['э.ЧэшэЬ!;!] автомобиль avenue 9 ['«vanju:] проспект baker ['beika] булочник at the baker’s в булочной bank 10 [baeok] берег (реки) bar [ba:] кусок, брусок a bar of chocolate плитка шоколада, шоколадный батончик barometer 1 [Ьэ'готПэ] барометр basic [beisik] основной, главный basic course основной курс battle ['bstl] битва, сражение beach 16 [bi;tj] пляж beauty [bjidi] красота, красавица bee [bi:] пчела belong to sb/sth [bi'loi}] принадлежать кому-то/чему-то below [bi'l9u] adv внизу, ниже Berlin [Ьз:’1т] Берлин berry (pi berries) 20 [Ъеп] ягода besides [bi'saidz] adv кроме того between [bi'twkn] adv между bill 17 [bil] 1. счёт 2. законопроект birth [Ьз:0] рождение date of birth дата рождения birthplace (place of birth) 8 место рождения bit (a bit) 5 [bit] немного, чуть-чуть a little bit немного bitter [Ъиэ] adj горький bitter adv очень It’s bitter coldl Ужасно холодно! blossom [’blosam] цвет, цветок to be in blossom быть в цвету blow [Ыэи] (blew; blown) дуть board [bo:d] борт on board the ship на борту корабля boat [bsut] лодка, корабль to go boating кататься на лодке bonfire [Ъоп,Га1э] большой костёр bonny ['bom] красивый book [buk] n книга; и бронировать, заказывать boring ['bOTioJ скучный borrow 18 [Ъогэи] 1. занимать, брать на время 2. заимствовать (слова) both [Ьэи0] оба bottle ['boll] бутылка bowl [Ьэи1] миска, глубокая тарелка branch [bra;ntj] ветка, ветвь brave [breiv] храбрый bravery ['breivarij храбрость break [breik] (broke; broken) ломать, разбивать to break a law нарушать закон breathe [bri:d] дышать to breathe in/out вдыхать/выды-хать breeze [bri:z] лёгкий ветерок, бриз brief 14 [bri:f] краткий, сжатый bright [brait] яркий brush up ['Ьгл/ 'лр] освежать в памяти bucket ['ЬлкП] ведро buffalo 21 [’bAfslau] буйвол burn [Ьз:п] (burnt; burnt) гореть bury [Ъеп] (buried) хоронить bush 21 [buf] куст 2. лесистая местность Австралии to beat about the bush ходить вокруг да около bushy 21 [’bu/i] 1. покрытый кустарником 2. пушистый busy ['bizi] 1. занятой 2, оживлённый а busy street 13 оживлённая улица а busy town многолюдный, шумный город butcher ['but/э] мясник at the butcher’s в мясном магазине (отделе) cabinet 17 ['ksebinit] кабинет министров California [,kaeli'fo;ni3] Калифорния calm 1 [kdm] тихий, спокойный сап 5 [каеп] п консервная банка; V консервировать Canada ['kaenada] Канада canal [ka'nael] канал Canberra ['кагпЬэгэ] Канберра canoe 16 [кэ'пи;] п какое capital ['kaepitl] столица cardboard 3 [’kaidboid] картон саге [кеэ] забота to take care of sb/sth заботиться о ком-л./чём-л. careful ['кеэГэ!] осторожный, внимательный, тщательный carefully [’keafali] осторожно, внимательно, тщательно careless ['kealis] беспечный, неосторожный carelessly ['kealish] неосторожно carry ['kffirij носить carry mail перевозить почту castle ['ka:sl] замок cathedral 14 [кэ'вЫгэ!] собор cause 4 [ko:z] быть причиной, вызывать caviar(e) [’keevio:] икра Celt [kelt] кельт Celtic ['keltik] кельтский celebrate [’selibreit] праздновать celebration [.seli'breijh] празднование century [’sentjan] век ceremony 9 ('senmani] церемония certain ['s3:tn] определённый, некоторый certainly ['s3:inli] adv конечно chain 16 [tfein] цепь, цепочка chance 18 [tJo:ns] шанс change [tjeincfe] 1. (из)меняться 2. менять changeable 1 [tjein^abl] непостоянный, изменчивый character 9 ['kaerikta] герой (книги, фильма ) cheap [tjl:p] дешёвый check (up) ['tjek 'лр] проверять check in ['tJek 'in] n регистрация; v регистрироваться cheetah ['tjl:ta] гепард chemist ['kemist] аптекарь at the chemist’s в аптеке chest [tjest] грудная клетка Chicago [fi'kaigau] Чикаго chicken (chick) ['tjikin] цыплёнок China ['Ijaina] Китай choice [tjois] выбор choose [tju:z] (chose; chosen) выбирать Christian [‘knstian] христианин Christmas ['knsmas] Рождество circle ['s3:kl] обводить кругом circus ['s3:k3s] n цирк; adj цирковой citizen 17 ['sitizn] гражданин citrus 20 ['sitrss] n цитрус; adj цитрусовый classical 9 [’klaesikl] классический clear 5 [klis] adj ясный; v чистить, расчищать climate ['klaimit] климат climatic 2 [klai'maetik] климатический climb [klaim] залезать, взбираться climber 14 ['klaima] альпинист -«-V colony ['kDlam] колония colour ['kAls] цвет colou^d Гкл!^] раскрашенный, цвет- common ['кстэп] обычный commonly [’котэпЬ] обычно least/most commonly used наиме-нее/наиболее часто используемое company ['клшрэш] компания ^ compare [кэт'реэ] сравнивать, сравнить ^ compass ['клтрэ5] компас complete [kam'pliit] заканчивать compound [’kompaund] сложное слово concentrate 13 ['konsontreit] сосредото-чить(ся) conference [ knnfarans] конференция congress 17 ['koogres] конгресс, съезд congressman 17 ['koggresman] конгрессмен, член конгресса congresswoman 17 ['kDogreswuman] женщина-конгрессмен connect [kg'nekt] соединять, связывать conservative [kan'saivstiv) консерватив-. ный consist (of) [kan'sist] состоять (из) consonant ['konsananl] согласная constant 21 [’konstant] постоянный constitution 17 [.konsti'tjLcfn] конституция consult [kan'SAlt] консультировать* continent [‘kontmant] континент continental [.konti'nentl] относя**^.*.*^.. к материку continue [kan'tinju:] продолжать contrast 13 ['kunlroist] контраст, противоположность control 9 [kan'lraul] n контроль; v контролировать convenient [kan'vi:njant] удобный conversation [.konva'seijn] беседа cook [kuk] готовить cool [ku;l] прохладный, свежий cooperation 5 [kau.opa'reij'n] сотрудни чество, кооперация corresponding [.kDn'spDndig] соответ ствующий Sw#v ш vwX*. Cw!v. 5wX*. кШ>.< Ш:; te$: Шй: •5%%, Ш: cost [kost] (cost; cost) стоить countable ['kauntabl] исчисляемое country ['клШп] I. страна 2. деревня, сельская местность in the country за городом court [kDit] суд cover [’клуэ] n обложка, покрытие; V покрывать creature 3 ['kriitfa] создание, живое существо criminal 10 ['knminl] adj преступный, n преступник crisis 5 ['kraisis] кризис crocodile ['krokadail] крокодил crow [кгэи] ворона crowd 18 [kraud] n толпа crown 9 [kraun] n корона; v короновать cuckoo ['kuku:] кукушка culture ['клН/э] культура cure 3 [kjHs] вылечивать, излечивать curious 21 [’kjuanas] любопытный, любознательный custom ('kAStam] обычай customs ['kAStamz] таможня at the customs на таможне customs officer таможенник cut [kAt] (cut; cut) резать cut down срубать ...чаг д.а>-~-'Г..' •-g'-.e.g- . daffodil ['dsfddil] нарцисс daily 1 [’deili] ежедневный dairy ['dean] молочный dairy products ['dean ’pmdAkts] молочные продукты damage 3 ['daemictj] повреждать dandelion ['daendilaian] одуванчик danger ['deinctsa] опасность dangerous ['deincfearas] опасный daughter ['do:taj дочь day [dei] день the day before yesterday позавчера day off выходной день the other day на днях dead [ded] мёртвый decision 17 [di'si3n] решение declare 17 [di'klea] заявлять deep [di:p] глубокий deer 10 [dia] олень, олени defeat 9 [di'fin] n поражение; v побеждать, разбивать definite ['definitj определённый definitely ['defimtlij определённо delay [di'lei] n задержка; v задержи-вать(ся), опаздывать delight [di'lait] восторг democratic [.dema'knetik] демократический denote [di'naul] обозначать department [di'pcrtmant] отдел department store [di'paUmant sto:] универмаг departure [di'paitja] отправление desert 16 fdezat] пустыня dessert [di'z3:t] десерт destroy 3 [di'stroi] разрушать destruction 4 [di'strAkJn] разрушение, уничтожение detailed ['dkteild] детальный develop [di'velap] развивать devoted to sb [diVaotid] преданный кому-л devotion 13 [di'vaufn] преданность dictionary ['dikjsnn] словарь differ ['difs] отличаться difference ['difrsnsj отличие different ['drfrant] различный dime [daim] монета в 10 центов dingo 21 ['diD93u] динго (дикая собака) disagree [.disa'gri:] не соглашаться disappear [.disd'pia] исчезать disaster 5 [di'zoisto] бедствие, несчастье discover [dis'kAva] открывать discuss [di'skAs] обсуждать dislike [dis'laik] не любить divide [di*vatd] делить documentary [,dDkju'mentsri] документальный dolphin ['dnlfinj дельфин doubt [daut] сомнение dove [dAv] голубка drama ['drams] драма dress circle [,dres 's3:kl] бельэтаж dressmaker 10 ['dres,meik3] портной, портниха {женской одежды) duckbill 21 ['dAkbil] утконос dull [dAl] скучный dump 4 [dAmp] n свалка; v выбрасывать на свалку duty ['dju:ti] долг, обязанность earn 10 [з:п] зарабатывать to earn one’s living зарабатывать на жизнь east [i;st] восток eat [i;t] (ate; eaten) есть to eat in/out есть дома/вне дома (в кафе, ресторане и т.д.) echidna 21 [I'kidno] ехидна ecology [I’kDbcfei] экология educated 18 ['edju:keitid] образованный education [,edju:'keijn] образование effect 2 [I'fekt] эффект, воздействие elbow ['е1Ьэи] локоть elect [I'lekt] избирать, выбирать election 17 [I'lekjn] выборы electricity [.ilek'tnsiti] электричество emblem ['embbm] эмблема emperor ['етрэгэ] император empire 9 ['empaia] империя emu 21 ['i:mju:] эму {большая австралийская птица) encourage 18 [т‘клпс[5] поощрять, вдохновлять end 17 [end] заканчивать(ся) endanger 3 [in'deindsa] подвергать опасности endless 16 [’endlis] бесконечный energy 5 ['enadji] энергия, сила enjoy [in'cfeoi] получать удовольствие enough [|'плГ] достаточно enter 14 ['enta] 1. входить 2. поступать (в учебное заведение) enumerate [I'njuimareit] пронумеровать, перечислить environment 4 [inVaisrenmant] окружающая среда environmental 4 [шуаюгэп'тэпП] относящийся к окружающей среде escape 21 [I'skeip] убегать, избегать especially [I'spejdli] особенно eucalyptus 21 [juika'liptas] эвкалипт Europe [']иэгэр] Европа European [juara'piisn] европейский event 18 [iVent] событие exact 10 [ig'zaekt] точный exactly 10 [ig'zasktli] точно, как раз except 20 [ik'sept] prep кроме excite 8 [ik'sait] волновать excited 8 [ik'saitid] взволнованный exciting 8 [ik'saitio] волнующий exhibition [,eksi'bijn] выставка exist [ig'zist] существовать expect [ik'spekt] ожидать expensive [ik’spensiv] дорогой, дорогостоящий exploration [,ekspb'reijn] исследование explore [ik'spb:] исследовать express [ik'spres] выражать extinct 3 [ik'stigkt] вымерший extra ['ekstra] дополнительный extraordinary 21 [ik'stnxdnn] необычный extremely 21 [ik'stri:mli] чрезвычайно, крайне factory ['fgektsn] фабрика fall [fo:!] (fell; fallen) падать 1 найти false [fo:ls] неверный ['feimas] известный far [fa;] далёкий недалеко от the Far East Дальний Восток дальний, далёкий -обрабатывать farmland 16 ['fcrmtend] земля, при- j годная для сельскохозяйственных '• работ; угодья fat [faet] толстый, жирный fawn [Гэ:п] оленёнок feel [fi;l] (felt; felt) чувствовать to feel bad чувствовать себя плохо to feel like doing sth иметь жела-. ние что-то сделать fence [fens] изгородь, забор festival ['festival] фестиваль field [fi:ld] 1. поле 2. отрасль filter 4 ['filta] фильтр find^ [faind] (found; found) find out найти; выяснить fir tree ['fa: 'tri:] ель flat 8 [flaet] плоский flour [Йаиэ] мука fluent 14 ['flaant] быстрый, беглый (о языке) fog [fog] туман fo&Sy [fbgi] туманный folk [fauk] народный follow ['fobu] следовать following ['fbbuio] следующий fond [ftmd] любящий to be fond of sth/sb любить что-то! кого-то to be fond of doing sth любить делать что-то foolish ['ftulij] глупый forecast 1 ['b:ka:st] n прогноз (погоды); V (forecast; forecast/forecasted; forecasted) предсказывать погоду, прогнозировать foreign ['fbnn] иностранный former ['foima] бывший found [faund] основывать founded ['faundid] основанный to be founded быть основанным fountain [Tauntm] фонтан fragile 2 ['fnecfeail] хрупкий, слабый France [frans] Франция free [fri:] свободный, бесплатный freeze [fri:z] (froze; frozen) замёрзнуть, заморозить It’s freezingl Морозит! frequently ['friikwantli] часто fresh [frej] свежий hi Wlv. ■ m m wl\ m Ш ш; y.*. y.*. I frog [frog] лягушка fruit [fm:l] фрукт, фрукты fry [frai] жарить fuel ['би:э1] топливо, горючее Gaelic ['geilik] гаэльский (язык) gallery ['даг1эп] i. галерея 2. балкон, галёрка gas [gses] газ general ['фепэгэ!] генерал generally 20 ['(^enoroli] обычно, как правило gentleman ['cfeentlmsn] джентельмен Germany ['фзгтэш] Германия get [get] (got; got) получать, доставать get away удрать, исчезнуть get down to work приняться за работу get in/out входить/выходить get along/on with sb ладить c кем-л. get into a car сесть в машину get out of a car выйти из машины get over преодолевать get on a train (bus) сесть на поезд (автобус) get off a train (bus) сойти c поезда (автобуса) get up вставать get ready приготовиться get together собираться ghost [gdust] призрак, привидение giant ['(Ijaisnt] n великан; adj гигантский give [grv] (gave; given) давать give away отдавать, дарить give back возвращать give a call to sb звонить кому-л. give out раздавать give up 1. отказаться; бросить, перестать заниматься 2. сдаться global 5 ['gbubl] мировой, всемирный glove-maker 10 ['gL\v,meik3] перчаточник go [дэи] (went; gone) идти, ехать to go in for sports заниматься спортом to go on telling sth продолжать рассказывать что-л, graceful 21 [’greisfal] грациозный, изящный grass [grcLs] трава grassland ['graslaend] пастбище grave 13 [greiv] могила great [greit] 1. великий 2. потрясающий, отличный great-grandparents 16 [,greit 'дгагпс! pesrsnts] прабабушка и прадедущ!^^ greengrocer ['gri:n,gr9US3] зеленщик, продавец отдела ♦овощи-фрукты* at the greengrocer’s в магазине (отделе) ♦ овощи-фрукты * greenhouse 2 [griinhaus] теплица, парник greenhouse effect 2 [gri:nhaus .ifekt] парниковый эффект greetings ['gri:tio] приветствие greetings card поздравительная открытка grocer ['дгэизэ] бакалейщик at the grocer’s в бакалейном отделе grow [дгэи] (grew; grown) расти grow up 21 ['дгэи ’лр] расти, увеличиваться grown-up 21 ['дгэиплр] взрослый guarantee [,даггэп'1к] гарантировать, ручаться guess [ges] догадываться habitat 3 ['h£ebitaet] среда обитания Halloween [,hael9u'i:n] канун Дня всех святых hang [haeo] (hung; hung) вешать hardly [’hoidli] adv едва, почти hardly ever ['hoidli 'evs] adv очень редко, почти никогда harm [ho:m] вред to do (a lot of) harm причинять (много) вреда harvest ['ha:vist] урожай, сбор урожая hate [heit] n ненависть; v ненавидеть haughty ['lio:ti] надменный, высокомерный have/have got [haev] (has/has got [haez]) иметь have to/have got to (has to/has got to) do sth 14 иметь необходимость сделать что-то headline ['bedlam] заголовок hear [his] (heard; heard) слышать heat 2 [hi:t] жара hedge 8 [hecfe] живая изгородь helper 17 ['helpa] помощник hemisphere ['hemi.sfia] полушарие hide [haid] (hid; hidden) прятать(ся) high [hai] adj высокий; adv высоко highlands 8 ['hailandz] нагорье; горная, высокогорная местность hill [hil] холм hold [hauld] (held; held) держать hole [haul] нора; яма holiday ['holadei] 1. праздник 2. каникулы, отпуск holidaymaker 8 ['liobdi.meiks] турист, отдыхающий holly [’holi] остролист honest ['must] честный honesty 18 ['onisti] честность honey riuni] мёд Hoorah! 5 [hu'rei] Ура! hop [hop] хмель hope [haup] надеяться horn [ho:n] рог, рожок horror ['hors] ужас horse [ho:s] лошадь horseback 18 [‘ho;sbaek] спина лошади on horseback верхом huge 2 [hju;cfe] огромный, гигантский human 2 ['hjumian] n человек; adj человеческий humble [ЪлтЫ] скромный, застенчивый, робкий humid 20 ['hju;mid] влажный humorist ['hjuimanst] юморист hundred ['hAndrad] сто hurt [hs'.t] (hurt; hurt) 1. болеть 2. причинять боль I ice [ais] лёд Iceland ['aisbnd] Исландия icy 20 ['aisi] ледяной imagination [i,maecfei‘nei/n] воображение imagine [I'maecfein] представить, вообразить immediately [I'mkdistli] немедленно impossible [im'pnsdbl] невозможный include [in'klu:d] включать incomplete [,ink9m'pli:t] неполный indefinite [in'defsnit] неопределённый independence (from sb.) [,indi'pend9ns] независимость (от кого-л.) independent [.indi'pendsnt] независимый India ['mdioj Индия Indian Ocean, the [,Indian ’aujn] Индийский океан industrial [in'dAStnal] промышленный industry ['indAStnl промышленность inexpressive ['inikspresiv] невыразительный influence 2 ['influsns] n влияние; V влиять на когО’Л. to have an influence on sb оказывать влияние на кого-л. informal [in'fo;mal] неофициешьный information [.infa’mei/n] сведения inhabit 20 [in'hsebit] населять inhabited 20 [m'hsebuid] населённый inhospitable [in’hospitabl] негостепри- > ИМНЫЙ injure 14 L'lndja] ранить, испортить injured 14 [‘mcfead] раненый, повреждённый insect 3 [‘msekl] насекомое instead [m’sted] adv вместо чего л. international 5 [.mia'nsejnalj междуна- > родный interval ['intavi] интервал invent [inVent] изобретать invitation [.mvi'ieijn] приглашение invite [mVaitl приглашать Ireland ['aisbnd] Ирландия Irish [awnj] ирландский irregular [I'regjub] неправильный Italy [ibli] Италия jacket ['(fesekit] куртка, жакет jeans [cfei:nz] джинсы job [(feob] работа joke [cfeauk] шутка journey ['45з:ш] путешествие to go on a journey отправиться в путешествие judge 17 [cfeAds] n эксперт, знаток, судья; о судить, решать just [d5ASt] ad] 1. только что 2. как раз К kangaroo 21 [,кжодэ'ш:] кенгуру keep [ki;p] (kept; kept) держать, содержать to keep late hours поздно ложиться спать kill [kil] убивать king [kig] король kingdom ['kigdsm] королевство knife [naif] (pi knives [naivz]) нож (ножи) knock [nok] стучать knowledge [nolidj] знание, знания koala 21 [kau'ails] коала kookaburra 21 ['кикэ.Ьлгэ] зимородок-хохотун lady 18 ['leidi] леди, дама lake [letk] озеро land [lasnd] n земля, суша; v приставать к берегу, приземляться language ['Isggwid;] язык last [la:st] adj последний; и длиться i I *v.*. л Ш т т т late [leit] поздний to be late (for) опаздывать (на) lately ['leitli] недавно, за последнее время laugh (at) [la;f] смеяться (над) law 10 [b:] закон lawmaker [Ъ:,те1кэ] законодатель lawn [b:n] лужайка lawyer [Ъуэ] юрист, адвокат lay 21 [lei] (laid; laid) класть ^ to lay eggs откладывать яйца to lay the table накрывать на стол lazy ['leizi] ленивый lead [li:d] (led; led) вести, руководить leading 20 ['Ii:dio] ведущий, руководящий leap year 17 ['Ii:p jid] високосный год least (the least) [li:st] наименьший least evil наименьшее зло lecture ['lekt/э] лекция leek [li:k] лук-порей legend ['lecfcand] легенда length [leoO] длина lengthen [’leo09nj удлинять leopard ['iep^] леопард let [let] (let; let) позволять to let sb do sth позволить кому mo сделать что-л. liberty ['libgti] свобода Liberty Island остров Свободы The Statue of Liberty Статуя Свободы lick [Ilk] лизать, облизывать lie I [lai] (lay; lain) лежать lie II [lai] n ложь; (lied; lying) v лгать, говорить неправду to tell a lie солгать, говорить неправду life [laif] (pi lives [laivz]) жизнь (жизни) line [Iain] 1. линия 2. направление (о транспорте)\ v обрамлять to be lined (with) 13 быть обрамлённым (чем-л.) lip [lip] губа list [list] список litter [’lita] мусор loaf [buf] (pi loaves [buvz]) буханка (буханки) a loaf of bread буханка хлеба local ['bukl] местный, ближайший к дому logical ['lixijik]] логический lonely 20 ['bunli] одинокий look 14 [luk] смотреть, выглядеть to look after присматривать to look around оглядываться to look at смотреть на to look for искать to look like выглядеть (как кто-гпо или что-то) to look through просматривать to look up in sth посмотреть что-л, (в словаре) lord [b:d] лорд The House of Lords палата лордов (в британском парламенте) Los Angeles [los'aencfesliiz] Лос-Анджелес lose [lu:z] (lost; lost) терять to be (get) lost потеряться, заблудиться lowlands 8 ['bubndz] низменность lucky [’Uki] везучий, удачливый lung [1ло] лёгкое lynx [Iioks] рысь lyrebird ['laisbsid] лирохвост M ___................ ........ magic ['mascfeik] волшебный mail [meil] почта mainland ['meinbnd] материк majesty [’maectsisti] величие His/Her Majesty! Его/Её величество! major ['те1с[зэ] майор make [meik] (made; made) 21 делать, заставлять to be made of/from быть сделанным из to make sb do sth заставлять кого-л. делать что-л, make off быстро уйти, убежать make out разобраться, понять с трудом таке up составлять mammal 3 [’maemsl] млекопитающее mark [mo:k] оценка married [’maerid] женатый, замужняя to be/get married to sb состоять в браке/вступать в брак с кем-л. marry ['maen] жениться (на ком-то), выходить замуж (за кого-то) material [тэ'иэпэ!] материал matter ['masts] дело, вопрос по matter how 17 неважно как meadow 8 [’medsu] луг meaning ['mi;nio] значение means (of transport) [mi:nz] средства (передвижения) measure 18 ['тезэ] n мера, единица измерения; v измерять, мерить medicine ['medsm] 1. медицина (неис-числ.) 2. лекарство (исчисл.) melt 16 [melt] таять, растворяться melting pot 1. тигель 2. место, где собираются и живут вместе представители различных рас и национальностей member ['тетЬэ] член memorial [mi'moinal] мемориал memory ['тетэп] память merry [‘men] весёлый mess 5 [mes] беспорядок, путаница message ['mesicts] устное сообщение metal ['metl] металл mighty 16 [‘maiti] мощный mild [maild] мягкий military 13 ['militari] военный militia 18 [mi'lijs] милиция militiaman [mi'lijdmdn] милиционер million ['miljsn] миллион millionaire [miljs'ned] миллионер mineral ['тшэгэ1] минерал ministry ['mimstri] министерство miss sb [mis] 1. скучать no кому-л. 2. пропустить, опоздать Miss [mis] мисс (незамужняя женщина) Mississippi, the [.misi'sipi] Миссисипи (река) mist 1 [mist] туман, дымка misty 1 ['misti] туманный mix [miks] мешать, смешивать mixed [mikst] смешанный mixture 16 ['mikst/э] 1. смесь 2. микстура modest 13 ['modist] скромный moment ['maumant] мгновение monarch 9 ['mnnak] монарх monument to sb ['monjumant] памятник кому-л, motherland ['nudalasnd] родина, отчизна mother tongue [,тлдэ ‘Iaq] родной язык mountain ['mauntin] гора Mr ['mista] мистер, господин Mrs ['misiz] миссис, госпожа (замужняя женщина) Ms [miz] госпожа museum [mju:'zi:am] музей music ['mju:zik] музыка musical ['mju:zikl] adj музыкальный; n музыкальный фильм mysterious [mi'stianas] таинственный mystery ['mistan] тайна lU narrator [na'reita] рассказчик nasty ['na:sti] отвратительный nation ['neijn] нация national ['nsejnal] национальный nationality [.naeja'ngeliti] нащюналь-ность ! native ['neitiv] adj коренной, родной; \ n коренной житель natural [’naetjral] естественный naturally 20 ['nsetjroli] естественно nature ['neitja] природа nearly 20 ['nioli] почти ;• necessary [nesason] необходимый neighbour ['neiba] сосед nephew ['nevju:] племянник New York [.nju; 'jo.k] Нью-Йорк New Zealand 'zv.bnd] Новая 3e- • ландия nickel ['nikl] монета в пять центов nickname ['nikneim] прозвище nod [nod] n кивок; i; кивать головой noise [noiz] шум noisy [’noizi] шумный normal ['пэ:тэ1] нормальный north [пэ:0] север northeast [,nD:0'ist] северо-восток nortwest [.noieVest] северо-запад note [nsiJt] заметка nothing [’ПЛ01О] ничто, ничего notice 21 ['nsutis] n объявление; u замечать nowadays [naua'deiz] в настоящее время nuclear 4 [‘njirklia] ядерный nuclear weapons 4 ['njuiklia Svepanz] ядерное оружие number 17 ('плтЬэ] 1. число 2. количество oak [эик] дуб obey 17 [эЪе1] повиноваться, слушаться obligation [.Dbli'geijn] обязательство occasionally [э'ке1зпэ1|] время от времени occupation [.okju'pei/n] занятие, профессия occupy 20 ['okjupai] занимать (место) ocean ['эиГп] океан offend [3'fend] обижать offer ['оГэ] предлагать office [‘ofis] офис, учреждение, кабинет official 9 [эТ|/э1] adj официальный; п государственный служащий oil [oil] i. растительное масло 2. нефть only [bunli] только (the) only 20 единственный opera [‘оргэ] опера кШ:< т Ш<: Ш: Ш:<< т •^4 • - - • • Л%%* ш Ш>:- Ш Ш- ш- Sr^! I-♦.♦ • • I operetta Горэ'гэСэ] оперетта opinion [эрпуэп] мнение orange ['onncfe] п апельсин; adj оранжевый orange juice апельсиновый сок order [’aids] порядок origin ['опфт] происхождение ostrich ['ostritH страус other ['лдэ] другой, другие the other day на днях the other way round наоборот ought (to) [a;t] быть должным, обязанным outline [’autlain] план (рассказа) outloud ['autlaudj adv вслух own 9 [эип] adj собственный; v владеть ozone 4 ['auzaun] n озон; adj озоновый Pacific Ocean, the [pd,sifik 'эи/п] Тихий океан packet fpeekit] пакет, пачка paint [peint] n краска; v рисовать красками painting ['peintii^j картина pajamas (pyjamas) [рэ'фатэг] пижама palace ['paelis] дворец panther ('рзепвэ] пантера paper I'peips] 1. бумага 2. газета papers [’peipaz] 1. газеты, журналы 2. документы parliament ['pabmsnt] парламент pass [pcTs] передавать passenger ['раезтфэ] пассажир passport 14 [paspoit] паспорт path 14 [paO] тропинка pay (for 8th) [pel] (paid; paid) платить (за что л.) peach 20 [pi.*tj] персик pear 20 [реэ] груша perform [рэТэ:т] представлять, играть performance [рэТэ:тэп5] представление, спектакль performer [рэТэ:тэ] исполнитель periodical [.piari'Ddikl] периодическое издание (журнал, газета и т. д.) permanent ['рз:тэпэт] постоянный person ['p3:sn] человек, личность personal ['рз.'зпэ!] личный personally 5 ['psrsnalij лично, сам petal Cpetl] лепесток phrase [freizl фраза picnicker 5 [pikmka] участник пикника picturesque 13 [.pikt/a'resk] живописный piece [pks] кусок, часть pigeon ['р1фп] голубь pile 5 [pail] n куча, груда; v сваливать в кучу pirate 5 ['paisrat] пират plain 8 [plem] равнина plantation [pisn'tei/n] плантация planter ['plcints] плантатор pleasant ['plezsnt] приятный please 10 [pli:z] доставлять удовольствие, радость as you please как вам хочется pleased 10 [pli:zd] довольный pleasure ['р1езэ] удовольствие poem ['рэшт] стихотворение, поэма poison 4 [’poizn] п яд; v отравлять polite [ps'Iait] вежливый politician [,pDli'ti/n] политик politics 9 [politiks] политика pollute 4 [pa'luit] загрязнять pollution 4 [p3'lu:Jn] загрязнение population 4 ['popju'leijn] население portrait ['pDitnt] портрет position 8 [pa'zijn] положение, позиция possible [’pDSibl] возможный post office [’psust .ofis] почта pound [paund] 1. фунт (единица веса, 450 г) 2. фунт стерлингов (английская денежная единица) poverty 18 [’povati] бедность, нужда power ['раиэ] власть, сила practise (in) ['prsektis] практиковаться (в) praise 5 [preiz] п похвала; о хвалить president ['prezidsnt] президент Press, the 17 [pres] пресса pretend [pri'tend] притворяться pretty [’pnti] adj хорошенький; adv весьма previous ['pri:vi9s] предыдущий price [prais] цена primitive 21 ['pnrnitiv] 1. первобытный 2. примитивный prince [prins] принц, князь princess [pnn'ses] принцесса private 18 [’praivit] частный, личный prize [praiz] приз probably [’probabli] возможно problem [’problem] проблема procession 9 [pra'sejn] процессия produce 2 [pra'djuis] производить profession [pra'fejn] профессия professor [praTesa] профессор progressive [pra'gresiv] прогрессивный promise ['promis] обещать pronunciation [pra.runsi'eijn] произношение proper [’props] соответствующий prosperous 13 [’prospsrss] процветающий protect [prs'tekt] защищать prove [pru:v] доказывать proverb ['prDV3:b) пословица public 9 CpAblik] n публика; adj общественный punish ['рлт]] наказывать punishment ['pAni/mant] наказание pure [pjus] чистый purple ('рз:р11 фиолетовый push 18 [puJl толкать put [put] (put; put) класть put down записывать put on надевать qualification [.kwolifi'keijn] квалификация quarrel ['kworsl] и ссориться; n ссора quarter ['kwoita] I. четверть 2. монета в 25 центов queen [kwi:n] королева quiet ['kwaial] спокойный, тихий quiz [kwiz] 1. викторина; 2. проверочная работа spelling quiz словарный диктант quotation [kwsu'teijn] цитата quote [kwsut] цитировать rabbit 21 ['irebit] кролик radiation 4 [,reidi'eijn] радиация, излучение radio [Veidiau] радио rain [rein] n дождь; о идти (о дожде) It often rains here. Здесь часто идёт дождь. It is raining hard now. Сейчас идёт сильный дождь, rainbow ['гешЬэи] радуга raincoat ['reinksut] дождевик, плащ rainforest [’remfonst] тропический лес rainstorm 1 ['reinsto:m] ливень rainy ['reini] дождливый rat 21 [raet] крыса raven [Yeivn] ворон react [n'aekt] реагировать reason 9 ['ri:zn] причина receive [ri'si^^] 2. получать 2. принимать (гостей, посетителей) recently ['riisntli] недавно recognize ['reksgnaiz] узнавать recover [п'клуэ] поправиться refer [пТз:] относить, отсылать reference material ['refrens тэ41эпэ1] | справочный материал referring (to) [пТз:по] относящийся (к) refuse [n‘Qu:z] отказывать(ся) region [ п;фэп] регион regularly [‘regjubh] регулярно reign 9 [rein] л царствование; v царствовать relation [n'leijn] родственник relative frebtiv] родственник relax [n'laeks] расслабляться, отдыхать ^ relaxation [,ri:iaek'seijn] расслабление, | отдых i religion 17 [n'licfean] религия J ________1___r-i » - ft 1 I remember [n'memba] помнить remind (of) 9 [n'maind] напоминать (о) represent 17 [rcpn'zeni] представлять representative 17 [.repn'zentativ] пред-ставитель(ный) reptile 3 ['reptail] рептилия rescue 14 [Veskju:] n спасение; v спасать, избавлять resemble 21 [n’zembl] быть похожим residence 9 ['rezidsns] резиденция resource 4 [n'sas] средства, ресурсы respect 18 [n'spekl] v уважать; n уважение respectable [n’spektsbl] уважаемый rest [rest] n отдых; v отдыхать the rest of 8 остальные retell [,ri:‘tel] пересказывать retire 18 [n'taia] увольняться, уходить в отставку (на пенсию) review [nVju:] повторять ride [raid] (rode; ridden) ехать (на велосипеде, лошади) rise [raiz] (rose; risen) вставать, подниматься rock 13 [гок] скала row [гэи] грести royal ['гэ1э1] королевский rubbish ['rAbiJl мусор, бытовые отходы ruin ['ru:in] разрушать ruins ['ni:mz] руины rule 8 [ru:l] n правило; v править управлять as a rule как правило ruler 8 ['ш:1э] 2. правитель 2. линейка 1 saint [seint] (St.) [snt] святой salesman ['seilzm^n] продавец salty ['sd:Iu] солёный sand 20 [seend] песок sandals ['sJwX<’ 1Шг::: Ш««’: м*г* ♦-• K«V.‘ Ш:;: wK* • topic ftopik] тема touch 9 [UtJ] трогать touching 9 ['tAt/io] трогательный tourism ['tuanzm] туризм tourist [Warisi] турист trade 13 [treid] торговля tradition [tre'di/n] традиция traditional [tra'di/nsl] традиционный traffic [ЧгжПк] движение (уличное) tragedy 9 ['iradjddi] трагедия transport ['traenspDit] транспорт trip [tnp] поездка, короткое путешествие tropical 20 [tropikl] тропический trouble ['1глЫ] n беда, неприятность; v беспокоить troublemaker [’trAbl.meiks] проказник, смутьян, нарушитель спокойствия trunk 17 [1глок] 1. ствол 2. хобот trust 18 [trASt] доверять T-shirt футболка turtle ['i3:tl] черепаха (морская) twin [twin] близнец type [taip] печатать и ultraviolet 4 [.AllraVaisIit] adj ультрафиолетовый; n ультрафиолет ultraviolet radiation ультрафиолетовое излучение unbuilt [^nbilt] непостроенный uncomfortable [лп'клтГэ19Ы] неудобный uncooked [^n'kukt] сырой, неприготовленный (о пище) uncountable [дп'каиШэЫ] неисчисляемый uncovered [An'kAvad] неприкрытый, открытый undeclared [^ndi'klead] необъявленный, непровозглашённый underground [’Andagraund] метро, подземка to take the underground ехать на метро underline ['Andslain] подчёркивать underlined word подчёркнутое слово uneasy [An'l'zi] нелёгкий uneducated [^n'edjukeitid] необразованный unfinished [^n'fmi/t] незаконченный unfortunately [AnTo.lTamtJi] к несчастью, к сожалению unfriendly [^n'frendli] недружелюбный unhappy [An'haepi] несчастливый, несчастный unimportant [,Anim'po:t9nt] неважный uninhabited 20 [^ninhosbitid] необитаемый United States of America, the (the United States), the USA (the US) (ju:.naiiid .steits av э'тепкэ], [ju:es'ei] Соединённые Штаты Америки (США) university 8 [juini V3:s9ti] университет unkind [An’kaind] недобрый unknown [.лп'пэип] неизвестный unnoticed [^n'nautist] незамеченный unpopular [^n'popjul9] непопулярный unspoken [дп'зрзикэп] невысказанный, невыраженный untrue [^n'tru:] лживый, неверный use [ju:z] использовать, употреблять used (ju-sl] to do sth иметь обыкновение делать что-л. (в прошлом) valley 8 [V$li] долина vast 20 [va;st] обширный vice-president 17 [,vais 'prezidont] вице-президент video [Vidou] видео village [Vilicfe] деревня visit [Vizit] n посещение, визит; v посещать a visiting day день посещений visitor 14 [Vizit9] посетитель, гость vocabulary [va'kasbjubn] словарь, лексикон vote 17 [v9Ul] голосование vowel [Vau9l] гласная voyage ['уопф] путешествие (no воде) to go on a voyage поехать в морское путеществие w waste 4 [weist] отходы watch [wDtJ] n часы (наручные); V смотреть, наблюдать water ['wo:t9] n вода; v поливать waterfall 8 ['woitofo:!] водопад waterway [\vo:t9wei] водный путь way [wei] 1. путь, дорога 2. способ, образ wealth [wel0] богатство wealthy [Sveiei] богатый, состоятельный weapon 4 ['wepan] оружие weather [’wed9] погода weather forecast прогноз погоды wet [wet] сырой, мокрый whale [well] кит wheat 20 [wi:t] пшеница while [wa.I] пока в то время как for а while 10 в течение какого-то времени «лую то whisper [-wispa] n шёпот; i; шептать whole [haul] целый, весь wicked 10 [Viki^d] 1. злой, злобный 2. нехороший ^'^пыи wickedly 10 ['wikrdli] злобно, дурно widespread ['waidspred] широко рас-пространенный width [wid0] ширина wild [waild] дикий wildland 16 [’waildlffind] земли, не tdo-нутые деятельностью человека windy [windi] ветреный wing [wiq] крыло wisdom 18 ('wizdom] мудрость wise [waiz] мудрый желать wool [й]^п'‘шепр^’ колдунья world [W3:ld] ми J**’ шерстяной all over the вселенная year [jia] год young [jAQ] МОЛОДОЙ 2 MoSb^- Д-ёныш zoo [zu;] зоопарк at the zoo в зоопарке v:^ •V :*v8 CONTENTS PART 2 BASIC COURSE Great Britain Unit 10 Shakespeare’s Land.---‘'............................. 19 Text “The Actors Come to i own ..... 12 Unit 11 Consolidation Two . . ..............!!!!!!!!......... 09 Text “Greetings Cards .............. * • ■ .................. 90 Project Work 1.............................. ..................... 97 Unit 12 Holidays...........^ ...... 00 Text “A Christmas Carol .............................. *0 Unit 13 Scotland............................................. Text “Scotland the Beautiful......................... 4^2 Unit 14 Wales................................................ Text................................................. Project Work 2................................................ The USA Unit 15 How Much Do We Know About the USA?.................... 62 Text “A Trip to the USA”............................... 65 Unit 16 Geographical Outlook.................................. 68 Text “Country and People” ........................... 77 Unit 17 Political Outlook..................................... 81 Text “Who Rules the Country?”.......................... 90 Unit 18 American Presidents..................................... 95 Text “Two American Presidents”.........................104 Unit 19 Consolidation Three.................................... 112 Text “American Food and Drink”........................ 114 Australia Unit 20 Geographical Outlook................................... 118 Text................................................. 127 Unit 21 Climate and Wildlife................................... 134 Text “The Most Extraordinary Country to Explore”_____143 Unit 22 Consolidation Four..................................... 148 Text “Words We Use”................................... 150 Project Work 3.............................................. .153 REFERENCE GRAMMAR............................... . . 154 VOCABULARY..................................................... 161 Учебное издание Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна Михеева Ирина Владимировна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК VI класс Учебник для общеобразовательных организаций и школ с углублённым изучением английского языка В двух частях Часть 2 Центр лингвистического образования Зав. редакцией английского языка Ю. А. Смирнов. Ответственный за выпуск О. В. Миронова. Редакторы Л. Е. Маневич. Н. И. Максименко. Координатор по художественному оформлению Н. В. Дождёва. Художники А.С. Побезинский, И. В. Караваев. Технические редакторы и верстальщики Л. Г. Хуторовская, Н, Н. Репьева. Корректор Е. Д. Светозарова. Налоговая льгота — Общероссийский классификатор продукции ОК 005-93—953000. Изд. лиц. Серия ИД № 05824 от 12.09.01. Подписано в печать 06.02.15. Формат 84xl087«* Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура Школьная. Печать офсетная. Уч.-изд. л. 10,06. Доп. тираж 8000 экз. Заказ № 39944 (ь-ав>. Открытое акционерное общество «Издательство «Просвещение». 127621. Москва, 3-й проезд Марьиной рощи, 41. Отпечатано по заказу ОАО «ПолиграфТрейд« в филиале «Смоленский полиграфический комбинат» ОАО «Издательство «Высшая школа». 214020, г. Смоленск, ул. Смольянинова, 1. Тел.: 4-7(4812)31-11-96. Факс: -ь7(4812)31-31-70. E-mail: 8pk@amolpk.ru https://wvw.8molpk.ru аХ'оа комплекта „д» - Р°о О. В. Афанасьевой, И. В. МихеГеоГл п «ь,к.. рабочие программы (V- IX кпал„, > " “'’^оса: W книга для чтения « книга для учителя ^ контрольные задания ‘^^тернет-поддеожкя ил. vereshchaginT ----«^.всоои, и. В. ^ рабочие программы iv ^ учебник (в 2 частях)^ классы) W аудиокурс к учебнику рабочая тетрадь W аудиокурс к рабочей тетради |prosv.ro I Аудиокурсы и дополнительные мл. I iSftisHi 60 AOM книги ISBN "МОЛОЛАЯ ГВАРЛИЯ- nil |Лфанасьева О,В, Английс nil I ISBN 978-5-09-0359 tg-f 9 78 Цена Illllllm08976 1310 D. 2 Ь Same Elizabeth I Greenwich Palace, Prince Albert ['pnns 'selbat] Seth II I 1926 Prince Philip ['pnns Tilip] LgT IIS REAP AM^LEARni Subject^ Complex Object Mother want(s) me him Nina would like her He expect(s) you They don’t want us I doesn’t want them etc. wouldn’t like John don’t expect doesn’t expect Kitty the children, etc. to do sth В 5. 2. Мама не хочет, чтобы я стал актёром. 3. Анне хотелось бы, чтобы МЫ пошли в зоопарк. 4. Нам не хотелось бы, что- ы ты вернулся слишком поздно. 5- Я не ожидаю, что они отве- 6 вопрос. о- Мы предполагаем, что по- 7 “Р«будет вовремя * предполагают, что Джон остановится в гос^ни^^^” 1. I want him to come baci at 5. 2. Mother doesn’t want me t become an actor. 3. Ann would like us to go t the zoo. 4. We wouldn’t like you to rc turn too late. 5. I don’t expect them to an swer this difficult questior 6. We expect the train to ni rive on time. 7. They expect John to stay a hotel. part 2, 8UI ► подлежащее I I Mother Mother Му teacher — tell tell advises teaches tells John him Mary her me to do his room, to do it carefully, to wash up after meals, to wash up well, to be kind and friendly. I I Mother Mother Our teacher want would like wants wants expects John him Mary her us to do his room, to do it carefully, to wash up after meals, to wash up well, to be kind and friendly. Маке up sentences. want mother father don’t want my friend him her 'f.nPTYl would like to expect don’t expect us you play football with me. come home soon, phone me at five, take me to Britain, go to Scotland, wait for me after classes, go to the baker’s, help me with Text 1. Say using the phrases on the righk a) what parents usually want/ don’t want their children to do; b) what teachers usually expect/ don’t expect their pupils to do; c) what you would like/wouldn t like your friend(s) to do. tell lies come home on time smoke cigarettes be too noisy help other people be honest and brave read a lot keep the environment clean go with me to the disco eat more fruit My parents don’t want me to come home late. Express the same in English. nflfioxv один. 2. Я ожи 1. Никто не хочет, чтобы он карту Британ- даю, что ваши друзья чтобы учителя были добрыми.