Английский язык 10 класс Рабочая тетрадь Афанасьева Михеева

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Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал п Пособие для учащихся общеобразовательных учреждений и школ с углубленным изучением английского языка Москва «Просвещение»2009 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А64 Авторы: О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева, Н. Ю. Петрова, С. В. Мичурина ISBN 978-5-09 016734-5 © Издательство «Просвещение 2009 © Художественное оформление. Издательство ♦Просвещение», 2009 Все права защищены Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Чл, Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 2 Listen to the text Leonardo da Vinci (No. 1). Choose True (a), False (b) or Not stated (c) for statements 1—6. Circle the variant you’ve chosen. 1. Leonardo da Vinci lived to be 67. a) True b) False c) Not stated 2. Leonardo’s legacy consists of a large number of completed paintings. a) True b) False c) Not stated 3. Leonardo’s interests lay exclusively in the fields of painting and engineering. a) True b) False c) Not stated 4. Leonardo’s flying machine couldn’t have flown. a) True b) False c) Not stated 5. Leonardo’s genius helped to solve some military problems too. a) True b) False c) Not stated 6. We know about Leonardo’s inventions only from the evidence of his contemporaries. a) True b) False c) Not stated 7. The Mona Lisa by Leonardo remains a riddle for those who have seen it. a) True b) False c) Not stated 8. Nobody knows who the Mona Lisa was. a) True b) False c) Not stated 9. While painting The Virgin of the Rocks, Leonardo brought his old technique to perfection. a) True b) False c) Not stated You will hear six people speaking about famous artists (No. 2). Match the pieces of information given by the speakers (1—6) and the statements in the list (A—G). Use each statement only once. There is a statement on the list you don’t need to use. Fill in the table after the task. A. Music and colour produced equally powerful effect on this painter. B. This painter preferred to create still lifes. C. This painter became rich depicting important people of Europe. D. The pictures of this Dutch painter strike viewers by precision of the details. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал E. This painter died in a road accident. F. This painter became famous for creating huge close-ups of flowers. G. This painter worked in the trend of Pointillism. Speaker 123456 Statement Read the text and fill in gaps 1—7 with phrases A—H. There is one phrase you don’t need to use. Fill in the table after the text. A. to a design by Victor Vasnetsov B. through additions from private collections and other museums C. painters of the first half of the 19th century D. who collected pictures not only by Russian E. by that time already famous F. who was the first to appreciate the new trends in Russian painting at the end of the 19th century G. who then curated the Gallery H. devoting separate rooms to the works of major Russian painters The Tretyakov Gallery The Tretyakov Gallery dates from 1856, when the young, wealthy Moscow merchant, Pavel Tretyakov, started collecting paintings. Soon it became clear that it was to be a collection of Russian art. Pavel Tretyakov acquired the very best from contemporary painters in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Such painters as Ivan Kramskoi and Ilya Repin, the critic Vladimir Stasov often took part in the selection of pictures. Thus, Tretyakov’s collection turned into a veritable centre of Russia’s artistic life. Tretyakov, 1_____ started acquiring the works of then young and still little-known artists. Later he began to buy and commission portraits of Russian cultural figures, which was highly appreciated by the Russian public. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал The collector’s brother, Sergei Tretyakov, was also a connoisseur of art 2_______ but also by French and Dutch painters. The Tretyakov brothers’ mansion in Lavrushinsky Lane had to be expanded to accommodate the two collections. Subsequently rebuilding had to be undertaken five times. The fagade of the Gallery was added to the mansion in 1902 3--------- The collection of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov was opened to the public in 1874 as a private museum and rapidly became very popular. In 1892 Pavel Tretyakov presented his collection, 4______, to the city of Moscow, but remained the Gallery’s lifelong Curator. In 1913 Igor Grabar, 5_________ insisted that the so-called carpet hanging of pictures in the order of their acquisition was replaced by the historical-chronological principle, 6______According to Grabar this work “converted a privately owned collection into a museum of European standards”. In 1917 the collection numbering over 4,000 items, was nationalised and transformed into a state museum. Gradually it was enlarged 7_______At the same time Western European paint- ings were transferred to what is today the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. The Gallery’s collection in the Soviet period increased more than tenfold. Today it is a depository of some 47,000 works of art, and the average annual number of visitors is 1,700,000. Find in the text The Tretyakov Gallery words and word combinations which mean the same as the words and phrases below. Make up your own sentences with them. 1) was started at a particular time in the past 2) bought Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 3) alive at the same time as a certain person 4) officially ask someone to do some work 5) well-known people relating to music, literature and other arts 6) someone who knows a lot about art 7) after something else happened 8) a large beautiful house 9) was changed from one system to another 10) became ten times larger 11) calculated over a period of one year Choose A, В or C to complete the sentences. ___ your aunt. You were 1. Fm sure you should apologise rather rude to her. A. for B, — C. to his 2. In my opinion he should have apologised _____________ mistake. A. about B. for C. of 3. The doctor said the painter had died ____ a heart attack. A. from B. for C. of 4. I know John has applied ____ this position but Fm not sure he has got it. A. for B. to C. about 5. What happened ______ that masterpiece of Rosie’s? A. with B. of C. to 6. Sorry, we haven’t written __________ you for such a long time. A. to B. for C. towards 7. I wouldn’t ask him _____ money even if I needed it badly. His greed is notorious. A. — B. for C. of 8. As time went _____, things improved. A. on B. through C. by 9. _____ the time Charlotte was 15, she had already achieved worldwide fame. A. By B. To C. For 10. The art school provides all the students ___ easels. A. — B. with C. for 11. The men have been arrested recently and charged __________ robbery. A. with B. for C. of Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Complete the sentences using prepositions by, for, to, of, in, with. 1, John’s face was could arrange ____ ___ shadow. 2. I’d be very grateful if you the work to be carried out. 3. There are special arrangements _____ people working overseas. 4. Michelangelo’s Pieta is a magnificent piece _____ art. 5. They achieved such results ____ sheer luck. 6. He was driven _____ greed ----- money and power. 7. Alas, they couldn’t come arrangement about the necessary expenses. 8. They listened to the narrator breathing ______ short gasps. 9. She gasped ______ pain and broke into tears. 10. The supplies of food were sent ______ the tornado victims. Complete the sentences with the phrases from the box. a) a sheer waste of time b) a note of discord c) the greatest masterpieces d) all affectation e) by arrangement f) gasps of horror g) have fallen victim h) ate greedily i) was arranged j) gasping and choking k) cast a shadow l) poverty of imagination 1. The bad news on our meeting. 2. The boy wiping the sauce on his plate with a piece of bread. 3. Many plants ____ to the sudden frost. 4. Several years ago ______ crept into their relationship. 5. As far as I know her marriage ______ by her parents. 6. They ran ___________________________________ out of the burning building. 7. Trying to get tickets for that football match was _____: they had been sold out long beforehand. 8. I detest ____, all kinds of behaviour that is not natural and is intended to impress. 9. Appointments can be made _____ with my secretary, 10. During the film there were ____ from the viewers. 11. The Birth of Venus is one of _________ of western art. 12. He’ll never be a great artist: all his works are marked by_______ Express the same in English. 1. Жадность — одно из самых неприятных человеческих качеств. 2. Собрание было назначено на дневное время в пятницу, в конференц-зале. 3. В то утро мы вышли из дома поздно, и нам просто повезло, что мы не опоздали на поезд. 4. Их мнение не повлияет на мое решение. 5. В течение многих лет Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал он жил в тени своего знаменитого отца. 6. Нищий пригородный район выглядел весьма непривлекательно. 7. Различия между богатыми и бедными нациями являются источником разногласия. 8. Он ловил ртом воздух, как будто бы быстро бежал. 9. Они были очень счастливы вместе, хотя их сосватали. 10. Жертвы землетрясения нуждаются в пище, крыше над головой и медицинской помощи. 11. Звуки были так негармоничны, что я быстро выключил радио. 12. Только после смерти Гогена (Gauguin) люди начали считать его произведения шедеврами. Express the same in English. shade — shadow A. 1. отбрасывать длинные тени; 2. в тени; 3. в тени дерева; 4. сидеть в тени стены; 5. подвинуться в тень; 6. появиться из тени; 7. искать тень для отдыха; 8. улицы, заполненные угрожающими тенями; 9. выйти из тени; 10. хорошо расти в тени piece lump B. 1. кусок торта; 2. ком глины; 3. кусочек сахара; 4. глыба льда; 5. комок в горле; 6. кусок хлеба; 7. листок бумаги; 8. разорвать на куски (на части); 9. участок земли; 10. легче легкого, пара пустяков victim — sacrifice C. 1. жертва автомобильной аварии; 2. пожертвования языческим богам; 3. принести в жертву карьеру; 4. многим пожертвовать ради детей; 5, жертвуя здоровьем; 6. поступаясь принципами; 7. жертвы нападения; 8. жертва преступления; 9. жертва убийства; 10. жертва дискриминации discord — accord D. 1. быть в согласии с самим собой; 2. по собственному желанию; 3. мирное соглашение; 4. торговое соглашение; 5. сделать что-то по собственной воле; 6. разногласия (между людьми); 7. источник разногласия; 8. избегать разногласий; 9. семейные разногласия Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал affect — effect E. 1. влиять на здоровье; 2. быть под воздействием кризиса; 3. затрагивать интересы всех; 4. глубоко влиять на родителей; 5. оказывать влияние на кого-либо; 6. желаемый результат; 7, оказывать магическое действие на кого-либо; 8. минимизировать воздействие экономических изменений; 9. вступать в силу; 10. оптический эффект affectation — affection F. 1. притворство; 2. привязанность к семье; 3. выказывать привязанность; 4. иметь глубокую привязанность, любовь к стране; 5. завоевать чье-либо расположение; 6. вспоминать кого-либо с искренней любовью; 7. без притворства; 8. аффектация, преувеличение; 9. проявление любви, привязанности Match the English nouns with their Russian equivalents. 1. crumb a) ком 2. segment b) осколок 3. bar c) плитка 4. pinch d) частичка 5. rasher e) ломтик 6. clod f) плита 7. chip g) обрывок 8. chunk b) крошка 9. slab i) долька 10. scrap j) щепотка 11. speck k) глыба _______ ) Complete the sentences with the words from the box in the right form. chunk crumb clod rasher splinter bar slice pinch shred dash grain piece wisp 1. How many 2. Add a __ of cheese would you like on your bread? ________ of soy sauce to the vegetables to get that authentic Chinese taste. 3. _________ of earth were flying from Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 1. under the hooves of the galloping horse- 4. The glass broke, and several _________ stuck into the palm of my hand. 5. A __________ of smoke curled across the sky. 6. If I were you, I wouldn’t entirely believe him, but take his words with a 7. He finished his lunch and brushed the _ _______ of salt. _____ from his jacket. 8. We prepared the ground removing all the big _________ of stone and wood, _____________ of broken brick and glass. 9. The breakfast consisted of a __________ of ham and a boiled egg. 10. I chose a ________ of bitter chocolate for myself and a ___________ of milk chocolate for my sister. I knew she disliked bitter. 11. The floor in the room was covered with _________ of newspaper. 12. The small ___________ of sugar on the table attracted flies. Form compound adjectives and use them to complete the sentences. I easy fast well heart smart progress developing breaking going making looking meaning poverty. 2. In her new dress Alice _____3. Nowadays China can be I. They live in ___________ was charming and __________ regarded as a _______________ country. 4. Her ________________ remarks made us all uncomfortable. 5. Gerald is such an _____________ person, always relaxed and calm and not getting easily upset about things. 6. You can call all this group of schoolchildren ____________ pupils. They have greatly improved their writing skills. II. poverty paid horse chosen well written hand drawn new stricken ill born Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 1. The _____________ lamb was so cute. 2. In all the continents a lot of people still live in __________ areas. 3. An unusual _____________ vehicle was approaching the school building. 4. The old _____________ document contained extremely valuable and important information about the unique traditions of the family. 5. Unfortunately the gifts were ---------------- and didn’t satisfy the children’s tastes. 6. John has recently become a top manager of the firm with really ------------- work. III. green chested broad headed six legged ['legid] four eyed hairy haired curly shouldered 1. The painting presented us with a pretty ---------------- child in the foreground. 2. A koala is an Australian ----------------- tree-climbing animal like a small bear. 3. The new police sergeant was a _______________ man, six foot high. 4. At the end of the fairy tale the _____________ dragon was killed and the princess rescued by the knight in shining armour. 5. The ---------------- giant lay on his huge bed snoring. 6. William Shakespeare called jealousy a ____________ monster. Complete the sentences with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right. The sketches are marked by the _________ and fluidity of their 2. The painter started his _______ in the autumn for the ------------ which would open in the ___________ May. 3. Constable found the landscape of the __________ country____________ 4. Gainsborough’s father was a cloth merchant. confide treat prepare exhibit follow surround^ sympathy prosper Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 5. The artist’s forefathers had long been connected with the manufacture of __________ goods. 6. For anyone coming to the painting with a fresh eye the first __________ must surely be one of dignity and 7. Joshua Reynolds is the most figure in British painting. 8. Athens at the peak of its ________ power after the ____________ war had been attracting artists from abroad. 9. Greek art that has achieved ___________, is characterised by a perfect manner of ______________, which truly deserves to be described as classical, 10. Stubbs started as a _____________ portrait painter. wool impress solemn history importance politics Persia mature express province 1^. Read the text. Complete it with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right. ■ From the Museum of Fine Arts’ History ■ In 1858, Professor Hertz, First Head of the History of Art Department at Moscow University argued that for 1. purposes, a museum of plaster cast copies of 2. _______ sculptures ought to be set up. Funds for the 3. ___________ of the museum 4. ______________ were raised by 5. ______________ Plaster casts from statues exhibited in 6. ___________ European museums or education fame construct build subscribe differ Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал adorning some city squares were made according to the plan by Professor Tsvetaev of Moscow University, the then Head of the History of Art Department. Every copy was to have a 7. ___________ designated place in the 8. ___________ halls. In 1912, the museum was opened to the public. Now Moscow had a 9. _______________ collection of copies of ancient Greek, 10. _______________, medieval and Renaissance masterpieces. special exhibit comprehend Rome Rewrite the sentences using the verb to carry, 1. Too much paperwork is preventing police officers from doing their duties. 2. He moved to London to continue his work. 3. In the end, her passionate belief in justice helped her to overcome all the difficulties. 4. The young scientist continued his father’s research and completed it. 5. Walk as far as the bank, turn left and go straight on till you see a big store on your right. 6. Mike was the only person in the office who could cope with filling in numerous forms. 7. The investigation was conducted within the shortest possible time. 8. It was my friends’ support that helped me to cope with my problems. 9. The building work was done by a new developer. If Use the necessary pronouns in their right forms to complete the text. ■ Rembrandt ■ In the 17th century Holland produced one supreme genius, Rembrandt. 1. ____ paintings, drawings and etchings outclassed those of all 2. __ contemporaries. In the early part of 3. _ career 4. ___ was a highly successful portrait painter, but the time came when 5. began to paint not for wealthy clients Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал trying to please 6. _____, but just for 7. ____Rembrandt took many of 8. ____ subjects from the Bible and classical stories. Painting portraits 9. ____ often chose the unfortunates of Amsterdam and 10. _________ slums. 11. ______ had little chance to see 12. ______ own portraits. Otherwise 13. ______ would have easily recognised 14. ______so great was the likeness. Rembrandt was the first to exploit fully the possibilities of etching for artistic expression. The idea to combine wax plates and copper plates was also 15._____ In 16. ____ etchings, paintings and 17._______many brilliant, quick drawings, Rembrandt was years ahead of 18. _________ time. 19. ___ was another 20 years before 20. _________ true greatness was realised. Use the right forms of the reflexive pronouns to complete the sentences. 1. I sent her a photograph of (she). 2. He had prepared (he) for this important meeting. 3. We (we) have to make this important decision. 4. Let’s ask (we) if we are prepared for new hardships. 5. Joe was feeling rather pleased with (he). 6. It is the party leaders (they) who made this decision. 7. You have to have some respect for (you). 8. As far as I know, the suggestion came from the president (he). 9. We thoroughly enjoyed (we) in the circus. 10. The teacher asked the pupils to write a brief essay about (they). 11, The machine switches (it) off when it has finished printing. 12. The pie is easy to bake. You can do it (you). 13. My mother keeps photographs of (I) when I was a baby. 14. The document (it) is divided into three parts. 15. Goodbye, children. I hope you’ll enjoy (you) at the theatre. 16. I’m going to pour (I) another coffee. Express the same in English. 1. Ha кухонном столе лежали два помидора, картофелина, кочан капусты и три луковицы. 2. Где вишня? Вы что, всю Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ее съели? Я купила килограмм ягод вчера. 3. Вы истратили все деньги или потеряли их? 4. Ландыши и незабудки — мои любимые цветы. 5. В холодильнике нет рыбы. Я пожарила ее всю, все полкило. 6. В пруду много рыбы, но она небольшая. 7. Голландские художники создали много превосходных натюрмортов. 8. Моя маленькая сестренка любит рисовать различных животных. На ее картинах можно увидеть оленей, гусей, овец и других домашних животных. 9. Род стоял на крыльце и смотрел, как прохожие спешили по улице в различных направлениях. 10. Эта редкая птичка стала вымирающим видом. 11. Разве рыбы летают? — Некоторые да. Give the singular of the following nouns. Use them in sentences of your own. 1. millennia; 2. teeth; 3. curricula; 4. antennae; 5. thieves; 6. roofs; 7. genii; 8. series; 9. oxen; 10, phenomena; 11. crises; 12. cacti; 13. theses; 14. women; 15. diagnoses; 16. genies Express the same in Russian. Pay attention to the pronoun one (ones), A, 1. One never knows. 2. One doesn’t say that in Russian. 3. One can say anything nowadays. 4. How can one do it? 5. One gets used to anything. B, 1. — Take my pen. — Thanks, I’ve got one. 2. — I’ve taken some books from the library. — Do you mean the ones on your desk? 3. This story is more interesting than the one I read yesterday. 4. Do you play the piano? There is one in the assembly hall. 5. — Are the plums ripe? — The ones in my orchard in front of the house are. Mark the sentences which are formal in style. 1. a) One always looks scruffy in jeans, b) You always look scruffy in jeans. 2. a) One can’t believe all the rumours one hears, b) You can’t believe all the rumours you hear. 3. a) One may forget such things, b) You may forget such things. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Write in what genre these pictures are painted and what is depicted in the foreground of each. Complete the sentences with the right forms of nouns and verbs. 1. Her good (look was/looks were) lost when she grew older. 2. Economics (is/are) the study of the management of money and goods. 3. His aggressive (manner/manners) of speaking (have/has) never failed to shock me. 4. Гт afraid his (earning is/earnings are) not sufficient to support his family. 5. The clergy (comprises/comprise) the ministers, priests etc of the Christian religion. 6. The outskirts of London where the Townsends live (is/are) a very attractive area. 7. The team (com sist/consists) of four doctors and seven nurses. 8. The means of their family (is/are) rather reduced. 9. My (custom is/customs Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал are) to go for a walk on Sunday. 10. After the cremation the (ash was/ashes were) scattered at sea. Use the following verbs in the right form to complete the sentences. to stand to attract to be represented to demonstrate to depict to be painted to handle to capture to contrast to introduce 1. A lot of Corot's atmospheric landscapes in cold colours. 2. Van Gogh _ his famous Sunflowers 3. Repin's masterpieces against a yellow background. ______________ the test of time. 4. In the Portrait of F, M. Dostoevsky Vasily Perov skilfully ________________ the sitter’s expression. 5. A few people on a shipwreck _________ in the foreground of Ivan Aivazovsky’s The Ninth Wave\ 6. In his famous landscape The Rooks Have Come Alexei Savrasov _____________ a great sense of space. 7. The background and the foreground of the portrait ______________ each other strongly. 8. Bryullov’s striking talent, good education and independent outlook _____________ the attention of his contemporaries. 9. In The Last Day of Pompeii the artist _______________ significant details related to the subject. 10. Mikhail Vrubel ___________ skilfully the colours in his Seated Demon and the picture is full of contrasts: a cold lilac is in combat with a warm golden-orange. Express the same in English using your Active Vocabulary, 1. Лицо этого натурщика кажется мне удивительно знакомым. 2. В своих пейзажах голландские мастера проявляли удивительное чувство пространства. 3. Русский художник Федотов был известен своими жанровыми полотнами. 4. Основные цвета этого морского пейзажа — синие и зеленые. 5. Цвета картин Ван Гога часто бывают яркими, насыщенными и светящимися. 6. Общее впечатление, которое производит картина, — лиричное и трогательное. 7. Многие мастера живописи обращались к мифологическим сюжетам. 8. На заднем плане портрета можно рассмотреть группу деревьев и берег озера. * 1л the English/American sources, the title of the seascape is often given as The Tenth Waue^ as the beliefs which of the waves during a storm is the last and the strongest vary. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Listen to the text Reiigion and Politics (No. 3). Choose True (a), Raise (b) or Not stated (c) for statements 1—7. Circle the variant you’ve chosen. Canterbury Cathedraly / -- •' ■ ^^*1 — ^ X ■' \ Salisbury Cathedral^, ■ ■ 1. Religion doesn’t influence political views of British citizens. a) True b) False c) Not stated 2. The majority of the British population are non-believers. a) True b) False c) Not stated 3. Any person who wants to be successfully involved in Britain’s political life should belong to the Church of England. a) True b) False c) Not stated 4. By law, British monarchs cannot belong to Catholicism. a) True b) False c) Not stated 5. The Church of England is the official religion of the country. a) True b) False c) Not stated 6. In Britain all believers attend religious ceremonies on Sundays. a) True b) False c) Not stated 7. Nearly three-quarters of Britain’s population believe in God. a) True b) False c) Not stated You will hear a story from the Bible (No. 4). To complete the statements (1 — 10) circle the items you have chosen. 1. The three wise men came from the ________. a) west b) east c) south Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 2. The wise men were_______ a) astronomers b) astrologers c) astronauts 3. The wise men came to the palace of Herod because________ a) he was the best educated man in the country b) he was the most intelligent man in the country c) he was king of the country 4. King Herod was on his throne because________ a) he was supported by Rome b) he was a Roman c) he originally came from Rome 5. Herod couldn’t answer the wise men’s question at once because _____. a) he didn’t know the answer b) he didn’t want to tell them the truth c) he was too much alarmed to talk to them 6. The wise men explained the reason for their arrival by their wish_______ a) to rescue the child who was born to be king b) to look at the child who was born to be king c) to pay homage to the child who was born to be king 7. The chief priests told Herod that the child’s birthplace was______ a) Jerusalem b) Bethlehem c) Egypt 8. At night one of the wise men had a(n) ______ dream. a) instructive b) promising c) prophetic 9. Another person who had a similar dream was_______ a) Joseph b) Mary c) Herod 10. Herod was in great anger because______ a) Joseph, Mary and Jesus had left for Egypt b) so many young children were killed c) the wise men had left the country without ever seeing him Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Read the text and do the tasks (1—7) after it circling one of the letters (a—d). Religious Education In many countries children are taught about religion in schools. In fact, the earliest schools of medieval Europe taught only religion. They were known as choir schools, and they provided mainly oral instruction in the psalms and the Bible which pupils were expected to learn by heart. Only later were additional subjects such as grammar, mathematics, and astronomy added to the school curriculum. Today, religion may be taught in schools or outside regular school in classes provided by religious bodies, such as the church or the synagogue. In the tradition of the Christian Church, these additional classes were usually given on Sunday, after the church service, and they became known as Sunday Schools. The early Sunday Schools in England taught reading and writing as well as religion, or scripture. But once a state school system existed, Sunday Schools taught only religious subjects. Children who attend Sunday Schools today are taught about the Bible, the lives of the saints, and the services of their church. In some countries, such as Germany, religious groups cooperate with state schools to provide some religious education for the children. In other countries, for example, the United States, there are separate religious schools, which are funded by the churches of various denominations and by voluntary donations from their parishioners. They are called parochial schools.^ There are parochial schools for Catholics, Jews, and members of the various Protestant denominations. Other countries have only one official religion, and nearly all citizens belong to that religious group. In Italy, Ireland, Spain, and parts of Canada, for example, most people are Roman Catholics; while most of the inhabitants of Pakistan are Muslim. The schools in these countries are controlled by the official religion, and the basic principles of the religion are taught to the children during school hours. In Britain religious education is provided in all state schools. But the emphasis has shifted to teaching about world religions, * parochial |р9'гэик1э1| schools — приходские школы Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал and is less on religious instruction. Britain also has parochial schools. These are partly state funded but the churches have to contribute to their running costs. 1. Early medieval schools in Europe were called choir schools as the children_______ a) used to sing in choir there b) mainly sang psalms in them c) practically never had written tasks d) had grammar, mathematics and choir singing in the curriculum 2. Sunday Schools nowadays_________ a) help the children who attend them with basic educational subjects b) provide a lot of additional information about state schools c) mainly involve pupils in studying scripture d) give children only religious education Parochial schools_______ a) provide religious education only for various Protestant groups b) function on the money of various churches as well as voluntary donations c) are created by parishioners d) exist in all European countries is taught to children in schools during school hours. 3 4. a) In all European countries religion education b) All over the world the official religion of a country c) In Spain Protestantism d) In some parts of Canada Catholicism 5. In Britain religious education_______ a) is not provided in state schools b) is given only in parochial schools c) is subsidised partly from state funds and partly from religious institutions d) given in parochial schools is funded only by religious institutions Find in the text Reiigious Education (Ex. 3) the words and word combinations which mean the same as the words and phrases below. Make up your own sentences with them. 1) Europe in the period of the Middle Ages Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 2) а song or poem in praise of God 3) a building where Jews meet for religious worship 4) the Bible 5) to arrange religious instruction in educational institutions for children on Sundays 6) to be financed by the church 7) a person living in a particular parish, especially one who regularly attends the parish church 8) a private school which is run by a church or connected with a church 9) the main religion of a country Complete the sentences using prepositions in, to, for, on, of. the 1. It looks like the storm is going to be a menace ______ coastal areas. 2. The poor boy is totally __ awe of his father. 3. Young graduates are seeking _____________ success in life. 4. I demand a lot ______ others but more ______ myself. 5. The X-rays have confirmed the surgeon his belief that one of the patient’s bones was broken. 6. A military court sentenced him _______ death in his absence. 7. He is currently ________ trial accused _______ serious charges. 8. Don’t you think Ronald is innocent ______ treachery? He’s always been a loyal citizen. 9. Jane didn’t demand much _________ her new job: she was quite satisfied to be active again. 10. My brother was older and cleverer than me, so I lived _______ owe ______ him. Complete the sentences using prepositions in, for, of, on, to. 1. I don’t want to be responsible _______ other people’s mistakes. 2. My elder sister has always been a good influence ________ me. 3. I hate it when people boast _____ their success in life. 4. The hotel is rather typical _____ many at the seaside. 5. Why does he insist _____ coming with us? Is he really interested ______ art and picture galleries? 6. The service in the hotel was so bad that we had to complain _______ it when we were checking out. 7. The school is in need ________ a new chemistry teacher. 8. It was autumn and the ground was covered __________ red and yellow leaves. 9. James is allergic ________ citrus fruit and never eats either lemons or oranges. 10. To be honest, I have seldom paid attention ______ what local papers write and I’m sorry about it. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Complete the sentences with the right word from the brackets. 1. The famous sculpture of David was (done!executed) by Michelangelo for the city of Florence. 2. The new information (confirmed/hardened) my point of view on the problem. 3. Don’t blame me: I’m as (innocent as a baby unborn/ignorant as a baby untaught), 4. A bad driver is a (scare/menace) on the road. 5. When the downpour began, we had to seek (cover/shelter) in the old church. 6. The artist (claimed/ demanded) that the picture he had painted was a true masterpiece. 7. There’s no (refusing/denying) the fact that we need to know more about art to be able to understand it. 8. The crowd surrounded the statue, gazing at it (in/through) awe. 9. They’ve taken the new secretary for a (testing/trial) period to see how well she does the job. 10. He got a (living/life) sentence for murder. 11. By changing his religion he (violated/betrayed) his principles. 12. It’s no wonder the workers of the plant (claim/demand) better working conditions: just look at this small dirty building! 8 Rewrite the sentences using the words from the box. to confirm to betray awe trial to seek (for) to deny innocent executed to claim to sentence menace to deserve to demand 1. All the teachers knew that Ron Setton was a real pain in the neck. 2- The plan was good, but it was badly carried out. 3. He spoke to us threateningly, ordering us to do as we were told. 4. I’m calling to make sure that our plans haven’t changed. 5. Every person in the world has the right to look for their happiness. 6. I’m angry with Amy because she didn’t keen mv secret and now everyone in the class knows it. 7. You’ll have to agree that art helps us to understand life. 8. If no one asks for this Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал umbrella, the person who found it can keep it. 9. At the sight of the magnificent view our hearts filled with admiration mixed with fear. 10. I was surprised by their angry reaction to my harmless remark. 11. Joe was given the punishment of five years in prison, which was rather unfair. 12. The book is definitely worth the time you’ve spent on it, 13. The work of a designer requires a lot of creativity. In each line cross out the word combination that cannot exist. Make up 10—15 sentences of your own with the existing ones. 1. growing menace, serious menace, dangerous menace, increasing naenace, hidden menace; 2. to deny firmly, to deny hotly, to deny fiercely, to deny angrily, to deny socially; 3. to look innocent, to walk innocent, to play innocent, to sound innocent; 4. to stand in awe, to hold sb in awe, to look in awe at sth, to calculate awe, to inspire awe; 5. considerable demands, progressive demands, heavy demands, impossible demands, high demands; 6. to deserve coldly, to deserve truly, to deserve justly, to deserve surely, to deserve rightly; 7. fair trial, murder trial, criminal trial, private trial, public trial; 8. to execute poorly, to execute skilfully, to execute exceptionally, to execute brilliantly, to execute successfully. Complete the sentences using the words in the right form. in spite — despite They had a wonderful holiday, ___ the bad weather. 2. --------- the fact that it was raining they started on the expedition immediately after breakfast. 3. He found himself smiling ------------- of himself. 4._____________of being tired he agreed to help us. 5. ------------- all our efforts we failed. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал require — demand В. 1. The workers speech he ______ better pay now. 2. After his fiery be there. __________ an immediate explanation. 3. All cars servicing regularly, 4. I have done all that by law. 5. The situation ____________ that I should seek — look C. 1. Your granny for her glasses for half an hour already- Can’t you help her? 2. The office instructions read that we should ___________ for such informa- tion in official sources, 3. The survey shows that people who are unemployed usually actively _______________ work. 4. They _____________ in vain for some- where to shelter. There was no construction nearby they could use. 5. — What are you doing under the table? — I ___________ for my pencil. feast — holiday D, 1. Easter is an important __________ for Christians. 2. What would be your dream ___________? 3. I got ill and had to cancel my____________4. That was a real __________ of Christmas. 5. Have you booked your summer ________________ yet? feast — meal E. 1. The chef is engaged in preparing a wedding 2. A __________ is an unusually large and elaborate _________s. 4. Hot ________ s are not 3. The bar serves light__________ available after 10 o’clock. 5. The women were busy preparing a ____________ of Spanish food and wine. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал pupil — disciple F. 1. She was an ardent . about 500 _____________s. of Freud. 2. The school has . Jenny Owen is one of my best ----------s. 4. If you are someone’s __________, you are influenced by their teachings and try to follow their example. 5. The -----------------------------------------------s of a school are the children who go to it. Match the words to form phrases and use them to complete the sentences. outsmart statements disarming area unwelcome families misleading meals antisocial enemies outnumber guest overpopulated qualities underprivileged smile antiseptic ^5^ behaviour precooked women 1. The government is taking urgent measures to help __________ ------------2. ______________________ always annoys or upsets other people. 3. Judy came up to us with a(n) ________________ __________4. The article contains several_____________________ Environmentalists already consider Australia to be a(n) _________________6. My mother doesn’t like _____________ _____________, she cooks everything we eat herself- 7. Suddenly he felt that he was a(n) _____________________ in his friend’s house. 8. In this town men ______________________ four to one. 9. These herbs and vegetables have strong______________________ 10. Hannibal was famous for his ability to_____________________ Complete the sentences with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right. 1. The pupil was asked to _ the psalm once more. 2. The new ____________ of looked ___________ and ____ a mosque read build beauty, power Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 3. Far religions are not very well known in the _____________ world. 4. __________ was usually regarded as an official religion of China until the revolution of 1911. 5. In China Islam is __________ with more than 20 million ___________s, 6. Christianity reached China in the 7th century and was a ______________ religion for a time. It died out in about AD 900. 7. Confucius taught that human comes from the relationships between people. 8. The worship of ancestors was ___________________ recommended by Confucius because it helped to keep the old ways____________ 9. The ___________ of Taoism is Lao- tzu. The word Tao is often translated as the Wayy but its full ___________ cannot be given in a single English word. 10. Lao-tzu taught that people should train themselves to be _________ and that they should practise _________, humility and mercy. 11. Both Confucianism and Taoism were difficult for ordinary people to follow and as time went by they became mixed with ______________ and ________ ideas because such ideas were easier to understand and to follow. 12. __________ began in India, where Gautama Buddha lived. He was a great moral and ___________ teacher. 13. Buddha believed that people could escape from suffering and enjoy the peace known as Nirvana. east west Confucius influence follow flourish happy warm change found mean selfish gentle superstition magic Buddha religion bless Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 14. People can achieve Nirvana by training themselves to get rid of all desires. 15. Buddhism spread -------------- through ------------ India during Buddha’s lifetime. Later the . emperor Asoka spread the — faith over a much wider area, world quick centre India Buddhism Read the text. Complete it with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right. Ramadan Ramadan is the 9th month of the 1. calendar. Islam uses a lunar calendar — that is, each month begins with the 2. ----------- of the new moon. The lunar calendar is about 11 days shorter than the solar calendar used elsewhere. That’s why 3. --- ___________ holidays move each year. For more than a billion Muslims around the world, Ramadan is a month of 4. _______________ marked by 5. , fasting and charity. Islam sight Islam bless pray Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Muslims believe that during the month of Ramadan, Allah revealed the first verses of the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam. Around AD 610, a caravan 6. _______________________ named Muhammad took to 7. _____________ the desert near Mecca (in today’s Saudi Arabia) while thinking about his faith. One night a voice called to him from the sky. It was the angel Gabriel, who told Muhammad he had been chosen to receive the word of Allah. Muslims practise sawriy or fasting, for the entire month of Ramadan. This means that they may eat or drink nothing 8. ____________ water, while the sun shines. Fasting helps Muslims feel the peace that comes from 9. ___________ devotion as well as kinship with fellow 10. _______________s. Ramadan ends with the festival of Eid ul-Fitr, which is one of the two most 11. ________________ celebrations (the other occurs after the Hajj or 12. __________ to Mecca). At Eid ul-Fitr people dress in their finest clothes, adorn their homes with lights and 13. ____________s, give treats to children, and enjoy visits with friends and family. A sense of 14. __________ and gratitude colours these festivities. Although charity and good deeds are always 15. _______________, they have special 16. _____________at the end of Ramadan. As the month draws to a close, Muslims are obligated to share their 17. ___________s by feeding the poor and making 18. ________________s to mosaues. trade wander include spirit believe importance pilgrim decorate generous value significant bless contribute Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Choose the right phrasal verbs in the right forms to complete the sentences. put — die — take away in the late after-off on time. 3. Don’t 1. The firing finally began to __________ noon. 2. I hope the plane will __________ __________ away any of these books from the library. 4. If you have a rain jacket, ____________ it on, 5. I hope that the controversy will gradually ___________ down. 6. At twelve o’clock I __________ the light out and went to sleep. 7. The fire ____________ out and darkness closed around us. 8. If the shoes have been worn, they won’t __________ them back in the shop. 9. We are all worried about the fact that so many animal species ______ out. 10. I am not going to ______________ up with this kind of behaviour. 11. I’m so hungry, I for a sandwich, 12. Finally the applause hands on the keys. down, and the pianist put his Complete the sentences with the right word from the brackets. I. Jack is (right/rightly) believed to be one of the most talented artists in London. 2. Sam met us rather (cold/coldly) and we understood that we were not welcome, 3. We saw three birds circling very (high/highly) up. 4. The tune sounded so (sad/sadly) that I felt like crying. 5. Poor Tom was (wrong/wrongly) accused of theft and sentenced to two years of imprisonment. 6. I can (hard/hardly) believe all those stories of witches and ghosts. 7. Father smiled (kind/kindly) but said nothing. 8. I’m (near/nearly) finished with this long exercise. 9. Barbara says she’s never felt as (happy/happily) as today. 10. I (high/high-ly) recommend Mr Green as an extremely competent teacher. II. We haven’t seen much of Jason (late/lately). 12. There was bad news: Dan has been (bad/badly) injured in an accident. 13. The work of Mr Samuels is (wide/widely) known in the country. 14. The dish tasted (nice/nicely) and smelled (fabulous/fabulously). 15. Learn to spell this difficult word (right/rightly). Express the same in Russian. 1. They had to sell their shares to keep the business afloat. 2. Jerry was struggling to keep his little vessel afloat. 3. He is struggling to keep afloat after a series of emotional and health Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал problems. 4. The children set their new boat afloat on the lake. 5. He stopped abruptly, suddenly afraid to say the words out loud. 6. a) Roger is very afraid for her. b) Roger is very afraid of her. 7. His clothing caught alight. 8. The children’s eyes were alight with excitement. 9. It was very early and I was only half awake. 10. For five days the patient seemed barely alive. 11. She realised that she had only been half alive for the last three years. 12. People try to keep old traditions alive. Match the words to form phrases and use them to complete the sentences. all safely sound wide very much asleep ashamed afloat awake alone 1. After the death of her husband Carol felt ______ world. 2. It was midnight but the baby was still __ 3. By ten o’clock the children had been ___________ Mary at last could go on with her reading. 4. in the in bed and Rose was of her jealous feelings but could do nothing. 5. The toy vessel was in the middle of the pond, Express the same in Russian. 1. The present owner of the cottage is going to sell it. 2. Everybody present welcomed the decision. 3. My younger sister is a very responsible girl. 4. The student responsible for the school website has fallen ill. 5. Jack knew about the robbery, but wasn’t personally involved in it. 6. After the research Alice had a lot of examples of Johnson’s involved style of writing. 7. Everyone concerned in the incident will be reported to the head teacher. 8. The concerned parents had a meeting. 9. It was a proper resolution. 10. The argument proper hasn’t been discussed. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Make up sentences and write them down. 1. such an/old/before/statue/Fve/bronze/never seen/ideal 2. popular/the story/magazine/new/was published/in the/glossy 3. oak/in the corner/table/stood/of the room/round/a/small 4. take/yellow/toy dog/the girl/her eyes/new/couldn’t/off/new/ the lovely 5. Chinese/we/piles of/in the shop window/cotton/kitchen towels/ saw/bright 6. oval/beautiful/this is/silver/my favourite/in a/old/mirror/ frame 7. white/what a/pretty/scarf/cashmere 8. brand-new/cruising/magnificent/it was a/American/ocean liner/in the Mediterranean 20 Complete the text with the adverbs from the box. Write 2—3 para graphs to end the story. clearly unfortunately evidently unluckily normally frankly surprisingly generally Bruce was almost sixty when I met him. At that time he already was the author of about fifteen books. However, there were few people who considered him to be a great writer, 1, ____________ they were the only people who understood serious realistic literature. 2. ____________ Bruce was not interest- ed in what people thought of him and his work. He never read criticism of his books in the newspapers or magazines and 3. did not come in contact with fellow writers. He lived alone in his small, dark, dirty room. From time to time he disappeared again and began to write. 4. _____________ there was some mystery about him. Bruce was a tall, thin man with a face like Mark Twain’s: black eyebrows, a grey moustache and grey hair. 5. ------------- I wouldn’t call him attractive. He had never married and lived quite alone. He never had much money; and the year I am writing about was 6. _______________ even worse than usual for him. 7. _____________ his last book had been a hopeless failure. The day I went to see him, I found him in a gloomy mood. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Choose the best item to complete the sentences. 1. There are _____ main universal religions in our time. a) two b) three c) four 2. People devoting themselves to God and living in convents are a) nuns b) monks c) parishioners 3. The major Islamic festival is______ a) Advent b) Nirvana c) Ramadan 4. The Protestant believers usually do not worship in a) temples b) churches c) chapels 5. A traditional place of pilgrimage for Muslims is _ a) Bethlehem b) Mecca c) Jerusalem 6. The world’s biggest religion is______ a) Buddhism b) Christianity c) Judaism 7. Before entering the place of worship _____ shoes. a) Muslims b) Buddhists c) Jews 8. Muslims are required to travel to Mecca at least once in their lifetime ______ a) if it is politically possible b) if it is economically possible c) if it is financially possible 9. The Jewish spiritual leaders are called_____ a) ministers b) rabbis c) monks take off their Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 10. Believers who think that there is a cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth are_______ a) Muslims b) Buddhists c) Christians Write what is shown in the pictures. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 8 iC 10 11 12 Express the same in English. 1. Традиционные места богослужения — церкви, соборы, часовни, синагоги, мечети, храмы и пагоды. 2. Атеисты полагают, что физический мир самодостаточен и может быть понят с помощью точных наук. 3. Во главе римско-католической церкви стоит Папа (Римская католическая церковь возглавляется..,). 4. Монахи живут в мужских монастырях, а монахини Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал в женских. 5. В христианской церкви можно увидеть следующие элементы: алтарь, кафедру, иконостас и хоры. 6. В мечетях службы проводятся имамами. 7. Люди, которые разделяют одинаковые религиозные убеждения, являются членами религиозных общин. 8. Христианство существует в различных формах и включает Римско-католическую церковь, православную церковь и протестантизм. 9. Католические соборы часто украшены витражами. 10. Члены семьи Джеймса регулярно посещают богослужения. 11. В конце службы проповедник и его паства спели псалом. 12. Древние греки часто приносили жертвы своим богам. 13. Иудеи, христиане и мусульмане отправляются в Иерусалим в поисках благословения, исцеления и спасения. 14. Предполагается, что католики должны регулярно исповедоваться. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Listen to the text Natural Destruction (No. 5). Choose True (a), False (b) or Not stated (c) for statements 1—9- Circle the variant you’ve chosen. 1. The greenhouse effect is improved by our society. a) True b) False c) Not stated 2. Nature is capable of doing damage on a huge scale. a) True b) False c) Not stated 3. All gasses given off by plants are not harmful to the atmosphere. a) True b) False c) Not stated 4. Volcanic eruption is a natural pollution, a) True b) False c) Not stated 5. Tons of ash and dust were thrown into the air after the eruption of Krakatoa. a) True b) False c) Not stated 6. Several decades ago, hundreds of Londoners died from the smog, a) True b) False c) Not stated 7. Smog used to hang mainly over the River Thames. a) True b) False c) Not stated 8. At the end of the 19th century, the volcanic eruption made the end of the world possible. a) True b) False c) Not stated You will hear six people speaking about the environment and nature (No. 6). Match the pieces of information given by the speakers (1—6) and the statements on the list (A—G). Use each statement only once. There is a statement on the list you don’t need to use. Fill in the table after the task. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал A. The speaker is amazed by wonders of nature. B. The speaker helps to stop climate changes by using recycled products. C. Taking part in a volunteer programme opened a whole new world for the speaker. D. The speaker works at a global conservation organization. E. The speaker makes a difference in the world by planting trees and recycling. F. The speaker understands the necessity of immediate actions to stop climate change. G. The speaker saves energy by walking the stairs. Speaker 1 Statement Read the text and fill in gaps 1—6 with phrases A—G. There is one phrase you don’t need to use. Fill in the table after the text. A. giant panda populations are small and isolated from each other B. under protection in reserves C. it may consume 12—38 kg of bamboo a day to meet its energy requirements D. it has been the organization’s symbol since 1961 E. live in the region continue to reap ecosystem benefits for many generations F. is the geographic and economic heart of China G. depend almost exclusively on bamboo as a food source The Giant Panda The giant panda is universally loved, and of course has a special significance for WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) as 1.________ Pandas have a white coat with black fur around their eyes, on their ears, muzzle, legs and shoulders. Giant pandas are classified as bears but they have adapted to a vegetarian diet and 2._______ Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Today, the giant panda’s future remains uncertain. This peaceful, bamboo-eating member of the bear family faces a number of threats. Its forest habitat, in the mountainous areas of southwest China, is fragmented so 3._________By mid-2005, the Chinese government had established over 50 panda reserves, protecting over 45% of remaining giant panda habitat. However, habitat destruction continues to pose a threat to many pandas living outside these areas. Today, only around 61% of the population, or about 980 pandas, are 4._______ Panda habitat is found at the top of the Yangtze Basin which 5.______Its diverse habitats contain many rare, endangered ani- mal and plant species, the best known being the giant panda. The survival of the panda and the protection of its habitat will ensure that people who 6._______ Find in the text The Giant Panda words and word combinations which mean the same as the words and phrases below. Make up your own sentences with them. 1) varied or different 2) importance 3) not known or fixed, not completely certain 4) the natural surroundings in which an animal or plant usually lives 5) an area of land for wild animals to live in to be protected 6) to cause a suggestion that something unpleasant or violent will happen 7) in danger of extinction 8) to have something inside or include something as a part 9) to make something certain to happen 10) to change something to suit different conditions or uses Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 5. Choose A, В or С to complete the sentences. ____ whether to apply for a job or 1. Laura stood hesitating leave it as it is. A. about В 2. He shivered ______ A. from В 3. The voices became louder and closer and then faded over C. on cold in his thin cotton shirt, with C. of again. A. out B. away C. off 4. These marks will never rub_______ A. away B. out C. off 5. Be careful not to scratch yourself ____ the roses. A. with B. on C. from 6. The roulette players silently watched the wheel spin A. around B. forward C. backwards 7. He is being treated ____ a rare skin disease. A. from B. for C. of 8. Гт going to treat myself A. for B. with a new pair of sandals. C. to 9. I hope I haven’t distressed you _____ all these personal ques- tions. A. of B. with C. about 10. The final stage of the production of cotton is when it is spun thread. A. into B. to C. for Complete the sentences with the right word from the brackets. 1, Don’t treat me (like/as) a child. 2. Do not (distress/hesitate) to call me. 3. The tone of your letter greatly (disturbs/distresses) me. 4. He sighed and (scratched/rubbed) his hands with pleasure, like a man newly restored to liberty. 5. (Rub/Spin) the ball and it will change direction when it hits the ground. 6. Go back to the drawing (stand/board) and start planning this piece of work again. 7. People have been (scratching/rubbing) their names on this rock for years. 8. How are you {curing/treating) your patient for rheumatism? 9. I’m sorry to (disturb/distress) you so late, but my car’s broken down and I was wondering if I could use your phone. 10. You shouldn’t (consider/treat) that as a laughing matter. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Complete the sentences with the words from the box in the right form. decency hesitate distress treat disturb shrewd spin scratch shiver oppressive fade rub 1. He who the ______ _______ is lost. 2. Nick didn’t even have to apologise. 3. Why not _________________ the children to a trip to the zoo? 4. That cat all my young plants again! 5. In winter the weather can be really _______________6. A ________________ went up and down Mary’s spine when she heard that sound again. 7. My sleep was _________________ by a loud noise which came from outside. 8. He was a smart lawyer and a _____________________ politician. 9. The boy claimed to be able to light a fire by ______________ two sticks together. 10. The thought that the summer was over kept causing her_______________________11. A lot of customs nowadays are slowly ___________________ away. 12. My head is Rewrite the sentences using the words and word combinations from the box. spun shrewd disturb have no idea of decency hesitate distressed shivering faded away scratching their heads oppressive 1. This businessman has a clear understanding and good judgment of market development. 2. Their behaviour is not good, moral or acceptable in our society. 3. Don’t pause before you call me. 4. He always feels very unset or worried. 5. As the years passed, the memories slowly disappeared. 6. Some scenes are violent and may cause younger viewers to be upset. 7. The children kept shaking slightly because they felt cold. 8. A lot of people must be thinking hard about which way to vote. 9. He said that the government was cruel and unfair. 10. They wanted to deceive us and told us a story about being in desperate need of money. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ^ Express the same in English. smell — scent — aroma — reek A. 1. сильный запах; 2. приятный запах; 3. неприятный, сильный запах табака; 4. сильный аромат, благоухание; 5. запах гари; 6. тонкий запах цветов; 7. аромат кофе; 8. сильный неприятный запах; 9. обоняние; 10. неприятный запах виски strange — queer — odd B. 1. нечетные числа; 2. странные люди; 3. чудак; 4. необычная юбка; 5. неважно выглядеть; 6. эксцентричные манеры; 7. подозрительный шум; 8. чувствовать себя не совсем хорошо; 9. месяц, в котором 31 день; 10. эксцентричный человек; 11. странный голос О Complete the sentences with the right word from the brackets. 1. We chop the meat into little bits on the (electronic board/ chopping board). 2. (An ironing board/A diving board) is a plat- Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал form or springboard from which swimmers may dive. 3. There were three pawns and two bishops on the (chess board/dart board). 4. A strip of cardboard or wood with a rough surface for filing one’s nails is called (a chopping board/an emery board). 5. Our flight is delayed again! Look at the (blackboard/electronic board). 6. Various notices and advertisements are displayed on the (electronic board/noticeboard). 7. Darts are thrown at a (noticeboard/dai4 board). Form verbs from the nouns and use them in the right form to complete the sentences. a snake a wolf a rabbit a dog a ferret an ape a monkey a rat a duck 1. I saw the ball hurtling towards me and ___________ down. 2. The queue for tickets__________ all the way around the block. 3. He betrayed all our secrets and ___________ on us. 4. The boys ____________ the sandwiches (down) and then started on the cakes. 5. Reporters ___________ him for answers. on about his stamp collection. _________ around. 6. He’s always _______ 7. The children were bored and started 8. I was just ________ around in my drawer for my passport. 9. He called the new building unoriginal and said that it merely _________ the classical traditions. Read the text. Complete it with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right. 55 Thousand Flamingos Vanish Just as Hurricane Ike was about to lash against the 1. ________________ south Bahamian island of Great Inagua its 2. ------------of flamingos began to populate disappear. The island is often visited by numerous tourists who come to watch in 3. ____________ a 60 thousand strong admire flamingo population. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Before Hurricane Ike hit the island most of the flock began their 4. ____________ to unknown parts. After the storm 30 5. ___________ flamingos were found dead and officials are hoping a few hundred more survived by seeking refuge in the 6. ______________ Mangrove stands. The birds returned to the devastated island but over 55 thousand flamingos are still missing. “Some of the flamingos are now reappearing, but it could be one or two years before they get back to their 7. _____________ nest- ing pattern,” said Lynn Gape, a 8. __________________ of Bahamas 9. ______________ Trust. evacuate beauty surround norm represent nation 13 Rewrite the sentences using the verb to rub. 1. OK, I made a mistake, — you don’t have to remind me of it. 2. My flatmate and I live in a satisfactory way together. 3. I used a towel to dry the dog after his bath. 4. The letter is written in pencil, so you can remove it if you need to. 5. My cousins and I quarrel over trifles at times despite that we have a friendly relationship. 6. I would not like to remember that embarrassing situation, so will you be so kind as not to refer to it anymore? 7. Can this eraser remove these ink marks? 8. John woke up at 6 am, had a cold shower, dried himself with a towel and thought that he would make a difference in the world today. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Complete the text with the right forms of the verbs. It’s Snowing on Mars It has been snowing on Mars. Nothing like this view 1. (ever see) there yet. Scientists 2. (always know) that the Red planet has seasons. And now we know that it 3. (snow) there, which tells us that water is still part of the planet’s ecology. The new Canadian technology is aboard the Mars Lander Phoenix. Phoenix 4. (land) when the weather was relatively warm and the air 5. (absorb) water. Now as the temperatures get colder the absorbed water 6. (condense) and producing frost, ground fog and more dense clouds. “That is snow, falling from the clouds, and we’re going 7. (watch) it very closely over the next month for evidence that the snow actually 8. (land) on the surface,’’ said one of the scientists. Use the right forms of the verbs to complete the sentences. 1. Now Madonna currently (appear) in a musical on Broadway. 2. This time next year the garden (look) beautiful. 3. This is the first time she (vote) against the new law. 4. I (think) of going down to London next weekend. What about you? 5. After Ivan (finish) reading about climate changes, he decided to take part in the eco-project. 6. You (eat) chocolate, haven’t you? There is some on your shirt. 7. We (own) the car for 6 months before we discovered it was stolen. 8. — (See) you the doctor again next week? — No, I (feel) much better now. 9. He doesn’t plan to go on working anymore and (consider) taking retirement right now. 10. Tom was sure that the medical tests (show) that he was healthy. Complete the sentences using the prepositions for or fo- 1. He has saved this bouquet ______ the most hard-working and diligent student. 2. Could you please show the samples ,_______ me? 3. The child cooked a wonderful cake _________ his parents. 4. They had sent the manager ______ me, but he didn’t turn up. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ГИ give your regards ____ the counsel. 6. She is so busy writing her diploma that she can’t find any time __________ us. 7. Pass the treats ____ our colleagues. 8. She asked me to lend a hefty sum of money _______ her, but I was not able to do that. 9. This course aims to prepare students _______ middle and senior managerial positions. 10. Would you like me to pour some more wine _______ you? Paraphrase the sentences changing the place of the indirect object using either for or to. 1. He gave me an interesting article devoted to global warming. 2. They showed us new plans of reconstruction. 3. She has booked our partners the tickets to New Orleans already, so they are leaving tomorrow morning. 4. He has sold our main competitors all his shares. 5. Ben’s grandmother left him all her fortune. 6. My birthday is tomorrow and I’m sure that my parents have prepared me something great. 7. We won’t be able to come to the meeting on Sunday, so could you please send Albert a message. 8. You must have studied a lot recentlyl Who taught you all these things? 9. Alice painted me a wonderful still life. 10. It was his goal that won us the match. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verbs. to improve to dry to melt to increase to simmer to balance to drop to grow to defrost to shake in the sun. 2. Do you know _______ significantly since it 1. Usually the fruit _____________ that the cost of the project _____ began? 3. If Mary takes the chicken out of the fridge it _______________ in about an hour. 4. The meat is so beautifully cooked — it just _________________ in your mouth! 5. Her voice _______________ as she spoke about the person who attacked her. 6. The travellers watched the flamingos _________________ grace- fully on one leg. 7. While laying the table leave the vegetables to _______________ in the pan for a few minutes. 8. The male deer ________________ large branching horns which are called antlers. 9. He woke up to discover that the mysterious book _____________ off the shelf. 10. I’m very much pleased that her health _______________ dramatically since she started on this new diet. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Complete the sentences using the nouns from the box. alarm tempers belt cloth music rifle anger 1. The fastens tightly around her waist. 2. The ------- sounded really loud. 3. There is a danger that ----------- at the new law will turn into anti-government movement. 4. When we entered his room classical _____ was playing. 5 rose when they began discussing the money matters. 6. Everything was quiet for a moment but then a -------- fired. 7. Don’t worry, this ________ washes easily. 20 Match the words to form phrases and use them to complete the sentences. heavy pouring overspending raise to be was penetrated a nip glorious transparent rough with V/in the aif/^ ^ in full bloom/ / / /■ air of energy resources sea / > ^ / / / fall of snow / / with sun rays ecological awareness sunrises ^ / / / 1. They expect the cherry trees ________________ 2. It is worth getting up early to watch Tibetan in April. 3. A gale is forecast so we can expect______________________ 4. Air and water pollution_____________________ 5. There is---------------------The winter is coming. 6. After yesterday’s____________________ all the bushes look like little snowmen. 7. It’s healthy to live in the country where you can breathe fresh ____________________ 8. ------------------- may lead the humanity to a disaster. 9. When Tom woke up the whole room__________________________ 10. How can you go out without an umbrella? It is Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Revise your Topical Vocabulary. overcast extinction transparent torrential dumping nip bloom spectacular mist tsunami 1. You can tell winter’s on its way — there’s a real ________ in the air in the mornings. 2. The mountain villages seem to be permanently shrouded in______________3. Grow the bulbs in a ____________ plastic box, so the children can see the roots growing. 4. The apple trees are in full___________5. There was a ____________ sunset last night. 6. An extremely large wave caused by movement of the earth under the sea is called ____________7. There was a ______________ downpour yesterday. 8. We didn’t feel like going anywhere because the weather was ____________9. Some people predict the ____________ of family life as we know it today. 10. Most people do not want this country to become a ____________ ground for toxic waste. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Express the same in English using your Topical Vocabulary. 1, Это было гнетущее, хмурое зимнее утро. 2. Необходимо охранять исчезающих животных и действовать быстро, пока не будет слишком поздно. 3. Одними из наиболее насущных проблем человечества являются изменения климата, глобальное потепление, загрязнение воздуха, воды и почвы. 4. За проливным дождем последовал ураган. 5. В воздухе чувствовался морозец. 6. Ярко светило солнце, в воздухе чувствовался легкий ветерок. Никто не предполагал, что скоро начнется гроза. 7. Озоновый слой защищает землю от вредной радиации. 8. В настоящий момент человечество вынуждено обратиться к альтернативным источникам энергии. 9. Наконец, место захоронения радиоактивных отходов было обнаружено. 10. Каждый рассвет был для него впечатляющим и великолепным, а каждый новый день — праздником. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Listen to the text What Makes Peopie Happy (No. 7). Choose True (a), False (b) or Not stated (c) for statements 1—8- Circle the variant you’ve chosen. 1. Extra money does little to raise your sense of happiness. a) True b) False c) Not stated 2. Teenagers are less sad if compared to people aged 65 to 74. a) True b) False c) Not stated 3. The old usually feel happier about their ways of living than young people. a) True b) False c) Not stated 4. Psychologists believe that men are always happy but women are not. a) True b) False c) Not stated 5. Even religion can’t raise man’s spirits. a) True b) False c) Not stated 6. Spending time with friends unfortunately doesn’t lead to satisfaction in life. a) True b) False c) Not stated 7. There are 265 sunny days a year in California. a) True b) False c) Not stated 8. It is necessary to develop your social skills in order to have more friends and be happy. a) True b) False c) Not stated You will hear six people speaking about different ways of lifting spirit (No. 8). Match the pieces of information given by the speakers (1—6) and the statements in the list (A—G). Use each statement only once. There is a statement on the list you don’t need to use. Fill in the table after the task. A. Don’t stick to sitcoms^ and other programmes on the screen. Do something more interesting. B. Carry out some work to help others. C. Do things in your life that make you happy as often as possible. D. Spend more time in good company. E. Remind yourself that you are personally responsible for your own happiness. Sitcome — a kind of soap opera. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал F. Manage the unpleasant situations in your life G. Always get to know something new. Speaker 1234 6 Statement Read the text and fill in gaps 1—7 with phrases A—H. There is one phrase you don’t need to use. Fill in the table after the text. A. which tends to be a little more Eastern B. are going to help my kid be happy C. remain happy anyway D. pursuit of happiness E. move on creating a new world F. the rough spots of life G. healthy responses to an unjust world H. creation and destruction You Can’t Be Happy All the Time This year, I’ve been doing a monthly series about being a first-time parent, and the values I hope to pass on to my daughter. She’s turning 17 years old now. Which values 1. _____? I’ve just been taking it for granted that good old American happiness is a noble goal. The American 2. ______ is a rather destructive goal that can lead to a pretty miserable life. When I was a boy, my parents encouraged me to lighten up. Stop overthinking it. Be happy. That’s something I’ll never say to my little girl. I’ll try very hard not to talk her out of 3. ______I try to make it clear that it’s okay to feel pain. This is a normal part of life. We shouldn’t try to convince ourselves that the pain isn’t really there. I guess the best way I can put this is: I want my daughter to be realistic. So sadness, discontent and anger are 4.______It’s unhappiness that inspires us to change the world. You have to get upset about the world. Could you accept the world as it is and 5. ______? On the one hand, there is this sense and it’s something of a Judeo-Christian sense that the world is fallen, it’s corrupt. But on the other hand. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал there’s another way of looking at the world 6 And I think it is sort of what many people are talking about. You accept the world as it is. It’s a wonderful dance between 7, , death and life, and that’s what it is. There’s no reason to feel blue about it. We can spend a lot of productive time ranting and raving to soothe this not-liking-what-has-already-taken-place. Or we can craft it and articulate it and move forward in an enthusiastic way that does something about it. (after Bill Radke) Find in the text You Can^t Be Happy All the Time words and word combinations which mean the same as the words and phrases below. Make up your own sentences with them. 1) new 2) accept something as if it is common or casual 3) stimulate somebody to do something 4) depress 5) give someone the enthusiasm to do or create something 6) feel distressed 7) looking on the bright side of life 8) leading to nothing 9) transfer to somebody else 10) fairly 11) having dangerous effect Complete the sentences using prepositions by, for, of, in, on, at where necessary. 1. Brian was constantly begging Lucie _________ marrying him. 2. She felt absolutely embarrassed ______ her little daughter’s actions. 3. The patient knew he should leave a fee ________ six pence after the visit. 4. The witness repeated the plot of the burglary ______ precise detail. 5. You shouldn’t reflect ______ this trouble all the time, it’s no use. 6. The boy saw Henry taking that money ______ mere accident. 7. If you take the risk ___ coming here again you’ll be in trouble. 8. What ___________ heaven’s name are your goats doing in my garden? 9. Just fancy Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ______ him speaking in public and receiving a storm of applause. 10. After that offer the elderly woman gave a curious glance the man. Complete the sentences with the right word from the brackets. 1. She looked so miserable (begging!asking) her question again. 2. Charlie had to wear that dress and felt (embarrassed! ashamed) about it. 3. I don’t (fancy!imagine) going out. It is raining! 4. Did they charge any (fee!salary) for your visit to the doctor? 5. He described the man in (precise!reflective) detail. 6. He explained his demands very (precisely!exactly). 7. The old woman was sitting at the window, she seemed (reflect ing!thinking) on something important. 8. After so many years of hard labour she still (remained!stayed) very attractive. 9. We were told to come (particularly!exactly) at five and not a minute later. 10. So Martha was a shop assistant. She liked the job but the (fees!salary) left much to be desired as she often didn’t have enough money for food. Rewrite the sentences using the words from the box. Some of the words may be used more than once. beg beggar embarrassing fancy fees precise reflecting risk shabby twinkling pretty stay 1. An old man in ____________ was clear he was going to clothes came up to my table. It _________ for money. 2. All the details of the conversation stuck in her mind. She ______ for seeing him again. 3. Why do you call ______? He is always neatly dressed and keeps a didn’t _________ him a __________ ____________ good sum at the bank. 4. Have you seen the doctor? — No, the ____________ were so high that I had to cancel the appointment. 5. I wouldn’t ____________ losing that chance. It is the only opportunity to talk to her in private. 6, ____________ in the room and think of your behaviour. 7. He has come again! that! He’s got flowers and a guitar. 8. My uncle has always enjoyed looking at _____________ stars in the night sky. He can _____________ for hours in front of the window ______________ on life. 9. I could never expect my word to have such an effect on you. 10. The Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал mother hadn’t said a word but the daughter’s eyes were already ____________ in expectation of the news. Express the same in English. very — pretty A. 1. Она достаточно умна и очень хороша собой. 2. Это неплохая идея поручить эту работу Клэр. Я думаю, она хорошо с ней справится. 3. Ее ответ очень отличался от других. 4. Его все считают очень надежным товарищем. 5. Хорошенько подумав, Пол решил отказаться от предложения. 6. Делегации оказали очень теплую встречу. 7. Соседские дети достаточно хорошо воспитаны. 8. Я очень люблю этот парк и часто прихожу сюда по выходным. 9. Он очень смутился, когда увидел директора. Им предстоял тяжелый разговор. 10. Сегодня довольно-таки тепло, ветра нет и небо ясное. reflect — brood B. 1. Вам надо бы сесть и хорошенько подумать о том, что случилось. 2. Постарайся не думать об этом. От этих мыслей чувствуешь себя только хуже. 3. В семнадцать лет он впервые стал размышлять о смысле жизни. 4. Не надо все время думать о том, что может случиться с твоим сыном. Он уже достаточно взрослый и сможет самостоятельно добраться до дома. 5. Когда Патриция думала об этом несчастном случае снова, у нее стоял комок в горле. 6. Ты зря опять об этом думаешь, ты только снова расстроишься. 7. Размышляя о вчерашних событиях, она нисколько не сожалела, что поступила именно так. 8. Отец с тревогой думал о будущем своих детей. 9. После допроса свидетель снова стал размышлять о подробностях происшествия. stay — remain C. 1. Стой, где стоишь. 2. В наше время сложно оставаться популярной певицей, даже если ты очень талантлива. 3. Останься дома, ты плохо себя чувствуешь. 4. Не оставляй меня, я так тебя люблю. 5. Хорошее образование все еще имеет большое значение в нашем обществе. 6. Подожди около двери, я сейчас вернусь. 7. На этой неделе ветер останется сильным. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 8. В комнату неожиданно вошли дети, и разговор родителей остался не завершенным. 9. Внуки решили остаться у бабушки на неделю-другую. 10. Остается только признать, что другого выхода нет. fees — salary D. 1. Обещали, что зарплата врачей и учителей повысится в сентябре. 2. Стоимость проезда в автобусе все время растет. 3. Вступительный взнос в эту организацию был достаточно невысок. 4, Сколько ты заплатил за визит к зубному врачу? 5. Стоимость провоза багажа взимается в начале поездки. 6. Тебе придется заплатить пошлину за пересылку такого письма. 7. Я спросил, сколько будет стоить одно посещение массажного кабинета. 8. Средняя заработная плата в нашем городе выше, чем в других городах. fat — stout — thick E. 1. Он шел, опираясь на толстую палку. 2. Она всегда считала себя толстушкой, 3. Какой толстый поросенок! 4. С годами бабушка стала полной и почти все время проводила дома. 5. Она была полновата, но очень привлекательна. 6. После болезни мои пальцы стали такими толстыми, что я не могу надеть обручальное кольцо. 7. Дом был сделан из прочных толстых бревен. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Heaven help us My! Alas! Wow! Right! Ouch! Pardon. Oh, dear! (2) Heaven only knows 1. 2. 3. We are lost and it is already dark. ______________ Is it you? I didn’t expect you so early. ______________ Let’s stick to the problem otherwise we’ll never finish our meeting. 4. ______________, he never came and that was the end of our romantic story. 5. ___________________ whether he will come to help us or not. 6. It is Mike calling. — _________________ I cannot believe it! 7. _____________________, will you repeat that? 8. ______________ Are you brushing my hair ► let’s go. 9. _ or trying to tear it out? Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 10. , not that again! How can you make the same mistake all the time! Form shortenings and use them to complete the sentences. lipstick influenza examination vacuum refrigerator nightgown vegetables telephone football defence 1. Quick! The is ringing! 2. The ____ around the house was so high that it was impossible to see anything. 3. There is somebody at home. Can you hear a ---------- _____________ working? 4. This ___________________ session is the most difficult. I don’t know how Г11 survive. 5. Wow, you have bought a new __________________! Your kitchen looks perfect now. 6. Mom, where’s my ___________________? I am going to bed. 7. We need a lot of _________________ for this dish so tomorrow the first thing to do is to go to the market. 8. You are too young to use a___________________You look attractive without make-up. 9. A game of ____________________ in the fresh air will help you cheer up. 10. This epidemic of _____________________ is terrible. I have fallen ill again. Give the full form of the words, tences. Use them to complete the sen- PC Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Продолжение МР US UK Ml UN ID BBC 1. He is a prominent ________________ known to the public. 2. My __________ I should have bought another model. 3. The policeman asked for ________________ but I had left mine at home. 4. The ________________ news is the most reliable. 5. _______________ is the shortest way to Leeds from here. 6. The _______________ is opening a new session tomorrow. 7. The ____________________ and other countries face a new problem of globalization. 8. London, the capital of the _____________________, is a very ancient city. His speeches are well-____ has broken again. 12 Complete the sentences with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right. 1. Little bundles of joy may not be delivering as much 1. _______________ to their moms and dads as they’re reputed to, Newsweek reports. Parents are about 7% less happy than 2. ______________ people. One study stresses this fact, while another makes a 3. ____________ that a lot of parents are 4. __________ happier than people who never had children. 5. __________ wonder if parents are please child conclude significant journal too busy to feel love for their kids. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал е е iu II. Parents once had kids for 1 ______________ 2. ______________ rea sons — someone had to help in the fields or mind the store. Parents today give more 3. ______________ to emotional 4.______________Yet they are busy working and get less help in raising kids. Still, it’s not wise to complain. “If you admit kids and 5. _______________ duties aren’t making you happy, it’s 6. _____________ blasphemy,” one 7. -------------- says. part economy attentive fulfill parent basic blog Read the text. Complete it with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right. I. The word 1. Ethics is a 2. in the of the Greek term eudemonia. This implies that to be happy is to be 3. _______ and 4.____________Happiness is our highest goal. Most people think of happiness as 5. ___________ pleasure or honour, but this is because they have a flawed view of the good life. The 6. ____________ people have of happiness 7. _____________ does not line up with true happiness because happy translate success fulfill physics concept frequent Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал people are not 8._____________________ Virtue is a 9. ____________ to behave in the right manner, which is instilled in a person from 10.__________________ II. A person with the virtue of courage will not only show 1. ________ ______________ in the face of fear, but will think of this courage as a good thing. Behaving 2. _______________ will make the 3, __________________ person happy and will be one part of living a 4. good life. By con- trast, a person who has not been brought up 5. ________________ and is a coward will find happiness in the 6. of danger and thus will have an 7. ______________ view of the good life. The goal of life is to be good. Only the good can 8. ___________ appreciate happiness. People today think of happiness as whatever pleases them and not as the 9. ____________ of good actions. Today people see happiness as a 10. ______________ thing. virtue dispose child confident courage virtue general proper avoid perfect true perform subject Rewrite the sentences using the verb fo stick. l.Try again and continue doing the task though I know you don’t like it. 2. Keep to the original plan otherwise weTl never finish the project. 3. I still go in for swimming and enjoy it immensely. 4. Follow the instructions if you want to be out of danger. 5. Let’s unite our forces and fight against our common enemy. 6. Will you support the plan we have been working at for so long? We need your help. 7. While doing the sights stay with your aunt then everything will be all right. 8. Will you keep your promise to come to the meeting and speak for our candidate? 9. All the newcomers stay around Paul as he is very helpful in any situation. 10. If you do everything together you can cope with any task given by the authorities. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Use participle I or participle II to complete the text. Bronze Medalists Happier Than Silver Winners Newly 1. (awarded/awarding) gold medalists feel ecstatic, secondplace finishers slightly less so, and bronze winners, as 2. (supposed/supposing the least happy or so — conventional wisdom would have it. But 3. (analysed/analysing) the point psychologists find that bronze medalists get usually more 4, (satisfied/satisfying) than those who finish with silver, as 5. (reported/reporting) in the Washington Post. Why does this Olympic paradox play out so regularly? Researchers 6. (studied/studying) the post-competition reactions of elite athletes say that second-place finishers become 7. (obsessed/obsessing) about the reasons for 8. (come/coming) up short, while those in third-place are happy to have made it to the top three. The studies suggest happiness is about 9. (fulfilled/fulfilling) expectations and whether competitors compare themselves to those who fare better or worse. i at Use participle I or participle II to complete the text. Get Old, Get Happy Happiness really does come with age, researchers have discovered in one of the 1. (widest-ranging/widest-ranged) studies ever of happiness in America. Measures of happiness steadily climbed among 2. (studied/studying) participants into their mid-60s. Levels 3. (dipped/ dipping) only slightly after that, and 4. (examined/ examining) people in their 80s are still tended to be happier and more 5. (interested/interesting) in life than people under 40, the Chicago Sun-Times reports. Older people may have more health problems but they tend to be more emotionally 6. (balanced/ balancing) due to stability later in life, researchers theorised- “People learn from life — Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал what’s good for them, how to live their life,” said a researcher. “They establish connections, 7. (endured/enduring) relations.” He conceded that positive findings among the oldest may have been skewed a bit by the fact that happy people tend to a longer and more 8. (entertained/entertaining) life. Complete the sentences using prepositions for, of, in, from, forward, to where necessary. 1. How can you blame me doing that! It is absolutely not my fault. 2. I have known him so long but I never suspected he could be interested _____ collecting stamps. 3. Your son is grown up and you cannot keep him __________ making his own mistakes. 4. If you are dreaming joining that kind of club you should change your life style absolutely. 5. Your phone call could have prevented him ______ coming in vein but you didn’t even try to help. 6. No doubt he will succeed ______ receiving the grant as he has been working at his project for half a year. 7. Your husband doesn’t seem capable _______ taking care of the family. 8. I cannot believe __ working miracles, come back to reality and do at least something. 9. He was pretty old but used _____ jogging every morning which kept him in good form. 10. She’s been in high spirits for the whole week as she is looking ___________ to her wedding. 11. It is your own choice so why are you complaining __________ having such poor results. 12. Whatever you say he will never object _____ following your recommendations. 13. It was clear she was tired ____ repeating the same explanations. 14. I am afraid talking to him about the accident. He is still depressed by the event. 15. His mother has been sorry ________ him. 1i Express the same in English using phrases with the infinitive. 1. Мне совсем не нравится эта ситуация, честно говоря. 2. Мне не нравятся фильмы ужасов. По правде говоря, эти фильмы не на мой вкус. 3. Они боятся встречаться на людях. Честно говоря, это странно. 4. Для начала опишите этого героя в деталях, а потом скажите, какие черты его характера являются основными. 5. По правде говоря, он был абсолютно смущен ее предложением. 6. Я не мог оставаться в этой компании. По правде говоря, меня не устраивала зарплата. 7. Возвращаясь к сути дела, нам придется рискнуть, иначе мы проиграем Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал дело. 8. Если быть точным, мы не совсем закончили работу по этому проекту. 9. Он выглядел ужасно, в поношенной одежде, короче говоря, был похож на нищего, 10. Для начала объясните детали вашего дела. Express the same in English using the verb fo have. 1. Обстоятельства заставили нас рисковать в этом нелегком деле. 2. Уже через неделю у этого учителя дети будут очень легко и быстро решать задачки по математике. 3. Родители не могли допустить, чтобы их единственный сын жил в нищете. 4. Когда он приехал в новый город, ему пришлось зарабатывать на жизнь самому. 5. Уже через месяц он у нас будет достаточно хорошо говорить по-английски. 6. Бабушке пришлось остаться у нас еще на неделю из-за болезни внучки. 7. Пол не мог допустить, чтобы его друг стал попрошайкой. 8. Кондуктор заставил нас оплатить проезд еще раз, так как мы потеряли свои билеты. 9. Они не могли допустить, чтобы лучший студент не воспользовался возможностью поехать в Лондон на месяц. 10. Во время первого визита врач помог Джону. Я уверен, он очень быстро вылечит тебя от этой болезни. Choose А, В or С to complete the sentences. 1. After that news Mirabel is constantly floating _______ air. Can we do anything about it? A. for B. — C. on 2. Our mother has always been optimistic looking ________ the bright side of her life. A. about B. on C. of 3. That action of hers will cast a shadow_______ your friend’s life forever. A. over B. for C. of 4. Why are you feeling down ______________ his words? It’s no trouble at all. A. for B. to C. about 5. Brian should fill his life ________ happiness and joy and find good friends. A. with B. of C. to 6. Michel is absolutely idealistic creating happiness ________ her relatives all the time. A. to B. for C. towards Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал when she saw him coming to her 7. Susie’s face lit _______ house. A. — B. up C. of 8. This problem should be really reflected_______ ing any decision. A. on B. through C. by 9. As far as I know Natasha has always been spirits. A. in B. to C. for 10. It is possible to do such a thing only _______ very close people. A. — B. with C. for 11. Those humiliating words of yours will only result you being completely lonely. A. with B. in C. of before mak- high the sake of Use the following words and word combinations to complete the sentences. being on the bright side beaming smile resentful and irritable feeling low and disillusioned looks bright and rosy on top of the world create happiness for others enthusiastic optimistic sociable to become less stressed, touchy and nervous cherishing every pleasant moment 1. The moment you believe you must deserve happiness you condemn yourself to a life of hell in which you struggle, sacrifice and judge yourself constantly. You will feel _____________________ for the rest of your life. 2. Living means to be active. If you want happiness, be happy and _____________________________; if you want society, be _________________________; if you want trust, be trusting; if you want enthusiasm, be___________________________Be what you want, and stick to it! 3. How wonderful it is to laugh! Instinctively, we know that there is something magical, nourishing and uplifting about laughter, particularly a warm, _______________________ that is given to a friend, a loved one and even occasionally a stranger. 4. Being --------------------------- Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал would allow us not only to do everything that we must do. Rather, it would enable us to do everything better than when we do it with a pessimistic outlook. 5. We have to make an effort to create and experience happiness. This would mean, ________________________of life and ________________________despite what obstacles life might bring forth. 6. Those times that you spent with friends, loved ones and family members are the best way to cheer up when you are_____________________________7. When people are in love they are_________________________ feeling ecstat- ic and content. Their future . 8. Happiness is something which multiplies the more you give and share it with others. This gift of kindness can be cultivated and when it is, you will __________________________ and have more satisfaction in life. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал True: 1, 5, 7 False: 2, 3, 6, 9 Not stated: 4, 8 FiXeiTise 3. в 4. G 5. A 6. E 3. A 4. E 5. G 6. H 7. В (additional C) Fxerrise 3 1. F 2. D Kxcrcise 4 1) dates from 2) acquired 3) contemporary 4) commission 5) cultural figures 6) a connoisseur of art 7) subsequently 8) mansion 9) was converted 10) increased tenfold 11) annual Fxercise n 4. A 5. C 6. A 7. В 8. C 1. C 2. В 3. C 10. В 11. A ere iso < ■ 1. in 2. for 3. for 4. of 5. by 6. by, for 9. with 10. to 9. A 7. to 8. in i:.. e : j ' 7. a 8. d 9. e 1. к 2. h 3. g 4. b 5. i 6. j 10. f 11. c 12. 1 I .xerfisf 8 1. Greed is one of the most unpleasant human qualities. 2. The meeting was arranged for Friday afternoon in the conference hall. 3. We left home late that morning and caught our train by sheer luck. 4. Their opinion will not affect my decision. 5. For Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал many years he lived in shadow of his famous father. 6. The poverty-stricken suburban area looked very unattractive. 7. The contrasts between rich and poor nations are a source of discord. 8. He was gasping for air as though he had been running fast. 9. They were very happy together, though their marriage had been arranged. 10. The victims of the/an earthquake need food, shelter and medical aid. 11. The sounds were so discordant that I promptly turned the radio off. 12. Only after Gauguin’s death people began to consider his works as masterpieces. A. 1. to cast/throw long shadows; 2. in (the) shade/in the shad-ows/in shadow; 3. in the shade of a tree/in the shadows of a tree; 4. to sit in the shade of a wall/in the shadows of the wall; 5. to move into shadows/into the shade; 6. to emerge from the shadows; 7. to look for shade to have a rest; 8. streets filled with sinister shadows; 9. to step out of the shadow(s); 10, to grow well in the shade B. 1. a piece of cake (tart); 2. a lump of clay; 3. a lump of sugar; 4. a lump of ice; 5. a lump in the throat; 6. a piece of bread; 7, a piece of paper; 8. to tear to pieces; 9. a piece of land; 10. a piece of cake C. 1. a car crash victim; 2. sacrifices to pagan gods; 3. to make a sacrifice of one’s career; 4. to make sacrifices for one’s children; 5, at the sacrifice of one’s health; 6. at the sacrifice of one’s principles; 7. victims of an assault; 8. a victim of a/the crime, a crime victim; 9. a murder victim; 10. a victim of discrimination D. 1. to be in accord with oneself; 2. of one’s own accord; 3. a peace accord; 4, a trade accord; 5. to do sth of one’s own accord; 6. discord; 7, a source of discord; 8. to avoid any discord; 9. family discord E. 1. to affect one’s health; 2. to be affected by a/the crisis; 3. to affect everybody’s interests; 4. to affect parents deeply; 5. to have an effect on sb; 6. a desirable effect; 7. to have a magical effect on sb; 8. to minimize the effects of economic changes; 9. to come to effect; 10. an optical effect F. 1. affectation; 2. one’s affection for the family; 3. to show affection; 4. to have a deep affection for the country; 5. to win Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал sb’s affection; 6. to remember sb with sincere affection; 7. without affectation; 8. affectation; 9. a display of affection 1. h 2. i 3. c 10. g 11. d 4. j 5. e 6, a 7. b 8. к 9. f 1. slices 2. dash 3. Clods 4. splinters 5. wisp 6. pinch 7. crumbs 8. chunks, pieces 9. rasher 10. bar, bar 11. shreds 12. grains I. 1. heart-breaking 2. smart-looking 3. fast-developing 4. well-meaning 5. easy-going 6. progress-making II. 1. new-born 2. poverty-stricken 3. horse-drawn 4. hand-written 5. ill-chosen 6. well-paid III. 1. curly-haired 2. four-legged 3. broad-shouldered 4. sixheaded 5. hairy-chested 6. green-eyed 1. confidence, treatment 2. preparations, exhibition, following 3. surrounding, sympathetic/unsympathetic 4. prosperous 5. woolen/woollen 6. impression, solemnity 7. historically, important 8. political, Persian 9. maturity, expression 10. provincial 1. educational 2. famous 3. construction 4. building 5. subscription 6. different 7. specially 8. exhibition 9. comprehensive 10. Roman 1. from carrying out their duties 2. to carry on his work 3. carried her through 4. carried through research 5. carry on till you see ... 6. who could carry through 7. was carried out 8. helped me to carry through 9. was carried out I 1. His 2. his 8. his 9. he 14. themselves 20. his 3. his 4. he 5. he 6. them 7. himself 10. its 11. They 12. their 13. they 15. his 16. his 17. his 18. his 19. It Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал i4IS< 17 1. herself 2. himself 3. ourselves 4. ourselves 5. himself 6. themselves 7. yourself/yourselves 8. himself 9. ourselves 10. themselves 11. itself 12. yourself/yourselves 13. myself 14. itself 15. yourselves 16. myself 1. There were two tomatoes, a potato, a cabbage and three onions on the kitchen table. 2. Where are the cherries? Have you eaten them all? Yesterday I bought a kilo of berries. 3. Have you spent all the money or have you lost it? 4. Lilies-of-the-valley and forget-me-nots are my favourite flowers. 5. There is no fish in the fridge. I have fried it all, all half a kilo. 6. There are a lot of fish in the pond, but they are not very big. 7. The Dutch painters (have) created a lot of superb still lifes. 8. My little sister is fond of drawing various animals. In her pictures you can see deer, geese, sheep and other domestic animals, 9. Rod stood on the porch watching passers-by hurrying along the street in different directions. 10. The rare bird has become an endangered species. 11. Do fish fly? Some of them do. rise 1. a millennium 2. a tooth 3. a curriculum 4. an antenna 5. a thief 6. a roof 7. a genius/a genie 8. a series 9. an ox 10. a phenomenon 11. a crisis 12. a cactus 13. a thesis 14. a woman 15. a diagnosis 16. a genie K\L ., :-*■ 2Г A. 1. Никогда не знаешь заранее. 2. Так по-русски не говорят. 3. В наше время можно сказать что угодно. 4. Как возможно это сделать? 5. Ко всему привыкаешь. B. 1. Возьми мою ручку. — Спасибо, у меня есть своя. 2. Я взял книги из библиотеки. — Ты имеешь в виду те, что лежат на парте? 3. Этот рассказ более интересный, чем тот, что я читал вчера. 4. Ты играешь на пианино? В актовом зале есть пианино. 5. Сливы спелые? — Те, что в саду перед домом, — спелые. L nise 1. а 2. а 3. а Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ' .xcn i 1. looks were 2. is 3. manner has 4. earnings are 5. comprise 6. are 7. consists 8. are 9. custom is 10. ashes were Fxerciso '-i 1. are painted 2, depicted 3. (have) stood 4. (has) captured 5. are represented 6. demonstrated/demonstrates 7. contrast 8. attracted 9. introduced 10. handled/handles Exercise 25 1. This sitter’s/model’s face seems strangely familiar to me. 2. In their landscapes (the) Dutch masters demonstrated a great sense of space. 3. The Russian painter Fedotov was famous for his genre (subject) paintings. 4. The dominating colours in this seascape are blues and greens. 5, The colours in Van Gogh’s pictures are often bright, intense and luminous. 6. The general impression the picture makes is lyrical and touching. 7. A lot of great masters turned to mythological painting (subjects). 8. In the background of the portrait you can see a group of trees and the shore of a lake. UNIT TWO Kxerrist» ' True: 1, 4, 5 False: 2, 3, 6 Not stated: 7 2 1. b 2- b 3. c 4. a 5. a 6. c 7. b 8. c 9. a 10. c 1, c 2- d 3. b 4. d 5. c 1) medieval Europe 2) a psalm 3) a synagogue 4) the Scripture 5) to provide Sunday Schools 6) to be funded by the church 7) a parishioner 8) a parochial school 9) the official religion of a country Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 1. to 2. in 3. for 4. of, of 8. of 9. of 10. in, of 5. in 6. to 7. on, of 1. for 2. on 9. to 10. to 3. of 4. of 5. on, in 6. of 7. of 8. in I. executed 2. confirmed 3. innocent as a baby unborn 4. menace 5. shelter 6. claimed 7. denying 8. in 9. trial 10. life II. betrayed 12. demand 1. a real trial 2. badly executed 3. with menace 4. to confirm 5. to seek (for) their happiness 6. betrayed my secret 7. You can’t deny 8. claims this umbrella 9. filled with awe 10. innocent remark 11. sentenced to 5 years 12. deserves the time 13. demands creativity 1. dangerous menace 2. to deny socially 3. to walk innocent 4. to calculate awe 5. heavy demands 6. to deserve coldly 7. private trial 8. to execute exceptionally A. 1. despite 2. In spite (of) 3. in spite 4. In spite 5. Despite B. 1. are demanding 2. demanded 3. require 4. is required 5. requires C. 1, has been looking 2. seek 3. seek 4. sought 5. am looking D. 1, feast 2. holiday 3. holiday 4. feast 5. holiday E. 1. feast 2. feast, meal 3, meals 4. meals 5. feast F. 1, disciple 2. pupils 3. pupils 4. disciple 5. pupils 1. underprivileged families 2. Antisocial behaviour 3. disarming smile 4. misleading statements 5. overpopulated area 6. precooked meals 7. unwelcome guest 8. outnumber women 9. antiseptic qualities 10. outsmart enemies Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 1. reread 2. building, beautiful, powerful 3. eastern, western 4. Confucianism 5. influential, followers 6. flourishing 7. happiness 8. warmly, unchanged 9. founder, meaning 10, unselfish, gentleness 11. superstitious, magical 12. Buddhism, religious 13. blessed 14. worldly 15. quickly, central, Indian, Buddhist 1. Islamic 2. sighting 3. Islamic 4. blessing 5. prayer 6. trader 7. wandering 8. including 9. spiritual 10. believers 11. important 12. pilgrimage 13. decorations 14. generosity 15. valuable 16. significance 17. blessings 18. contributions 1. die 2. take 3. take 4. put 5. die 6. put 7. died 8. take 9. are dying/die 10. put 11. am dying 12. died 1. rightly 2. coldly 3. high 4. sad 5. wrongly 6. hardly 7. kindly 8. nearly 9. happy 10. highly 11. lately 12. badly 13. widely 14. nice, fabulous 15. right 1. Им пришлось продать свои акции, чтобы уберечь свое дело (от краха). 2. Джерри изо всех сил пытался удержать свое суденышко на плаву. 3. Он пытается держаться и не сдаваться из-за проблем со здоровьем и эмоциональных стрессов. 4. Дети спустили свою новую лодку на воду озера. 5. Он резко остановился, вдруг испугавшись вслух произнести эти слова. 6. а) Роджер за нее боится, б) Роджер ее боится. 7. Его одежда загорелась. 8. Глаза детей горели от возбуждения. 9. Было слишком рано, я еще не до конца проснулся. 10. В течение пяти дней пациент казался едва живым. 11. Она осознала, что в течение последних трех лет она почти не жила (жила неполной жизнью). 12. Люди пытаются не дать умереть (исчезнуть) старым традициям. 1. all alone 2. wide awake 3. sound asleep 4. very much ashamed 5. safely afloat Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 1. Нынешний хозяин коттеджа собирается его продать, 2. Все присутствовавшие с одобрением восприняли решение. 3. Моя младшая сестра очень надежная (ответственная) девочка. 4. Ученик, ответственный за школьную страницу в Интернете, заболел. 5. Джек знал об ограблении, но сам в нем не был замешан. 6. После проведенного исследования у Алисы было много примеров сложного (запутанного) стиля произведений Джонсона. 7. Обо всех замешанных в этом происшествии будет сообщено директору. 8. Обеспокоенные родители провели собрание, 9. Это было правильное решение. 10. Собственно спорный вопрос (спорный вопрос, как таковой) не обсуждали. 1. I’ve never seen such an ideal old bronze statue before. 2. The story was published in the popular new glossy magazine. 3. In the corner of the room stood a small round oak table. 4. The girl couldn’t take her eyes off the lovely new yellow toy dog. 5. In the shop window we saw piles of bright Chinese cotton kitchen towels. 6. This is my favourite old oval mirror in a beautiful silver frame. 7. What a pretty white cashmere scarf! 8. It was a magnificent brand-new American ocean liner cruising in the Mediterranean. 1. evidently/clearly 2. Surprisingly 3. normally/generally 4. Clearly/Evidently 5. Frankly 6. unfortunately 7. Unluckily/ Unfortunately .-is: 1. c 2. a 3. c 4. a 5. b 6. b 7. a 8. c 9. b 10. b 1. crucifixion 2. pagoda 3. monk 4. mosque 5. stained glass window 6. pulpit and preacher 7. chandelier and candles 8. nun 9. iconostasis 10. fresco 11. altar 12. choir stalls and singers 1. Traditional places of worship are churches, cathedrals, chapels, synagogues, mosques, temples and pagodas. 2. Non- Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал believers (atheists) think that the physical world is self-contained and can be understood with the help of sciences. 3. Roman Catholic Church is headed by the Pope. 4. Monks live in monasteries and nuns live in convents. 5. In a Christian church one can see the following objects: an altar, a pulpit, an iconostasis and choir stalls, 6. In mosques services are led by imams. 7. People who share the same religious beliefs are members of religious communities. 8. Christianity exists in diverse forms and includes Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox Church and the Protestant movement (Protestantism). 9. Catholic cathedrals are often decorated with stained glass windows. 10. The members of James’ family regularly attend worship. 11. At the end of the service the preacher and his congregation sang a psalm. 12. Ancient Greeks often offered sacrifice to their gods. 13. Jews, Christians and Muslims travel to Jerusalem to seek blessing, healing and salvation. 14. Catholics are supposed to make regular confessions. UNn ’ Lxerci:;* ’ True: 1, 2, 6, 8 False: 3 Not stated: 4, 5, 7 r\sv !' 1. F 2. в 3. G 4. A 5. D 6. C f*'' r< ise f> 1. D 2. G 3. A 4. В 5. F 6. E l^xercisr 1) diverse 2) significance 3) uncertain 4) habitat 5) reserve 6) to pose a threat 7) endangered 8) contain 9) ensure 10) to adapt (to sth) I'Acrris** 5 1. В 2. В 3. В 4. С 5. В 6, А 7. В 8. С 9. В 10. А Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 1. as 2. hesitate 3. distresses 4. rubbed 5. Spin 6. board 7. scratching 8. treating 9. disturb 10. treat 1. hesitates 2. decency 3. treat 4. has scratched 5. oppressive 6. shiver 7. disturbed 8. shrewd 9. rubbing 10. distress 11. fading 12. spinning 1. shrewd 2. They have no idea of decency 3. hesitate 4. distressed 5. faded away 6. disturb 7. shivering 8. scratching their heads 9. oppressive 10. spun A. 1. strong smell (aroma) 2. scent (aroma) 3. the reek of tobacco 4. aroma 5. a smell of burning 6. a delicate scent of flowers 7. the aroma of coffee 8. reek 9. sense of smell 10. the reek of whisky B. 1. odd numbers 2. strange people 3. a queer fellow 4. an odd (strange) skirt 5. to look queer 6. odd manners 7. queer noises 8. feel a little queer 9. an odd month 10. an odd person 11. a strange voice 1. chopping board 2. diving board 3. chess board 4. emery board 5. electronic board 6. noticeboard 7. dart board 1. ducked 2. snaked 3. ratted 4. wolfed 5. dogged 6. rabbiting 7. monkeying 8. ferreting 9. aped 1. southern 2. population 3. admiration 4. evacuation 5. beauti ful 6. surrounding 7. normal 8, representative 9. National 1. rub it in 2. rub along 3. rub the dog down 4. rub out 5. rub along 6. rub it in 7. rub out 8. rubbed himself down Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 1. has ever been seen 2. have always known 3. snows 4. landed 5. was absorbing 6. is condensing 7. to watch/to be watching 8. lands/is landing 1. is currently appearing 2. will be looking 3. has voted 4. think/am thinking 5. finished/had finished 6. have been eat-ing/have eaten 7. had owned 8. Are you seeing, am feeling 9. is considering 10. would show 1. for 2. to 3. for 9. for 10. for 4. to 5. to 6. for 7. to 8. to 1. He gave an interesting article devoted to global warming to me. 2. They showed new plans of reconstruction to us. 3. She has booked the tickets to New Orleans for our partners already, so they are leaving tomorrow morning. 4. He has sold all his shares to our main competitors. 5. Ben's grandmother left all her fortune to him. 6. My birthday is tomorrow and Pm sure that my parents have prepared something great for me. 7. ..., so could you please send a message to Albert? 8. ... Who taught all these things to you? 9. Alice painted a wonderful still life for me. 10. It was his goal that won the match for us. 1. dries/is dried 2. has increased 3. will defrost 4. melts 5. shook 6. balancing 7. simmer 8. grows 9. had dropped 10. has improved 1. belt 2. alarm 3. anger 4. music 5. Tempers 6. rifle 7. cloth 1. to be in full bloom 2. glorious sunrises 3. rough sea 4. raise ecological awareness 5. a nip in the air 6. heavy fall of snow 7. transparent air 8. overspending of energy resources 9. was penetrated with sun rays 10. pouring with rain Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал 41 1. nip 2. mist 3. transparent 4. bloom 5. spectacular 6. 7. torrential 8. overcast 9, extinction 10. dumping tsunami 1. It was a depressing overcast winter morning. 2. It is necessary to protect endangered species and act quickly before it becomes too late. 3. Some of the most urgent problems of the humanity are climatic changes, global warming, air, water and soil pollution. 4. The torrential rain was followed by a hurricane. 5. There was a nip in the air. 6. The sun was shining and there was a light breeze in the air. Nobody thought that there would be a thunderstorm soon. 7. The ozone layer protects the earth from (the) harmful radiation. 8. Nowadays the mankind has to turn to alternative sources of energy. 9. At last nuclear waste disposal site was found. 10. Every sunrise looked spectacular and glorious to him and every day was a holiday. ПМ и True: 1, 3, 8 False: 5, 6 Not stated: 2, 4, 7 rnst 1. в 2. А 3. с 4. G 5. D 6. F (additional Е) 1. в 1 2. D ise 3. F 4. G 5. С 6. А 7. Н (additional Е) 1) first-time 2) to take for granted 3) encourage 4) drag down 5) inspire 6) feel blue 7) enthusiastic 8) destructive 9) pass on to 10) pretty 11) poisonous 1. for 2. by 3. of 4. in 5. on 6. by 7. of 8. in 9. — 10. at Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал г* 1. asking 2. embarrassed 3. fancy 4. fee 5. precise 6. precisely 7. reflecting 8. remained 9, exactly 10, salary 1. shabby, beg 2. precise, fancy 3. beggar, pretty 4. fees 5. risk 6. Stay 7. Fancy 8. twinkling, stay, reflecting 9. embarrassing 10. twinkling A. 1, She is pretty clever and very attractive. 2. It is a pretty good idea to give this work to Clear. I think she will cope with it very well. 3. Her answer differed very much from the rest. 4. He is considered a very reliable friend/partner. 5. Having made a good reflection Paul decided to refuse the offer. 6. The delegation had a very warm meeting. 7. The neighbours’ children are pretty well brought-up. 8. I like this park very much and I often come here on my days off. 9. He was very/pretty embarrassed when he saw the headmaster. They were going to have a difficult conversation. 10. It is pretty warm today, there’s no wind and the sky is clear. B. 1. You’d better sit and reflect on what has happened. 2. Try not to brood over it again. These thoughts make you feel worse because of that. 3. At the age of seventeen he began to reflect on the sense (meaning) of life. 4. You shouldn’t brood over what may happen to your son. He is (a) grown-up already and he will be able to get home (by) himself. 5. When Patricia was brooding over that accident again there was a lump in her throat, 6. You are brooding over it in vein, you will only feel upset. 7, Reflecting on yesterday’s events she didn’t regret having acted precisely that way. 8. The father was brooding over the future of his children. 9. After being questioned the witness began to reflect on the details of the incident again. C. 1. Stay (remain) where you are. 2. Nowadays, it is hard to remain a popular singer even if you are very talented. 3. Remain (stay) at home as you don’t feel well. 4. Stay with me, I love you so much. 5. Good education still remains relevant in our society. 6. Stay (remain) at the door, ITl come back in a minute. 7. This week the wind remains strong. 8. The children unexpectedly came Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал into the room and the parents’ talk remained unfinished. 9. The grandchildren decided to stay at the granny’s for a week or so. 10. It remains only to admit, there is no other way out. D. 1. They promised that doctors’ and teachers’ salary would rise in September. 2. The bus fees are constantly increasing. 3. The entrance fees to that organization were pretty low. 4. How much were you charged for a visit to the dentist? 5. Luggage transportation fees are charged at the beginning of the trip. 6. You will have to pay fees for sending such a kind of letter. 7. I asked how much they would charge for a single visit to the massage room. 8. The average salary in our city is higher than in other cities. E. 1. He was walking leaning on a thick stick. 2. She has always thought herself rather fat. 3. What a fat pigl 4. With age my granny became stout and stayed at home almost all the time. 5. She was a little stout but very attractive. 6. After the disease my fingers became so fat that I cannot put on my wedding ring, 7. The house was made of strong and thick logs. 1. Heaven help us 2. My! (Wow!) 3. Oh, dear! 4. Alas 5. Heaven only knows 6. Wow! 7. Pardon 8. Right 9. Ouch! 10. Oh, dear (My) 1. phone 2. fence 3. vac 4. exam 5. fridge 6. nightie 7. veggies 8. lippy 9. footie 10. flu L: 1. member of parliament 2. personal computer 3. identification (card) 4. British Broadcast Corporation 5. Motorway 1 6. United Nations 7. United States 8. United Kingdom '-'isv I. 1. pleasure 2. childless 3. conclusion 4. significantly 5. Journalists II. 1. partly 2. economic 3. attention 4. fulfillment 5. parental 6. basically 7. blogger Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал I. 1. happiness 2, translation 3. successful 4. fulfilled 5. physical 6. conception 7. frequently 8. virtuous 9. disposition 10. childhood II. 1. confidence 2. courageously 3. virtuous 4. generally 5. properly 6. avoidance 7. imperfect 8. truly 9. performance 10. subjective - is. 1. Try and stick to the task ... 2. Stick to the original plan ... 3. I still stick to swimming ... 4. Stick to the instructions ... 5. Let’s stick together ... 6. Will you stick up for the plan ...? 7. While doing the sights stick to your aunt ... 8. Will you stick to your promise ... ? 9. All the newcomers stick with Paul ... 10. If you stick together ... 1. awarded 2. supposed 3. analysing 4. satisfied 5. reported 6. studying 7. obsessed 8. coming 9. fulfilled 1. widest-ranging 2. studied 3. dipped 4. examined 5. interested 6. balanced 7. enduring 8. entertaining 1. for 2. in 3. from 4. of 5. from 6. in 7. of 8. in 9. to 10. forward 11. of 12. to 13. of 14. of 15. for 1. I don’t like the situation at all to be honest. 2. I don’t like horror films. To tell you the truth they are not my cup of tea/not to my taste. 3. They are afraid of seeing each other in public. To be honest, it is strange. 4. To begin with, describe this character in detail and then say what features of his character are important. 5. To tell you the truth he was absolutely embarrassed by her offer. 6. I couldn’t remain in the company. To tell you the truth, the salary didn’t satisfy me. 7. To get back to the point, we’ll have to take a risk; otherwise we’ll lose the case. 8. To be precise, we haven’t completely finished the work on this project. 9. He looked awful in shabby clothes, to cut a Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал long story short he looked like a beggar, explain the details of your business (case). 10. To begin with. 1. The circumstances had us take a risk in this complicated matter. 2. This teacher will have the children do/doing maths tasks easily and quickly in a week. 3. The parents couldn’t have their only son live/living in poverty. 4. On arriving in the new city he had to earn his living himself. 5. We’ll have him speak/speaking English pretty well in a month. 6. Granny had to stay with us for another week because of her granddaughter’s disease. 7. Paul couldn’t have his friend become/becoming a beggar. 8. The conductor had us pay the fees again as we had lost our tickets. 9. They couldn’t have the brightest student lose/ losing the chance of going to London for a month. 10. During the first visit the doctor helped John. I am sure he will have you recover/recovering from this disease very quickly. \- 1. C 10. c 2. в 3. A 11. В 4. C 5. A 6. В 7. В 8. A 9. A 1. feel resentful and irritable 2. create happiness for others, sociable, enthusiastic 3. beaming smile 4. optimistic 5. being on the bright side, cherishing every pleasant moment 6. feeling low and disillusioned 7. on top of the world, looks bright and rosy 8. become less stressed, touchy and nervous Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Sci6^t^ ^ Leonardo da Vinci йи Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452 and died in 1519. He left us very few finished works, but in his own lifetime and ever since he has been judged one of the greatest artists and greatest men of all time. His interests took him in many directions. The anatomy of men and animals fascinated him, and so did many engineering and scientific problems, such as the designing of aeroplanes and submarines, schemes of fortification and the improvement of firearms. His inquisitive mind and great imagination were tirelessly at work and he recorded facts and inventions in his famous notebooks. Leonardo’s surviving paintings include the well-known Mona LisOy a portrait that has gripped and fascinated generations by its mysterious half-revealed meaning. In his picture The Virgin of the RockSy Leonardo stirs our wonder and imagination by showing more clearly certain selected details in strong light, while concealing other parts in the gloom of the shadowed passages, In this he gave a prototype for styles of painting yet to come. Before Leonardo no one had managed to understand and use the moving power of this kind of painting. ? Speaker One. Francisco de Goya was born in Spain in 1746. After studying art, he became one of the top portrait painters of his day. He moved to Madrid and was appointed official court painter to three generations of Spanish kings. He earned fame and fortune painting beautiful portraits of Spain’s rich, fashionable elite. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал But later, Goya fell out of favour. He even got into trouble with the Inquisition because he had once painted a nude woman. He died in France in 1828. • Speaker Two. Jan Vermeer was born in Holland in 1632. He was an art dealer as well as a painter, but never sold many of his own pictures — though they are priceless now. When he died in 1675, most of them were still in his house. Vermeer is famous for the way he captured light. It is the light that brings the scenes in his paintings to life. Many of his pictures are painted so accurately, they almost look like photographs. • Speaker Three. Jan van Os was born in Holland in 1744. In 18th century Holland there was a fashion for depicting arrangements of fruit, flowers and other objects. As such paintings had become very popular van Os painted them by the dozen, becoming known for the unusual arrangements he liked to create. Sometimes the artist included several animals and insects in his pictures. • Speaker Four. George Seurat was born in 1859 in France. He became known for painting with dots. This method was very slow and his pictures were often huge, so it could take him years to complete one. If you look at his paintings, you can see they are made up of thousand coloured dots. But, from a distance, the dots seem to merge and form new blended colours. The Circus was his last painting, but he never completely finished it. Seurat died during an exhibition, aged only 31. • Speaker Five. Wassily Kandinsky was born in Russia in 1866. He learned to play the piano and cello before studying law. It wasn’t until his thirties that he went to Germany to study art. There, he became one of the earliest pioneers of what is known as abstract art — meaning art which does not mirror real people or things. Kandinsky said he was inspired to experiment by seeing a painting which had fallen on its side. He thought the shapes in it looked more interesting the wrong way up. Colour was very important to Kandinsky. He thought colour could express feelings in the same way as music. He said the artist is the hand that plays music. He even claimed that looking at colours made him hear musical sounds. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал • Speaker Six. Jackson Pollock was born in the US in 1912. He went to New York to study art, and became a prominent member of the art scene there. Like many artists at the time, Pollock believed art should be a way of expressing feelings. Together these artists are known as Abstract Expressionists. Pollock became famous for making huge abstract pictures by dripping, splattering and splashing paint — a technique which earned him the nickname Jack the Dripper. Pollock liked to paint, using a huge canvas laid flat on the floor. He often gave his pictures numbers, not names. The artist was killed in a car crash at the age of 44. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал I МТ TWO Nc ■ Religion and Politics ■ Freedom of religious belief and worship and also the freedom to be a non-believer is taken for granted in modern Britain, A person’s religion has almost no political significance. The exception is only Northern Ireland. To describe oneself as Catholic or Church of England or Methodist or member of any other denomination is to indicate one’s personal beliefs but not the way one votes. The religious conflicts of the past and their close relationship with politics have left only a few traces in modern times. For example, the monarch cannot, by law, be a Catholic. Despite the atmosphere of tolerance and the separation of religion and politics, it is in Britain that we find the church which is, by law, the official religion of the country. It is the case of the Church of England and the monarch is its official head. However, the privileged position of the Church of England is not, in modern times, a political issue. Surveys show that the vast majority of people in Britain believe in God but at the same time many of them do not regularly attend religious services. The general picture is the following — though most people are not active participants in organised religion, they seem to be glad it is there. \r 4 The Wise Men (a story from the Bible) In a far country, many days’ journey to the east of Palestine, an astrologer gazed from a high tower at the night sky. Low in the west, like white fire on the horizon beyond the desert, burned a star. The astrologer calculated that the star had appeared to tell people of the birth of a king or saviour. In haste the astrologer came down from his tower, in haste he ordered the fitting out of an expedition and the saddling of camels. No man knows how long his journey was over the shifting sand. But when he arrived in the Promised Land he had companions, lords and astrologers like himself, who had also seen Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал the wonderful star. The wise men went straight to the palace of the King of Jerusalem. For he, after all, could be expected to know of the birth of a great one. Now the king was called Herod, and he held his throne not in his own right, but by permission of Rome. The wise men came into Herod’s audience-room, magnificent and strange with their dark faces and their rich oriental clothes. “Great king,” said one of them, bowing low before Herod, “where is the child who is born to be King of the Jews? We saw the rising of his star and have come from afar to pay him homage.” Herod was much alarmed by this talk but he was too clever to show it. With pleasant words and lavish hospitality, he turned away the question. As soon as the wise men left the audience-room, Herod called all the chief priests and scholars of Israel. “In the ancient writings,” he said to them, “it is recorded that one day a king and saviour will be born.” “The Messiah,” they said. Herod nodded. “Where will he be born?” he asked the question casually. “In Bethlehem,” they replied. Herod nodded again, and pretending that he was no longer interested in the subject, dismissed them. Next morning he saw the wise men in private. “The one whom you seek,” he said, “is expected to be born in Bethlehem. Go there. If you find him, bring me word, as I should like to do him homage myself.” The wise men went to Bethlehem, and there they found Mary and Joseph and baby Jesus. They came into the house where they were lodging, and bending the knee, they did homage to the child. Then they left, leaving rich presents: gold, incense and myrrh. They slept that night in Bethlehem before returning to Jerusalem. And in the night one of them dreamed that Herod was a wolf who would kill the lamb, baby Christ. In the morning, he told his dream to his companions, and decided not to go to Jerusalem, but set out eastward, homeward across the desert. A few days later Joseph also dreamed. In his dream an angel appeared and warned him that Herod would try to kill Jesus. He saddled his donkey and set out for Egypt. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал It was as well he did. Herod’s anger was terrible when he realised that the wise men had tricked him. He sent a troop of soldiers with orders to murder every child under two years old in Bethlehem and the surrounding countryside. The terrible massacre was carried out. While, all unknowing, Joseph, Mary and Jesus were making their slow way southward to Egypt. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал No. 5 и.мт Natural Destruction For all the talk of what humankind has done to cause destruction of the planet, we should not forget that nature itself is a powerful force, capable of doing damage on a huge scale. The greenhouse effect and the hole in the ozone layer are indeed made worse by the industrialised society we live in. However, we must remember that there are certain species of plants and animals which, quite naturally, give off gasses that are very harmful to the atmosphere. And only fifty years ago in London, hundreds of people died from the smog. Smoke and gasses from industry, vehicles, fossil fuels, were ingredients in that deadly mixture. The other vital ingredient though, was the completely natural fog, and who would have thought that could be harmful? In early days of the industrial revolution, poets and philosophers described how polluted urban skies made them think of the end of the world. Towards the end of the 19th century, the volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in Indonesia nearly made it happen. Remembering scientists’ pet theory about the dinosaurs dying out because of a huge volcanic eruption, we were lucky that humankind survived this time. • Speaker One. I realise that climate change is already affecting our lives and has the potential to affect the lives of future generations. I also understand that if we don’t act now, we will leave a much larger problem to our children. Only if we all join in to stop climate change, we can reduce its impact on our lives, on our environment and on future generations. • Speaker Two. I can do a lot to make a difference in the world! There are many simple things that I can do today to help stop climate change. For example, I always get the facts about climate change and discover helpful tips for reducing my personal carbon emissions. I also use recycled products. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал • Speaker Three. I always take the stairs. “Why?” you will ask me. First, it’s a green thing to do. Any energy saved is good for the environment. If you take two flights of stairs every day at work, you’re saving about 72 kilowatts of energy each of those days — which equals about 90 cents a year in energy costs. And second ... it’s a lot better for you, your head as well as your body. • Speaker Four. Nature! What a great joy and mystery full of surprises. I love nature for its peacefulness and how it is surviving human destruction. I know you can think it’s a cliche, but I do love sunrise and sunset. I love to lie on the grass and watch stars flicking in the sky. It is amazing how all creatures live in harmony and depend on each other and nature. • Speaker Five. I am a researcher at the World Wide Fund for Nature. Our mission is to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature. Our work covers many different areas — from policy work to campaigning, from on-the-ground action to education and capacity building. • Speaker Six. I will never forget the people who inspired me to take part in the Global Youth Volunteer Programme and become a conservationist. I saw things and places and had experiences that I had only dreamed about, or I did not think were possible. It was a life changing experience and a big success. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал \ \ V : ()[ .{ No. 7 ■ What Makes People Happy ■ So, what have scientists learned about what makes the human heart sing? Take wealth, for instance, and all the delightful things that money can buy. Research by American psychologists has shown that once your basic needs are met, additional income does little to raise your sense of satisfaction with life. A good education? Sorry, Mom and Dad, neither education nor a high IQ opens the road to happiness. Youth? No, again. In fact, older people are more satisfied with their lives than the young. And they’re less prone to dark moods. A recent survey found that people aged 20 to 24 are sad for an average of 3.4 days a month and people aged 65 to 74 are sad just 2.3 days a month. Marriage? A complicated picture. Married people are generally happier than singles, but that may be because they were happier to begin with. Sunny days? Nope, although a 1998 study showed that Midwesterners think folks living in sunny California are happier and that Californians incorrectly believe this about themselves too. On the positive side, religious faith seems to genuinely lift the spirit, though it’s tough to tell whether it’s the God part or the community aspect that does the heavy lifting. Friends? A giant yes. A 2002 study conducted at the University of Illinois found that the most salient characteristics shared by the 10% of students with the highest levels of happiness and the fewest signs of depression were their strong ties to friends and family and commitment to spending time with them. Words need to be spread — we should conclude. It is important to work on social skills, close interpersonal ties and social support in order to be happy. No h • Speaker One. Try to give some of your time to a worthy cause. It can be as often as you like; however, the more time you spend volunteering, the happier you will be. Get involved with something Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал E] that interests you. Consider it as an opportunity to have new experiences, meet new people and learn new skills. The great thing about volunteering is it benefits you as well as others. - Speaker Two. You don’t get much satisfaction from watching television. Although it may be a good way to unwind after a hard day, it will do little to actually increase your happiness. Watching TV is a passive activity that is not engaging. To be happy, get involved with something that absorbs all of your energies. You will feel far more satisfied afterwards and know you have accomplished something. Also watching TV before bedtime can prevent a good night’s sleep. It’s more of a struggle to be happy if you’ve not slept so well the night before. • Speaker Three. Write a list of the everyday things that cheer you up. Then make a conscious effort to fit them into your daily routine. Don’t allocate your once a year vacation as your time to be happy. Building up an event such as a vacation can result in disappointment, because it could turn out not what you imagined months before. Make time for yourself every day. • Speaker Four. What you learn is up to you. Whether you attend a class, read a book or website or get hands-on is up to you. Learning can help you prevent getting bored, renew your energies and exercise your brain cells. It will take you to new places as you develop your skills and perhaps even face your fears. If you want to be a wiser elder you will want to keep learning. • Speaker Five. Friends are a great source of support. You can turn to them during difficult times as well as when you want to just relax and unwind. Having close friends is important to your wellbeing. It can reduce stress and you may even live longer. Remember, you can choose your friends. So make sure yours are ones that value and respect you. • Speaker Six. Life is stressful. However, stress can be managed and should not take over your life. Engage in activities that you know relax and unwind you. Don’t wait for a special occasion; you should find time every day to de-stress. If you are not sure where to start, try yoga or meditation. Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал ПпИ OtH) . Unil Two . I iiiit Tliri'c l.hiil Four A'ow.s to i'.xerr'tsi'K Scripts __________________ Unit I Unit 2 Umt 2 Unit / 3 19 39 53 69 85 88 91 93 Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал Frenglish.ru - образовательный портал