Английский язык 6 класс Учебник Афанасьева Михеева часть 1

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о. V. Afanasyeva I. V. Mikheeva fp______^ /i PROSVESHCHENIYE M 3 PUBLISHERS ''3 tp W ФГОС о. в. Афанасьева И. В. Михеева tNCtfju АНГЛИИСКИИ ЯЗЫК VI класс Учебник для общеобразовательных организаций и школ с углублённым изучением английского языка с приложением на электронном носителе В двух частях Часть 1 Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации Москва «Просвещение» 2013 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А94 На учебник получены положительные заключения Российской академии наук (№ 10106-5215/203 от 12.10.2011 г.) и Российской академии образования (№ 01-5/7Д-289 от 17.10.2011 г.). Условные обозначения — задание с использованием аудиозаписи Ый — задание для подготовки к экзамену (State final assessment) А94 Афанасьева О. В. Английский язык. VI класс. Учеб, для общеобразоват. организаций и шк. с углубл. изучением англ. яз. с прил. на электрон, носителе. В 2 ч. Ч. 1 / О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева. — М. : Просвещение, 2013. — 126 с.: ил. — ISBN 978-5-09-028639-8. Учебник написан на основе принципов коммуникативно-ориентированного обучения иностранным языкам в контексте диалога культур. Объём знаний, умений и навыков в области английского языка соответствует требованиям Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта основного общего образования. В учебнике значительно расширен и усложнён материал, предназначенный для развития каждого из видов речевой деятельности. Учебник построен на цикличном повторении пройденного ранее материала. Одним из нововведений в учебнике для VI класса является наличие раздела Project Work. Задания раздела дают учителю возможность расширить рамки изучаемой темы, а ученику — проявить свои творческие способности. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 ISBN 978-5-09-028639-8(1) ISBN 978-5-09-028640-4(общ.) > Издательство «Просвещение», 2013 ' Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение», 2013 Все права защищены Jii; PART1 Weather • Climate • The Natural World ' Man and the Natural World • Есо1оду|^ Ш Ш Unit 1 Weather holidays • weather forecast^ travelling I m Ш i Cv. Cv. "♦V.’ ♦ ♦ ♦ LET US REVIEW You all have been away from school for a long time. You certainly want to know how your friends spent their holidays. Ask them these questions to find out. 1. Did you stay at home in the summer holidays? If not, where did you go? 2. Did you go away in June, July or August? 3. What was the weather like during the summer? during your trip? 4. Did you go by car, by plane or by train? If you used several methods of travelling, which of them did you like the best? 5. Who did you go with? 6. Where did you stay? a) Was it a hotel? What kind of room did you have? What was there in the room? b) Was it a summer cottage? Where was it? c) Was it some other place? Could you describe it? 7. Did you play any games in summer? What games did you play? Who was your usual partner? Who usually won? 8. You helped your parents during the summer, didn’t you? How did you help them? What did you do? 9. Did you go for walks during the summer? How did you usually spend your mornings and evenings? What did you use to do in the afternoon? 10. Did you read any books in summer? What books did you read? How many? 11. How are you going to spend your next summer holidays? Where do you want to go? ' weather forecast [Sve63 'forkast] — прогноз погоды ‘.V Look at the pictures and say how Jane, Sally, Nick and Mike spent their holidays. The words from the boxes can help you. to travel about Russia to travel by plane (car, bus...) to stay at a large hotel to have a double room to have all modern conveniences to be sunny, hot and pleasant to swim, to lie in the sun to play different games to enjoy the holiday to travel by ship to be on board the ship for seven days to visit Spain, Italy, Greece to see interesting places to meet different people to learn a lot to visit museums and galleries to be pleasant (about weather) 1 to stay at home to be sick/ill (about Granny) to have to a) help about the house b) do the shopping c) call a doctor d) buy medicines e) warm up food to be free early mornings to have a lot of free time in the evening to read a lot, to watch videos to play football, volleyball to play on the computer Ч to go to the country to be fine (about weather) to live in a small cottage near the farm to have a lot of animals on the farm to feed the animals to look after the animals to help about the house to work in the garden to water the flowers, plants and vegetables to get some money for the job I I I I m mi U: Vi*. I m V* ♦ 1 The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense 1. He usually comes home at 5. 2. Nelly doesn’t drink coffee for breakfast. 3. Do you work in a bank? The Past Indefinite (Simple) Tense + — 7 + — 7 ■ V/Vs don’t/ doesn’t V do/ does V? Ved/V^ didn’t V did V? 1. Yesterday he came at 4. 2. Last Friday she didn’t drink it either. 3. Did you work in a bank 3 months ago? Now you are in class but only a few weeks ago you were on holiday. Make true sentences about now and then. Example: I go to school six days a week at present but I enjoyed my summer holidays a week ago. every 10 at present 1. to go to school 2. to learn English 3. to meet schoolmates day to have a lot of classes to get up early in the morning to work hard not to watch TV every evening 8. to rain a lot not to be green and fresh (about the leaves of the trees) to do lessons 4. 5. 6. 7. 9 a week (some weeks) ago 1. to enjoy summer holidays 2. to work in the garden helping Mother 3. to miss^ one’s schoolmates 4. to spend a lot of time on the beach to keep late hours^ to play outdoors with friends 7. to watch lots of TV programmes not to rain at all to be green and fresh (about the leaves of the trees) 10. not to write any exercises at all 5. 6. 8. 9. During her holidays Olga went to England. She spent a week there and met a nice English girl, called Linda. Complete the dialogue between the girls and then act it out. Don’t forget to change over. Olga: Excuse me, is this seat free? Linda: _________________________. Please sit down. Olga: Thank you. Do you live here? Linda: _________________________. And where do you come from? I see you’re a stranger here. ’ to miss [mis] sb — скучать no кому-либо ^ to keep late hours — поздно ложиться Olga: __________________________. Linda: Really? How interesting. I’ve never met anyone from Russia before. ______________________? _I_______________________? Olga: My name is Olga and I’m from Moscow. Linda: I’m Linda. It’s so nice to meet you! When________________? ______________________________________? Olga: I came to London last week to brush up my English. Linda: I think your English is very good. How long _____________ ______________________________________? Olga: I’ve been here for a week. I’m leaving for Moscow tomorrow. Linda: That’s a pity. I’d like to know more about Russia. ______________________________________? Olga: Certainly. I live at 25, Begovaya Street, Flat 43. I would so much like to get a letter from you. Linda: _________________________. Bye. Olga: Bye. / Now Norman and Jack are at school again. Say what they used to do during their summer holidays. Example: Norman used to play the violin in the summer. Norman 1. to play the violin 2. to listen to folk music 3. to watch cartoons 4. to visit picture galleries 5. to learn poems by heart 6. to lie in the sun Jack 1. to play the guitar 2. to read detective stories 3. to listen to rock music 4. to play football a lot 5. to work on the computer 6. to swim in the river •Xv *.%v ♦.‘.v 1 I Ш I m I The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense I am I is [ + Ving are Look! What a strong wind is blowing! Is it snowing hard now? A W It The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense I was I i + Ving were strong wind was blowing when she left the house, was not snowing at 5 yesterday. т w»v т I ш т «►‘♦л*.* Ш ш Шу. № т Ш ш т vtvl*. ш Шу ш »:: 9* • т т wK*. Ш>: Шу. к* ♦ Look at the pictures and say what the weather was like yesterday and what it is like today. The word box can help you. sunny, cold, warm, wet, hot, foggy, cloudy, frosty, clear, windy, rainy, to snow, to rain, to blow, to shine +5 ,Yesterday} f4lij Yesterday Today ) +20 J -20 J a) Sasha has got a pen friend John who lives in Britain. In John’s school the school year begins a week later than in Sasha’s. Complete Sasha’s letter to John. Dear John, It’s nice to know that you (1. be) still on holiday. I wonder what you are doing now. You (2. hsh)? You (3. swim)? You (4. lie) in the sun? Anyway I hope you (5. enjoy) yourself. Only a few days ago I (6. fish), (7. swim) and (8. lie) in the sun too. But it (9. be) over now and I (10. be) back at school. The weather has changed and it (11. rain) heavily. And only yesterday the sun (12. shine) brightly in the cloudless sky. I think that autumn (13. be) here. What is the weather like where you are? Is it cold and foggy or is it warm and sunny? A wind (14. blow)? Our textbooks (15. write) so much about the weather in Britain. I’d like to know if what they write is true. With best wishes, Sasha Шу-у b) Now name 5 things Sasha used to do in the summer and 5 things John used to do. (Ex. 5 can help you.) Example: Sasha used to swim a lot. LET US READ AMD LEARM Listen to the speaker and repeat the sounds after him, 0 1. I a) Read these words in transcription. [in'dAstrial], ['laengwichl, ['fnlaul, ['klaimitl, [bi'bo], ['aidjansl, r'enimil, ['gri:di], ['lecfeand], [sto:], [wars], ['teib], [9э:1], [n'fju:z]. b) Listen to the recording, 02, and check your reading. W It’s ten (degrees) above zero. It’s zero (degrees). It’s ten (degrees) below (zero). = It’s minus ten. It’s ten (degrees) of frost. A Look at the thermometers and say what temperature they show. ГТ\ rr\ ГЛ 5 .0 J J 5_ JO 3^ _P 5^ J N J _o 5 J ip ?] ip li ip pi il pi ip P£ ip г ip pi ip pi ip PI ip 1= ip й ip 11 ip 1= ip 11 if ll ip 1= U li ip ll ip ll ip 1 1 : ? j i ; = № U io di b Qi P’ Qi b di eQ di b Qi b di id f li ip ij ip lj ip li i] ip li ip li ip ll !• j| ip r ip 4 ь pi ip pi ip ii if *i ip pi il J L 4 _E _£ L J _£ L _E L -£ L 1 J Г i I'z lO LO =0 eP li ip ii eP L= ip ii ip eP V t) J I :f5S .1 i Ш. »х*. й!: Say what the temperature was in different cities three days ago. : Rome C^+5^ Paris St. Petersburg (^1^ Iv Madrid C+4^ Moscow C~l^ Washington D. C. (pl^ Edinburgh (^8^ London C^+2^ Cardiff (Г+б' I: a) Read and guess what the undefined words mean. 1. You can see a rainbow ['reinbsu] in the sky when rain and sun come together. 2. There was an awful rainstorm ['reinstD:m] yesterday. It rained hard and a strong wind was blowing. 3. A barometer [ba'romita] is an instrument that helps to tell what the weather will be like. 4. There was a shower ['/аиэ] (a short rainfall) in the evening. 5. Weathermen ['wedaman] collect information about weather. b) Look these words up^ to make sure you have guessed right. Read the words, iook them up and then study the word combinations^ and sentences to know how to use them. a forecast ['foikcust] (n)f^a weather forecast. The weather forecast says there will be rain. to forecast, forecast/forecasted,.forecast/forecasted (v): They forecast good weather at the weekend, to expect [ik'spekt] (v): to expect visitors, to expect cold weather. The child is tired so I expect he will go to bed early. I am expecting visitors tonight. daily ['deili] (adj): a daily newspaper, a daily show. This is a daily television programme. calm [ko:m] (adj): a calm voice, a calm morning, to stay calm. Today is a calm day, very good for playing badminton. I was afraid of the dog but I decided to stay calm, a mist [mist] (n): At 11 o’clock the mist cleared and the sun began shining. We could not see the house through the mist, misty (adj): a misty morning. I looked through the window and saw that it was a grey misty morning. The forecast says it will be wet and misty tomorrow. changeable ['[[ешфэЫ] (adj): changeable weather. The weather in April is always changeable: it may be rainy in the morning and warm and sunny in the afternoon, to look out for: On a morning like this everyone looks out for rain. * to look up = to look up in the dictionary or vocabulary — посмотреть слова в словаре >ss* л This is a page from Mr Green’s diary. Mr Green is a weatherman and every day he makes notes about the weather. Yesterday he was caught in a rainstorm and his diary got wet. Can you heip Mr Green to read his notes? Use the words from ex. 12, ex. 13. Ш « • Va уЖ 'wtf c 5.30 a. m.' ^ It's very m 1 j but l think the t will clear before 10.00 o'clock. There's no wind and the morning is Im. We can t a orm in the afternoon. - 9.30 a. m. The ba shows the pressure is high. But as the weather is very ble here we should look for a show in the evening. Then we'll be able to see a Tj,|<)jscir too. 2.30 p. m.® Here comes the rain. D showers are typical of August weather. So we, men, were right when we fo rains. 4^ Listen to the sayings, ® 3, then choose two and learn them by heart. WORDS ABOUT THE WEATHER 1. A sunshiny shower Won’t last an hour. 2. Rainbow at night Is the sailor’s delight;® ' a. m. [,eiem] — is used to show that we speak about the time between midnight and noon ® p. m. [,pi:'em] — is used to show that we speak about the time between noon and midnight ® delight [di'lait] — восторг Ш m * ♦ * • 1Т4Г уШ Ш Ш m m Ш m ууЖ M •m m • • « ♦ Sc m m Ш ууЖ К»!*!' W/. т'Л. i Ш vw%% ■ ►x«x* m vi*l CvM. wl\\ Ш *К‘М* Ш? Rainbow at morning, Sailor, take warning!* 3. When the days begin to lengthen,^ Then the cold begins to strengthen.® 4. Evening red and morning grey Are the signs of a bonny** day. Evening grey and morning red. Bring down rain on the farmer’s head. 5. If bees® stay at home. Rain will soon come. If they fly away. Fine will be the day. Listen to the dialogues for good and bad weather, 04, learn them by heart and act them out. I A: It’s a fine day today, isn’t it? B: Yes, it’s nice and bright this morning. A: Yes. Much better than yesterday. It’s good to see the sun again. B: Let’s hope it will keep fine for the weekend. II A: What a nasty® day! It has been raining since yesterday morning. B: They say it is going to get even colder. A: Oh, no! I hate cold and rain. B: So do I. Let’s hope it won’t last. Make up your own dialogues. Use the models of ex. 16. Use the following words and word combinations instead of those in bold type.^ cool and wet® warm and sunny bright and frosty hot and stuffy® wet and foggy cool and windy What What What What What What What a hot day! a cold day! a sunny day! a rainy day! a windy day! a foggy day! a wet day! * warning ['wamiol — предупреждение ® to lengthen ['1ег)9эп] — удлиняться, продлеваться ® to strengthen [’streoGon] — усиливаться ■* bonny ['bom] — красивый ® a bee [bi:] — пчела ® nasty ['nersti] — отвратительный ^ in bold [bauld] type — жирным шрифтом ® cool and wet • stuffy ['stAfi] - - прохладный и влажный душный us READ Read the text and say what weathermen do. THE WEATHER FORECAST We get wet through when we are caught in a rainstorm without a coat. Sometimes we put on a sweater and then find that the weather has become hot. We do not always know what weather to expect. It is more serious when farmers lose their harvest because of rain, or a sailor gets into trouble when the wind rises. On TV and radio there are daily weather forecasts. Sometimes, the forecast is not quite right as the weather is not an easy thing to forecast. All day and night, weathermen are collecting information from ships, planes, weather stations, and space stations. With the help of this information, they can understand what the weather wll be like during the next few days. Althoulrh no two days will have exactly the same weather, some types of weather people can forecast. When a barometer shows high pressure, the weather will be calm. In winter it will be cold and frosty. In summer it usually means misty mornings and hot sunny days. When the barometer shows low pressure, look out for rain and strong winds. As a result of the weathermen’s work we learn about the weather. This is one of the TV forecasts made by the BBC.* 0 5. “Good evening, and here is the weather forecast for tomorrow. Scotland will be cold with snow in the mountains. In the north of England it will be a wet day with heavy showers that will move to Northern Wales during the afternoon. The Midlands will be dry but cloudy. In the south of England the day will be bright and clear with a lot of sunshine but it may be windy in the evening.” 0 * the BBC — The British Broadcasting Corporation ■ broadcasts programmes on radio and television ■ a British organization which v.< .i I I I Say: “True”, “False” or “Don’t know.” 1. Weathermen collect information from universities, colleges and offices. 2. If the barometer shows low pressure, the weather is rainy and windy. 3. We never know what weather to expect and there’s nothing that can help us. 4. For some people it’s very important to know the weather forecast. 5. When the weather is cold and frosty in winter, the barometer shows high pressure. LET US TALK Use the text (ex. 18) and prove that the work of weathermen is very important. ' Let’s discuss the work of weathermen. Think and answer the questions. Ex. 18 can help you. 1. Are weather forecasts important for people? People of what professions are interested in weather forecasts? Why? 2. How often can people listen to daily weather forecasts? Can they get this information only on radio and TV? 3. When and where do weathermen usually collect information about weather? 4. What is the usual weather if a barometer shows high pressure in summer? in winter? 5. Do the members of your family usually listen to weather forecasts or watch them on television? 6. Have you ever got into trouble because of a wrong weather forecast? Can you remember how it happened? ' Play the part of a weatherman and tell TV viewers what weather they will have tomorrow. ' Make up dialogues about the weather on a rainy (sunny, cold, hot, frosty, warm, autumn, spring) day and act them out. LET US WRITE You know that the weather in Britain is very changeable. Describe the weather in London on each day of the last week (p. 15). Example: It was snowy on Sunday. dib -5° +20° wind Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday I i i Describe in 5—7 sentences a typical day in spring, summer, autumn and winter. Express the same in English. a) I. 1. Солнечно. Дождя нет. 2. Холодно. Идёт снег. 3. Облачно. Дует холодный ветер. 4. Морозно, но светит солнце. 5. Идёт дождь. Туманно. Сыро. 6. Идёт снег? — Нет, на улице ясно. II. 1. Вчера было тепло, хотя шёл .г^одсдь. 2. В прошлую^среду было ветрено, но ясно. Светило солнце. 3. Вчера вечером дул сильный ветер и было холодно. 4. Вчера утром не было солнца. 5. Три дня тому назад был лёгкий туман (дымка), но было тепло. 6. На прошлой неделе шёл снег. Морозило. b) Наступила осень. Дни стали короче. Много облачных, ненастных дней с ливнями. А совсем недавно было тепло и сухо, светило солнце, и дни были ясными. В прошлое воскресенье я гулял по лесу и слушал пение птиц. А сейчас я сижу за письменным столом и делаю уроки. Но я люблю осень и люблю школу. В этом году я буду опять учить английский язык. а) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. 1 Ш m a rainbow, a rainstorm, a barometer, a shower, a weatherman, a forecast, to forecast, to expect, daily, calm, misty, changeable b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctly? Are you pleased with your result? LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS Listen to the recording, ®6, and say why Tom asked his father about the rain on the road. What did his father answer him? т ViV V.V ♦♦♦X' vM* vX* *Xv ►:*x- ►x<* ►Xv X*I* Xv Xv Xv x*t* x*t* X*I* Xv Xv Who said the following? 1. “Dry and warm in the morning with possible showers in the afternoon.” 2. “It isn’t very nice, is it?” 3. “It rains and ... the grass grows for the cows and the sheep.” 4. “Then why does it rain on the road, too?” Describe the weather on the day of Tom and his father’s walk. Don’t forget to make an outline of your story. Unit 2 Climate • weather and weather forecast • climatic shanges • seasons LET US REVIEW Put the following words in two groups: a) fine weather; b) nasty weather. cloudy, rainy, misty, snowy, foggy, sunny, hot, wet, changeable, cold, dull', calm, stormy, windy, bright, clear, warm, cool Describe an ideal day for: 1) picnicking; 2) an excursion about the city; 3) a visit to a museum; 4) seeing the New Year in; 5) skiing or skating; 6) playing outdoors; 7) preparing for exams; 8) a sea voyage. Give it a name. Unit 1, ex. 12, ex. 13 can help you. 1) An instrument that helps to find out what the weather will be like; 2) a half circle^ of bright colours that you see in the sky when ' dull [dAl] — зд. пасмурный ^ half circle [,ho;f's3:kl] — полукруг ш rain and sun come together; 3) happening every day; 4) to say what you think the weather will be like; 5) a thin cloud near the ground-when you have it you cannot see very far; 6) quiet, with no wind- 7) changing very often; 8) a quick fall of very heavy rain; 9) to think that something will happen; 10) a person who makes weather forecasts at regular times. Work in pairs, pretend that you live in different places and: a) Ask your partner questions about the climate in the place where he or she lives. Find out: — if the summers are very hot; — if the winters are very cold; — how much snow falls every winter; — how much rain falls in each season; — in what months or seasons the strongest winds blow; — which of the seasons are mild; — if the climate is mild/cold/continental/hot/severe'. b) Describe the climate in the place where your partner lives. Pretend you are a geography teacher and: a) Ask your class the following questions. 1. What do you know about the climate of Moscow and other parts of Russia? of London and other parts of Britain? 2. What can you say about the climate in Africa? 3. What kind of climate do you prefer? 4. Why do you think most people prefer to live in places with a mild climate? 5. Why can it be hard for people to move from one part of the world to another? b) Think of some more questions that you could ask your class. The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense The Present Perfect Tenai> (Resultative) + V + ed V2 7 did'+ V didn’t + V +n have -1- Vg has + Vg haven’t -1- V hasn’t + Vg* 1. Pam ate her dinner after school. 2. Where did you buy these souvenirs? 3. We didn’t play tennis yesterday as it was raining. 1. Jeff has already eaten his dinner. 2. Have you bought all the souvenirs yet? 3. No, Mum, I haven’t played the song yet. ' severe [siVia] — суровый 2~Афанасьеи, в кл. Ч.1 ш т 1 I ш 1 1 I 1 т ш 1 •v»v ш i .4%V ш ш ■ш ♦»1 ш М ш щ Sv.v* I т ?W%V * Ш-: Ш: • « . ШЙ: ш 1 Complete the dialogues, use Present Perfect or Past Simple. I Steve: 1 never (be) to Russia. Barbara: I (live) in Moscow for a month last year. Steve: You ever (be}‘ to St. Petersburg? Barbara: No, but a friend of mine (stay) there for a week two years ago. He (enjoy) it very much. II Kate: I just (see) Mr Jackson. He is angry because you (not fin- ish ) your translation yet. Ian [len]: But I (explain) everything only an hour ago. I (lose) my dictionary and (not find) it yet. Kate: I never (do) & written translation before. Is it difficult? Ian: I (not write) many. In fact, I only (write) two and they (be) rather easy. LET US READ AMD LEARM a) Read the words in transcription. [ifaua], [ik'spekt], ['tjemcfeabl], ['misti], ['rembau], ['fakcust], [ba'romita], [kam], ['remstDim], ['deilij. b) Listen to the recording, ®7, and check your reading. W The Present Perfect Tense The Present Perfect (Durative) Continuous Tense for, since have/has V3 have/has been Ving I have known Ann for 5 years. He has had the bike since his father bought it. I have been learning English for 5 years. He has been writing a letter since he came home. haven’t/hasn’t V3 haven’t/hasn’t been Ving? We haven’t been here since Monday. She hasn’t seen Mary for a long time. They haven’t been sleeping since 5. She hasn’t been working since 2 o’clock. Have/Has ... V3? Have/Has ... been Ving? Have they lived here for 3 years? Has Tom known Bill last year? since Have they been playing football for an hour? Has he been reading “Alice in Wonderland” long? A in/into to be in to stay in to get in to breathe in to come in to eat in out (ег))и^ A to be out to stay out to get out to breathe out to come out to eat out • %%%v • • ♦ о*Л m ■ Say why these people are tired and what they have done. Example: Nick is tired because he has been playing tennis for three hours (since two o’clock) and has won two games. 1. Sam — to ride a bike for... — to ride 3 miles. 2. Mary — to do the shopping since... — to buy a lot of food. 3. Bill — to read detective stories for... — to read 2 stories. 4. Sally — to make pancakes since... — to make 50 big pancakes. 5. Roy — to watch videos for... — to see 2 films. 6. Jack — to train since... — to throw the ball 100 metres. 7. Sarah — to wash up for... — to break a few plates. 8. The children— to plant flowers since... — to plant a lot of primroses. Express the same in English. 1.—Привет, Джек. Сколько времени ты уже здесь? — Три дня. Я приехал сюда в прошлый четверг. 2. — Когда и где ты купила это платье? — Я купила его в Москве, но не помню, в каком магазине. Оно у меня уже полгода. 3. — Дождь идёт с утра. Он начался в девять и до сих пор не перестал. — Как жаль! 4. — Мы ждём Виктора 15 минут. Куда он ушёл? Матч уже начался. — Не волнуйся. Я только что его видел. Он покупал мороженое минуту тому назад. 5. — Как давно ты знаешь г-на Джонса? — Я знаю его три года. Он преподаёт мне английский язык с 2002 года. м т т Ш т т ■уМ т т ш ■ 1 т т '.♦.♦л ■ИЛ" 1 • ♦ ♦ Л т ■ш 2* ■ ш *Х«« Л1% ♦ ♦ Ч1Г*% ♦ < ш ш ш Fill in either in or out to complete the sentences. — 1. Is your father ...? — No, he is ____ 2. My elder brother got ... the car and drove away. 3. When you breathe .... you take a breath of air into your lungs. 4. If you stay .... you remain at home. If you stay .... you remain away from home. 5. She breathed ... through her lips to cool the hot tea. 6. Mrs Smith never eats ______ She always has her meals at home. 7. A car stopped and a tall man got .... a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. 1Climatic [klai'maetik] changes can be dangerous for people. 2. 'Plants can’t live without water and sunshine ['sAnJain]. 3. We took the plants out into the garden. The effect [I'fekt] was just wonderful: in a few days they looked green and fresh again. 4. * Sunlight is the light from the sun. b) Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. 0 an influence ['influans] (n)\ Television has a strong influence on people. We don’t know everything about the influence of climate on people. to influence (v)\ I’d like to know what influenced his decision, human ['hjuiman] (adj): human voices, human nature. To make mistakes is human. He didn’t expect to hear human voices in the old house. a human (n): Humans have been exploring the planet for thousands of years. Could a computer ever beat* a human at chess? to ruin ['ru:m] (v): to ruin buildings, to ruin the harvest. The storm ruined our picnic. Why are you ruining your health? A lot of cities were ruined during the war. a greenhouse ['griinhaus] (n): & greenhouse of glass. A greenhouse is a building with glass walls and roof where plants grow. My mother usually grows tomatoes in the greenhouse, the greenhouse effect: The greenhouse effect is the problem of a rise in temperature in the earth’s atmosphere, heat [hi:t] (n): The unusual heat in June killed all my lilies, to produce [pra'djus] (v): to produce goods. What does the farm produce? huge [hju;ct5] (adj): a huge animal, a man of huge strength. The huge animals that once lived on the earth died many centuries ago. to beat [bi:t] — бить; победить а coast [kaust] (n): the coast of the sea. There are many towns on the coast of the Black Sea. fragile [Traecfeail] (adj): fragile flowers, fragile health, fragile happiness. Fragile things break easily. Is glass very fragile? A fragile lady appeared on the screen. W to influence sb/sth 1. His speech greatly influenced the people. 2. The book influenced his choice of a future profession. 3. Computers have influenced the world of science a lot. A to have an influence on sb/sth 1. His speech had a great influence on the people. 2. The book had a strong influence on his choice of a future profession. 3. Computers have had a great influence on the world of science. Name three: • people who have influence on you • things that can ruin the harvest • vegetables that we usually grow in greenhouses • things that are fragile Listen to the dialogue, 08, and Pole or the North Pole. • <5 ад Щ Щ •ад ад • towns situated on the coast • huge things • parts of a human body • things that we burn to warm our houses • makes* of cars produced in Russia say which is colder: the South AT THE ZOO A: Just look at that great white polar bear! Isn’t it nice? I think it looks absolutely like a big soft toy. B: It does, doesn’t it? A toy indeed! For your information it’s one of the strongest animals in the world and very fierce^. A: Is it? An animal with such funny button eyes and thick soft fur? B: Don’t be silly. And speaking of the fur, though it’s thick I can’t understand how the polar bear can live in the coldest place of the world. * a make — марка (автомашины) ^ fierce [fias] — свирепый А: This is where you’re making a mistake. North only sounds colder than South. B: What do you mean? A: Actually, the little penguins of the Antarctic live in a colder climate than the bears of the Arctic where the temperature is a few degrees higher. Learn the dialogue of ex. 14 by heart and act it out. Don’t forget to change over. LET US READ Read the text and say if Man can influence the climate. CLIMATE Climate is the weather a certain place has over a long period of time. Climate has a very important influence on plants, animals and humans and is different in different parts of the world. Russia is the largest country of the world. It lies on a huge territory from the coast of the Pacific Ocean to the centre of Europe and its climate in the north, south, east and west is different. In the west for example, the climate is usually mild and wet. At the same time the coldest place on the planet is in the north of Siberia [saibiana], while in the south of Russia there is a lot of sunshine and the heat in summer can be really terrible. Summer and winter temperatures are very different in Moscow, Omsk or Krasnoyarsk, in Volgograd or Rostov. In the Arctic the winter temperatures are very low. The taiga ['taiga] zone has long hard winters and short summers. Between the Black and Caspian seas it is very hot in summer. 0 9. But recently the climate has changed a lot in our country, especially in its European part. Some scientists think the world is becoming hotter. If you compare Moscow’s winter and summer temperatures at the beginning of the century and at its end, you will see that the climate has really changed. Winters have become warmer. Sometimes there is little snow in January, and there were winters when it rained (not snowedl) on the New Year’s Eve. Many people say that it is so because of the greenhouse effect. Have you ever heard about it? It works like this: sunlight gives us heat. Some of the heat warms the atmosphere, and some of the heat goes back into space. Nowadays the air surrounding the earth has become much warmer because the heat can’t go back into space. That’s why winter and summer temperatures in many places have become higher. 4P During the last 100 years people have produced a lot of carbon-dioxide.^ This gas in the atmosphere works like glass in a greenhouse. It lets heat get in, but it doesn’t let much heat get out. So the atmosphere becomes warmer. Where does the carbon dioxide come from? People and animals breathe in oxygen,^ and breathe out carbon dioxide. We produce carbon dioxide when we burn things. Trees take this gas from the air, and produce oxygen. But in the last few years, people have cut down and burnt big areas of rmnforest.® This means there are fewer trees, and, of course, more carbon dioxidel ISo, the climate in different parts of the world changes a little from year to year. These changes can be dangerous for our fragile planet'which needs protection. Earth is millions of years old, much older than the humans. We know many of its secrets. Yet there is still much to learn. 0 Look through the text again and answer the questions. 1. What is climate? 2. Is the climate always the same in this or that part of the world? Does it change? 3. What can you say about the climate in Russia? 4. What do you know about the greenhouse ‘ effect? 5. Why doesn’t all the heat go back into space? Why does the atmosphere become warmer? 6. How can the greenhouse effect influence the climate on the planet in future? 7. Do you think our planet needs protection? Why? Look through the text again and complete the sentences using one of the sentences below. 1. Climate directly influences ... . a) plants and animals b) animals and humans c) plants, animals and humans 2. Sunshine gives us heat part of which warms the atmosphere and part of which ... . a) warms the water in the oceans b) goes back into outer space c) produces the greenhouse effect 3. Trees take ... from the air and produce __ a) carbon dioxide ... oxygen b) oxygen ... carbon dioxide c) gas ... carbon dioxide and oxygen carbon dioxide ['кшЬэп daioksaid] -oxygen ['nksidsan] — кислород ‘ a rainforest — тропический лес • углекислый газ (двуокись углерода) ■ р Ш: !vX* Ш ^1г<» • ш ш wX' » I I W* С*Л’ ш 'т< LET US TALK Develop the idea of each item in this outline.' Ex. 16 can help you. • The greenhouse effect. • Possible results of the greenhouse effect. • The role of plants on the planet. • Climatic changes and their effects. • Reasons for climatic changes. Many people say that the climate nowadays is going “crazy”. These are some facts proving it. Read them through and give at least three reasons why such crazy happenings are bad for people and the planet. 1. The summers of 1972 and 2003 in Moscow were so hot that the forests around the capital caught fire, smoke filled the city and stayed for several days. 2. In January 1987 snow fell on the gondolas of Venice^ and the usually sunny coasts of France. 3. In 1987, 1990 and 2003 European countries had terrible storms. The strong winds ruined a lot of forest, millions of trees. ' Some people say that those who live in a cold climate differ from those who live in hot countries. Do you believe in it? If you do, say in what way they can be different. Think of their appearance and their habits, likes and dislikes. eat more — eat less eat more spices — eat less spices are more active — are more quiet are more sensible^ — are less sensible are reserved'* — are not reserved are fond of bright colours — dislike very bright colours LET US WRITE W Spell the transcribed words of ex. 7. Do ex. 6, ex. 8, ex. 9 in writing. ' outline — план ^ Venice [Venis] — Венеция ® sensible ['sensibl] — рассудительный '' reserved [ri'zsrvd] — сдержанный Write what people have already done and what they haven’t done yet. Example: Steve has already bought a new bike but he hasn’t ridden on it yet. i 1. Steve 2. Jane and Pat- 3. Ian 4. Jeff and Paul 5. Chris 6. Monica and Barbara 7. Fred already to buy a bike to wash the dishes to take the books from the library to build a cottage to write a short story to see the famous actress to cook breakfast not yet to ride a bike^ to dry them to read the books to paint it to type it up to speak to her to have it vJ i 1 Pete and his parents came to London from Moscow a week ago (on the 12th of September). Write sentences about Pete. Use Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous. Example: Pete has been shopping for a few days. He has bought a lot of souvenirs. 1. To stay at a hotel. 2. To shop for a few days. 3. To live in London since September. 4. To be in London for a week. 5. To travel about the city. 6. To see a lot of interesting places. 7. To visit the Tower. 8. To have a boat trip on the Thames. 9. To buy a lot of souvenirs. 10. To meet a lot of English people. 11. To walk the streets of London. 12. To take pictures of London. Express the same in English. a) 1. Анна живёт в Лондоне с 1985 года. Она работает в банке. Она работает там три года. 2. Билл всегда хотел побывать в Брайтоне. Он прочитал много книг об этом курорте (resort). 3. — Семья Браунов ещё не выстроила свой новый дом. — Сколько времени они его строят? — Они строят его уже два года. 4. — Я вас целую вечность не видела. Где вы были? Где вы прятались? — Я пишу книгу о своих путешествиях. Пишу её 1,5 месяца, поэтому живу на даче с мая. b) 1. — Какая сегодня погода в Лос-Анджелесе? — Солнечно и тепло. Прекрасный день, чтобы поехать на побережье, поплавать и позагорать. 2. — Сколько времени идёт дождь? — Дождь идёт '.V, I ♦V I I ш т. 5**v ?V' ?%v.* 4Г4Г* * » m Ш: m m Ш m Шу ■ ■ il ■ m m w%% ♦ • Ш:« vw•♦ • • 5v.v.' I*:*:*:-:-: Cwt*-’ ■s' Й три дня. На улице ветрено, сыро и облачно. У нас осенняя погода. 3. — Какая была погода вчера в Москве? — Шёл снег, было 10 градусов ниже нуля, но было солнечно, с) 1. Стекло очень хрупкое. 2. Мы сожгли старые листья в саду. 3. Жара имеет (оказывает) пагубное (плохое) влияние на людей. 4. Влияние учителей на учеников велико. 5. Ты когда-нибудь бывал в оранжерее? 6. Ты что-нибудь слышал о «парниковом эффекте»? 7. Что производит эта фабрика? 8. В Северной Африке более 4000 часов солнечного света каждый год. 9. На побережье достаточно прохладно, правда? 10. Какое влияние имеют климатические изменения на людей? a) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. climatic, sunlight, sunshine, an effect, an influence, a human, to ruin, a greenhouse, heat, to produce, huge, a coast, fragile b) How many words did you write correctly? Are you pleased with your result? LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS Listen to the recording, (s)10, and put these sentences in the right order. 1. Renato moved to England and bought a restaurant in London. 2. Mr Jenkins had lunch in Renato’s restaurant. 3. Renato was born in Italy and lived there for thirty-two years. 4. Mr Jenkins told his wife about his lunch at Renato’s restaurant. 5. Renato decided to put some of the tables out into the street. 6. Renato couldn’t forget Italy and his home town. Imagine that you are Mr Jenkins. Tell your wife about your lunch at Renato’s restaurant and describe a) the people that were having lunch at the same time with you; b) the food they were eating; c) the clothes they were wearing. Think and say why it is important to know the climate of the place where you are going. Don’t forget to make an outline of your story. Units The Natural World • weather and climate • plants and animals • free time • clothes • pets • hobbies I LET US REVIEW Work in pairs. Look at the weathermap and the Climate Chart, then ask and answer questions on the weather and climate in different countries and cities. Example: — What is the weather like in Rome? — It is stormy. The temperature is +12 °C. : Шх- 0гк<-у- ЙС«*х- Шт: Шу т& viviv, Шуу Ш^У Ш:-уу Ш' nr^Г• * 9 • Sviv •• Ш ш KvM*.- Example: — What is the climate like in Italy? — In summer it’s generally hot, with a lot of sunshine. In winter it’s mild and wet. The average* summer temperature is +24 °C. The average winter temperature is +6 °C. CLIMATE CHART Country Temperature Summer Temperature Winter 1. Austria ['nstna] — Австрия 2. Belgium [belcfeam] — Бельгия 3. France [frans] — Франция 4. Germany 5. Holland ['holand] — Голландия 6. Italy 7. Poland ['paubnd] — Польша 8. Russia +15°; +18° +14°; +18° +16°; +24° +16°; +19° +18°; +19° +20°; +28° +16°; +19° +1°; +25° -1°; -4° +3°; -1° +1°; +10° 0°; -3° +1°; +3° 0°; +12° -1°; -3° -1°; -50° What types of weather are good and bad for doing these things? Example: Skiing. It’s bad to have mild and warm weather when snow melts. It’s good to ski on cold, clear days. t. Planting flowers in the garden. 2. Making a snowman. 3. Camping out in a tent. 4. Doing the sights of a city. 5. Going out in a small boat. 6. Skating. 7. Taking your little brother or sister out to the zoo. 8. Gathering harvest. On a December morning two suitcases which belong to Mr White and Mr Black fell open at the airport and their things got mixed.^ Mr Black is going to India and Mr White is going to Norway. Both of the passengers are going to celebrate Christmas with their families. Help them to collect their things. a) Make a list of things for each man. Mr White Mr Black * average ['aevsncfe] — средний ^ got mixed ■ • перемешались Продолжение Mr White Mr Black щ .'.vJv .•.w5 .*.w y>M Ш m m • * ♦w y>M У.Ш m b) Explain your choice. Example: The trousers belong to Mr Black because they are light summer trousers, and the skiing cap belongs to Mr White because it is the right time for skiing in Norway. Look at the Climate Chart after ex. 1 and describe the typical win-ter/summer weather in: 1) the place where you live; 4) the North Pole; 2) London; 5) the Crimea; 3) Florida (USA); 6) South America. Example: It is seldom foggy in Moscow in summer. It’s .*.w m m m Ш •tw «4 m Ш уЖ* *t»»v •Ж" m .•Ж always clear generally hot/cold usually cloudy often rainy/sunny sometimes nasty occasionally windy seldom wet/dry hardly ever cool Describe the clothes you prefer to wear in different weather. Example: When it is freezing I prefer to put on (wear) an anorak,* a warm scarf, a pair of trousers, a sweater and winter boots. A Pronouns w Personal Possessive Reflexive I me my mine myself you you your yours yourself he him his his himself she her her hers herself it it its its itself we us our ours ourselves you you your yours yourselves they them their theirs themselves Choose the right form of the possessive and personal pronouns and complete the sentences. Example: I gave him my bicycle and he gave me his. 1. She gave me ____ phone number and I ____. 2. They gave you _____ car and ___. 3. He gave them 4. We gave her 5. You gave us _ documents and books and computer games and Express the same in Russian. 1. Don’t hurt yourself. 2. She looked at herself in the mirror. 3. They chose the present themselves. 4. I’m not angry with you. I’m angry with myself. 5. Did you enjoy yourselves at the party? 6. Bye-bye, take care of yourself. 7. It was so hot that we decided not to dry ourselves after the swim. 8. The cat cut itself on a piece of glass. 9. I was asked to speak about myself. 10. Don’t pay for me I’ll pay for myself. * an anorak ['аепэггек] — тёплая куртка с капюшоном The Passive Voice be +V, Present Indefinite Passive am/is/are + Vg Potatoes are grown in many countries. Is cream made from milk? A Past Indefinite Passive was/were + Vg That photo was taken yesterday. The palace was not built two centuries ago. where coffee is grown; when Moscow was founded; what butter is made from; in what country the best tulips are grown; in what city the Lada cars are produced; what warm winter sweaters are usually made of; • when A. S. Pushkin was born; • what pets are generally kept in cages; • what two official languages ^ are spoken in Canada; • when the battle of Borodino was fought. Make a list of traditional hobbies in Russia. Compare it with the list of traditional British hobbies. What are the most/least* 'popular hobbies in both countries, in your opinion? * least [li:st] — наименее .♦XV! m m m Change the sentences to use passive structures. Example: They never buy such toys for very young children. Such toys are never bought for very young children. 1^ They forecast weather every day. 2. Do people speak English all over the world? 3. Everybody brings textbooks to the lesson. 4. We didn’t expect rain this week. 5. They don’t grow cabbages in front of the house. 6. Parents often read books to their children at bedtime. 7. People keep animals in cages. Isn’t it awfull 8. Pupils don’t usually do lessons late at night. Do you know this? If not, try to find it out (ask grown-ups or consult dictionaries) and say: .*.%v Ш •.vX •.vX m m Ш ■ >1 ■ m m ■ v«v.*. ViV.' v*v V*V*‘ I mi:-y tex- 5v«v.‘.' ЩУ:- Russian Hobbies British Hobbies sailing doing crosswords walking listening to music taking photographs playing computer games windsurfing horse riding reading eating in restaurants going to the cinema playing football playing board games (cards, chess, etc.) fishing watching videos Work in pairs. Look at the list of hobbies in ex. 10 and tell your partner what you like/dislike doing. Ask questions about your partner’s hobbies. Example: — I don’t like going to the cinema but I like reading very much. — Oh, really? What do you read? — I read a lot of detective stories. Keeping pets at home is a popular hobby. Answer these questions about pets and pet keeping. 1. Do you think that keeping pets is a good idea? 2. What pets are generally kept in town? in the country? 3. What are unusual (exotic) pets to keep? What is the most unusual pet you have heard of? 4. What problems do people face if they keep pets? 5. Why do people keep pets nowadays? 6. Have you ever had a pet? What was it? Are you keeping a pet now? What is it and what is it like? This is what Steven Howard, a boy from Newcastie, wrote about his dog. Look through it and describe your own pet or the pet you wouid like to have some day. MY DOG DUKE My dog is called Duke and he is a longhaired German shepherd dog*. He is the biggest dog in my street and every time the postman or someone passes by he barks his head off^ and nearly gives them a heart attack. Lots of people are afraid to go into my house because he’s aggressive. But he is a lovely dog when you get to know him. He loves playing with balls and with my pet duck, George. Steven Howard a) Read the words in transcription. [’sAnJain], [I'fekt], ['sAnlait], [klai'maetik], ['influans], ['hju:man], [hi:t], ['ru:in], [pra'dju:s], [hju:^]. [kaust], [Traecfeail], ['gri:nhaus]. b) Listen to the recording, @11, and check your reading. * a shepherd ['Jepad] dog — овчарка ^ to bark one’s head off — лаять до одури, заливаться лаем 3~Афанасьева. в кл. Ч.1 ш ■.4W т т •.♦л* Щ т ш т ■Ш • ♦ ♦ ♦>1-» LET US READ AMD LEARM Future Indefinite Passive shall/will be + Vg The letter will be posted tomorrow. The room will be cleaned soon. The papers won’t be burnt. A They won’t be expected before the end of this week. Shall I be asked any questions? Will the weather be forecast for this weekend? a) Look at the pages from Caroline’s diary and say what will be done on each day of the week. Example: Food will be bought on Monday. Monday To buy food. Friday To cook a meal for the family. Tuesday To meet Aunt Polly at the station. Saturday To look for a birthday present for Mum. Wednesday To write a letter to John Baxter. Sunday To take brother Peter to the Natural History Museum. Thursday To clean the flat. b) You see how busy Caroline is going to be this coming week. She won’t be able to do a lot of things that she has to do. Say what things won’t be done by Caroline. Example: The books won’t be returned to the library. 1. Caroline has to return the books to the library. 2. Caroline has to clean the flat. 3. Caroline has to visit her Granny. 4. Caroline has to write a story for the Young Writers’ Competition. 5. Caroline has to plant some new flowers in her garden. f с) Work in pairs and ask each other what things will and won’t be done in your family at the coming weekend. Example: — Will father’s car be washed? — No, it won’t. And will a pie be cooked for the party? — It certainly will. m Ш m •Xv w Mary must finish her story. You have to do it. I can buy only two ices. You should feed the dog. We ought to visit Granny. You must not make this mistake again. You don’t have to cook dinner today. The secretary can’t type all the documents. You shouldn’t pay the bill now. They oughtn’t to beat the dog. the Must I do this work now? Do we have to tell truth? Can they sell their old car? Should people tell lies? Ought I to answer this ques tion? The story must be finished. It has to be done. Only two ices can be bought. The dog should be fed. Granny ought to be visited. This mistake must not be made again. Dinner doesn’t have to be cooked today. All the documents can’t be typed. The bill shouldn’t be paid now. The dog oughtn’t to be beaten. Must this work be done now? Does the truth have to be told? Can their old car be sold? Should lies be told? Ought this question to be answered? A Make the sentences complete. Use the table. Example: The story ought to be written as soon as possible. The story must be fed The cat ought to be told The plants has to be sent The gallery should be visited The address can be watered The telegram be found out 3* ■ m I m m ш 1 I 1 i Ш I I .‘.•Iv 1 Ш Ш v»%*. I I Ш m m i Ш m I ГФ ♦ ♦ « Ш: ■ •V* ♦ I Ш 1 i Ш. Ш Express the same in English. a) 1. Эти новости обсудят после уроков. 2. Окна вымоют в конце месяца. 3. Делегацию встретят завтра. 4. Им скажут о нашем приезде. 5. Фильм посмотрят. 6. Котятам дадут молока. 7. Эти картины купят для городского музея. 8. Этих учеников спросят на следующем уроке. b) 1. Стадион должен быть построен в этом году. 2. Работа может быть сделана через три дня. 3. Животных необходимо защищать. 4. Эти новые песни должны быть исполнены (спеты) на концерте. 5. Это сражение может быть выиграно. 6. Растения придётся полить. 7. Больного мальчика необходимо навестить. 8. Старые газеты придётся сжечь. a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. 1. Tortoises, snakes and crocodiles are reptiles ['reptailz]. 2. Savannas [saVaenaz] are open grass-covered lands in warm countries. b) Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right. ' Read the words, look them up and study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. extinct [ik'stir)kt] (adj): Dodoes* are extinct birds. Dinosaurs^ are extinct animals. a pigeon ['picfem] (n): Tourists liked to feed pigeons in Trafalgar Square. to endanger [in'deincfea] (v): to endanger animals, to endanger one’s life. Nowadays tigers have become endangered animals: their number is so small, that they can easily die out. a species ['spi:Jl:z] (pi species) (n): a species of flowers, a species of animals. What species of plants can you see in the Botanical Garden? The Black Tulip is an unusual species of tulips, an insect ['insekt] (n): an unusual insect. Insects usually have six legs, sometimes even more. a mammal ['masmal] (n): Dogs are mammals. Mammals are animals that feed their young with milk. to destroy [di'stroi] (v): to destroy an army, to destroy a town, to destroy hopes. Fires often destroy forests. Mr Fox’s house was destroyed and so he and his family had no place to live, a habitat ['haebitast] (n): a habitat of plants, a habitat of animals. When we speak about a habitat we mean a place where a certain animal or plant is usually found. ’ a dodo ['daudau] — птица додо (вымерший вид) ^ а dinosaur ['dainasa:] — динозавр (вымершее животное) cardboard ['koidboid] (n): made of cardboard, a cardboard box. We used cardboard boxes to carry our books. to damage ['daemicfe] (v): to be damaged by fire. The fire badly damaged the house. The house was so badly damaged that we had to build a new one. to include [in'kluid] (v): to include on the list, to be included. The group of twenty includes one girl. I want to go on the school trip too. Did you include me on the list? The trip is 300 dollars, the cost of the meals is included. to cure [kjua] (v): to cure a patient, to cure an illness, to cure a headache. Some illnesses are very difficult to cure. I hope he will soon be cured. a creature ['kritja] (n): a lovely creature, a poor creature, a kind creature. Look at the little foxes. Aren’t they funny creatures? a) Fill in the suitable words to complete the text. Ex. 19 can help you. Give the text a title. b) What is the main idea of the text? Hello, everybody! Welcome to our new and wonderful zoo full of different birds, m..., r..., and i__Their list inCh'^any sp... living on our planet. I’m sure you won’t be sorry that you’ve come because I’m going to show you something that will make you gasp.* Here, on your left there are our new arrivals. Their h... is Australia. Some of these animals are very rare,^ almost ex_____It means that they are dying out because Man had dej('’/their homes. You know that a lot of forests are dam..., so these cr... are en___If we, humans, are as careless in future as we have been, very soon we’ll be able to see these animals only at the zoo, or at the natural history museums. That will be much worse for the reason that there they won’t be alive, but made of car..., paper, wood and fur. * to gasp [go:sp] — открывать рот от изумления ^ rare [геэ] — редкий I m m ^Listen to the poem “Dogs”, ®12, and learn it by heart. DOGS (after Ogden Nash ) The dog is man’s best friend. He has a tail on one end. Up in front he has teeth. And four legs underneath. Dogs like to bark. They like it best after dark. A dog that is indoors Wants to be outdoors. But let him out — and what then? He wants to be in again. Dogs cheer up people who are frowning' And rescue^ people who are drowning.® Dogs in the country have fun. They run and run and run. But in the city this species Is walked around on leashes. Dogs are friendly, loyal and honest. , Of all the pets I like them most. m LET US READ Read the text and choose the title that suits it best. Say why many species of animais and plants are endangered. a) Endangered Species b) Natural World in Danger c) Destroyed Forests You have never seen a dodo. Your friends and teachers have never seen a dodo. Your grandparents never saw a dodo. The last of these large birds that couldn’t fly died many years ago. Now it is extinct. We even say “as dead as a dodo”, which means “finished”. Your great-grandparents may just have seen a passenger pigeon:® the last one died in 1914. A lot more endangered species — fish, reptiles, insects, birds, mammals — may disappear before you have ' to frown [fraun] — хмуриться ® to rescue ['reskju:] — спасать 3 to drown [draun] — тонуть '* a leash [li;J] — поводок ® Your great-grandparents may just have seen a passenger pigeon... —Твои прадедушка и прабабушка, возможно, видели странствующего голубя... children. The reason is that Man kills animals and destroys their habitats. ® 13. It is not just animals that are in danger. So are plants. The world had over nine million sq.' km of forests. This is a lot of trees, and also a lot of different species of trees. But they are disappearing fast. Every day we use paper and cardboard, both made from wood. We use different kinds of wood in furniture and in other ways. Every year over 100 000 sq. km of forests are cleared for different uses, and a lot of forests are so badly damaged that they will hardly be able to recover. If we go on like this, by the time you are as old as your grandparents are now all the forests on earth can be destroyed. This includes rainforests in South America, Africa and Asia. The huge forests help to control the world’s weather and to produce much of the oxygen in the air. There are many illnesses which we still cannot cure. There are old ones like cancer® and new ones like AIDS.® It may be that the medicines we need will be discovered in wild plants in savannas, deserts or rainforests. If we destroy these places, we will never find the cure. So you see that it is not just children who need a healthy space to live and grow. If we want our lives to be healthy and intbresting, a lot of other creatures and plants need growing space too. 0 Look through the text again and answer these questions. 1. Have people living in the 20th century ever seen a dodo? 2. What is a dodo? Could you call it an extinct species? 3. What endangered species of plants and animals can you remember? 4. Why are forests on the planet disappearing fast? 5. How does this fact influence the life of people, animals and plants? 6. Why are rainforests so important to the life on the earth? 7. How can wild plants in savannas, deserts and rainforests help to cure people? 8. What should be remembered if we want to have a healthy life in future? ' sq. = square [skwes] — квадратный ® cancer ['kaensa] — рак (болезнь) ® AIDS [eidz] (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) -ретённого иммунодефицита) ■ СПИД (синдром приоб- Remember the beginnings of these sentences, if necessary look through the text again. never saw a dodo, which means “finished”, died many years ago. the last one died in 1914. both made from wood. and to produce much of the oxygen in the air. new ones like AIDS, we will never find the cure. a lot of other creatures and plants need growing space too. These are four good reasons why we must protect wildlife. Develop these ideas. 1. Forests (especially rainforests) control the world’s weather. 2. Plants produce much of the oxygen in the £ur which people need for breathing. 3. Wild plants can help to produce some medicines to cure dangerous diseases. 4. A lot of species of plants and animals are disappearing fast and can become extinct very soon. LET US TALK Imagine you are giving a talk at the Ecology Class describing the situation in the place where you live. Make a plan of your talk and speak on the following. 1. Changes in the climate, in the weather. 2. Reasons for these changes. 3. Disappearing and rare plants (birds, animals). 4. The state of the forests, rivers and lakes in your region. Use the plan of ex. 26 and say what the text “Natural World in Danger” is about in 5—10 sentences. This is what Stephanie, a girl from Cardiff aged 12, wrote about the beauty of the world. Read the paragraph artistically and say how you could prove that our planet is a wonderful place to live on. I don’t normally get up early but today was different. I woke up to the sound of music but not just any music. It was the sound of birds singing like a big orchestra [bikistra]. I got out of bed and opened the curtains to look out of the window. I stood in a daze.* The bird flew daze [deiz] — изумление к ф ф from tree to tree and from branch to branch. It was a beautiful morning. The sun was shining through the trees and on the grass making them look like gold. The sky had the shade* of blue that you can see only in summer even though it was spring. What a lovely way to wake up in the morning. Stephanie Bolton, age 12 Speak about pets people keep. usual (common) pets to keep at home unusual pets to keep at home reasons why people keep pets Speak about different hobbies people have. usual hobbies unusual hobbies traditional English and Russian hobbies hobbies in your class or/and your family I difficulties you have when you keep pets the right and wrong ways to deal with pets I the most interesting hobby you’ve heard of reasons why people have hobbies I '.*.V '.♦.V LET US WRITE Ф Do ex. 6, ex. 8, ex. 10, ex. 15, ex. 17 in writing. Ф Complete the dialogues using passive structures. Example: — Have you posted the letters? — Not yet. They will be posted tomorrow. a) 1. — Have you posted the letters? —_____ 2. — Has Nick washed the plates? — Sorry, he can’t do it...... 3. — I can’t finish this work. — Don’t worry..... 4. — What do you know about the delegation from France? — .... 5. — When will we have new pens for the office? —_______ Example: — Have you finished the letter? — Not yet. I’m sure it can be written later. b) 1. — Have you finished the letter? — (It can ...) 2. — Have they typed the papers? — (They must ...) 3. — Have you brought any news? — (It should ...) 4. — All these people are invited, but I don’t see Mr Brown’s name on the list. —(He has to ...) 5. — How often do rabbits get their food? — (They ought to ...) shade [feid] — зд. оттенок I i ;■ I ш т Ш Ш is i? Ш: >x*v- Ш: ■ ■ 1 15 т 5w.*. Iw.*- J%v. Ш т Ыа Ш: т Ш « * Use reflexive pronouns to express the same in English. 1. Вчера мой младший брат порезался ножом, (with а knife) 2. Не обожгись. Не ушибись. Не порежься. 3. Она собиралась в гости (to the party) и дома внимательно смотрела на себя в зеркало. 4. Она никогда сама с собой не разговаривает. 5. У меня нет времени. Помой тарелки сам. 6. Я надеюсь, он получит удовольствие от концерта. 7. Надеюсь, вы получите удовольствие от спектакля. 8. До свидания, берегите себя и возвращайтесь скорее. 9. Он мне не нравится, потому что он думает только о себе. 10. Извини, я не могу объяснить тебе это правило: я сам его не понимаю. а) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. a reptile, a savanna, extinct, a pigeon, to endanger (to be endangered), a species, an insect, a mammal, to destroy (to be destroyed), a habitat, cardboard, to damage (to be damaged), to include (to be included), to cure (to be cured), a creature b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctly? Are you pleased with your result? LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS a) Make sure that you know these words: rubbish ['fAbiJ] — мусор, бытовые отходы common ['квтэп] — обычный b) Listen to the recording, 014, and answer these questions. 1. What subject did Tom Robinson teach at school? 2. Why did Tom decide to take his class to London Zoo? 3. Where did he meet his pupils? 4. Why did Tom want to show mammals to his pupils? 5. Where did Tom take his class? What animals were kept in the cages? 6. What was there near the cages? 7. Why didn’t Tom find his pupils near the lions’ cages? 8. What were his pupils looking at? 9. What was the little mouse looking for? 10. Why do you think the children were happy and more interested in the small common mouse than in the savanna lions? •л%< Imagine what the weather was like on the day when Tom Robinson took his class to London Zoo and describe it. Imagine you are one of Tom’s pupils and tell your friends about your visit to London Zoo. Unit 4 w l> 4 .v.v Ш w w m m •Iw Man and the Natural World plant and animal life • town and country • pollution LET US REVIEW Refer the word$ to the right group: 1) animals; 2) weather effects; 3) places. savannas, mammals, mists, coasts, humans, insects, rainbows, rainstorms, habitats, showers, area, sunlight, pigeons, the greenhouse effect, reptiles, temperature, climatic changes Make up true sentences of what can be done with these. Example: Houses can be damaged. houses/damage; diseases/cure; forests/ruin; weather/forecast; sick people/cure; animals/endanger; rivers/destroy; mist/expect; ✓ village/ruin; weather/influence; habitats/create; habitats/destroy. Name not less than 6 mammals, 3 insects, 3 reptiles. Say what materials are usually/often/seldom used to make different objects. Example: Tables are often made of wood. .♦Mv Ш ■Ш Я ■Ш m Ш m m i wood metal wool glass paper cardboard leather plastic “if/when” clauses^ + 1. If they forecast rainstorms, we will take umbrellas with us. 2. If it is misty tomorrow, it will be difficult to drive a car. 3. When the temperature is below zero, you will be able to skate. 4. When people can influence the climate, we’ll see a lot of changes. 1. We will go on a picnic if they don’t forecast showers. 2. If he doesn’t read this book, he won’t learn a lot of facts about extinct animals. 3. Nick will be surprised when his friend doesn’t come home on time Make up if/when sentences about life in the country and life in a city. Example: If you go to the country, you will be able to enjoy fresh air. If you go to the country, you won’t be able to visit exhibitions regularly. * a clause [kb:z] — придаточное предложение или часть сложносочинённого предложения ■ 1. if you go to the country 2. when you stay in the country 3. if you spend your holidays in the country 4. when you return to the city 5. if you live in a city 6. if you prefer to stay in a city — go to the theatre — watch wildlife — enjoy the beauty of the countryside — visit museums and picture galleries — have a lot of fun in city parks — take long walks in the forest Play the “if” game. You may begin like this. Example: Pupil f. If I go to the country, I will get up early. Pupil 2. If I get up early. I’ll see the sunrise. Pupil 3. If I see the sunrise. I’ll be happy. Pupil 4. If I am happy, ... 1. If I visit London, ... 2. If I have a long holiday, ... 3. If I have a lot of money, ... Complete the dialogue “Where Do You Want to Live?”, check up your version of the dialogue with the help of the recording, ® 15, and then act it out. Don’t forget to change over. ■ II m m m Ш Ш m Dave: Paul: Dave: Paul: WHERE DO YOU WANT TO LIVE? Paul! You know, what? My father’s got a new job! We are going to live in New York. __________________________?__________________________? Have you ever lived in a big city? ___________________________________. Have you? Yes, I have. I lived in San Francisco with my grandparents for a few years. I didn’t like it there. . .V? '-•Mv •Mv ■Ш m ii ■ Ш m i® I I V.' V.' V.' I i ________________________________________? Were there too many people or too much noise and traffic? ____________________________________. And I don’t like crowds and pollution. There isn’t enough fresh air in big cities, you know. ________________________________________. But there are a lot of parks in New York, aren’t there? ________________________________________. But I’m sure there are a lot more cars and car parks there. I really prefer a quiet life in a small village. a) Read the poem “He Loves the Ocean” and say where she and he would like to live: in town or in the country? Explain your choice. Then try and sing it. Choose any suitabie' melody you like. HE LOVES THE OCEAN Dave: Paul: Dave: Paul: He loves the ocean. He loves the sky. She loves to travel. She loves ~to fly. He likes the country. He loves the clouds. She likes the city. She loves the crowds. She loves the telephone. She loves to talk. He loves the mountains. He loves to walk. She loves to travel. She loves to fly. He loves the ocean. He loves the sky. b) What is the main idea of the poem? -er/-est big — bigger — the biggest (species) cold — colder — the coldest (climate) more/most useful — more useful — the most useful (insects) dangerous — more dangerous — the most dangerous (dogs) good — better — the best (effects) bad — worse — the worst (place) — elder — the eldest (brother) — older — the oldest (creature) suitable ['sjuitabi] — подходящий far — further — the furthest (argument) ” • \ — farther — the farthest (corner of the park) little — less — the least (important question) much — more — the most (dangerous spprt) many a) Divide the adjectives in three categories: 1) those which describe iife in the city; 2) those which describe life in t|ie country; 3) those which can describe life in the city and in the country. clean, slow, dirty, healthy, friendly, dangerous, modern, big, expensive, noisy, boring, quiet, interesting, busy, beautiful b) Use the words above to make these sentences true and compare city and country iife. Example: The country is cleaner than the town. 1. The streets in the city are ... than the streets in the country. 2. The air in the city is ... than the air in the country. 3. The buildings in the city are ... than in the country. 4. Nature in the city is ... than nature in the country. 5. Life in the country is ... than it is in the city. 6. It is ... to live in the city than in the country. 7. People in the country are often ... than people in the city. •7 Compare the three school reports. Remember that “A” is an excellent mark, “B” is a good mark, “C” means satisfactory, “D” means quite satisfactory' and “E” means not satisfactory. Example: In English Kate is the best, Linda is worse than Dan (or Dan is better than Linda). Linda is the worst of the three. Kate Linda Dan English A Literature C Geography A Maths В French A Biology В English C Literature В Geography C Maths A French В Biology C English В Literature A Geography В Maths C French C Biology A ' quite satisfactory is not as good as satisfactory Use less, fewer or more to complete the sentences and make them true. 1. There is ... noise in the country than in the city. 2. There are ... tall trees in the country, but there are ... tall buildings in the city. 3. There are ... people in the country. 4. The life is ... expensive in the city, but it is ... healthy. 5. There are ... cars and buses in the country. 6. There are ... modern conveniences in the city. 7. Life is ... boring in the city. W Mr Brown lives here. So do I. Pete bought two tickets. So did Jane. We are at school. So is Bob. Susan can swim. ^So can her cousins. Bill will be 13 next year. So will Fran and John. We have got a nice cottage. So has Mrs Blake. He doesn’t like it. Neither do his children. Pete didn’t go there. Neither did Jane. They aren’t cold. Neither am I. Susan can’t ski. Neither can her brother. I won’t go to Africa. Neither will Irene. Bob has not got a bike. Neither has his sister. Nick’s younger brother John wants to be like Nick. He always says he likes and dislikes the things Nick does. Sometimes Nick laughs at John and says funny things but little John agrees with everything. Play the part of John. Nick 1. I like crocodiles. 2. I have never seen a bee. 3. Yesterday I ate ten ice creams. 4. I can’t swim at all. 5. I am going to be a butcher. 6. I was flying in my dream. 7. I must cook supper for the whole family. 8. I will be one hundred years old tomorrow. John 1. So do I. 2. — 3. — 4. — 5. — 6. — 7. — * to weigh [wei] — весить, иметь вес 4—Афавасьева, 6 кл. Ч.1 a) Read the words in transcription. ['ргфп], ['kriitja], ['spi:fi:z], [ik'stiijkt], [di'stroi], [kjua], ['daemicfe], ['reptail], ['maemal], ['haebitast], ['msekt], [m'demcfea], ['kadboid], [in'klurd], [sa'vaena]. b) Listen to the recording, ® 16, and check your reading. LET US READ AMD LEARM a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. 1. The country is rich in natural resources [n'so:siz]. 2. The doctor said he would test [test] my blood pressure. 3. The box is heavy. It weighs' more than a ton [Un]. 4. It is very good when there is much ozone ['auzaun] in the air. 5. We need a filter ['filtaj. The water is very dirty. 6. What do you know about ecology [г'кЫэф] in big cities? 7. Is ultraviolet [^Itra'vaialit] radiation [,reidi'eijn] dangerous? b) Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right. Read the words, look them up and study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. an environment [in'vaisrsnmant] (n): a healthy environment. A noisy room is not the best environment to work in. Many people understand they should protect the environment. Cars are ruining our environment. to pollute [p3'lu:t] (v): To pollute the water, air, atmosphere means to make it dirty and dangerous for people and animals to live in or to use. Nowadays many newspapers write about the polluted atmosphere of.towns and cities. pollution [рэ'1и:/п] (n): Environmental pollution is becoming dangerous. Many scientists speak about serious changes in the climate because of the pollution of the atmosphere. It is necessary to stop pollution. to cause [koiz] (v): to cause a fire, to cause an illness, to cause danger. A burning cigarette caused the fire. What causes hot air to rise? Overeating causes a lot of diseases. destruction [di'strAk/n] (n): awful destruction, the destruction of the environment. As the result of the fire we can speak about the destruction of the whole forest. The destruction of the city took ■Ш Ш •:v;v m Ш m •iwj m •»T4 •>»i •Iv*V 1 m m m Ш Щ Ш Ш m m i ii I ♦ ♦ • place in 1942. Pouring oiP into the water will cause pollution and the destruction of our seas and rivers, a shortage ['/oiticfe] (n): There was no shortage of helpers. After the hot summer there was a shortage of water, a population [pDpju'leiJn] (n): a small population, with a population less than — What’s the population of London? The population in Western European countries is growing. Moscow is a city with a population of over 10 million. waste [weist] (n): nuclear waste, radioactive waste, industrial waste. A lot of waste from factories and plants goes into the river. The scientists try to solve the problem of radioactive waste, a dump [dAmp] (n): Take all that litter to the town rubbish dump. This place is a real dump! — to dump (v)\ They dumped a lot of rubbish in the river. All the countries shouldn’t dump waste in the seas and oceans, poison ['poizn] (n): Some mushrooms have poison. Rat poison can be dangerous for people. to poison (v)'. People can be poisoned by industrial waste. Someone tried to poison our dog’s food. Isn’t it cruel! nuclear ['nju:kli3] (adj): a nuclear war, nuclear tests, a nuclear-free zone. There are no winners in a nuclear war. Nuclear waste ten-dangers people’s lives. People all over the world protest against nu-0 clear tests. I should like to see Europe as a nuclear-free zone, a weapon ['wepan] (n): nuclear weapons. Guns and knives are weapons; they are used to kill or hurt people in a fight or a war. That night the great detective was not carrying a weapon. What countries of the world have got nuclear weapons? i to survive [sa'vaiv] (v)\ We shall survive. We won’t die. Do you know that camels^ can survive for many days without eating and drinking? He was the only one who survived in the fire. The first settlers in America survived their first severe winter on the new continent and celebrated it with their Indian friends, safe [seif] (adj): This food is not safe for babies. Bye-bye, have a safe journey. A knife is not a safe toy. Complete the sentences using the words: a shortage, waste, de-stpucdon, pollution, poison, population (2), nuclear weapons. 1. The government is not supported by the _____ 2. The weathermen are speaking about the ... of water again this summer. 3. The country is not able to feed its__4. Factories pour a lot of ... into seas. 5. What caused the ... of wildlife in this area? 6. Smoke from factories is making ... quite bad. 7. Industrial waste can be ... for fish living in the seas. 8. For the first time ... were used by the USA in 1945. * oil [oil] — нефть ^ a camel [’kaeml] — верблюд б’ а) Think of the best way to express the same in Russian. nuclear to cause destruction of war weapons tests energy power pollution death destruction trouble diseases hopes ozone layer rainforests seas and rivers to solve shortage of a safe LET US READ 4^ a mystery a problem a riddle a difficulty a puzzle goods weapons food water workers journey trip voyage car place m m Ш b) Make up not less than 10 true sentences with some of these word combinations. Listen to the recording, 017, and read the poem, then learn it by heart. I MEANT TO DO MY WORK TODAY (by Richard Le Yalleinne) I meant to do my work today — But a brown bird sang in the apple tree. And a butterfly flitted* across the field. And all the leaves were calling me. And the wind went sighing^ over the land Tossing the grasses to and fro,® And a rainbow held out its shining hand — So what could I do but laugh and go? Ш Ш Ш Ш •.♦Kv •.v.v ■ m ♦Xv «<< m 1 i Ш %%v i >:❖> Choose and read aloud the words and word combinations on the topic “The Earth in Danger”. An influence, a shower, a rainbow, pollution, misty, nuclear weapons, a shortage of food, a reptile, a government, a poisoned river. Ш * to flit [flrt] — порхать, перелетать с места на место ® to .go sighing ['saiir)] — вздыхать ® to toss to and fro {frau] — раскачивать т Ш>: 5vM*. ш Шу' viv. I Ш; т v«v. vM* vM* Ш: Ш ш< Ш ш< W, л ♦ Ш v%v** Ш: Ш tv.v 1: Г4 ♦ ♦ • v%v.* т: ш I the Statue of Liberty, industrial waste, radiation, heat, a greenhouse, the greenhouse effect, sunlight, acid rain, a rainstorm, an ozone hole,^ coast, health, a population, an environment. i^Read the text and give titles to its parts. THIS FRAGILE PLANET The word environment means simply what is around us. Some people live in a town environment; for others, their environment is the countryside. But the air we breathe, the soiP on which we stand and walk, the water we drink are all part of the environment. Nowadays people understand how important it, is to solve the environmental problems that bndanger people’s lives. The most serious environmental problems are: • pollution in its many forms (water pollution, air pollution, nuclear pollution); • noise from cars, buses, planes, etc.; • destruction of wildlife and the beauty of the countryside; • shortage of natural resources (metals, different kinds of fuel®); • the growth of population. “Water, water everywhere, not any drop to drink,” said the sail-df from Coleridge’s^ poem describing to a friend how awful it was to be without drinking water on a ship in the middle of the ocean. It is strange to think that the water around his ship was probably quite safe to drink. It was salty — but not polluted. Sea water today is much more dangerous. There is no ocean or sea which is not used as a dump. The Pacific Ocean, especially, has suffered from nuclear pollution because the French Government tests nuclear weapons there. Many seas are used for dumping industrial and nuclear waste. Britain alone dumps 250,000 tons of industrial waste straight into the North Sea. This poisons and kills fish and sea animals. “Nuclear-poisoned” fish can be eaten by people. Many rivers and lakes are poisoned too. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them. There is not enough oxygen in the water. In such places all the birds leave their habitats and many plants die. If people drink this water, they can die too. It happens so because factories and plants produce a lot of waste and pour it into rivers. So they poison the water. Factories use clean water. After the water is used it can become poison which goes back into rivers and seas. ^ a hole [haul] — дыра ® soil [soil] — почва, земля ® fuel ['Qural] — топливо '* Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1772—1834) — an English poet and critic, one of the leaders of the Romantic movement in England. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is one of his best known poems. Ф в. .___________________ (в) 18. When the Americans decided to clean up the Statue of Liberty in 1986, the first thing they had to do was to make a hole in her nose and take away the acid rain^ that had collected inside. The polluted air of New York had mixed with the rain and damaged the Statue badly. And you certainly know that most of the pollution in big cities comes from cars and buses. • More and more often people are told not to spend too much time in direct sunlight, because ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer.® Normally the ozone layer® in the atmosphere protects us from such radiation, but if there are holes in the ozone layer ultraviolet radiation can get to the earth. Many scientists think that these holes are the result of air pollution. Nuclear power stations can go wrong and cause nuclear pollution. This happened in Windscale in Britain, in Three Mile Island in the USA and Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union. Nuclear pollution cannot be seen but its effects can be terrible. To make air clean again we need good filters at nuclear power stations, at factories and plants and also in cars and buses. Both clean air and clean water are necessary for our health. If people want to survive they must solve these problems quickly. Man is beginning to understand that his environment is not just his own town or country, but the whole earth. That’s why people all over the world think and speak so much about ecology. 0 Find in the text and read out English equivalents of these words and word combinations: I) жить в условиях города; 2) решать проблемы окружающей среды; 3) угрожать жизни людей, подвергать жизнь людей опасности; 4) загрязнение водной среды; 5) загрязнение воздуха; 6) разрушение, уничтожение живой природы; 7) красота сельского ландшафта; 8) нехватка природных ресурсов; 9) пригодная, не опасная для питья (о воде)', 10) использоваться в качестве мусорной свалки; II) проводить испытания ядерного оружия; 12) промышленные и ядерные отходы; 13) рыба, подвергшаяся радиационному заражению; 14) покидать места своего обитания; 15) сливать (отходы) в близлежащие реки; 16) сильно испортил статую; 17) атомные электростанции; 18) испортиться, выйти из строя. Answer these questions on the text. 1. What does the word environment mean? 2. What are the most serious environmental problems? Which of them are described in the text? 3. What makes sea water dangerous nowadays? 4. Why is it * acid ['aesid] rain — кислотный дождь ® skin cancer ['skin 'kaensa] — рак кожи ® layer ['leia] — слой m Ш ■Щ a •:»a .‘♦V! Ш .‘♦V w i I m m m %v •.V i m Ш m v.V v.v « * ♦ 4 dangerous to dump industrial waste in the sea? 5. Why was the Statue of Liberty in New York damaged? 6. Where does air pollution in the cities mostly come from? 7. Why is it not safe to be in direct sunlight in certain places? 8. Why are nuclear power stations dangerous? Choose the best way to define these. \ Pollution^'^ 1) dirty water, air and atmosphere; making water, air, atmosphere dirty and dangerous for people and animals to live in; 3) people who make water, air and atmosphere dirty and dangerous. Environment: 1) air, water and land, in which people, animals and plants live; 2) an organization that wants to protect the natural world; 3) something that we do to prevent air and water pollution. j. Ecology: 1) natural balance between plants, animals, people and their environment; 2) plants growing in some area; 3) part of medicine that helps people to lead a healthy life. Greenhouse effect: 1) a building in a garden or park which has glass walls and a glass roof in which you grow plants; 2) a salad made mainly with green vegetables; 3) the problem of temperature rise in the Earth’s atmosphere. LET US TALK Prove the following with the help of ex. 20. 1. Nowadays there are a lot of environmental problems. 2. People destroy many habitats of animals. 3. Direct sunlight can be dangerous. 4. Nuclear power stations can cause a lot of trouble. 5. Man should solve ecological problems as soon as possible. > Speak about the problems of air pollution and water pollution as you see them. (Ex. 20 can help you.) Mention water bodies used as rubbish dumps, destruction of buildings in towns, water and air pollution influence on people’s health. s ф ф Think and say if you change your own environment for the better or for the worse. 1. We speak about water shortages. What do you use water for? Do you waste* any? Do you often take hot baths? wash clothes? How much water do you use on washing? 2. Water pollution is becoming quite bad. Have you ever thrown anything into a river or a lake? If so, what? Why? Have you ever washed your bicycle in a river or a lake? How dirty did it make the water? ' 3. People use a lot of washing powder.^ Have you ever done it? Does your family do it? Do you think it does harm to our rivers and seas? 4. Burning makes air pollution worse. Have you ever burnt rubbish or autumn leaves? 5. Most of the pollution in big cities comes from cars. They also make a lot of noise. Has your family got a car? How often do you use it? 6. One of the environmental problems is a shortage of food. People in some countries even suffer from hunger. Does your family buy much food? Do you sometimes throw it away? How much of it do you waste? WILL YOU GIVE ALL THESE UP TO KEEP RIVERS, LAKES, SEAS AND AIR CLEAN? Your class was asked to take part in the TV show called “Save Our Planet”. Each of you has two minutes to give your reasons to speak on one of the subjects beiow. Choose one of them and get ready to speak in this TV programme. • Environment yesterday and today. • Environmental problems nowadays. • Water pollution. • Air pollution. • Ecology and people’s health. • Destruction of wildlife and countryside beauty. • Food, water and natural resources and their shortage. All over the world people are moving from the country to the cities. ,Many prefer to live in the city but some would like to make their home in the country. Which is your choice? Explain it. Example: I’d rather live in the country because I can spend a lot of time outside. * to waste — тратить понапрасну, транжирить ^ washing powder ['panda] — стиральный порошок Ш т т уШ Ш ’.V*V ■ Country to lead a quiet life to work outdoors to take care of animals to breathe fresh air to eat healthy food to enjoy the countryside to live among friendly people City . to lead an interesting life to have many things to do and to see to have all the modern conveniences to work with modern machines to have a lot of places to get education to be able to visit some interesting places to be able to have a lot of fun LET US WRITE ex. 1, ex. 2, ex. 4, ex. 5, ex. 11, ex. 13, ex. 16 in writing. Express the same in English. a) ^. Если мы сможем разрешить экологические проблемы, мы спасём Землю. 2. Люди будут более здоровыми, если загрязнение воздуха будет остановлено. 3. Если разные страны будут испытывать ядерное оружие, это вызовет радиоактивное загрязнение. 4. Если фабрики будут сливать отходы в реки, вода в них будет отравлена. 5. Мы выживем, если будем защищать природу все вместе. b) 1. Когда поедешь на юг, постарайся не находиться под прямыми лучами солнца долго. 2. Когда мы будем участвовать в телешоу, мы будем обсуждать экологические проблемы. 3. Когда экология станет лучше, животные вернутся в места своего обитания. 4. Ты узнаешь о редких и исчезающих видах животных, когда прочтёшь эту книгу. 5. Маленький Питер сможет увидеть различные виды млекопитающих, птиц, рептилий и насекомых, когда пойдёт с мамой в зоопарк. 'Write sentences about John to show that he always wants to be like Nick (ex. 12). Example: Nick likes crocodiles. So does John. a) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. а resource, to test, a ton, ozone, a filter, ultraviolet, radiation, an environment, to pollute, pollution, to cause, destruction, a shortage, a population, to dump, waste, poison, nuclear, a weapon, to survive, safe b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctly? Are you pleased with your result? LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS a) Make sure you know these words: positive ['pnzitiv] — положительный an ambulance ['aembjulans] — машина «скорой помощи» negative ['negativ] — отрицательный a traffic jam ['traefik .фэет] — пробка, затор на дороге b) Listen to the recording, ® 19, and say why the young member of the Women’s Club wanted to stop the car producer. Put these sentences in the order they are given in the text to make an outline of the story. Then work in pairs and tell the story to each other. Give your own conclusion. 1. Main ecological problems in the gentleman’s talk. 2. Positive aspects of cars. 3. Usual Friday meetings at the Women’s Club. 4. Negative aspects of cars. Pretend you are at the Women’s Club meeting. Play the role of the gentleman and answer the following. 1. Which in your opinion is the most serious ecological problem? 2. What continents and countries suffer mainly from shortages of food? Can this be helped? 3. Why are cars dangerous for the people in towns and cities? 4. Why do you think there are more and more cars with every coming year? I Listen to the text again and write down positive and negative effects that cars have. Discuss these questions with your friends. 1. Do you think cars have improved life or not? Have they made people’s life at least easier? 2. Which do you think is the best way to travel — by car, by train, by plane, on a bicycle, on foot? Explain i I I 1 .*.V, ■*.v m Ш i .*.v ••♦V i Ш Ш .? in 4 months ^? now c>? in a year c>? yesterday c>? next day o? 3 years ago '^? Look through the diaiogue. Change it into the reported speech and then read it aloud. Frank: We had an ecology class yesterday. We discussed different environmental problems. No wonder. They are the most important problems these days. I think many people understand they should protect the environment. Do they really understand that? I’m not quite sure, because factories dump waste into rivers, air pollution is getting worse too. Frank: That’s true. And yet more and more people fight against nuclear tests, nuclear weapons and other things. But will they win? And when will they win these battles? Don’t lose hope. Let’s hope for the best. m I I 1 i Ш Chris: Frank: Chris: Chris: Frank: 1 m m • ♦>lV m. t • ♦ »V m I .•M%v m »i 'Ш w m Ш ■УЛ*И 1 Ш \'iv. Ш Ш ■:Ш ^ a customer ['kAStama] — покупатель V/ m [ Customer: But speak too much and too loudly. I would like something quiet. Shop assistant: A quiet pet? How about a goldfish or a ____ _____________? They are the quietest pets I know. 'Tell your classmates what the customer and the shop assistant in a pet shop talked about. 'Comment on this: “Man the destroyer, man the creator.” LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS Listen to the recording, ®25, look at the map and read what weather forecast radio gives for the USA today. WEATHER FORECASTS ON THE RADIO In New York — home of the Statue of Liberty and the skyscrapers — it’ll be sunny and mild, a little bit cloudy, but nice and warm. What a beautiful day to walk about the city! 0 Miami Down in the southeast today the weather will be wonderful. In Miami, Florida, a popular vacation place, it’s going to be sunny and very hot. It’s ninety degrees Fahrenheit. A perfect day for the beach. Not so in Springfield, Illinois, it’s cool and windy, we expect rain this afternoon. So get out your umbrella. It’s thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit. That’s zero degrees Celsius outside Denver, Colorado. There’s two feet of snow already and it’s going to snow some more. It’s a perfect place for skiing. And on the west coast in Los Angeles, California — home of Hollywood movie stars and the best cars — it’s sunny and warm. It will be a beautiful day for a drive up the coast. And that’s the weather in the USA today. Look at the map of Russia and make up a radio forecast for certain places in the country. Ex. 5 can help you. Vladivostok — Get out your umbrella. Yakutsk — It’s a perfect day for skiing. Novosibirsk — Get out your warm coat. Ekaterinburg — What a beautiful day for a ride in the country! Murmansk — It will be a perfect day for fishing. St. Petersburg — It’s a perfect day to walk in the city. Moscow — Don’t make any plans. Volgograd — Get out your light clothes and sunglasses. Sochi — A perfect day for the beach. Kaliningrad ■ ■ m 'a i Wv! Wv! Ш I m m m ■Ш т т, 5v;v • I ш К*!*:*. Iv.v Jviv m Ш m vJv ♦iv- Wy.- v«v.* I 1 *»L »y-‘‘ I» ♦ • «•1 v*M'. vl*l\ ►K*!' ►V»v * V ■ Ш m Answer the questions on the topic “Animal World”. Check your answers with @26. DO YOU KNOW? 1. 8. 3. 4. 9. 10. What is the name of the animal that gives birth to lambs? Young dogs are called puppies, young cats are called kittens, what are young goats called? « What pets are kept in cages? Do you know why whales and dolphins are not fish? 5. There’s one bird which is so lazy that it doesn’t build its own nest and doesn’t hatch* its own eggs. This bird lays its eggs in other birds’ nests and gets them to do the hard work fordt. Do you know which bird this is? 6. Which is the fastest running bird in the world (it can’t fly)? 7. Which animals that you can think of belong to the cat family?^ 8. There are two types of elephants found on earth. One is the" African elephant. What’s the other one called? A fawn* is a young animal that lives in woods or forests. What will it be when it grows up? These creatures catch their food in special nets that they make themselves. What are they called? How many legs do they have? I'l. What is a rabbit’s home called? 12. This reptile carries its home round on its back. What is it? LET US READ Read the text “Ecology of Man” and say why people need no less protection than animals do. ECOLOGY OF MAN ($)27. It may sound funny to you, but man needs protection and care as much as animals do. People’s habitats — their homes, towns and cities — must be kept ecologically clean. In the places where people drink dirty water, eat bad food and breathe polluted air they suffer from serious diseases and die early; their children are born weak. No medicines prescribed by the doctors can save them. This problem becomes more and more serious with every passing day. The modern way of life, when people do little physical activity, use cars instead of walking, watch television for many hours and work on computers is turning them into “legless creatures.” ID» * to hatch [haetj] — высиживать птенцов, насиживать яйца ^ а fawn [Гэ:п] — оленёнок Thinlc.ef at least five things Modern Man must do to survive. Compare your lists. Ask questions on the text for your classmates to answer. LET US WRITE Write the same in English. Предсказывать погоду; климатические изменения; разрешить проблему; недостаток питьевой воды; ядерная энергия; быть причиной разрушений; загрязнение воздуха; выжить; место обитания; ниже нуля; парниковый эффект; озоновые дыры; оказывать влияние на окружаюш;ую среду; исчезнувшие виды животных; вылечивать болезни; уничтожать леса; сбрасывать отходы в реки. SUMMING UP ONE 1. What new things did you learn from Units 1 —6? 2. Which topics did you find interesting and useful to discuss? What did you enjoy doing most of all? 3. What did you practise doing in English? 4. Which of these are you good at? What are your weak points? Great Britain • The USA • Australia How Much Do We Know About Britain? You already know a lot about Britain and its people, but some things are easily forgotten. Let us brush up our knowledge of the country. So... LET US REVIEW Look at the map on page 78 and say: a) what the main parts of Great Britain are; b) what their capitals are; c) what their symbols are. c) the flag of Wales d) the flag of England Choose the right item. 1. The Union Jack is ... a) the flag of the UK b) the flag of Scotland 2. The British Prime Minister lives at ... a) 12 Whitehall c) 7 Russel Street b) 10 Downing Street d) 15 Oxford Street 3. Whitehall is ... a) a street leading from Trafalgar Square to the Houses of Parliament; b) a big hall in the centre of London; c) a white palace near Trafalgar Square; d) the palace where the Queen lives in summer. The Great Fire of London broke out in ... a) 1066 c) 1106 b) 1766 d) 1666 V ♦!< V V ♦!< 5. Sir Christopher Wren built ... a) Buckingham Palace c) St. Paul’s Cathedral b) Westminster Abbey d) the Tower of London 6. The National Gallery is in ... a) Piccadilly Circus c) Trafalgar Square b) Parliament Square d) Leicester ['lesto] Square 7. Westminster is the ... centre of London. a) cultural c) business b) political d) industrial 8. Great Britain is separated from the continent by ... a) the Pacific Ocean c) the Bristol Channel b) the Irish Sea d) the English Channel л я Ш ■ш .'.ViV ■ ш 9. Britain’s population is more than ... million people, a) 56 b) 5,6 c) 560 d) 7 10. There is much farmland in Britain, especially in the ... of the country. a) north c) west b) south d) east 11. The head of State in Britain is ... a) the Prime Minister c) the Queen b) the President d) the Speaker 12. 650 Members of the House of Commons are elected every ... years. a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 5 Answer the following questions, if necessary consult Lessons 24— 30 of your Student’s Book IV and Lessons 5, 12—14 of your Student’s Book V. ' 1. When did the Romans come to England for the first time? 2. What was the original name of the British capital? And how many people lived there by the year 400? 3. When did the Romans leave Britain? 4. When did William the Conqueror come to England from Normandy? Why did he build the White Tower in the Tower of London? 5. Where did the Great Fire of London start? How long did it last? How big was the part of the city destroyed by the fire? 6. What caused the Great Fire of London? 7. What is the official name of Great Britain now? 8. What do people mean when they say “Great Britain”? 9. What parts does Great Britain consist of and what are their capitals? 10. What do we call the narrowest part of the English Channel? 11. The people who were born in Britain are English, aren’t they? 12. What does the Union Jack look like and what does it symbolize? 13. What is understood by the Commonwealth? What do you know about it? 14. Who does the power in the country belong to? 15. Who makes laws in the country? After doing ex. 1 and ex. 2 decide who in your class knows the country and its people best. Let him/her be a visiting professor from London and ask him/her: Ш m m ууЛ 1 Ш уШ ш « ♦% .vivj >5 1) what part of London he likes most of all and why; 2) what the Tower of London used to be and what it is now; 3) why Londoners keep black ravens in the Tower of London; 4) what place in London is believed to be its geographical centre; 5) where the Queen lives; \ 6) why the clock on one of the towers of the Houses of Parliament is called Big Ben; 7) how often people can hear the sound of Big Ben; 8) if tourists can get into the Houses of Parliament and watch the sessions of Parliament; 9) what the difference between the House of Lords and the House of Commons is; • 10) what Poets’ Corner is and in what London church it can be found; 11) why British people speak so much about the weather; 12) in what way the British people differ from people on the Continent. LET US READ Read to get more information about British festivals.' Traditional games on Halloween Night are usually difficult, such as trying to get an apple from a bucket^ of water without using hands or trying to find a coin in a bowl® full of flour. On New Year’s Eve, people used to take a soaking^ in the fountains in Trafalgar Square. ' The Christmas tree which is put in Trafalgar Square for Christmas is always a present from Norway. On Christmas day the Queen gives her traditional Christmas speech to the UK and the Commonwealth on television and radio. At Easter time, the British often give their children chocolate Easter eggs, which are opened and eaten on Easter Sunday. A Russian girl, Olga, comes to Britain on the 30th of October. She is going to stay with an English family. Alice, the eldest daughter, is going to take Olga to a Halloween party. Read their dialogue and say why Olga is so surprised. HALLOWEEN PARTY Olga: Alice, it can be a stupid question, but I’m afraid I don’t know much about Halloween. What is it like? Alice: I’m sure you’ll enjoy it. Such parties are usually great fun. People dress up in strange costumes and pretend they’re ghosts and witches. Olga: Oh... are you sure I’m going to like it? It sounds very unusual. * a festival [Testivl] — праздник ® a bucket [’Ьлкн] — ведро ® a bowl [Ьэи1] — миска ■* to take a soaking ['ssukiri] • окунаться I I Alice: Don’t be silly, we’ll play games and dance and laugh a lot. And you know what, when the party is over, we’ll put on white sheets and knock on our neighbours!., doors asking if they would like a “trick” or “treat”. Olga: Trick or treat? What d’you mean? Alice (laughing): Nothing dangerous. If they give us a treat — some sweets, nuts or cakes — we’ll say “thank you” and go away. But if they don’t we’ll play a trick on them. Olga: What? A trick? What shall we do? Alice: We’ll make a lot of noise and throw flour on their front doorstep! Olga: Wow!' Alice: But can you help me to get ready for the party? Olga: Of course I will. What shall I do? Alice: We’ll-cut an ugly face in a pumpkin and put a candle inside. It will shine through the eye holes. Then we’ll take the pumpkin to the party to decorate the hall. Olga: How interesting! I’ve never heard about this holiday before. We don’t have it in Russia. Alice: You just wait! On the 5th of November I’ll take you to see a Guy Fawkes Night. Imagine that that very night Oiga wrote a letter to her family where she told them what she had learned about Halloween. Name 10 things she had learned about that holiday. Begin with: “Alice told me...”. Ехат)ф1е: Alice told me she was going to take me to a Halloween party. LET US TALK w Work in pairs. Make up two dialogues: a) about Guy Fawkes Night, b) about Masienitsa in Russia. One of you is a Russian student, the other comes from Britain. ' Wow! [wau] — Ух ты! (возглас удивления и/или восторга) т т Ш •♦V т Ш Ш т - .■Ш 1 I ii ii .‘.♦Xv уМ ■ I •УУХ* Ш m m т ш ■ ■ ■ ш ■ ш т WV м1м^ i r5ir#^w . т>: й*л I Why did you decide to put a hedge around your garden? England looks like one great park with its old trees, green meadows and hedges. A beautiful hedge separated the two fields, to excite [ik'sait] (v): to excite people, to excite the audience, to be excited by the news (book, film, performance, etc.). The plan of the party excited us. The circus tickets will excite the children. He was so excited by his birthday present he could hardly sleep, exciting [ik'saitii)] (adj): an exciting story, an exciting idea, exciting news, an exciting moment. A trip to the mountains wasn’t a very exciting idea at first. How exciting! What exciting news you’ve brought! to attract [a'traekt] (v): to attract people, to attract animals, to be attracted by the scenery (the smell, the picture). The South of France attracts a lot of holidaymakers every summer. I was attracted by her nice smile. attractive [o'traektrv] (adj): an attractive girl, an attractive child, an attractive face. I don’t think he’s attractive at all. After we painted the house it looked very attractive, flat [flaet], flatter, (the) flattest (adj): a flat plate, a flat cap, a flat field, a flat countryside, as flat as a pancake. The countryside is very flat here: there are no hills at all. People used to think that the world was flat, now we know that it is round. Holland is ,/ a very flat country; some people say it is as flat as a pancake, rest [rest] (n): the rest of the books, the rest of the apples, the rest of the stories, the rest of the people. There are ten apples on the plate, three are green and the rest (of them) are red. John and I are going to play tennis, what are the rest of you going to do? a shape [feip] (n): clouds of different shapes, the shape of a man’s nose, in the shape of a heart. What’s the shape of the table? Is it round? She baked a cake in the shape of a heart. The small silver box had a square shape. to connect [ka'nekt] (v): to connect two things, to be connected by something. The bridge across the river connects the old and the new parts of the city. The two towns were connected by a railway. Look through ex. 13, ex. 14 and choose the words to fit these categories: 1) places; 2) people and their occupations. Name them. 1) 3—5 things that can be: a) attractive; b) exciting; 2) 3—5 universities that you know; 3) 3—5 things that can: a) excite people; b) attract people; c) connect people or things; 4) 3 things that can be in the shape of: a) a heart; b) a square; c) an oval ['auvl]; 5) 5 things that you really admire. Listen to the dialogue, it out. !^28, read it and give it a title, then act Mr Adams: Duncan: Liz: Mr Adams: Duncan: Mr Adams: Duncan: Liz: Mr Adams: Liz: Well, kids. I’ve got wonderful news for you! What is it. Daddy? Are we going to the circus? I know, we are going to the zoo! No, kids. It’s much better. You’ve been so good this school year that I decided to take you on a holiday. Wow! Where are we going? Is Mummy coming too? Of course she is. We’re going to the Highlands of Scotland, my birthplace. Great! Dennis was there last summer with his parents and he loved it. I think that’s terrific. Dad! You know. Miss Hunter, our geography teacher, told us only yesterday that the Highlands of Scotland are famous for their scenery and people from all over the world go there to admire it. Miss Hunter is quite right. There is nothing like the high mountains, deep valleys and grassy plains of my bonny^ Scotland. My heart’s in the Highlands as Robert' Burns^ wrote. You know, when I speak of Scotland I become something of a poet myself. Oh yes, we know that. When are we going? Where are we going to stay? In a hotel? How are we going to get there? Shall I take my skis? Is there any snow? Is it cold in Scotland in summer? Oh, Dad, it’s so exciting! LET US READ Learn to read these words, ®29. Bath [ba:0] Birmingharp ['bsimiqsm] Bristol [bristl] Cambridge ['keimbncfe] Dover ['dauvs] Hadrian’s Wall [.heidnanz Svo:l] Manchester ['masntjista] Liverpool ['livapu:!] the Midlands [бэ 'midlandz] the Southwest [бэ ,sau0'west] Stonehenge ['staunhencfe] the Thames [бэ temz] Newcastle-upon-Tyne [,nju:ko;sl эрпп 'tain] Brighton ['braitn] Oxford ['nksfad] Sheffield [Tefi:ld] the County of Kent [бэ ,kaunti av 'kent] the Fens (area) [бэ Tenz] Heathrow (airport) ['hi:0rau] Land’s End [.lasndz 'end] the Lake District [бэ 'leik ,distnkt] Northern Ireland [,пэ:бэп 'aialand] the Southeast [бэ ,sau0'i:st] Stratford-upon-Avon [,straetfad эрпп 'eivn] Wales [weilz] York [jo;k] * bonny — красивый ^ Robert Burns (1759—1796) — a Scottish poet who wrote hundreds of songs and poems, mainly on country life, love, and national pride I I i If I i i |i Ш w. Cv. i I ****** W* I i Choose the names of the cities from the iist in ex. 18, find and show them on the map. Read the names aioud. Read the text and complete it with the phrases a—g. One phrase you don’t need to use. a) because of its position b) big industrial cities c) when people travel to Britain d) to look at the ruins e) the scenery changes f) connected with English culture g) artists, writers and holidaymakers DISCOVEK BRITAIN: ENGLAND (e)30. The United Kingdom is very small compared with many other countries in the world. However there are only nine other countries with more pedple, and London is the world’s seventh biggest city. When you travel about the country you can see how 1)____________right in front of your eyes. Highlands turn into low- lands, forests and hills turn into meadows and plains very quickly. It’s hard to believe, but in Great Britain one can find practically any type of scenery. Often what people first notice about Britain, т * * especially if they arrive by plane, is the green of the fields, hedges and trees. Britain is an unusually beautiful country! We want to take you on an exciting journey through the whole country from Scotland and Northern Ireland to England and Wales. We’ll begin our journey with England, the largest part of the UK, visiting its regions: the Southeast, the Southwest, East Anglia, the Midlands and the North of England. i The Southeast is a highly populated region of England; there is a lot of industry near the Thames and there are a lot of roads and motorways. London, the capital of the UK, and such historical cities as Windsor, Dover and Brighton are situated here. 2)____________by sea or air they usu- ally arrive in the Southeast; for this is where the main passenger ports and airports are. Heathrow Airport, one of the world’s busiest airports is about 33 km west of central London. However, there is still attractive countryside in the Southeast. The County of Kent situated here is known as the garden of England. The Southeast is famous for its resorts, Brighton is, probably, the best known of them. 0 The Southwest is the region where the main activity is farming. Although there are some very big farms, most of them are small family farms where dairy products are produced. The Southwest used to be known for its pirates. The romantic past makes it a popular place for 3)___________. The two principal cities of the region are Bristol and Bath. If you want to see the famous Stonehenge, one of the reijmrkable historic places in the UK, you should also come here. Th?^nost westerly point of Great Britain “Land’s End” is also in the Southwest. East Anglia is very flat and it is another farming region. It has beautiful cities, such as Cambridge, with fine historic buildings. The part of East Anglia called the Fens consists of miles of flat land with almost no trees or hedges. It used to be partly covered by the sea and now produces good harvests. Oliver Cromwell, an English general and politician (1599—1658) who was leader of the army ageiinst King Charles I in the Civil War and later'became Lord Protector of England, was born in the Fens area. East Anglia is isolated from the rest of Britain 4)_________ away from the main national roads and because of its shape: it is more than half surrounded by the sea. The Midlands, knpwn as the heart of England, is the largest industrial part in the country. The most important industrial cities m b A « Ш ■M m Ш m m m are Manchester, Sheffield, Liverpool, which is one of Britain’s big ports, and Birmingham. The two famous Midlands cities, Stratford-upon-Avon and Oxford are 5) ______________: Stratford is the birth- place of the great William Shakespeare and Oxford is famous for its university. The North of England has some of the wildest and loneliest parts of the country, but also some of the busiest industrial cities. Here you can find deep valleys, rivers and waterfalls, hills and mountains. This part of the country is rich in coal which is important for the region’s* industry. The main attractions of the North of England are certainly the Lake District, the cities of York and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Many tourists come over especially 6) ____________ of Hadrian’s Wall, a stone wall built across the North of England by the order of the Roman ruler Hadrian to defend the Northern border of Roman Britain from the Scottish tribes. Look through the text again and answer these questions. 1. How big is London compared with other cities? 2. Where do people usually arrive when they travel to Britain by sea or air? Why? 3. What are the principal cities in the Southeast? .^4. What county is called the “garden of England”? 5. What is the Southeast famous for? 6. Why do people find the Southwest attractive? 7. Why is Land’s End called that way? 8. Why do you think tourists often come to Cambridge? 9. Where was Oliver Cromwell from? What can you say about the man? 10. What are the most important industrial cities in England? 11. What is Stratford-upon-Avon famous for? 12. What are the main attractions of the North of England? 13. What do you know about Hadrian’s Wall? Match the words in the two columns to say what these places are famous for. Example: London is famous for its places of interest. 1) London 2) the Lake District 3) Oxford 4) Hadrian’s Wall 5) Heathrow 6) the Fens a) the biggest airport in England b) the fact that it was built by Romans c) its places of interest d) the fact that Oliver Cromwell was born there e) its 12th century university f) its lakes and beautiful scenery 1^ a region ['п;с1зэп] — район Name 3 facts about each region in England, consult the text only if it is necessary. 1) The Southeast ??? 2) The Southwest ??? 3) East Anglia ??? 4) The Midlands ??? 5) The North of England ??? Guess what the names of the places marked with the numbers are, check yourselves with the help of the recording, ®31. LET US TALK These are some facts about the five regions of Great Britain. Match the facts with the names of the regions and describe them. The North of England The Southeast East Anglia The Southwest The Midlands 1. A highly populated region, a lot of industry near the Thames, important historical cities, the main passenger ports and airports, attractive countryside, the garden of England, world famous resorts. 2. A very flat area with a lot of farms, Oliver Cromwell’s birthplace, the main national roads, more than half of the area is surrounded by the sea, the famous University of Cambridge, the Fens. 3. Another farming region with a lot of small family farms, dairy products, used to be known for pirates, the principal cities — Bristol, Bath, the famous Stonehenge, the most westerly point of Great Britain. 4. An area with a lot of busy industrial cities and many wild I'l and lonely parts, rich in coal, the Lake District, the ruins of Hadrian’s Wall, beautiful valleys, rivers, waterfalls and mountains. 5. The heart of England, the largest industrial area,* the birthplace of William Shakespeare, the university city of Oxford, the industrial cities of Birmingham, Manchester and Sheffield, the big sea port of Liverpool. Look at the map (ex. 19), imagine that you are traveiling from Newcastie-upon-Tyne to Land’s End to see the country and admire the scenery. Choose a route^ you want to take and expiain your choice. Say what method of traveliing you will use. Example: I’m going to travel by car because it’s the most comfortable way to see the country. I think I’ll visit ... because _____________ Imagine you have a chance to stay in England for two weeks. Which of the five regions will you choose and why? Explain your choice in 5—6 phrases. * an area ['еэпэ] — район ^ a route ['ru:t] — маршрут LET US WRITE Ф Do ex. 7, ex. 9 (b), ex. 11 (b), ex. 12 in writing. Write what these cities are famous for: Sheffield, Liverpool, Stratford-upon-Avon, Oxford, Manchester, Cambridge, Birmingham, London. Example: London is famous for its fine historic buildings. ■ m ■ I •^Express the same in English. a) 1. Оксфорд — старый английский университетский город. Он расположен в Центральных графствах Великобритании (The Midlands) к северо-западу от Лондона. Оксфордский университет основан в XII веке. 2. Шеффилд известен своей сталелитейной (steel) промышленностью. Он находится к востоку от Манчестера. 3. Брайтон — курортный город, расположенный на юге Англии. 4. Очень интересно посетить графство Кент (The County of Kent). Туристы всегда восхищаются его великолепными садами. Графство Кент называют «сад Англии». 5. Озёрный край (the Lake District) Англии расположен на северо-западе страны. Это очень романтическое место, известное своими долинами, горами, озёрами и водопадами. Озёрный край связан с именами поэтов Озёрной школы (the Lake Poets), которые жили в этом районе и писали о нём. 6. Аэропорт Хитроу расположен в 33 км к западу от Лондона. Это самый крупный аэропорт Великобритании. b) 1. Юго-восток Англии известен своими плоскими равнинами, где расположено много ферм. 2. Долины и луга Шотландии всегда привлекают множество туристов. 3. Живые изгороди в Англии разделяют поля. 4. Английский пейзаж характеризуется (to be famous for) своими живыми изгородями и зелёными лугами. 5. Я восхищаюсь людьми, которые путешествуют, открывают новые земли и исследуют их. 6. Мой папа уже побывал в Северной Ирландии, но ещё не видел других частей Великобритании. 7. Знаменитые курортные города Англии расположены на юго-востоке. а) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. w .Vi* Ш m m m I Ш • •W m i m I ■ Ш :-:<4 .*Xv .•Xv ш Wv. ii? Ш: Ш i? 1 vX' m m Ш: Ш: v*»v. C*.v vW m Ш ❖M* v.v *Mv v.v v.v VJv lowlands, highlands, a waterfall, a holidaymaker, a birthplace, a pirate, a position, a university, a ruler, to admire, scenery, a plain, a meadow, a valley, a hedge, to excite, exciting, to attract, attractive, flat, the rest of, a shape, to connect *я*- ________________—— ....................-Я*---- b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write coVrectly? you pleased with your result? LET US LISTEN AMD DISCUSS Are a) Make sure that you know these words: a neighbour ['neiba] — сосед, соседка as — поскольку (As it was cold we decided to stay at home.) own [эип] — собственный b) Listen to the recording, ®32, and answer the questions. 1. Where did Neil and his parents live? 2. Why couldn’t Neil play with other children? 3. Where did Neil’s father work? 4. Who visited Neil’s parents from time to time? 5. Why did Mr Brown like to talk to Neil? 6. Where did Neil go to play with his ball? 7. With whom did Neil play? How did he play this game? Units LET US REVIEW Look at the pictures. Say what parts of England they show and describe these areas. ■.v.va ■X*Xv ■ m m m Ш • V.V5 Ш m Ш I Say what these places are connected with. Example: Liverpool is connected with trade* as it is one of the biggest ports in England. education Stratford-upon-Avon Sheffield Brighton Liverpool The Lake District Cambridge Dover London * trade [treid] — торговля 7~Афанасьева, 6 кл. Ч.1 history theatre culture industry farming trade holidaymaking 'Say what places in England attract crowds of tourists and why. Example: The Lake District attracts crowds of tourists because it has very beautiful scenery. Look at the picture. There is an appie, a banana, a cabbage, a potato, a tomato, a cucumber, a carrot and an orange on the tabie. Where are the rest of them? Example: The rest of the apples are in the box. What a warm day! What a strong wind! What a beautiful river! What a lovely hedge! What an old university! What nice scenery! What cold water! What nasty weather! What deep knowledge! What short hair! A What dangerous pirates! What long roads! What exciting stories! What tasty potatoes! What attractive faces! Imagine that you are traveiling about England and you admire everything that you see around. Make up true sentences and express what you feel. What (а/an) exciting news! attractive work! deep scenery! romantic valleys! beautiful meadow! green plain! flat weather! great knowledge! long information! unusual cities! I i ♦ “Tesco” is the name of the well-known supermarket in England. Look at Tesco’s prices and say what Mary, Andy, Tim and May can buy with the money they have. And you? Example: With £5 and 90p I’ve got I can buy 100 g of Nescafe* coffee, one lb (pound) of English Cox’s apples, 1 kg (kilo) of chicken and 2 kg (kilos) of red potatoes. 1 . - »:< m m 1 CHICKEN.................£2.99 per 1 kg^ RED POTATOES............£0.75 per 2 kg NESCAFE COFFEE.........£1.69 per 100 CORNFLAKES..............99p per 750 g COKE..................£1.19 for 2 I ENGLISH COX'S APPLES......38p per 1 lb CABBAGES.......................39p each PORK SAUSAGES..........£1.29 per 454 g APPLE PIE....................£1.20 each I BREAD..................78p for a loaf ^^aгYЬQsgot|5 Andy has got Timhasgot£l|0 ^^QY has got £2. you have got.^^^ i ♦ ♦ у. Ш<у. Ш<У 'Шу- Шуу CvMv. ш 5%vM* В т Ш Ш т т Шу ш т. Ш:: ш т т I ■ 5. Какие красивые длинные волосы! 6. Какие свежие овощи! 7. Какой крупный картофель! 8. Какая сладкая морковь! 9. Какой необычный пейзаж! 10. Какой влажный климат! Say where you can buy them. Example: I can buy potatoes at the greengrocer’s. fish flour a cake sour cream potatoes a loaf of bread carrots yogurt beef fresh milk sausages a carton of cream a pound of bacon a tin of fruit a bar of chocolate at the grocer’s at the butcher’s at the fishmonger’s (at the fish shop) at the greengrocer’s at the supermarket at the dairy at the confectionery at the baker’s In these dialogues the replies are all mixed up. Put them in the right order and act out the dialogues. a) — Hello. Can I have a tin of fish soup, please? — No, thanks. — Here you are. Anything else? — One pound ten, please. — Thanks. — Thank you. b) — Can I have a hamburger and a cup of coffee, please? — Thanks. How much is that? — Good morning. — OK. Here you are. — Morning. Can I help you? — Thank you. — Three pounds twenty. c) — Hello. — Oh, I forget, I need a plastic bag, please. — One kilo of English Cox’s apples, please. — Thank you. — Here you are. — Hello. — They’re 90 p for a kilo. — They are 20 p. — Here’s the money and thanks a lot. — Goodbye. — How much are they? d) — All right. — Yes, two cartons. — Bill, would you go and get some rice? — Yogurt? — Shall I get anything else? — Yes. How much shall I get? — Oh, yes, get a bottle of milk — or perhaps two — and yes, some yogurt too. — Get one packet. LET US READ AMD LEARM such 1. It is such a good idea. 2. It is such exciting news. 3. These are such flat areas. 4. My granny makes such tasty toast. 1. The idea is so good. 2. The news is so exciting. 3. Many areas in East Anglia are so flat. 4. The toast today is so teisty. 'F Complete the sentences using such or so. 1. The day was ... exciting. 2. It is ... a good idea. 3. Her health is ... poor. 4. Life in the Highlands is ... lonely. 5. The weather in Russia is becoming ... changeable. 6. You shouldn’t make ... silly jokes. 7. It’s ... nasty weather today! 8. She spends a lot of money on ... expensive books. 9. They have always been ... happy together. 10. My baby brother is ... a little dear. уШ I ■ ■ 1 v*v *'*.V V*' Exclamatory Sentences What ...! How ...! How brave the officer is! How peaceful the country is! How expensive the present was! How exciting the trip has been! How clean the water was! How fresh the air is! How polite the gi^ls are! How great the adventures will be! What a brave officer he is! What a peaceful country it is! What an expensive present it was! What an exciting trip it has been! What clean water it was! What fresh air it is! What polite girls they are! What great adventures they will be! m i i i ::!ХЙ • • • Xti I I Ш I I Ш. Choose one of the word combinations from the word box and give a suitabie answer. Example: — Look, I’ve bought some flowers for Mum. — What beautiful roses! Oh! How beautiful they are! a tasty cake, a clever boy, a nice day, unusual scenery, a boring party, green fields, dirty trousers, interesting books 1. Look at Pete’s trousers. 2. David has written the test very well. 3. There was no music at the party and he couldn’t dance. 4. Look at this scenery. I have never seen anything like that. 5. We’ve got some new books for the library. 6. Do you remember the green fields of East Anglia? 7. Have you tasted my cake? 8. The sun is shining again. ’a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean. 1. That was an official [a'fijl] ceremony ['senmani] and all the ladies were wearing long dresses. 2. What is the Queen’s official residence ['rezidans] in London? 3. What is the main avenue ['aevanju:] of the city? 4. Have you ever seen any procession [pra'se/n] in which the Queen took part? 5. Public ['рлЬЬк] processions are important events of the city life. 6. Cheburashka is a famous character ['kaerakta] in many children’s cartoons in Russia. 7. Queens and kings are monarchs ['mnnaks]. 8. Men are often interested in politics ['politiks]. 9. Who can control [kan'traul] that? 10. A throne [Oraun] is a seat where monarchs sit during official ceremonies. 11. Have you read any tragedies ['traecfeadiz] by William Shakespeare? 12. He is not fond of classical ['IdaesiW] music. 13. Britain was a great empire ['empaia] at the beginning of the 20th century. b) Look these words up to make sure you have guessed right. 1 Read the words, look them up and study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. to own [aun] (v): to own a house, to own a factory, to own a pet. This house is mine; I own it. Who owns this land? a crown [kraun] (n): to wear the crown, a crown of gold. A crown is the head dress of gold worn by a king or a queen. Kings and queens wear crowns at official ceremonies. to crown (v)\ to be crowned. Where was Queen Elizabeth II crowned? to reign [rein] (v)\ to reign over/in the country, the reigning monarch. In Britain the monarch reigns but has no real power, reign (n): the longest reign in history. What do you know about the reign of King Henry VIII? The reign of a king or queen is the time during which he or she rules, to defeat [diTiit] (v): to defeat the enemy, to defeat the army, to be defeated. The fleet of France and Spain was defeated by Admiral Nelson in the battle of Trafalgar, undefeated: King Arthur and his men were undefeated, defeat (n): Six wins and three defeats for the team. I never think about the possibility of defeat. to remind [ri'mamd] (v): to remind sb of sth, to remind sb to do sth. Do I have to remind you about it again? Remind me to answer that letter. He reminds me of his brother. This song reminds us of France. That reminds me ...* That reminds me f I must give some milk to the cat. to touch [utj] (v): to touch sth. Don’t touch the kettle: it’s very hot. One of the branches was just touching the water. Touch wood. Some people say “Touch wood”, and often touch a piece of wood, not to have bad luck. touching ['UtJioJ (adj): a touching story, a touching film. How touching! a reason ['ri;zn] (n): reasons, the only reason, an important reason, a bad reason for sth. Give me your reasons for going there. The reason why I’m late is that I missed the bus. We have a good reason to believe that he is lying. We aren’t going for the simple reason that we have no time. Say what can be: 1) touching; 2) official; 3) public. Make up word combinations with the new words and use them in sentences of your own (at ieast 10 sentences). Use the words from the box. 1. al There are several ... why we can’t do that. 2. You can see roy-... in the Tower of London. They are made of gold, silver and * That reminds me ...—Да, кстати.. m to own to defeat to touch to remind of house water baby /fleet enemy team.: farm wood meeting cottage words ground army palace holidays feet Complete the sentences with the words from ex. 12, ex. 13. Ш ■ 1 ia * I m / • stones and look so beautiful. 3. This photo always ... me of the happy days I spent in Greece. 4, Who is the main ... in “Cinderella”? 5. I am not interested in,... but my father is. 6. Who ... this bit of land? 7. Windsor Castle [,winz9'koisl] is the summer ... of the Queen. 8. My aunt often goes to concerts of ... music. 9. In Britain the Queen ... but does not rule. 10. The old lady’s fingers ... the girl’s hair. 11. When we lost the game last Friday, we all felt that it was a terrible ... . 12. The ... home of the British Prime Minister is 10 Downing Street. Listen to the dialogue, 033, read it and say what the Queen usually does with her presents. Learn the dialogue by heart and act it out. QUEEN’S PRESENTS Olga: What’s that, Stephen? Have you got a new camera? Stephen: Yeah.* Just what I’ve always wanted. It’s a Christmas present from my parents. Olga: Really? I’m so happy for you. I love presents. I wish I were a queen, then I would get^ presents every day. Stephen: Believe it or not, Olga, but this is what happens in real life. I’ve read in a magazine that for Queen Elizabeth, for example, every day is Chrismas day. Olga: You’re kidding!^ Stephen: Not at all. And some of the presents are very unusual. Once an American hot dog firm sent her a big box of hot dogs with mustard. Olga: Oh, no! What did she do with them? Stephen: I have no idea. But it’s clear that presents can be a big problem. Once, when the Queen returned from Canada she brought home a mink coat,'* a large statue of a horse, a pair of snowshoes, a motorboat, a piece of iron, a silver jug^ and a large painting of a power station. Olga: What does the Queen do with these presents? Where can she put a large statue? Stephen: There are 600 rooms in Buckingham Palace and the Queen tries to use all of her presents. And she gives many of her presents to museums, especially the British Museum. Olga: I’d so much like to go to London one day and visit the British Museum and see Buckingham Palace and Hyde Park and Big Ben. __ Stephen: I hope yoUr dream will come true. * yeah = yes (informal) ^ I wish I were a queen, then I would get... ■ ^ You’re kidding! — Ты шутишь! ■* a mink [miqk] coat — норковая шуба ■ Будь я королевой, я бы получала. jug [бзлд] — кувшин LET US READ ▼ Make sure that you can read these proper names, ®34. Buckingham Palace Queen Elizabeth II (the Second) Trafalgar Square St. James’s Park [sant .djeimziz 'pa:k] Hyde Park (the Park) Regent’s Park [.rkcfeants 'po;k] London Zoo Roman Catholic Church [,гэитэп .kasGalik 'tfsdj] Parliament the Crown the Royal Family the Church of England the Spanish Armada [.spasnij oi'mcrda] the Royal Albert Hall the Victoria and Albert Museum the British Throne the Mall [mael] Read the text and say what new information about London you’ve got from it. ROYAL LONDON Many places in London are closely connected with the Crown. There are royal palaces, royal parks, roads and streets where beautiful ceremonies are held. "ГЬе most important building is Buckingham Palace (the Palace), which is the official residence of Queen Elizabeth II. The Mall, a wide avenue used for royal processions runs from Trafalgar Square to Buckingham Palace through St. James’s Park. All together there are ten royal parks in and around London which are owned by the Crown. They are open to the public free of charge. Each park has its own character. HemyVIII Queen Elizabeth I .‘Л*Л I I Cv.' m mi Ш Ш m ■ I Queen Victoria Queen Elizabeth II Hyde Park, for example, used to be a hunting forest. Regent’s Park was also a hunting place and is now the home of London Zoo, and an open-air theatre which gives perfomances of Shakespeare’s plays in summer. Though nowadays the Queen reigns but does not rule, the Royal Family plays a very important role in the country. In the history ofr Britain there were certain Kings and Queens whose names are specially remembered in the country and are well-known in the whole world. One of them was King Henry VIII (1491—1547). Most people remember him only because he had six wives. But in fact he was a very important monarch. Under him Britain became independent of the Roman Catholic Church, it got richer and more powerful. In 1534 Parliament named Henry head of the Church of England and gave the King all the power in the country. Henry’s daughter, Elizabeth (1533—1603) became the Queen in 1558. She never married and is remembered as a very popular and strong queen. She is known for saying “I know I have the body of a weak and feeble* woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a King ...”. During her reign England became very important in European politics, the Spanish Armada was defeated, arts and especially the theatre developed, and the country became very powerful. @35. Another strong queen was Queen Victoria (1819—1901), whose monument you can see in front of Buckingham Palace. Queen Victoria came to the throne as a young woman in 1837 and reigned until her death in 1901. She ruled for the longest period in the English history, for 64 years! Victoria married a German, Prince Albert, but he died at the age of forty-two in 1861. That was a great tragedy for Queen Victoria. She left London and never lived in the city where she had been so happy with her husband and nine children (five sons and four daughters). But there are places in London * feeble ['fi:bl] — слабый that remind us of their love. One of them is the Royal Albert Hall — a very large concert hall where the best musicians of the world perform classical music. In front of the Albert Hall there is a monument to Prince Albert built by Queen Victoria. Another place is the Victoria and Albert Museum (V & A) with its rich collections of paintings and other works of art. The family life of Queen Victoria touched people’s hearts. But this is not the only reason why Queen Victoria became very popular. During her reign Britain became a rich industrial country with a developed trade, an empire with a lot of colonies. Queen Victoria’s great-great-granddaughter, Elizabeth II, is on the British throne now. The Queen’s title in the United Kingdom is Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, etc. etc. etc.^ ® • ^Now you have new facts about London and its connection with the royai family. Can you answer these questions? 1. What palaces in London are connected with the Crown? 2. Which building is the official residence of Queen Elizabeth II? 3. Where are royal processions usually held in London? 4. How many royal parks are there in London? Can you name some of them? What can you say about them? 5. Why is it said that the Queen in Britain reigns but doesn’t rule? 6. Which of the famous British queens and kings can you name? 7. Why is King Henry VIII remembered in the country and in the whole world? Can you prove that he was a very important monarch? 8. Why was Queen Elizabeth I remembered in the history of Britain? 9. What do you know about Queen Victoria’s family life? 10. What places in London are connected with Queen Victoria? 11. Why do some people call Queen Victoria’s reign the “golden age” in the history of Britain? 12. What do you know about the British royal family of nowadays? Prepare the marked paragraph for test reading (@35, ex. 19). 5^ - LET US TALK & w Speak about: 1) royal palaces in London; 2) royal parks in London; 3) King Henry VIII; 4) Queen Elizabeth I; 5) Queen Victoria. * by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, etc. etc. etc. — милостью Божией Королева Соединённого Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии и её других владений и территорий, глава Содружества наций, защитница Веры и пр., и пр., и пр. Ш I Look through the brief information about Queen Elizabeth II and speak about her. Father: the Duke‘ [dju:k] of York, later King George VI. Mother: Mary, the duchess^ ['dvtjis] of York. RLIZABFTFI: Child ’ • Born in Windsor on 21 April 1926. • Full name: Elizabeth-Mary-Alexander Windsor. • Pet name: Lilibet. • Educated at home, taught to read and write by her parents, studied Latin, Geography, Economics, Music. • Knew foreign languages, spoke French well. • Good at horse-riding, dancing, swimming; took part in swimming competitions. • Lived in Windsor and Buckingham Palace with her parents. Young Lady • Made her first speech on the radio in 1940 during the war. • Wanted to help the army: grew vegetables and knitted^ socks for soldiers. • Learned to drive. • Mhrried Prince Philip in 1947. • Prince Charles (first son) was born in 1948. Young Queen • Came to the throne in 1952. • Was crowned in Westminster Abbey in London on 2 June 1953. • Made her first Christmas speech to the nation in 1957 (now this speech is traditional). Now • Plays an important role in the country. • Travels a lot. • Has four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, Prince Edward. • Likes reading, taking pictures, watching horse races. • Has five official residences in Britain, Buckingham Palace in London and Windsor Castle near London among them. a) Look at the family tree of the Windsors and say how the members of the family are related. (Numbers show order of succession to the Crown•.'*) Example: Zara Phillips is the Queen’s granddaughter. * a duke — герцог ^ a duchess — герцогиня ® to knit [nit] — вязать ■* order of succession to the Crown • порядок наследования престола Elizabeth. George V1 The Queen Mother 1895-1952 1900-2002 Prince Elizabeth I Phillip The Queen Princess Antony Margaret Armst rong-Jones 1926 1930-2002 Ш30 m-m Ь>Ф Шф Princess Vice-Admiral Prince Anne Timothy Laurence Andrew 19Г)0 1955 I960 Prince Edward 1964 Sophie Rhys-Jones 1965 Autumn Kelly Zara Phillips Ladv Louise 1978 1981 I 2003 Prince William 1982 Kate Middleton 1982 Prince Harry 1984 Savannah Phillips 2010 Isia Phillips 2012 Princess Beatrice 1988 Princess Eugenie 1990 1. Prince Henry is Lady Diana’s ... 2. Princess Anne is the Queen Mother’s ... 3. Princess Margaret is the Queen Mother’s ... 4. The Queen is Princess Anne’s ... 5. Prince William is Prince Philip’s ... 6. The Queen is Princess Margaret’s ... 7. Prince Henry is Princess Beatrice’s Г.. 8. Prince Andrew is Prince Edward’s ... b) Ask your friends questions about the royal family, find out: — how many members there are in the Windsor family; — if all her children are married; — who they are married to; — how many grandchildren the Queen has got; I — who the Queen is married to; — if the Queen has any brothers or sisters; — who the Queen’s eldest child is; — who the youngest child is; — who Prince William and Prince Henry’s parents are; — who can be the next monarch after Queen Elizabeth. c) Speak about the royal family today, use the questions of section b) as a plan. Look at the map of London, find the places connected with the royal family, say what you know about them. i i Ш I I Look through ex. 23 and tell your friends about Queen Elizabeth’s parents. Choose a partner and make up a dialogue about presents you get and give. Mention: — when you get/give presents; — what you usually get/give; — who gives you presents; — where you buy presents; — for whom you buy/to whom you give your presents; what presents you can make yourself; jKv:-. i|^ what was the best/the most unusual/the biggest/the nicest present you have ever got; what present you’d like to get for Christmas. LET US WRITE Ф Do ex. 7, ex. 8, ex. 10, ex. 15, ex. 24 (b) in writing. Express the same in English. a) 1. Какая красивая процессия! Люди такие счастливые, их одежда такая яркая! 2. Как прекрасен этот мир! 3. Мой старший брат такой умный и добрый! 4. Какая чудесная сегодня погода! Небо такое голубое! А солнышко такое тёплое! 5. Как скучен этот фильм, он такой длинный. Я не люблю такие фильмы. 6. Какой широкий проспект и как он зелен! b) 1. Какой дворец является официальной резиденцией королевы? 2. Где расположен Лондонский зоопарк? 3. Кто правил Англией в конце XVI века? 4. Почему король Генрих VIII был одним из выдающихся (important) монархов Британии? 5. Чьё правление было самым долгим в истории Англии? 6. Когда была побеждена Испанская армада? 7. Какой музей в Лондоне связан с именами королевы Виктории и принца Альберта? 8. Когда королева Елизавета II взошла на престол (соте to the throne)? 9. Какие места в Лондоне напоминают нам о королевской семье? 10. Королева Елизавета II — праправнучка королевы Виктории, не так ли? ш Ш ш ш ш ■'М т т т ■ - •Mvv - - * % ♦чЛ Write answers to the questions of ex. 29 (b). SEjiW Э) Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them. Ask your parent, relative or friend to dictate the words to you in Russian. Practise writing them in English. m ♦ • ♦w m Ш official, a ceremony, a residence, an avenue, a procession, public, a character, a monarch, politics, control, a throne, a tragedy, classical, an empire, to own, a crown/to crown, a reign/ to reign, a defeat/to defeat, to remind, touching, a reason b) Write the quiz. How many words did you write correctly? Are you pleased with your result? Ш m m . аТЛЛ Ш Ш m LET US LISTEN AND DISCUSS Listen to the recording, 036. Put these sentences in the right order. „ 1. Paul was going to stay in the Royal Hotel. 2. Ian advised Paul to visit the British Museum and the Tower of London. 3. Paul admired the procession walking along the Mall. 4. Paul followed the taxi in his car. 5. Paul decided to visit London. 6. Paul stopped a taxi. 7. Paul couldn’t find his hotel. Imagine that you are Paul, a businessman from France. Tell your friend Ian about your visit to London. VOCABULARY adj — adjective — прилагательное adv — adverb — наречие conj — conjunction — союз n — noun — существительное pi — plural — множественное число abbey ['aebi] аббатство above [э'Ьлу] prep над above zero выше нуля accent 5 ['aeksant] акцент accept [sk'sept] принимать to accept the invitation принимать приглашение according [a'koidiq] prep согласно, соответственно accident ['aeksident] происшествие, несчастный случай across [a'kros] 1. adv через 2. prep через action ['aek/n] действие activity [ak'tiviti] деятельность, активность add [aed] добавлять, прибавлять admire 8 [ad'maia] восхищаться advice [sd'vais] совет advise [ad'vaiz] советовать afraid [s'freid] испуганный to be afraid of sb/sth бояться кого-то/чего-то Africa ['жГпкэ] Африка African [эеГпкэп] африканский after ['(гЛэ] после, потом agree [э'дп:] соглашаться airmail ['eameil] авиапочта Alaska [aiasska] Аляска alien ['eiljian] чужестранец, иноземец; инопланетянин all [э:1] ргоп весь all in all ['з:1 in 'э:1] в целом allow [э'1аи] позволять to be allowed to do sth получить разрешение сделать что-л. prep — preposition — предлог ргоп — pronoun — местоимение sb — somebody sth — something V — verb — глагол already [ad'redi] уже America [э'тепкэ] Америка Central America Центральная Америка North America Северная Америка South America Южная Америка American [э'тепкэп] американский among [а'тло] prep среди, между amount [э'шаиш] количество ancient ['ein/ant] древний anorak ['аепэгаек] тёплая куртка с капюшоном answer ['шп8э] л ответ; и отвечать Antarctic [asn'toiktik] Антарктика appear [э'р|э] появляться applaud [a'pbid] аплодировать applause [s'ploiz] аплодисменты Arctic Ocean, the [,o:ktik ‘sufn] Северный Ледовитый океан area ['еэпэ] площадь, пространство aristocrat ['aenstakraet] аристократ armed forces [,a;md Toisiz] вооружённые силы arrival [a'raivl] прибытие arrive at/in [a'raiv] прибывать в article ['oitikl] I. статья 2. артикль Asia ['eija] Азия ask [ask] спращивать, просить, приглашать to ask for sth просить что-то Atlantic Ocean, the [at.laentik 'sufn] Атлантический океан attract 8 [a'traekt] привлекать attractive 8 [a'traektiv] привлекательный audience [bidians] аудитория, зрители Australia [o'streilis] Австралия . « « < Ш ■ Ш Ш :0i Ш Ш Ш •wJ m 8-Афанасьева, e КЛ. Ч.1 ш т т т т Ш Р Ш: 1 т ш wW. 1г« • • • ш ►V.V.- ш; ш ш ►Mv Ш: 1 1 Ы«- ш automobile ['э:1этэЫ:1] автомобиль avenue 9 ['asvanju:] проспект В baker ['beika] булочник at the baker’s в булочной bank 10 [Ьаег)к] берег (реки) bar [bo:] кусок, брусок а bar of chocolate плитка шоколада, шоколадный батончик barometer 1 [Ьэ'готИэ] барометр basic ['beisik] основной, главный basic course основной курс battle [’basil] битва, сражение beauty [’bju:ti] красота, красавица bee [bi:] пчела belong to sb/sth [bi'lor)] принадлежать кому-то/чему-то below [bi'bo] ado внизу, ниже Berlin [Ьз:'1ш] Берлин besides [bi'saidz] adv кроме того between [bi'twkn] adv между birth [Ьз;0] рождение date of birth дата рождения birthplace (place of birth) 8 место рождения bit^(a bit) 5 [bit] немного, чуть-чуть a little bit немного bitter [’bits] adj горький bitter adv очень It’s bitter cold! Ужасно холодно! blossom [’blosam] цвет, цветок to be in blossom быть в цвету blow [Ь1эи] (blew; blown) дуть board [ba:d] борт on board the ship на борту корабля boat [bsut] лодка, корабль to go boating кататься на лодке bonfire ['bDn,faia] большой костёр bonny [’bnni] красивый book [buk] n книга; v бронировать, заказывать boring [’Ьэ:по] скучный both [Ьэи0] оба bottle [’bml] бутылка bowl [baul] миска, глубокая тарелка branch [brarntj] ветка, ветвь brave [breiv] храбрый bravery [’breivari] храбрость break [breik] (broke; broken) ломать, разбивать to break a law нарушать закон breathe [bri:d] дышать to breathe in/out вдыхать/выды-хать breeze [bri:z] лёгкий ветерок, бриз bright [brait] яркий brush up ['Ьгл/ ’лр] освежать в памяти bucket [’bAkit] ведро burn [Ьз:п] (burnt; burnt) гореть bury [’ben] (buried) хоронить busy [’bizi] 1. занятой 2. оживлённый a busy town многолюдный, шумный город butcher ['butja] мяснрк at the butcher’s в мясном магазине (отделе) California [,к8е1|'Гэ:п1э] Калифорния calm 1 [ka;m] тихий, спокойный сап 5 [кжп] п консервная банка; V консервировать Canada [’kiensds] Канада canal [кэ'пгЫ] канал Canberra [’каепЬэгэ] Канберра capital [’kaepitl] столица cardboard 3 [’koidboid] картон care [кеэ] забота to take care of sb/sth заботиться о ком-л./чём-л. careful [’kesful] осторожный, внимательный, тщательный carefully [’keafuli] осторожно, внимательно, тщательно careless [’kealis] беспечный, неосторожный carelessly ['kealislij неосторожно carry [’kieri] носить carry mail перевозить почту castle [‘ka;sl] замок cause 4 [ko:z] быть причиной, вызывать caviar(e) [’kaevict] икра Celt [kelt] кельт Celtic [’keltik] кельтский celebrate [’selibreit] праздновать celebration [.seli'breijn] празднование century [’sentfari] век ceremony 9 ['senmsni] церемония certain [’s3:tn] определённый, некоторый certainly [’s3:tnli] adv конечно change [tjeincfe] 1. (из)меняться 2. менять changeable 1 [1[ешфэЬ1] непостоянный, изменчивый character 9 [’kaenkts] герой (книги, фильма ) cheap [tji:p] дешёвый check (up) ['tjek ’лр] проверять check in ['tJek ’in] n регистрация; v регистрироваться cheetah [’tfiits] гепард I chemist ['kemist] аптекарь at the chemist’s в аптеке chest [tjest] грудная клетка Chicago [fi'koigao] Чикаго chicken (chick) ['tjikin] цыплёнок China ['t/ашэ] Китай choice [tjDis] выбор choose [tjirz] (chose; chosen) выбирать Christian ['knstisn] христианин Christmas ['krismas] Рождество circle ['s3:kl] обводить кругом circus ['s3:kas] n цирк; adj цирковой classical 9 ['klaesikl] классический clear 5 [klia] adj ясный; v чистить, расчищать climate ['klaimit] климат climatic 2 [klai'maetik] климатический climb [klaim] залезать, взбираться close [klaoz] закрывать cloud [klaud] облако coast 2 [kaust] побережье coffee ['knfi] кофе coffee maker 10 кофеварка coin [kain] монета colonist ['knlanist] колонист, житель колонии colony ['knlani] колония colour ['кл1э] цвет coloured ['kAlad] раскрашенный, цветной colourful ['кл1а,Л] красочный, яркий comfortable ['kAmfatabI] удобный common ['knman] обычный commonly ['knmanli] обычно least/most commonly used наиме-нее/наиболее часто используемое company ['клтраш] компания compare [kam'pea] сравнивать, сравнить compass ['клтраз] компас complete [kam'plit] заканчивать compound ['knmpaund] сложное слово conference ['knnfarans] конференция connect [ka'nekt] соединять, связывать conservative [kan'sxvstiv] консервативный consist (of) [kan'sist] состоять (из) consonant [’knnsanant] согласная consult [ksn'sAlt] консультировать continent ['knntinsnt] континент continental [,knnti'nentl] относящийся к материку continue [kan'tinju;] продолжать control 9 [kan'traul] n контроль; v контролировать convenient [kan'viinjant] удобный conversation [.konva'seijh] беседа cook [kuk] готовить cool [ku:l] прохладный, свежий cooperation 5 [каи.прз'гефп] сотрудничество, кооперация corresponding [,kDn'spDndir)] соответствующий cost [kost] (cost; cost) стоить countable ['kauntabi] исчисляемое country ['клШп] 1. страна 2. деревня, сельская местность in the country за городом court [ka:t] суд cover ['клуа] n обложка, покрытие; V покрывать creature 3 ['kridja] создание, живое существо crisis 5 ['kraisis] кризис crocodile ['krokadail] крокодил crow [krau] ворона crown 9 [kraun] n корона; v короновать cuckoo ['kuku;] кукушка culture [’kAltJa] культура cure 3 [kjua] вылечить, излечивать custom ['kAstam] обычай customs ['kAstamz] таможня at the customs на таможне customs officer таможенник cut [kAt] (cut; cut) резать cut down срубать daffodil ['deefadd] нарцисс daily 1 ['deili] ежедневный dairy ['dean] молочный dairy products ['dean 'prodAkts] молочные продукты damage 3 ['daemic^] повреждать dandelion ['dsendilaian] одуванчик danger ['deincfea] опасность dangerous ['dein^aras] опасный daughter ['data] дочь day [del] день the day before yesterday позавчера day off выходной день the other day на днях dead [ded] мёртвый deep [di:p] глубокий defeat 9 [di'fi;t] n поражение; v побеждать, разбивать definite ['definit] определённый definitely ['definitli] определённо delay [di'lei] n задержка; v задержи-вать(ся), опаздывать delight [di'lait] восторг democratic [,dema'krxtik] демократиче- Щ m ■•I :*~4 W I •%v •tv •У1* 1 m i m m m m - ♦ ♦V V WV т т viv Ш Й*М*.‘ v*v.- Ш: V.V.- 5r*v-; w !*;*л :*:V »*!•:• ■ ш . Ш: 1ГФ^Ф • * 1 т. ш ш т i т т ш denote [di'naut] обозначать department [di'pcrtmant] отдел department store [di'patmant sto:] универмаг departure [di'partja] отправление dessert [di'z3:t] десерт destroy 3 [di'stroi] разрушать destruction 4 [di'etrAk/n] разрушение, уничтожение detailed ['diiteild] детальный develop [di'vebp] развивать devoted to sb [di'vautid] преданный кому-л. dictionary ['dikfanri] словарь differ ['difa] отличаться difference ['difrans] отличие different ['difrant] различный dime [daim] монета в 10 центов disagree [,disa'gri:] не соглашаться disappear [,disa'pia] исчезать disaster 5 [di'zasta] бедствие, несчастье discover [dis'kAva] открывать discuss [di'skAs] обсуждать dislike [dis'laik] не любить divide [di'vaid] делить documentary [,dBkju'mentari] документальный dolfAiin ['dolfin] дельфин doubt [daut] сомнение dove [dAv] голубка drama ['dra;ma] драма dress circle [,dres 's3:kl] бельэтаж dressmaker ['dres.meika] портной, портниха (женской одежды) dull [dAl] скучный dump 4 [dAmp] n свалка; и выбрасывать на свалку duty ['dju;ti] долг, обязанность east [i:st] восток eat [i:t] (ate; eaten) есть to eat in/out есть дома/вне дома (в кафе, ресторане и т.д.) ecology [I'knlacfei] экология education [,edju:'keijn] образование effect 2 [I'fekt] эффект, воздействие elbow ['е1Ьэи] локоть elect [I'lekl] избирать, выбирать electricity [,ilek'tnsiti] электричество emblem ['embbm] эмблема emperor ['етрэгэ] император empire 9 ['етратэ] империя endanger 3 [in'demdss] подвергать опасности energy 5 ['епэф] энергия, сила enjoy [m'cfeoi] получать удовольствие enough [I'nAf] достаточно enumerate [I'njuimareit] пронумеровать, перечислить environment 4 [inVaiaranmant] окружающая среда environmental 4 [т,уа1эгэп'тзп11] относящийся к окрунщющей среде especially [I'spejali] особенно Europe ['jusrsp] Европа European []иэгэ'р1:эп] европейский excite 8 [ik'sait] волновать excited 8 [ik'saitid] взволнованный exciting 8 [ik'saitir)] волнующий exhibition [.eksibi/n] выставка exist [ig'zist] существовать expect [ik'spekt] ожидать expensive [ik'spensiv] дорогой, дорогостоящий exploration [,ekspb'reifn] исследование explore [ik'splo:] исследовать express [ik'spres] выражать extinct 3 [ik'stigkt] вымерший extra ['ekstrs] дополнительный factory [Taektan] фабрика fall [Гэ:1] (fell; fallen) падать false [foils] неверный famous for sth ['feimas] известный чем-то far [foi] далёкий not far from недалеко от the Far East Дальний Восток farm [fam] n ферма; v обрабатывать землю fat [fet] толстый, жирный fawn [fan] оленёнок feel [fill] (felt; felt) чувствовать to feel bad чувствовать себя плохо to feel like doing sth иметь желание что-то сделать fence [fens] изгородь, забор festival ['festival] фестиваль field [fiild] 1. поле 2. отрасль filter 4 ['filta] фильтр find [faind] (found; found) найти find out найти; выяснить fir tree ['fs: 'trii] ель flat 8 [fleet] плоский flour [Паиэ] мука fog [fng] туман foggy ['fbgi] туманный folk [fauk] народный follow ['fnlau] следовать following ['fnlauir)] следующий fond [fond] любящий to be fond of sth/sb любить что-то/кого-то to be fond of doing sth любить делать что-то foolish ['fiiilij] глупый forecast 1 [fakoist] n прогноз (погоды); V (forecast; forecast/forecasted; forecasted) предсказывать погоду, прогнозировать foreign [Твпп] иностранный former [Тэ:тэ] бывший found [faund] основывать founded [Taundid] основанный to be founded быть основанным fountain [fauntin] фонтан fragile 2 [Traecfeail] хрупкий, слабый France [froins] Франция free [fri:] свободный, бесплатный freeze [fri:z] (froze; frozen) замёрзнуть, заморозить It’s freezing! Морозит! frequently [Triikwantlr] часто fresh [frej] свежий frog [frog] лягушка fruit [frat] фрукт, фрукты fry [frai] жарить fuel ['fjuial] топливо, горючее Gaelic ['geilik] гаэльский (язык) gallery ['gselari] 1. галерея 2. балкон, галёрка gas [ga;s] газ general ['фепэгэ!] генерал gentleman ['(fcentiman] джентельмен Germany ['(fesrmani] Германия get [get] (got; got) получать, доставать get away удрать, исчезнуть get down to work приняться за работу get in/out входить/выходить get along on with sb ладить c кем-л. get into a car сесть в машину get out of a car выйти из машины get over преодолевать get on a train (bus) сесть на поезд (автобус) get off a train (bus) сойти c поезда (автобуса) get up вставать get ready приготовиться get together собираться ghost [gaust] призрак, привидение giant ['(feaiant] n великан; adj гигантский give [giv] (gave; given) давать give away отдавать, дарить give back возвращать give a call to sb звонить кому-л. give out раздавать give up 1. отказаться; бросить, перестать заниматься 2. сдаться global 5 ['д!эиЫ] мировой, всемирный go [дэи] (went; gone) идти, ехать to go in for sports заниматься спортом to go on telling sth продолжать рассказывать что-л. grass [gra:s] трава grassland ['graslaend] пастбище great [greit] 1. великий 2. потрясающий, отличный greengrocer ['gri:n,gr3us3] зеленщик, продавец отдела «овощи-фрукты» at the greengrocer’s в магазине (отделе) «овощи-фрукты» greenhouse 2 ['griinhaus] теплица, парник greenhouse effect 2 ['griinhaus ,ifekt] парниковый эффект greetings ['griitir)] приветствие greetings card поздравительная открытка grocer ['grauss] бакалейщик at the grocer’s в бакалейном отделе grow [дгэи] (grew; grown) расти guarantee [.gaersn'tii] гарантировать, ручаться guess [ges] догадываться H_______________________ habitat 3 ['hrebitaet] среда обитания Halloween [.heelsu'iin] канун Дня всех святых hang [haeg] (hung, hung) вешать hardly ['hoidli] adv едва, почти hardly ever ['hoidli 'ev3] adv очень редко, почти никогда harm [holm] вред to do (a lot of) harm причинять (много) вреда harvest ['hoivist] урожай, сбор урожая hate [heit] п ненависть; v ненавидеть haughty ['hati] надменный, высокомерный have/have [haev] got (has/has [haez] got) иметь headline ['bedlam] заголовок hear [hi3] (heard; heard) слышать heat 2 [hiit] жара hedge 8 [hedi] (живая) изгородь ш 1 1 т V*V- . ш I vJv.. w*v. m Ш: %vX*. 1ГФ ♦ ‘ Ш viv.* vX**-. Ш; m 1 4vX* s*>.*.*. Cv.'. Ш 5%v 5v.‘ 5%v ?Xv: 1 ■ 5v.v. hemisphere ['hemi,sfia] полушарие hide [haid] (hid; hidden) прятать(ся) high [hai] adj высокий; adv высоко highlands 8 ['haibndz] нагорье; горная, высокогорная местность hill [hil] холм hold [hauld] (held; held) держать hole [haul] нора; яма holiday ['hnladei] 1. праздник 2. каникулы, отпуск holidaymaker 8 ['hDladi,meik3] турист, отдыхающий holly [’holi] остролист honest ['onist] честный honey ['Нлш] мёд Hoorah! 5 [hu'rei] Ура! hop [hop] хмель hope [haop] надеяться horn [ho:n] рог, рожок horror ['hnra] ужас horse [hD:s] лошадь huge 2 [hju;cfe] огромный, гигантский human 2 ['hju:man] n человек; adj человеческий humble ['ЬлтЫ] скромный, застенчивый, робкий humorist ['hjuimanst] юморист hupdred ['hAndrad] сто hurt [had] (hurt; hurt) 1. болеть 2. причинять боль I ice [ais] лёд Iceland ['aisiand] Исландия imagination [i,maec^i'neijn] воображение imagine [I'maecfein] представить, вообразить immediately [I'mudiatli] немедленно impossible [im'posabl] невозможный include [m'ldu:d] включать incomplete [,inkam'pii:t] неполный indefinite [in'defanit] неопределённый independence (from sb.) [,indi'pendans] независимость (от кого л.) independent [,indi'pendant] независимый India ['india] Индия Indian Ocean, the [,Indian 'aujn] Индийский океан industrial [in'dAStnal] промышленный industry ['indAStn] промышленность inexpressive ['inik'spresiv] невыразительный influence 2 ['influans] n влияние; V влиять на кого-л. to have an influence on sb оказы- вать влияние на кого-л. informal [шТэ:тз1] неофициальный information [,infa'meijn] сведения inhospitable [m'hnspitabl] негостеприимный insect 3 ['insekt] насекомое instead [in'sted] adv вместо чего-л. international 5 [.inta'nsejnai] международный interval ['intavl] интервал invent [inVent] изобретать invitation [iinyiteijn] приглашение invite [inVait] приглашать Ireland ['aialand] Ирландия Irish [’aianj] ирландский irregular [I'regjula] неправильный Italy ['itali] Италия jacket ['фжкп] куртка, жакет jeans [ф:п2] джинсы job [фпЬ] работа joke [фэик] шутка journey ['d}3:ni] путешествие to go on a journey отправиться в путешествие just [cfeASt] adj 1. только что 2. как раз keep [ki:p] (kept; kept) держать, содержать to keep late hours поздно ложиться спать kill [kii] убивать king [kiQ] король kingdom ['kipdam] королевство knife [naif] {pi knives [narvz]) нож (ножи) knock [nok] стучать knowledge ['поЬф] знание, знания lake [leik] озеро land [laend] n земля, суша; v приставать к берегу, приземляться language ['laeqgwic];] язык last [last] adj последний; v длиться late [leit] поздний to be late (for) опаздывать (на) lately ['leitb] недавно, за последнее время laugh (at) [laf] смеяться (над) lawmaker ['b:,meika] законодатель lawn [b:n] лужайка lawyer ['iaja] юрист, адвокат ( lazy ['leizi] ленивый lead [li:d] (led; led) вести, руководить least (the least) [li:st] наименьший least evil наименьшее зло lecture [iektja] лекция leek [li:k] лук-порей legend ['ledjand] легенда length [leo0] длина lengthen ['lepGan] удлинять leopard [iepad] леопард let [let] (let, let) позволять to let sb do sth позволить кому-то сделать что-л. liberty [iibati] свобода Liberty Island остров Свободы The Statue of Liberty Статуя Свободы lick [Ilk] лизать, облизывать lie [lai] I (lay, lain) лежать lie II [lai] n ложь; (lied; lying) и лгать, говорить неправду to tell a lie солгать, говорить неправду life [laif] (pi lives [laivz]) жизнь (жизни) line [lain] 1. линия 2. направление (о транспорте); v обрамлять lip [lip] губа list [list] список litter ['1пэ] мусор loaf [buf] (pi loaves [buvz]) буханка (буханки) a loaf of bread буханка хлеба local ['bukl] местный, ближайший к дому logical [’loifeikl] логический to look for искать to look like выглядеть как кто-то или что-то to look through просматривать to look up in sth посмотреть что-л. (в словаре) lord [b:d] лорд The House of Lords палата лордов (в британском парламенте) Los Angeles [lDs'aenct53li:z] Лос-Анджелес lose [lu:z] (lost; lost) терять to be (get) lost потеряться, заблудиться lowlands 8 ['bubndz] низменность lucky [Vki] везучий, удачливый lung [Up] лёгкое lynx [lipks] рысь jyi________________________________ magic ['mascfeik] волшебный mail [meil] почта mainland ['meinbnd] материк majesty ['maecfeisti] величие His/Her Majesty! Его/Её величество! major ['те1(];э] майор mark [mcuk] оценка married ['maerid] женатый, замужняя to be/get married to sb состоять в браке/вступать в брак с кем-л. marry ['maeri] жениться (на ком-то), выходить замуж (за кого-то) material [ma'tisrial] материал meadow 8 ['medau] луг meaning ['mknir)] значение means (of transport) [mi;nz] средства (передвижения) medicine ['medsin] 1. медицина (неис-числ.) 2. лекарство (исчисл.) member ['тетЬэ] член memorial [mi'manal] мемориал memory ['memari] память merry ['men] весёлый mess 5 [mes] беспорядок, путаница message ['mesids] устное сообщение metal ['metl] металл mild [maild] мягкий militiaman [mi'lijaman] милиционер million ['miljsn] миллион millionaire [milja'nea] миллионер mineral ['minaral] минерал ministry ['mmistri] министерство miss sb [mis] 1. скучать no кому-л. 2. пропустить, опоздать Miss [mis] мисс (незамужняя женщина) Mississippi, the [,misi'sipi] Миссисипи (река) mist 1 [mist] туман, дымка misty 1 ['misti] туманный mix [miks] мешать, смешивать mixed [mikst] смешанный moment ['maumant] мгновение monarch 9 ['mnnak] монарх monument to sb ['monjumant] памятник кому-л. motherland ['mAdalsnd] родина, отчизна mother tongue [.тлда 'tAp] родной язык mountain ['mauntm] гора Mr ['mista] господин Mrs ['misiz] госпожа (замужняя женщина) Ms [miz] госпожа museum [mju:'zi:am] музей music ['mjuizik] музыка musical ['mju:zikl] adj музыкальный; n музыкальный фильм ■ m f ■ V ►♦♦V- К*Г‘ ■ vK%' i m wl*. vX*. W • W. - Ш: Ш V.V.' m m m m mysterious [mi'stianas] таинственный mystery ['mistan] тайна 1У narrator [na'reita] рассказчик nasty ['ncrsti] отвратительный nation ['neijn] нация national ['naejnal] национальный nationality [.naeja'naeliti] национгиль-ность native ['neitiv] adj коренной, родной; n коренной житель natural ['nst/ral] естественный nature ['neitja] природа necessary ['nesasari] необходимый neighbour ['neiba] сосед nephew ['nevju:] племянник New York [,nju: 'ja:k] Нью-Йорк New Zealand [nju: 'zi:land] Новая Зеландия nickel ['nikl] монета в пять центов nickname ['nikneim] прозвище nod [nnd] n кивок; v кивать головой noise [naiz] шум noisy i'naizi] шумный noifnal ['na:mal] нормальный north [na:0] север northeast [,na:0'i:st] северо-восток nortwest [,na:0Svest] северо-запад note [nairt] заметка nothing ['ПЛ01Г)] ничто, ничего nowadays [naua'deiz] в настоящее время nuclear 4 ['nju:klia] ядерный nuclear weapons 4 ['nju:klia 'wepanz] ядерное оружие oak [auk] дуб obligation [,Dbli'geiJn] обязательство occasionally [a'kei3nali] время от времени occupation [,Dkju'peiJn] занятие, профессия ocean ['au/n] океан offend [a'fend] обижать offer ['ofa] предлагать office ['nfisj офис, учреждение, кабинет official 9 [a'fi/ai] adJ официальный; n государственный служащий oil [ail] 1. растительное масло 2. нефть only ['aunli] только opera ['opra] опера operetta [.opa'rata] оперетта opinion [a'pinjan] мнение orange ['orincfe] n апельсин; adj оранжевый orange juice апельсиновый сок order ['a:da] порядок origin ['впфш] происхождение ostrich ['ostritf] страус other ['лба] другой, другие the other day на днях the other way round наоборот ought (to) [art] быть должным, обязанным outline ['autlain] план (рассказа) outloud ['autlaud] adv вслух own 9 [aun] adj собственный; v владеть ozone 4 ['auzaun] n озон; adj озоновый Pacific Ocean, the [pa.sifik 'aujn] Тихий океан packet ['ptekii] пакет, пачка paint [peint] n краска; t> рисовать красками painting ['peintio] картина pajamas (pyjamas) [pa'd5a:maz] пижама palace ['paelis] дворец panther ['psen0a] пантера paper ['peipa] I. бумага 2. газета papers ['peipaz] 1. газеты, журналы 2. документы parliament ['porlsmant] парламент pass [pars] передавать passenger ['рх8шфэ] пассажир pay [pel] (for sth) (paid; paid) платить (за что-л.) perform [рзТэгт] представлять, играть performance [pa'formans] представление, спектакль performer [рэТэгтэ] исполнитель periodical [,pi3ri'Ddikl] периодическое издание (журнал, газета и т.д.) permanent ['psrmanant] постоянный person ['psrsn] человек, личность personal ['рзг8пэ1] личный personally 5 ['psrsnsli] лично, сам petal ['petl] лепесток phrase [freiz] фраза picnicker 5 ['pikniks] участник пикника piece [pirs] кусок, часть pigeon ['pidsin] голубь pile 5 [pail] n куча, груда; и сваливать в кучу ш pirate 5 ['paisrst] пират plain 8 [plein] равнина plantation [plsen'teijn] плантация planter ['plornta] плантатор pleasant ['piezsnt] приятный pleasure ['р1езэ] удовольствие poem ['pauim] стихотворение, поэма poison 4 ['poizn] n яд; v отравлять polite [ps'Iait] вежливый politician [.pnli'tijn] политик politics 9 ['pnlitiks] политика pollute 4 [pa'lurt] загрязнять pollution 4 [ps'lurjn] загрязнение population 4 ['pDpju'leiJn] население portrait ['portntj портрет position 8 [pa'zijn] положение, позиция possible ['pnsibl] возможный post office ['paust ,ofis] почта pound [paund] 1. фунт (единица веса, 450 г) 2. фунт стерлингов (английская денежная единица) power ['раиэ] власть, сила practise (in) ['praektis] практиковаться (в) praise 5 [preiz] п похвала; v хвалить president ['prezidant] президент pretend [pn'tend] притворяться pretty ['priti] adj хорошенький; adv весьма previous ['privias] предыдущий price [prais] цена prince [prins] принц, князь princess [prin'ses] принцесса prize [praiz] приз probably ['probabli] возможно problem ['probbm] проблема procession 9 [pra'se/n] процессия produce 2 [prs'djurs] производить profession [pra'fejn] профессия professor [pra'fess] профессор progressive [pra'gresiv] прогрессивный promise ['promis] обещать pronunciation [pra,nAnsi'eiJn] произношение proper ['ргорэ] соответствующий protect [pra'tekt] защищать prove [pru:v] доказывать proverb ['prov3:b] пословица public 9 ['рлЬЬк] n публика; adj общественный punish [ рлтЛ наказывать punishment ['pAniJmant] наказание pure [pjua] чистый purple ['рз:р1] фиолетовый put [put] (put; put) класть put down записывать put on надевать qualification [.kwulifi'keij'n] квалификация quarrel ['kwnrsl] v ссориться; n ссора quarter ['kwDita] 1. четверть 2. монета в 25 центов queen [kwi:n] королева quiet ['kwaist] спокойный, тихий quiz [kwiz] 1. викторина; 2. проверочная работа spelling quiz словарный диктант quotation [kwau'tei/n] цитата quote [kw9ut] цитировать radiation 4 [.reidi'eifn] радиация, излучение radio [Veidiau] радио rain [rein] n дождь; v идти (о дожде) It often rains here. Здесь часто идёт дождь. It is raining hard now. Сейчас идёт сильный дождь, rainbow ['гешЬэи] радуга raincoat [Veinksut] дождевик, плащ rainforest ['reinforist] тропический лес rainstorm 1 ['reinsto:m] ливень rainy ['reini] дождливый raven ['reivn] ворон react [ri'aekt] реагировать reason 9 ['ri:zn] причина receive [n'skv] 1. получать 2. принимать (гостей, посетителей ) recently ['ri:sntli] недавно recognize ['rekagnaiz] узнавать recover [п'клуэ] поправиться refer [п'Гз;] относить, отсылать reference material ['refrans ma'tisnal] справочный материал referring (to) [пТз:пг)] относящийся (к) refuse [n'Qu:z] отказывать(ся) region ['п:фэп] регион regularly [Vegjulali] регулярно reign 9 [rein] n царствование; и царствовать relation [n'leijn] родственник relative ['relativ] родственник relax [n'laeks] расслабляться, отдыхать relaxation [,ri:lask'seifn] расслабление, отдых remember [n'memba] помнить remind (of) 9 [n'maind] напоминать (о) reptile 3 [Veptail] рептилия residence 9 ['rezidans] резиденция .•Iw .‘Xv ■>Xv ‘.•X*< •.♦X*4 x%< •X< >X" ‘♦X Xv .•Xv >Xv 'w%V ж •»v ••Ух Ш ♦W m jK- - ♦ - - resource 4 [ri'sois] средства, ресурсы respectable [ri'spektsbl] уважаемый rest [rest] n отдых; v отдыхать the rest of 8 остальные retell [|ri:'tel] пересказывать review [n'vju:] повторять ride [raid] (rode; ridden) ехать (на велосипеде, лошади) rise [raiz] (rose; risen) вставать, подниматься row [гэо] грести royal [’гэ1э1] королевский rubbish ['rAbiJ] мусор, бытовые отходы ruin ['ru:in] разрушать ruins [Vu;inz] руины rule 8 [ru:l] n правило; v править, управлять as a rule как правило ruler 8 ['ги:1э] 1. правитель 2. линейка saint (St.) [seint] ([snl]) святой salesman ['seilzman] продавец salty [’soilti] солёный sandals ['saendsiz] босоножки, сандалии sbndwich ['sjenwi([5] бутерброд San Francisco [.saenfran'siskau] Сан-Франциско savanna(h) 3 [ssVsens] саванна save [seiv] 1. спасать 2. экономить, откладывать scenery 8 ['siinari] декорации science ['saians] наука scientific [,sai3n'tifik] научный scientist ['saisntist] учёный Scotland ['skotbnd] Шотландия scream [skri:m] пронзительно кричать screen [skri:n] экран sculpture ['skAlptJa] скульптура seaside ['siisaid] побережье, взморье at the seaside на взморье to go to the seaside поехать на взморье seem [si:m] казаться seldom ['seldsm] adu редко selfish ['selfij] эгоистичный sense [sens] чувство a sense of humour чувство юмора sentence ['sentans] предложение separate ['separeit] отделять serious ['sianss] серьёзный seriously ['sianssli] серьёзно service ['s3:vis] служба; обслуживание set [set] (set; set) 1. накрывать (на стол) 2. садиться (о солнце ) 3. размещать to set to work приняться за работу shamrock ['Jaemmk] клевер shape 8 [feip] форма shave [ferv] бриться shock 5 [fnk] шок to be shoked быть шокированным shoe [fu:] ботинок shoemaker ['/u:,meik3] башмачник, сапожник shortage 4 ['jDditfe] недостаток, нехватка shower 1 ['Jaua] 1. душ 2. сильный дождь, ливень shy [fai] застенчивый, скромный Siberia [sai'biaria] Сибирь sick [sik] больной side [said] 1. сторона 2. бок sign [sain] n знак; v подписывать silk [silk] шёлк single ['siogi] одинокий single (ticket) ['siogi] билет в одном направлении sitting room ['sitir) гшп] гостиная situated ['sitjoeitid] расположенный to be situated располагаться situation [.sitjo'eijn] ситуация skin [skin] кожа, шкура skirt [sk3:t] юбка slave [sleiv] раб sleep [sli:p] (slept; slept) n сон; v спать to sleep in/out спать в доме/на открытом воздухе slice [slais] тонкий кусочек, ломтик slim [slim] стройный smart [smo;t] f. умный 2. нарядный smell [smel] n запах; v (smelt; smelt) пахнуть snail [sneil] улитка snow [snau] n снег; v идти (о снеге) It often snows here. Здесь часто идёт снег. It is snowing hard. Идёт сильный снег. snowdrop ['snaudrap] подснежник society 5 [sa'saiati] общество soft [soft] мягкий soft drink ['snfl dnpk] безалкогольный напиток soldier ['saulcfea] солдат solve [snlv] рещать south [sau0] ЮГ southeast [,sau0'i:st] юго-восток southwest [,sau0'west] юго-запад space [speis] 1. космос 2. пространство spaceship [‘speisjip] космический корабль Spain [spein] Испания Spanish ['spaenij] испанский species (pi species) 3 ['spi:Jl:z] 1. вид (виды) 2. биологический вид (виды) spider ['spaida] паук spoil 5 [spoil] (ис)портить spoon [spuin] ложка spy [spai] шпион square [skwea] n площадь; adj квадратный in the square на площади stage [steicfe] n сцена; v ставить спектакль на сцене on the stage на сцене stairs [steaz] лестница stalls [sto:lz] партер in the stalls в партере start [stcut] n начало; v начинать state [steit] 1. штат 2. государство statement ['steitmont] утверждение statue ['stsetju:] статуя stay [stei] 1. останавливаться 2. оставаться to stay at a hotel останавливаться в гостинице to stay in/out оставаться внутри/ снаружи to stay with sb останавливаться у кого-то stepson ['stepsAn] приёмный сын stop [stop] n остановка; v останавливаться store [sto:] магазин (большой) storm [stoim] шторм, буря a storm of applause шквал аплодисментов story ['stDTi] история, рассказ strange [streincfe] странный, незнакомый straw [stro:] n солома; adj соломенный strength [strer)0] сила strengthen [streo03n] усиливать, укреплять strike [straik] (struck, struck) 1. бить, ударять, наносить удар 2. бить (о часах) 3. поражать to strike а blow нанести удар to be struck by sth быть поражённым чем-л. stripe [straip] полоса student ['stjurdsnt] студент, учащийся suffer (from) [ЧаГэ] страдать (от) suit [sju;t] подходить, устраивать It suits me. Мне это подходит, sunflower ['5АП,Паиэ] подсолнух sunlight 2 ['sAnlait] солнечный свет sunny ['sAni] солнечный sunshine 2 ['sAn/ain] солнечный свет supermarket ['sju:pa,ma:kit] универсам surname ['saineim] фамилия surprise [sa'praiz] удивление surround [sa'raund] окружать survive [sa'vaiv] выживать swan [swnn] лебедь sweet [swi:t] adj сладкий; n конфета symbol ['simbl] символ take [teik] (took; taken) брать to take after sb быть похожим на кого-л. to take away убрать, унести прочь, увести прочь to take back отнести на место, вернуть to take down 1. снимать 2. записывать под диктовку to take а bus (train, plane) сесть на автобус (поезд, самолёт) to take off снимать; взлетать (о самолёте) to take pictures делать фотографии, фотографировать taxes ['tasksiz] налоги team [ti:m] команда telex ['teleks] телекс temperature ['tempritjb] температура term 5 [1з;т] 1. срок 2. учебная четверть, семестр test 4 [test] п испытание, тест; о испытывать, проводить испытания Thames, the [temz] Темза thistle [‘0isl] репейник, чертополох thought [0o;t] мысль thousand ['0auzand] тысяча throne 9 [0гэип] трон, престол throw [0гэи] (threw; thrown) бросать tidy ['taidi] аккуратный, опрятный tin [tAp] консервная банка a tin of meat банка мясных консервов title i'taitl] заглавие ton 4 [tAn] тонна tongue [tAi]] язык tongue-twister challenge ['tAi),twists 'tjaelincfe] попробуй произнести скороговорку tonight [ts'nait] сегодня вечером topic ['topik] тема touch 9 [tAtJ] трогать touching 9 ['tAt/iq] трогательный tourism ['tusnzm] туризм tourist ['tusrist] турист tradition [trs'di/n] традиция traditional [trs'dijnsl] традиционный traffic ['traefik] движение (уличное) tragedy 9 ['traecfesdi] трагедия transport ['traenspat] транспорт : ♦W *.v*v уШ trip [trip] поездка, короткое путешествие trouble ['ГглЫ] п беда, неприятность; v беспокоить troublemaker ['1глЫ,тс1кэ] проказник, смутьян, нарушитель спокойствия T-shirt [’ti:j3:t] футболка turtle ['t3;tl] черепаха (морская) twin [twin] близнец type [taip] печатать typist ['taipist] машинистка и ultraviolet 4 [дкгэ'уаюШ] adj ультрафиолетовый; n ультрафиолет ultraviolet radiation ультрафиолетовое излучение unbuilt [^n'bilt] непостроенный uncomfortable [An'kAmfstabl] неудобный uncooked [^n'kukt] сырой, неприготовленный (о пище) uncountable [,лп'каип19Ь1] неисчисляемый uncovered [лп'клуэб] неприкрытый, открытый undeclared [,лпб]'к1еэб] необъявленный, непровозглашённый underground ['лпбэдгаипб] метро, подземка to take the underground ехать на метро underline ['лпбэ1ат] подчёркивать underlined word подчёркнутое слово uneasy [An'iizi] нелёгкий uneducated [,An'edJukeitid] необразованный unfinished [,An'fimJt] незаконченный unfortunately [An'fb:t[3nitli] к несчастью, к сожалению unfriendly [^n'frendli] недружелюбный unhappy [An'haepi] несчастливый, несчастный unimportant [,АП1т'рэ:1эт] неважный United States of America, the (the United States), the USA (the US) [ju:,naitid ,steits av э'тепкэ], [jnes'ei] Соединённые Штаты Америки (США) university 8 [ju:ni'v3:s3ti] университет unkind [An'kaind] недобрый unknown [,Ап'пэип] неизвестный unnoticed [,An'n3utist] незамеченный unpopular [,Ап'рор]и1э] непопулярный unspoken [дп'зрэикэп] невысказанный, невыраженный untrue [,Ап'1ш:] лживый, неверный use [ju:z] использовать, употреблять used [ju:st] to do sth иметь обыкновение делать что-л. (в прошлом) е valley 8 [Vaeli] долина video [Vidiau] видео village [Vilic[5] деревня visit [Vizit] n посещение, визит; v посещать a visiting day день посещений vocabulary [va'kasbjubn] словарь, лексикон vowel [Vaual] гласная voyage [Voii^] путешествие (no воде) to go on a voyage поехать в морское путешествие w waste 4 [weist] отходы watch [wDtJ] n часы (наручные)-, V смотреть, наблюдать water ['wads] n вода; v поливать waterfall 8 [Svoitgfb:!] водопад waterway ['wo:t9wei] водный путь way [wei] 1. путь, дорога 2. способ, образ wealth [wel0] богатство wealthy ['wel0i] богатый, состоятельный weapon 4 ['wepgn] оружие weather [Sveda] погода weather forecast прогноз породы weatherman 1 [Svedamaen] синоптик west [west] запад wet [wet] сырой, мокрый whale [well] кит while [wail] пока, в то время как whisper ['wispa] п шёпот; v шептать whole [haul] целый, весь widespread ['waidspred] широко распространённый width [wid0] ширина wild [waild] дикий windy [Svindi] ветреный wing [wip] крыло wise [waiz] мудрый wish [wij] желать witch [witj] ведьма, колдунья wool [wul] n шерсть; adj шерстяной world [W3:ld] мир, свет, вселенная all over the world no всему свету worry [Sv\n] беспокоиться, мучиться young илг)] молодой the young 1. малыш; детёныш 2. молодёжь year [jia] год yellow ['jelau] жёлтый yesterday ['jestadi] вчера yet [jet] 1. ещё 2. уже zoo [zu:] зоопарк at the zoo в зоопарке ш Ш: K* ♦. CONTENTS PART 1 ROUND-UP LESSONS Unit 1 Weather............................................... 4 Text “The Weather Forecast”.......................... 13 Unit 2 Climate.............................................. 16 Text “Climate”....................................... 22 Unit 3 The Natural World.................................... 27 Text................................................. 38 Unit 4 Man and the Natural World............................ 43 Text “This Fragile Planet”........................... 52 Unit 5 Ecology.............................................. 58 Text “Clean Up the Countryside’ Society”............. 65 Unit 6 Consolidation One.................................... 70 Text “Ecology of Man”................................ 74 BASIC COURSE Great Britain Unit 7 How Much Do We Know About Britain?.............. 77 Text “Halloween Party”............................. 80 Unit 8 England............................................ 82 Text “Discover Britain: England”................... 90 Unit 9 England............................................ 96 Text “Royal London”............................... 105 VOCABULARY................................................ 113 Учебное издание Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна Михеева Ирина Владимировна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК VI класс Учебник для общеобразовательных организаций и школ с углублённым изучением английского языка с приложением на электронном носителе В двух частях Часть 1 Центр группы германских языков Руководитель Центра В. В. Копылова Зам. руководителя Н. И. Максименко Редактор Н. И. Максименко Художественный редактор Н. В. Дождёва Художники А. С. Побезинский, И. В. Караваев Технический редактор и верстальщик А. Г. Хуторовская, Н. Н. Репьева Корректор Е. Д. Светозарова Налоговая льгота — Общероссийский классификатор продукции ОК 005-93—953000. Изд. лиц. Серия ИД № 05824 от 12.09.01. Подписано в печать 20.03.13. Формат 84 х 108'/i Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура Школьная. Печать офсетная. Уч.-изд. л. 8,40. Доп. тираж 32 000 экз. Заказ №34801 (квт). Открытое акционерное общество «Издательство «Просвещение». 127521, Москва, 3-й проезд Марьиной рощи, 41. Отпечатано в филиале «Смоленский полиграфический комбинат» ОАО «Издательство «Высшая школа». 214020, Смоленск, ул. Смольянинова, 1 Тел. -1-7(4812) 31-11-96. Факс: +7(4812) 31-31-70 E-mail: [email protected] https://www.smolpk.ru Учебно-методический комплект «Английский язык» авторов О. В. Афанасьевой. И. В. Михеевой для VI класса включает; V рабочие программы (V- IX классы) у учебник (в 2 частях) с электронным приложением ABBYY Lingvo с аудиокурсом на CD V рабочую тетрадь V книгу для чтения V книгу для учителя V контрольные задания V https://prosv.ru/umk/vereshchagina