Английский язык Учебник 10-11 класс Кузовлев Лапа Перегудова

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How Different the World Is! Western Democracies. Are They Democratic? Is It Easy to Be Young? What Is Hot with the Young Generation? Конкурс по созданию учебников нового поколения для средней школы проводится Национальным фондом подготовки кадров и Министерством образования России. Условные обозначения и сокращения — говорение — слушание Z\ °R° чтение письменное задание — домашнее задание — задание повышенной трудности the Old World* — см. лингвострановедческий справочник (LCG) LCG — Linguistic and Cultural Guide AB — Activity Book R — Reader 10-11 классы Учебник ДЛЯ общеобразовательных учреждений Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации 11-е издание Москва «ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ» 2009 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А64 Создано при содействии Национального Фонда Подготовки Кадров Авторы: В. П. Кузовлев, Н, М. Лапа, Э. Ш. Перегудова, И. П. Костина, О. В. Дуванова, Е. В. Кузнецова, Ю. Н. Балабардина Научный руководитель авторского коллектива проф. Е. И. Пассов Консультанты: профессор Г. Д. Томахин, Патриция Келли (США), Сьюзан Файнберг (США) На учебник получены положительные заключения Российской академии наук (№ 10106-5215/15 от 31.10.2007 г.) и Российской академии образования (№ 01-488/5/7д от 24.10.2007 г.). The authors are indebted to the work of the reviewers O. Afanasyeva, V. Oshchepkova, K. Ronzhina, L. Belikova, I. Sukovitsina for providing valuable insightful critiques of the entire manuscript. Special thanks to V. Safonova who helped to improve the content of the textbook and V. Simkin who contributed a lot to the development of Preparation for Testing Section. Английский язык. 10—11 классы : учеб, для общеобразоват. А64 учреждений / [В. П. Кузовлев, Н. М. Лапа, Э. Ш. Перегудова и др.]. — 11-е изд. — М. : Просвещение, 2009. — 351 с. : ил. — ISBN 978-5-09-020525-2. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 ISBN 978-5-09-020525-2 © Издательство «Просвещение», 1999, 2005 © Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение», 1999, 2005 Все права защищены Но the World Diffelent Is! Different Landscapes Different Countries 1 . More than five billion people, speaking hundreds of different languages, live in some 200 different countries and territories of the world. They live in a great variety (разнообразие) of natural environments. 1) PAIR WORK On pages 3 and 7 are some photos taken in different English-speaking countries. Щ Which of the following landscapes can you see on these pages? *\ Which of the following words might be used to describe these landscapes? desert ['dezat] (a large area of coast sand with little plant life) unique |Ju:'ni:k| plain (равнина) useless hill sunny forest huge (very large) island flat (плоский, ровный) ocean ['эцГэп] heavy wood (a small forest) high mountain range deep (глубокий) prairie ['ргеэп] vast (very large and wide) canyon ['кжгуэп] mountainous ['mauntinds] i: 2) What countries do you think such landscapes are typical of? 2. The photos were taken in the countries that are described below. 1) What countries are described? How can you tell? (reading/listening for the main idea) A It is the world’s largest island and its smallest continent. The continent is south of the Equator [I'kweits]. Much of the land is a useless desert. Great deserts cover (покрывают) nearly 2,000,000 square kilometres. Most of the continent is sunny most of the year. Its population is very small (only 0.3% of the world’s population) for such a huge country. Many people live far away from towns in the Different Landscapes — Different Countries outback.* Severe droughts [si,via 'drauts] (сильная засуха), floods (наводнение) and cyclones happen very often on the continent. The people suffer from limited fresh water. В It is an island state. It covers a territory of two large islands and several smaller ones. Its coast is over 6,000 miles long. It may be a small island by Russian standards, but geographically it is varied. The south and the east of the island consist of flat plains or hills. Mountainous areas are found only in the north and west. In this country you are never very far from the coast and there are lots of seaside resorts. It has a mild climate. It is never very cold or very hot. There’s steady (постоянный) rainfall throughout most of the year. The main passenger ports and airports are in the Southeast. It’s a rich country, one of the richest in the world. C It is the fourth largest nation in the world. It covers 4,500 kilometres from one ocean on the east to another one on the west. Three-quarters (3/4) of the country is washed by ocean. People live within four time zones. It’s a land of physical contrasts. Practically every climate in the world is represented. The southern parts of the country have warm temperatures year round, but the northern parts have very cold winters. The land varies from heavy forests to large deserts, from high mountains to deep canyons. If you travel across the country you would go over mountain ranges, cross hundreds of rivers, and spend days on the vast, flat prairie lands. You would drive past hundreds of lakes, woods and forests. It has most of what every country would like to have — a variety of natural resources, all sorts of products and industries of every kind. I think A (B, C) is about ... because there is/are ... . Besides you can find ... only in I know that there is/are ... in You Can find ... only jn ... . So, A (B, C) is about .... . Ш Щ Different Landscapes — Different Countries 2) What climate and landscapes are typical of which country? Fill in suitable words from the descriptions on pages 4-5. (reading for detail) ... deserts A ... climate rainfall lands canyons plains and , droughts Mountainous .. ... forests and .. deserts IS are typical of the USA. the UK. Australia. 3) Geographical names make the description of a country more specific. What do the following geographical names stand for? Replace the highlighted words in the descriptions of the USA, the UK, and Australia in exercise 2 with the suitable geographical names from the box. Add articles where necessary. USA Great Britain Ireland England Pacific Ocean RocKieS _____Co’'dilleras Ocean Dover Folkestone Heathi^u/ Ramsgate GRAMMAR FOR REVISION Articles with geographical names Названия континентов, большинства стран, городов, парков, улиц, отдельных горных вершин, островов, озер употребляются без артикля. San Francisco, Snowdon, Russia Названия горных хребтов, групп островов, рек, пустынь, океанов, морей, регионов употребляются с определенным артиклем the. the Rockies, the Atlantic Ocean GS (Grammar Support) p. 260 1 D Different Landscapes — Different Countries 4) What other features are characteristic of the geographical position of these countries? (AB Unit 1, ex. 1) о 3. IN YOUR CULTURE Russia is a huge country with a great variety of landscapes. 1) What is special about the geographical position of Russia? (AB Unit 1. ex. 2) in 2) Could any of the landscapes on pages 3 and 7 be found somewhere i Russia? Which ones? In what parts of the country? 3) What landscape is typical of your region? 4- Weather can affect the people’s lives greatly. What extreme (чрезвычайный) natural event is described in a newspaper article? (R Unit 1, ex. 1) 1; ____________________________________________ How Does the Geographical Position Influence the People’s Lives? 1 . The geographical position of a country can explain a lot of things. 1) Why is Australia so different from other countries? Millions of years ago, Australia was part of a huge continent called Gondwanaland. But then Gondwanaland slowly moved and formed several different areas of land. So, Australia became cut off (отрезанный) from the rest of the world. That’s why the island’s wildlife is so unique today. Probably, due to (вследствие) its geographical position, Australia was the last continent inhabited (заселять) by the white man. В ОШииЙАН Cause and effect relations IN (Причинно-следственные связи) Если нужно показать а) причину или б) следствие каких-то событий, действий, явлений, мы используем следующие союзы и выражения: a) because (так как), thanks to (the fact that) (благодаря (тому, что), из-за), due to (the fact that) (вследствие (того, что) Because Australia is cut off from the rest of the world, its wildlife is so unique. b) so (таким образом, поэтому), that’s why (поэтому) Australia is cut off from the rest of the world. That’s why its wildlife is so unique. q5 p 273 How Does the Geographical Position Influence the People^s Lives? 2) What factors explain the following peculiarities (особенности) of Australia? Find the explanations in the description of Australia in exercise 2 on page 4. Because Ajstralia was cut off from the rest of the world, it was the last continent to be (который был) discovered. • The seasons are the other way round in Australia because ... . • Thanks to ... Australia is sometimes called the Land Down Under. • Because .... people have to send a radio message to the flying doctor service* if they become ill. • Because .... the few rivers play an especially important role in people’s lives. • ... . That’s why Australians suffer one of the world’s highest rates of skin cancer from too much sun exposure (воздействие). • ... . So, life is not easy in Australia. 2. Because the UK is an island state, its geographical position aiso influences (влиять) the life of the country and its peopie. Find the reasons or the effects of the following facts in the description of the UK in exercise 2 on page 5. • People go for their holidays or just on a day trip to the seaside. {так как) • Fishing has always been an important industry, (поэтому) • When you travel to England by sea or air, it is very likely that you’ll arrive in the Southeast, (таким образом) 10 How Does the Geographical Position Influence the People’s Lives? • Britain has a rich, fertile (плодородный) countryside which is famous for its deep green colour, (в результате) • No place in Britain is more than 75 miles from the sea. (так как) • Great Britain has got more than 300 ports, (таким образом) • Fish and other seafood are very popular in Britain, (благодаря тому, что) За How does the geographical position of the USA explain the following facts about people’s lives? Find the reasons in the description of the USA in exercise 2 on page 5. When it’s 9 am in Los Angeles, it’s already midday in New York. Millions of Americans participate in water sports, such as swimming, surfing, fishing, sailing, and water skiing. Fresh grapefruits, oranges, lemons, melons, cherries, and peaches are not imported. Low-cost, high-quality fruits, juices and vegetables are available any time of the year. A fast railroad train, traveling 96 kilometers an hour, takes more than 45 hours to cross the country. Americans who prefer various landscapes can easily spend interesting vacations within the country. к vacation kilometer traveUn< a lil BE hoLida^'Cs) kilometre travelUn^ 4. The geographical position of the USA, the UK and Australia is different, but there are some things that these countries have in common. Which factors make these countries different or similar? 11 How Does the Geographical Position Influence the People’s Lives? *4 5. PAIR WORK Southern California's geographic relief varies from one place to another. From its position on the map, find out the reasons why Southern California offers the best holidays for people with different tastes. Thanks to the nearby ... Ocean and warm climate, some people can spend time swimming and lying in the sun on the beach. Because there are high ... Mountains, some other people ... *4 6. GROUP WORK National symbols often reflect special geographical features. Why do you think the following symbols look this way? If necessary, consult the LCG (Linguistic and Cultural Guide). 7. IN YOUR CULTURE How does the geographical position of Russia influence the life of the people? 1) Which facts from the life of the English-speaking countries mentioned above can be applied (применять) to Russia (to your region)? 2) What other facts show the influence of geography on the life of Russian people? (AB Unit 1, ex. 3) 8. All of the 50 states in the USA have nicknames. How did they get their names? (R Unit 1, ex. 2) ___________________________________________________12_ How to Understand Those Mystifying Foreigners 1 ■ There is a belief that some national characteristics of people from different countries are a result of the influence of geography and environment on the country. 1) PAIR WORK Below are some words that can be used to describe personality traits. What do they mean? Match the word and the description with its meaning. patience — toughness — ['tAfnas] self-reliance — self-confidence — predictability — submission — mobility — cautiousness — ('кэ:/э5пэ8] the ability (способность) to wait for something calmly for a long^ time the ability to live through difficult conditions the ability to use one’s own power of action and judgement (суждение) without depending on others a feeling that you can do things successfully, that people like you, that you are attractive, etc. the ability to see or describe a future event in advance (заранее) as a result of knowledge, experience, reason, etc. a willingness to do what someone tells you to do even if it is unpleasant the ability to move quickly and easily from place to place great care самоуверенность осторожность покорность терпение выносливость самонадеянность предсказуемость подвижность 2) WORD BUILDING If a person has patience he is patient. How can people be described if they have the traits mentioned above? (AB Unit 1, ex. 4) 13 How to Understand Those Mystifying Foreigners 3) What personality traits do you think are typical of Russians, Americans, and the British? (For revision see English 8, Unit 1.) willingness to experiment (in)formality love of compromise : hospitality friencdliness to strangers love of gardening politeness sense of community ^ Optimism risk-taking scepticism 2. According to the American historian Frederick Jackson Turner, the frontier* experience had a deep influence on the American character. 1) What were Americans like at the period of the frontier experience? (reading for specific information) America is a nation of risk-takers. Most Americans are descendants (потомок) of immigrants who left the known of the Old World* for the unknown of the New.* The pioneers who lived on the frontier had a hard life, so they had to be tough and self-reliant. Frontier men and women were often facing new problems and situations which needed new solutions (решение). Under these circumstances (условия), they soon learned to experiment with new inventions and new ways of doing things. This willingness to experiment and invent led to another American trait, a sense of optimism that every problem has a solution. The frontiersmen had to overcome (преодолевать) many difficulties, Friends and Aeighbours came for help without any reward. They shafed food, together built each other’s houses and fought fires. This extraordinary willingness to cooperate gave a rise to American’s capacity (способность) for volunteer actions. Т f ' ♦ How to Understand Those Mystifying Foreigners 14 The difficulties of the frontier also shaped the tradition of hospitality: if you didn’t take in the stranger and didn’t take care of him, there was no one else who would. As the people acquired (овладевать) new territories, they were moving from east to west. Americans are always on the move — from one part of the country to another, from one city to another, from farm to city. 2) What facts help to explain how Americans became the way they are? They left their own country for the unknown world. So they were risk-takers. Or: Because they left their own country for the unknown world, they were risk-takers. 3> Karen Hewitt, a British author, made a personal account (оценка) of the British people and their lives on the 'beautiful, off-shore island' in her book Understanding Britain. 1) Which aspects of life does K. Hewitt explain for visitors? (reading for detail) 15 How to Understand Those Mystifying Foreigners We live on a very small island with a mild climate and a history of centuries of efficient road-building. This is partly because we have excellent road-building materials. We rarely have severe winter frosts that damage (портить) the roads very much, and we do not normally suffer from heat, drought or flooding. About 44% of the population spend time gardening. The climate is ideal. Most of us do not need to grow vegetables, but home-grown vegetables taste better than those in shops. We also grow flowers and have a passion for lawns of grass which stay green throughout the year. It was the British who started the fashion for seaside holidays. Not surprisingly, nobody in Britain lives more than one hundred and twenty kilometres from the sea. The nearest holiday area of France is only three or four hundred kilometres away. Many families prefer to drive to the warm south and camp in comfortable campsites. Spain is also popular. It offers a wonderful climate. The British love of compromise is the result of the physical geography. This may or may not be true, but it is certainly true that the land and climate in Britain don’t have extremes (крайность). Britain has mountains, but none of them are very high, it also has flat land, but you can’t travel far without seeing hills, it has no big rivers, it doesn’t usually get very cold in the winter or very hot in the summer, it has no active volcanoes. 2) How does the author explain the reasons why t there are excellent roads in England? Ф a lot of people like gardening? Ф most British people spend their holidays at the seaside? Ф a lot of people like spending their holidays in France and Spain? Ф English people like compromise? m 16 How to Understand Those Mystifying Foreigners 4. This is the way Yale Richmond, an American author, describes Russians in his book From Nyet to Da. 1) What conclusions does the author come to? Why does he think so? (reading for detail) Russians are impressed with size and numbers, and much that they do is on a grand scale (высокий уровень). This is not unusual for such a vast country. Russians think and act big. Russians think of themselves as members of the community rather than as individuals. The origin of the Russian communalism lies deep in the vastness of the Great Russian Plain. Nature has not been kind to Russia. Much of European Russia and Siberia is very cold most of the year. In Old Russia, people could do little during winter months. But in spring there was much to be done, and in a short period of time. This explains why Russians often are inactive for long periods of time and then show bursts of energy. The harsh climate explains the Russians’ strength, their ability to overcome hardships, as well as their patience and submission. Climate has also made them cautious. Their cruel climate, harsh history, and sceptical outlook (взгляд) on life have made Russians value (ценить) stability, security, social order, and predictability, and to avoid (избегать) risk. To understand the Russians, one must know where they come from. 2) Which conclusions of the author do you agree with? Which conclusions do ” you disagree with? Why? ^ 3) How much is the Russian national character influenced by the country geog- ” raphy and climate? 4) What do you think about the notion ""national character”? 5> Understanding the differences and similarities between people and their behaviour in different countries is the first step to bridging (сближение) them. 1) What stereotypes* about Americans, Russians and the British did the three authors suggest? *4 2) How different or alike do you think Americans, Russians and the British are? G. What features of the American, British and Russian people and their way of life do the pictures on pages 13-17 highlight? 17 How to Understand Those Mystifying Foreigners A sc 7. IN YOUR CULTURE Here are some questions that foreigners may ask when in Russia. How would you explain these facts to foreigners? • Why do Russians build such colossal things as the Cathedral of Jesus Christ the Saviour, the Kremlin’s Palace, the Rossiya Hotel in Moscow, the Mother Russia Monument in Volgograd? • Why don’t Russians trim the grass, bushes, or trees in the street, or even in the park? Everything just grows wild. • Why are winter posidelki so popular with Russians? • Why do Russian people often gather around the samovar on holidays or when guests come to their places? • Why do Russian men wear shapki and women platki even in summer? • Why do Russians take off shoes and leave them outside the door? 8 a What other examples of the Russian way of life would you give to a foreigner to let him or her better understand Russians? 0 a When you come to another country you try to compare it with your native country. What things surprised Maggie from The Reunion by Joan Lingard? (R Unit 1, ex. 3) It Do You Know...? О 1 . When a foreigner comes to a new country he or she asks for information in different situations. 1) What information is the foreigner asking for? listening for the main idea) Do you know what time it is now in New York? Excuse me, could you tell me how 1 can get to the National Park, please? Could you tell me what kind of weather they are having in London now, please? 2) What is the difference between the questions above and the following ones? Which questions do you think are more polite? What time is it now in New York? How can I get to the National Park? What kind of weather are they having in London now? GRAMMAR IN FOCUS Indirect (polite) questions (Косвенные вопросы) Если мы задаем вопросы, начиная со слов Do you know ... Can/could you tell me ... TO они звучат более вежливо. Вопросы, которые следуют за этими фразами. имеют прямой порядок слов. Сравните: Where is the station? Could you tell me where the station is, please? GS р. 272 В 19 Do You Know...? Below are some short conversations. What questions will the tourist ask in each situation? Find the correct place for each question and act out the conversations. Can you tell me, what Cockney is? Do you know what it means? Could you tell me what part of the country it is in, please? a) — I advise you to buy a 3 days package tour* to Blackpool. It’s Britain’s most popular tourist attraction. — It’s in the northwest of England on the Irish Sea coast. b) - Where are you from? I’m a Cockney.* — In fact, this term is used to denote people who come from London and an area south of the Thames.* c) — They say, Mr Smith is a real northerner. — He’s supposed to be tough, honest and warm-hearted. 3. The American states got their nicknames in a variety of different ways. 1) PAIR WORK Ask your partner if he or she knows the answers to the following questions. Change the questions to a more polite form. i student 1 What is the nickname of the State of Maine? How do people call New Hampshire? Why was South Carolina nicknamed the 'Palmetto State'? Why was Virginia called the 'Mother of Statesmen'? student 2^ why does Virginia have so many nicknames? Why was Florida called the 'Land of Flowers'? What state is called the 'Green Mountain State'? Because of what mountains was West Virginia called the 'Mountain State'? 20 Do You Know...? 2) GROUP WORK Do you know the answers to the questions below? If necessary, consult the LOG. What state has the name of a tree? What are Florida’s nicknames? When was Florida discovered? What state is named after the Queen of England? How did Pennsylvania get its nickname? How did Maine get its nickname? What is Vermont famous for? What state was named after a famous person? What states got their names after the way they look? Student 1: Do you know how Maine got its nickname? Student 2: Yes (no), I (don't) know how Maine got its nickname. Student 1: Could you (anyone) tell me how Maine got its nickname, please? Student 2 (3):....... GRAMMAR FOR REVISION Reported and indirect questions в обоих предложениях вторая часть имеет прямой порядок слов. Не wants to know how Maine got its nickname, (a reported question) Could you tell me how Maine got its nickname, please? (an indirect question) GS p. 272 4. PAIR WORK Here are some interesting facts about the USA from Bncycfopaedia Britannica. Ask if your partner knows them. Ask polite questions. If he or she doesn’t know, tell him or her the answer. Student 1: Do you know how the Mississippi is called in the USA? Student 2:....... And do you know how large Montana is? Do You Know...? 21 The Mississippi River in the United States is called ‘the father of waters’. The name Mississippi (‘father of waters’ and ‘the big river’) comes from the Indian tribes that lived along the famous river. The Mississippi with its two main tributaries (приток), the Missouri [mi'suan] and Ohio [auTiaiau] Rivers touches all or part of 31 states, as well as 2 Canadian provinces. Montana (шопТзепэ] is the fourth largest state in area, but in population density (плотность) it ranks 48th. It is situated on the Canadian border, in the northern mountain region of the western United States. The state was once called the ‘icebox of the nation’, before Alaska took away that distinction (особенность). The lowest temperature ever recorded in the USA (except Alaska) was -57°C at Rogers Pass, Montana, in January 1954. 5. PAIR WORK. GAME Learn about the USA! (AB Unit 1, ex. 5) G> Imagine you are talking to a British or American friend over the Internet.* What questions about his or her country and people’s lifestyles would you ask? Y. What questions can you think of for a Jeopardy* game? (AB Unit l, ex. 6) Qm Rusty from the book Back Home by Michelle Magohan comes back home after 5 years of evacuation. Is it different back home? (R Unit 1, ex. 4) 22 East or West-Home Is Best? 1 . Teenagers from different countries are sharing their opinions about the places they'd like to live In. S 1) What are these places? (listening/reading for the main idea) Would I like to live here? I really haven’t thought about it. The Australians I’ve met are very hospitable and much friendlier than the British. After two weeks I understood why Australia is called ‘the lucky country’. One reason is that the weather is so good. The sun is always shining. Thanks to warm, sunny weather, you can spend all the time outdoors. What a good chance one can have to look sunburned, to enjoy sunbathing and watersports. Well, Australia is a great place to live. I think it doesn’t matter much what country it might be. Now I’m dreaming of living in a home on a green hillside within a 10-minute walk of a broad white sand beach or of a nearby river. I’d like to have a lot of horses, a fertile farmland and a good climate for growing a variety of fruits and vegetables. But if I happen to change my mind, I know, I can move to any place. Because it’s a vast country with various climates, landscapes and possibilities where you can always find a place to your liking. ^ I Q-yv^ I don’t want to live anywhere else but in Russia. I was born here and I’m not going to leave it. But a lot of countries attract me as a traveller. I’ve read much about European countries and I finally set my eyes on Spain. Firstly, I like its climate, hot and dry. Another reason for my choice is Spanish food. A lot of exotic fruits that I have never seen in Russia grow there. But what attracts me most of all to Spain? Of course, people. Unfortunately, I haven’t got any Spanish friends, even pen friends, but I believe the Russians and the Spanish have much in common. If I happen to live in Spain, I’ll live in a small provincial town, far from big cities. My house will be in the mountains where nature is wild and magic. But still it is a dream, and perhaps some day I’ll visit Spain, but I will only visit. I’m not going to live there. East or West, home is best. I can’t imagine my life in another country without Russian friends, the Russian language, Russian frost and Russian cookery... Ш 23 East or West —Home Is Best? 2) What are the teenagers’ reasons for living in these places? Which of the reasons are most important for the young people? What arguments do they give? (reading/Ustening for detail) Firstly, ... likes ... because ... . Another геаюп for ...'s choice is ... . ... attracts ... most of all because ... . 3) Which of the teenagers’ arguments do you think are the most convincing? Why? 2 • Here are some more opinions of young people about the places they live in. Are the opinions positive or negative? Why do you think so? It’s too hot and dry and there’s nothing to do. ) It’s a great life out here. We can ' be outdoors all day. ____________^ It’s all so clean and natural here. We У find plenty to do. We’re not bored. There is plenty of work there - from growing vegetables, fishing to raising cattle. I’d rather be here than in Los Angeles which could be destroyed by an earthquake. The local people offer a friendly wel- \ come and specialities of the area to visitors in summer. The town has kept its character and charm. So far there are no large hotels and the ^ village has avoided the effects of mass tourism. 24 East or West - Home Is Best? 1= 3 - Here is what other young people say about their native places. Would you like to live In places with such characteristics? Why? Why not? My city has an excellent situation. Because it’s near the ocean, the city serves as a major commercial centre. Ol course, there is plenty of work here. The citv is very big, crowded and very' hot. behind^r^^Th? ^ mountains rising of the attractiveness Cirv Off ^ they cut the city off. The people are hospitable here A frienriiv shon ‘Xi streS in / Shop, everywhere... A lot of the place is still pretty^ wild with rain forests, mountains and lakes where you can go on real adventure holidays. But everyday life is not easy. You can feel terribly isolated out here. Droughts, fire and flood are the dangers. h is a quiet wllage surrounded by fields and woods. around the village is green with bo я hch vegetation. Through the vil- lage flows a wide, clear river. It’s lovely for ^ be excellent, too. This place is for those people who are looking for peace and a lovely rural environment. 1 like places where (with) ... . 1 like places where (with) ... . It's great if ... . But 1 hate when (if) ... . It's lovely if ... . And 1 don't like at all ... . Besides 1 prefer ... . So, I'd prefer to live ... . So, it would be nice to live ... . On the one hand I like ... It doesn't matter much if but on the other I don't like ... ,. . So, it would be nice to live 25 3i East or iVest - Home Is Best? 4. Dreamer has his own opinion about the city he'd like to live in, 1) What good points is he dreaming about? (AB Unit 1, ex. 7) 2) Would you consider these points when choosing a place to live in? 3) Would you like to live in such a city? Why? Why not? 5. PAIR WORK 1) Name three places you would like to live in and write three reasons that make you want to live there. 2) Compare your answers with what the young people in exercises 1 and 3 on pages 22 and 24 think about it. Oa Would you like to live in such places? Why? Why not? 7a If you happen to choose a place for living, what kind of place would it be? Why? 8- IN YOUR CULTURE Write an advertisement about your native place or any place in your country. Show some advantages of living there. 9 a When you enter a foreign country you must fill in some forms. What information is required? (R Unit 1, ex. 5) a Could You Tell Me lease? 1 . When you are in a foreign country, you have to ask a lot of questions to find out Information about various things. The way you sfjeak (what kind of language you use) depends on the situation you are in. If the situation is formal* you use formal language. If the situation is informal* you use informal language. If the situation is neither very forma! nor very informal you use neutral language. 1)What kind of situations is the foreigner in: formal, informal or neutral? Could you tell me where the station is, please? Yes, it’s over there, on the left. I wonder if you could tell me where Mr Brown’s office is. Yes, it’s on the 3rd floor, room 24. Any idea what time the film starts? У No, let’s see the weekly. zr Could You Tell Me Please? ■ 2) What language (formal, informal, neutral) does the foreigner use in each situation? 3) Which of the following expressions would you use in formal, informal and neutral situations? ASKING FOR INFORMATION Could you tell me..., please? Excuse me, d'you know...? D'you happen to know...? I'd like to know, please,... Can you tell me..., please? Do you know where ...? (Happen to) know...? (Got) any idea ...? I Iwonder if you could tell me... Ishould be interested to know... Iwonder if you could let me know О 4) Listen to check. 2. Decide what you wouid say in the following situations. Explain why. a) You ask your British friend about the weather forecast for tomorrow: — Got any idea what the weather is going to be tomorrow? — I wonder if you could tell me what the weather is going to be tomorrow. b) You are at the geography lesson in a summer school in Britain. You ask the teacher: — Can you tell me what the advantages of the British physical environment are, please? — I wonder if you could tell me what the advantages of the British physical environment are. c) You ask an American teenager during a TV bridge ‘Across the Ocean’: — Can you tell me where teenagers usually spend their summer holidays, please? — Got any idea where teenagers usually spend their summer holidays? Ш Could You Tell Me Please? d) You are at a travel agency. You ask an agent: — I should be interested to know if there are any bus tours to Windsor. — Could you tell me if there are any bus tours to Windsor, please? e) You are at the railway station. You ask the clerk: — I wonder if you could tell me when the nearest train to London is. — Could you tell me when the nearest train to London is, please? 3 • When you are in a foreign country you can find yourself in different situations. 1) What kind of language: formal, informal or neutral would you be more likely to use in the following situations? You are asking; About; When/where: 1) a British friend his plans for the evening at his place 2) your British friend’s parents vegetables and fruits they grow in their garden 3) a speaker lecturing at a conference the country’s exports and imports during the debate after the lecture 4) a secretary the manager’s home telephone number at the office 5) someone you don’t know the way to the travel agency in the street 6) a teenager his country’s climate in different seasons during a TV bridge 2) What questions would you ask? (AB Unit 1, ex. 8) 3) ROLE-PLAY Act out one of the situations described above. 4. When travelling around a country it’s useful to get information in travel agencies. Here are the travel agent’s answers. What information did the tourists ask about? Could You Tell Me Please? 29\ Most summer days are pleasantly warm. The average temperature in London is 16-18^C. T-shirts are ideal, but do bring light woollens or a jacket for the cooler times of day. 5 b When travelling abroad you are likely to find yuutself in ьииП ailualioftb. What would you say in these situations? G. When foreign people enter the US they must fill in the customs (таможенная) declaration. What questions will the tourist ask the flight attendant if he doesn’t know how Bjipl to fill in this form? (AB Unit 1, ex. 9) i: 30 The Best of All Possible Worlds 1 . The natural environment is very important in the lives of people. In fact, it is part of their daily lives. So, it^s not difficult to imagine how different daily life might be in different climates. Choose a project you’d like to do. PROJECT ‘The Influence of Geography on People and Their Lifestyles' 1) This is a very general title. You can specify it showing the influence of the geographical position of a country on one of the spheres of life, for example: • People’s activities • Food • National (regional) symbols • Houses around the world 2) Collect information and illustrations. 3) Present your project to the classmates. Answer their questions to explain your ideas. PROJECT The Best of All Possible Worlds' This project may be done in any of the following forms: a leaflet, a poster, a collage, an advertisement, etc. 1) Show the advantages of a place you consider the best of all possible worlds. Illustrate your ideas. Use humour, fantasy and imagination. 2) Tell your classmates why you’d like to live in this place. Answer the questions to explain your ideas. PROJECT ‘Welcome to Russia!’ This project may be done in the form of a guide for tourists. 1) Choose a region in your country, describe its geographical peculiarities. 2) Give some tips for foreigners how to cope with weather conditions in this region. 3) Describe the people of this region and their customs. Hi 31 /Г" The Best of AH Possible Worlds 4) Collect illustrations. 5) Present your project to the classmates. Answer their questions to explain your ideas. 2. Here are some phrases you may use while presenting and discussing your projects. We’d like to present a project ... It was done by ... We’ve chosen this topic because Our project is about ... First, we’d like to ... And now have a look at the photos (pictures, maps, etc.) that illustrate ... Sorry, I don’t quite understand why ’d like to know ... Could you explain .... please? In my opinion ... From my point of view, ... I consider ... a good/boring description of ... ' gave a clear/poor explanation why ... offered some new/dull information about ... had a good suggestion about ... convincing arguments for/against ... ' The project ... The description(s) of ... is The illustration(s) of ... are great. fantastic. terrific. boring. You will hear the information about national parks. For questions 1-6, write down the missing information. You will hear the recording twice. 1. Yellowstone was American National Park. 2. Yellowstone National Park was established in 3. Yellowstone National Park had an area of acres. 4. In the 1980s, the National Park System included about_____________ different areas. 5. ___________, the Everglades, and the Sequoia National Parks are just some of the best-known national areas. 6. The system of National Parks and National Preserves has an area of over____________ square miles. Your score 6 5-4 3 2 Your mark 5 4 3 2 33 2. READING COMPREHENSION Read an article from the Newsweek magazine. 1) Decide which title A, B, or C is the best title for the article. A Climate Change in the USA in the 21st Century B. The 100-Year Forecast: Very Hot c. Global Warminq;-: Problems or Benefits? If you want to know what the weather’s going to be like this weekend, ask a weatherman. If you want to know what it’ll be like in 100 years, ask a scientist. The most important influence on the weather of the future is likely to be global warming. Global warming may or may not be the great environmental crisis of the next century. , Here’s what we know about global warming. Since the Industrial Age (say, 1800), the concentration of the so-called ‘greenhouse gases’ — carbon dioxide, methane and others — in the atmosphere has risen (подниматься) about 30 per cent. In the past century, temperatures have increased (увеличиваться) 1 degree Fahrenheit. One opinion is that these tendencies are connected. Industrial and transportation emissions (выделение) increased carbon dioxide, trapping (задерживать) more heat in the atmosphere and raising temperatures. Another opinion is that the small temperature rise is a natural climatic variation. The next hundred years, most scientists agree, will see the earth heat up further. How much further is open to debate: in 1995 hundreds of scientists from around the world predicted a rise of anywhere between 1.8 and 6.3 degrees by 2100. But some regions will warm much less and others, especially of northern continents, will warm much more. The USA is facing a temperature rise of 5 to 10 degrees. But, really, it’s anybody’s guess and the answer may be everybody’s problem. We don’t know what the effects of warming might be. Warmer weather might make some areas more attractive and others less. Because what will happen to the world is still uncertain, what will happen to a particular region is even more uncertain. We don’t know how to prevent (предотвращать) warming. Stabilizing emissions isn’t enough. No one knows how to lower emissions without crushing the world economy. Based on present knowledge, the best way of coping (справляться) with warming — if it happens — would be to adapt to it. a: Tick (V^) the necessary box. 1. We know more about global warming than we don’t. 2. Because the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has risen, temperatures have increased. 3. The scientists are sure of how much the temperature will rise in the next century. 4. By 2100 northern regions will warm less than other regions. 5. Stabilizing emissions can prevent global warming. 6. Global warming will crush the world economy. Your score 7-6 5 4 3 Your mark 5 4 3 2 are FALSE. frue False □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ 3. USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY) 1) A tourist is travelling around the USA. Complete the questions (1-6) he is going to ask. There is an example at the beginning (0). 0. — I want to visit the Bronx Zoo.* Do you know where the BrOfix Zoo '________________________________________ 1. — I’d like to visit the Metropolitan Museum.’ When ___________________________________________ 2. — I’d love to go on a boat trip. Could you tell me, how long______________________ 3. — I want to take a bus to Central Park. Could you tell me, which bus_____________ 4. — I want to buy a ticket. How much ________________________________ 5. — I’d like to have a leaflet about Florida. Could you tell me, where_____________________________ 6. — I’d like to have a snack (перекусить). Where _______________________________________ 1: Fm TBSTtHG 2) Below are Jane’s impressions about her holidays in Spain. Form a word that fits in the blank space from the word in capitals. Fill in each gap with the new word. There is an example at the beginning (0). 0. I think these were really 6XCit\na holidays. 1. During my stay in Spain I was treated with great____________. 2. My host family were very_______________ and I liked them very much. 3. My friend was so ______________ it was hard to be- lieve it was her first week in Spain. 4. I’m sure I’ll get a letter from my new friend soon. I should be just more ______________. 5. I must write to my host family to thank them for their ___________. EXCITEMENT POLITE FRIEND CONFIDENCE PATIENCE HOSPITABLE Your score 11-10 9-8 7-6 5 Your mark 5 4 3 2 4. SPEAKING 1) You are telling your foreign friend about your native place. Remember to: • describe the landscape of your region; • describe the people of your region and their customs; • say what you like about the place where you live; • explain why you like (dislike) your native place. You have to talk for 2 minutes. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then she/he will ask you some questions. 2) ROLE-PLAY You and your foreign friend are exchanging opinions about the places you wou/d like to live in. The people • The food • Everyday life STUDENT CARD 1 Discuss the following points: • The landscape • The climate You begin the conversation. Remember to: • describe the place you’d like to live in; • give your reasons for living in this place; • express your opinion about the characteristics of the place your friend likes. ШШШ The people • The food • Everyday life STUDENT CARD 2 Discuss the following points: • The landscape • The climate Remember to: • agree or disagree with your friend’s arguments; • express your idea about the place you’d like to live in; • describe some advantages of living there. 5. CULTURAL AWARENESS What do you know about the geographical position and the life of the people in the USA, the UK, Australia and Russia? For statements 1-11, decide which country the following information is related to. Tick ) the country (USA, UK, Australia, or Russia). USA UK Austra- lia Russia 1. Much of the country is a useless desert. □ □ □ □ 2. It’s the fourth largest nation in the world. □ □ □ □ 3. Many people live in the outback there. □ □ □ □ 4. There are eleven time zones in this country. □ □ □ □ 5. It’s sometimes called the Land Down Under. □ □ □ □ 6. No place in it is more than 120 kilometres from the sea. □ □ □ □ 7. It’s known for the frontier experience. □ □ □ □ 8. The people of this country started the fashion for seaside holidays. □ □ □ □ 9. It’s situated in two continents. □ □ □ □ 10. Half of the population spend time gardening. □ □ □ □ 11. It’s an island state. □ □ □ □ Ш Your score 11 10 9 8 Your mark 5 4 3 2 с» 6 . WRITING Imagine you are flying to Britain to take the English courses in Oxford. Fill in the landing card. LANDING CARD Family name............................ Forenames......................... Sex M Date of birth Day Month Year Place of birth. Nationality................ Occupation. Address in United Kingdom................ Signature. MC oil 659 7. NB/V WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS FROM UNIT 1 How many new words and expressions do you know? 1 1 so canyon* thanks/due to coast that’s why deep desert Reading Section drought* ability* flat cautiousness* flood* community* hill compromise* huge frontier* mountainous mobility* ocean patience* outback* predictability* plain self-confidence* prairie* self-reliant* range* submission* unique tough* useless 3 vast wood* Can/could you tell nickname .2 because 5 to cut off* Do you happen to ! fertile* (Got) any idea ... ’E t I should be interested to know ... I wonder if you could tell me ... Reader to be about to* to be crazy about* to be nuts over* citizenship* country of residence* to declare* everglade* freeze* granite* health kick* to make fudge* odd jobs* on second thoughts* palmetto* a pan with a handle* pinetree* quarry* verandah* a washout* THE MONARCH is the official head of state and an integral part of Parliament in her constitutional role; has mostly representative functions; gives the royal assent to the bills passed by the House of Commons (общин) and the House of Lords; is the head of the Commonwealth of Nations* THE GOVERNMENT the Prime Minister -*■ is the head of government; is the leader of the party with the majority seats (мест) in the House of Commons chooses ^ the Cabinet about 20 ministers; determines government policies and coordinates government departments chooses ^ Rion-Cabinet Ministers* PARLIAMENT О o' о 3' ct о 3? ri' a.' a. ? о Э' Ct" T> ■O the House of Commons (about 650 elected MPs -members of Parliament) makes laws; discusses political problems the Official Opposition the largest opposition party; forms the Shadow Cabinet* («теневой» кабинет) the House of Lords (over 1,100 permanent, non-elected members; peers (пэров, лордов) and life peers*) — examines and revises bills from the House of Commons; can delay bills for one year elect THE PEOPLE (all men and women over 18) C\J 43 Parliamentary Democracy. How Does It Work? 3) Wliat functions do the representatives of power perform (выполняют)? Use the scheme on p. 42 to find the correct statement, (understanding a scheme) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. A. The Queen votes on the bills. B. The Queen signs the bills. A. The Queen has mostly representative functions. B. The Queen rules the country in fact. A. The government represents the legislative branch of power. B. The government represents the executive branch of power. A. The Cabinet is responsible for government policies. B. The Cabinet Ministers revise bills from Parliament. A. Parliament represents the legislative branch of power. B. Parliament represents the executive branch of power. A. The House of Commons controls the government. B. The government controls the House of Commons. A. The House of Lords has the power to delay bills for one year. B. The House of Lords opposes the decisions of the House of Commons. A. The Cabinet coordinates the work of the government departments. B. The Cabinet makes laws. No, the Queen doesn't vote on the bills. The Queen signs the bills. i О 4) Do the people elect (избирают) the Prime Minister directly (прямым голосованием)? 5) What does each branch of power and each institution (ведомство, институт власти) do? (AB Unit 2, ex. 1) 6) Which institution exercises (осуществляет) the power of the people in Britain? (AB Unit 2, ex. 2) 7) The distribution (распределение) of power between the monarch and Parliament was different at different historical periods. What functions did the monarch and Parliament have at different historical periods? (AB Unit 2, ex. 3) 8) There are some mistakes in the information about the British political system. What is wrong? {fistening for detaif) 4. There are people who think that the monarchy is undemocratic. What do the British think about the monarchy? (R Unit 2, ex. 1) CM ___________________________________________________^ How Much Power Does the US President Have? 1 . The United States of America is a federal (or presidential) republic. So, it's quite clear that the President is the head of state there. 1) Do you think that the role of the head of state in the USA is ceremonial like Great Britain? H2) Which institutions represent the legislative and executive branches of power in the USA? 45 How Much Power Does the US President Have? 3) How does the political system work? (understanding a scheme) ? I Who is the head of the executive branch in the USA? And in Britain? Which officials in the USA are elected and which are appointed? And in Britain? Is the head of state elected directly by the people in the USA? And in Britain? Can the people of the USA exercise their power through their representatives? And what about the people of Britain? What activities are the two branches of power involved in? (AB Unit 2, ex. 4) О 4) What new facts about the US political system are there in the information? (iistening for detait) 2. In the USA the third branch of government, the judicial [ There are different examples of establishing rights for people. 1) What rights does the American Bill of Rights guarantee? (R Unit 2, ex. 3) 2) What rights could Gulliver have in a strange country? (R Unit 2, ex. 4) C\J 54 Must a Politician Be Kind? 1 . What kind of people can succeed (иметь успех) in politics? What traits of character should they have? 1) Here is an opinion of a modern expert about the problem. [Щ Are there any unexpected ideas? Any politician who wants to win should be a real personality (личностью). He/she should have a will (волю) to win and a wish to have power. He/she should use power not for his/her own needs but for improving the situation in the country. A good politician should have an ability to risk and to love risking if he/she wants to win. He/she should be able to take non-tra-ditional decisions and to give up (жертвовать) some people from his/her team. If a good politician understands that some people can’t perform their functions he/she should change them and forget how hard it was. A politician, who can’t change some members of the team when it is necessary will lose. It’s very important for a politician to have clever advisors but it is he/she who is responsible for the decisions. Though people often say that a politician who has clever advisors is not clever! Political decisions may be ruthless (безжалостные) for some people and good for the majority of the people. So, a good politician should be ready to take ruthless decisions. A politician who follows one and the same strategic line and doesn’t revise his/her ideas won’t live a long life in politics. But again, people may say that he/she has no will to finish something! No image-maker can help a person who is nothing. It is impossible to improve ‘nothing’. Image-makers and advisors can add only 15-20% to the image of a politician. The power should be used by a politician not for power itself but for achieving definite aims. [Щ 2) Which of the expert’s ideas do these statements confirm (подтверждать)? • A politician should be power-loving. • A politician should be gifted. • A politician should be risky. • A politician should be ambitious. • A politician should be pliable ('plaiobol] (гибкий, уступчивый). C\J И 55 Must a Poiitician Be Kind? GRAMMAR FOR REVISION 'Should* as a modal verb Когда мы говорим о том, что правильно или целесообразно поступить так, а не иначе, мы используем модальный глагол should. The government should do more to help jobless people. Правительству следует больше делать для помощи безработным. GS р. 268 3) Which traits (характерные черты) are negative and which are positive for a politician? (AB Unit 2, ex. 6) 4) Which ideas of the expert do you agree with? Agreeing That's just what I was thinking. (I couldn't agree more.) I think ... Disagreeing That is not the way I see. Actually/in fact I think ... Partly agreeing Yes, but we shouldn't forget that ... (Yes, there is a lot in what the expert says, but ...) 2. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) ivas an Italian politician and writer who was blamed (порицали) for being cunning and deceitful in politics. He wrote political essays, plays and books. The Prince is his most famous book (1513). 1) Here are some ideas expressed by the author in his book. ■ Do you think the point of view of the medieval (средневекового) author differs from that of the modern one? • It is important for a prince to know how to do wrong, and to make use of it if necessary, ic\i ш 56 Must а Politician Be Kind? It is unnecessary for a prince to have all the good qualities but it is very necessary to appear to have them. It is necessary for a prince to have a mind ready to turn itself according to the winds of fortune. And here it should be mentioned that either good works or bad ones can produce hatred, therefore (следовательно) a prince who wishes to keep his state very often has to do evil (зло). A prince whose actions do not accord with (не соответствуют) the times will not be successful. 2) What traits of character necessary for a politician mentioned in exercise 1 on page 54 correspond to the ideas of Niccolo Machiavelli? 3> Very soon you’ll be 18 and have the right to vote. 1) Do you care what kind of people will represent you and your region in the Federal Assembly? In my opinion, it's very important ... I believe that ... Let me explain. You see ... That's why ... I don't mind who ... because ... I am absolutely sure that ... They (are) ... I don't know if ... I must admit I don't take any great interest in ... I think ... It makes me ... 2) What kind of person can be an ideal politician in your opinion? Do you know such people in your country? Speak about them. z\ 4. In fact different people can succeed in politics. Who will win the election (выборы)? (R Unit 2, ex. 5) CM 57 Must a Politician Be Kind? 5> The Pope is a cleric (духовное лицо) and a politician because he is the head of the Roman Catholic Church* and the head of a tiny state, the Vatican.* Here is an article from the Newsweek magazine about the wartime Pope. 1) What war do they mean in the article? Find all the facts that can prove your answer. World War 1 World War II a civil war Many historians think that the wartime Pope didn’t try to stop the Holocaust (истребление, бойня). By Kenneth L. Woodward The voice of Pius XII is a lonely voice in the silence and darkness. He is the only ruler on the Continent of Europe who dares (смеет) to raise his voice at all. Editorial, The New York Times, Dec. 25, 1941 Something shameful (постыдный) is going on. That Pius XII was silent in the face of the Holocaust; that he was in fact pro-German if not pro-Nazi. It was The Deputy, Rolf Hochhuth’s 1963 play that created an image of Pius as a coward (трус). In fact, Pius XII was neither silent nor inactive. In 1937 in a special document Pope Pius XII condemned (осудил) Nazism as un-Christian. The document was secretly brought to Germany and read in the Roman Catholic churches. In his 1942 Christmas message the Pope became the first person of international stature to condemn the Holocaust. The Nazis understood the Pope too well. “His speech is one long attack on everything we stand for,” declared the Gestapo. In February 1942, Protestant and Catholic leaders in Holland occupied by the Nazis condemned death camps. But only Catholic bishops (епископы) read the letter aloud in their churches. The Pope’s crime — if there is one — is that he chose the role of diplomatic peacemaker rather than martyr (мученик). Historian Christopher Browning is right to say that “the Holocaust is a story with many victims (жертвы) and not too many heroes. I think we are naive if we think one more hero could stop it.” 2) What kind of politician was the wartime Pope? [s| 3) What did the Pope do in the face of the Holocaust? 4) Do you think that a cleric should be involved in politics? Why? 1C\J 58 Who’d Have Thought It? 1 . Travelling has always been an exciting experience. 1) What country/city did Kate visit? What information helps you to understand it? (reading/listening for detail) Kate: Oh Jess, it was a marvellous trip. Everything was perfect. I am so happy. Jess: Are you? But, what makes you so happy? You know a lot about the country you visited. Did you like their English? Kate: It sounds strange, but I didn’t mind it. I understood them ... most of the time. But they looked at me as if I were a representative of an aristocratic family or the British ambassador (посол). Jess: That’s really surprising. Is that all. Lady Kate? Kate: Stop it. Can’t you see that I am full of impressions? Know anything about their capital? Jess: Yes, I do know about it. I know that their lawmakers moved there in 1800. Kate: Well, have you ever heard about the mysterious echo in the National Statuary Hall?* Jess: Echo? In a hall? You’re kidding (ты разыгрываешь меня). Kate: No! There were times when Representatives met there to discuss political problems. So, Mr John Quincy Adams’ desk was just on the place where he could hear whispered (произносимые шепотом) discussions of the opposing party on the far side of the room. Jess: You must be joking. F icsj 59 Who’d Have Thought It? Kate: No! Just fancy that (только представь себе)! He surprised everyone when he seemed to guess what the other side was going to do before they did it. Jess: How rotten (какая низость)! Kate: Yes, I agree. I saw so many interesting things: I saw the Senate and the House of Representatives in action while they were in session. It was terrific. Jess: I’m sure it was. Kate: Oh Jess, you must see it to understand how great it was. Д 2) What did Kate like most of all? Д 3) What surprised Jess? Д 4) Find in the dialogue how Kate or Jess: f shows admiration, f shows surprise. Ф asks if someone knows about something. Ф says she knows about something. И 5) What other ways of expressing the same functions do you know? (AB Unit 2, ex. 7) 2. There are many interesting stories which the guides tell the tourists visiting the Houses of Parliament * /Ш 60 Who’d Have Thought It? 1*4 What do you think about these facts? (expressing surprise, admiration, saying you know about something). D’you happen to know that Big^ Ben* was probably named after a champion boxer of the period rather than Sir Benjamin Who’d have thought it? Yes, in fact, I did know about it. ^How interesting! D’you know that the Union Jack* is flown above the Victoria Tower* on days when Parliament is sitting and on some special occasions? Really? I've been told that ... Have you got any idea about the Lord Chancellor's* (лорд-канцлер) seat? He sits on the woolsack* which is stuffed with wool! D’you happen to know that Charles Dickens* worked as a reporter in a press gallery in the Commons? 2 Yes, I have heard about it. ^ Dickens? In the Commons? у CVJ 61 Ww^d Have Thought It? 3. There are many interesting things connected with the development of the Russian state system and its contacts with the Western countries. Д 1) What can be surprising for foreigners about the things you see in the pic-tures? 2) PAIR WORK What impressions can these facts produce on foreign tourists? (listening for the main idea) о student 1 You are a guide who is showing Moscow to foreign tourists. Ask if the tourist knows about something. Student 2 You are a foreign tourist who has come to Russia Say that you know about something. Of Express your surprise or admiration. 4. There are dictionaries of surprising facts. Can you write some entries (статьи) for such a dictionary? (taking notes) (R Unit 2, ex. 6) 62 Are You a Good Lawmaker? In 1516 the brilliant English statesman, scholar and writer Thomas More* published his famous book Utopia* Liur'tsupia]. In the book he describes an ideal state and satirises the abuses (злоупотребления) of the time. Thomas More explains his idea of a perfect state. 1 ■ What is your idea of a perfect state? Do a project. PROJECT ‘An Ideal State, as I Understand It’ 1) Determine the political system. 2) What kind of person do you want to be the head of state? Think of his/her traits. 3) Determine the institutions that will represent the legislative, the executive and the judicial branches of power. 4) Determine the responsibilities of each branch. 5) Write a Bill of Rights for the imaginary state. И1 ш 63 Are You a Good Lawmaker? 6) Compare your variants and vote on each item to make a single document. 2 a Here are some phrases you can use while presenting and discussing your project. We have chosen the following political system ... We think it is more democratic than ... We want to take a closer look at ... 7 I (We) don’t know which system to choose. Which system would you advise me (us) to choose? I’d like to know ... Sorry, I don’t quite understand (what) ... I think ... In my opinion (view) I believe ... Well, I must say that That’s (quite) right. How right you are. I absolutely agree. I am with you there. I think I’d agree. I am of the same opinion. think I will ... I’ve decided .. I am planning I am going to И C4J Would you agree with ...? J I wonder if you agree with I am not sure in fact. No, I don't think that ... That is not the way I see it. Do you really think that ...? I’m afraid I disagree with you Shall we ...? Why don’t we choose May I suggest ...? 64 • 1 . LISTENING COMPREHENSION You will hear the information about the political system of New Zealand. For statements 1-10, decide which of them are TRUE and which are FALSE and tick {^) one of the boxes to show whether the answer is true or false. You will hear the recording twice. 1. New Zealand is a colony of Great Britain. 2. The British monarch is the head of state in New Zealand. 3. The Monarch’s representative is the governor-general. 4. The Parliament represents the legislative branch. 5. The Parliament has two houses. 6. The Prime Minister appoints ministers. 7. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Parliament. 8. The Executive Council and the Cabinet represent the executive branch. 9. The governor-general is part of the legislative branch. 10. The Constitution Act was adopted in 1986. Your score 10 7 5 4 Your mark 5 4 3 2 True False □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ 2. READING COMPREHENSION Read the text about the political system of Australia. For statements 1-5, decide which answer is correct. Circie the corresponding letter. 1. A. Australia is a parliamentary democracy. B. Australia is a monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. 2. A. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are elected directly. B. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet come from the Federal Parliament. 3. A. The Federal Parliament includes the Senate and the House of Representatives. 1C\J 2 65 В. The Federal Parliament includes the House of Commons and the House of Representatives. 4. A. The representatives of the executive branch are responsible to the Queen. B. The representatives of the executive branch are responsible to the Federal Parliament. 5. A. Now Australia is in the process of changing to a republic. B. Now Australia is in the process of becoming closer to the British Crown. Australia is an independent country within the Commonwealth. Formally the British monarch is the head of state and has royal representatives in the country and in each of the six states. According to the Australian Constitution, that was adopted on January 1, 1901, the legislative branch is represented by the Federal Parliament. The parliament is made up of two houses: the Senate with 76 senators and the House of Representatives with 148 members. The lawmakers are elected by the people. Voting is compulsory (обязательно). Australian citizens can vote by mail. Those who abstain from (воздерживаются от) voting are fined (штрафуются). Australians are proud of the fact that secret ballot (тайное голосование) was first introduced in Australia. The party or a coalition of parties with the majority of seats in the House of Representatives forms the Cabinet and its leader becomes Prime Minister. So. the executive branch in Australia includes the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. Like in Great Britain they come from the Federal Parliament and are responsible to it for government decisions. The main political parties are the Liberal Party and the National Party. Normally they act in coalition. The Australian Labour Party and the Australian Democrats also play a great role in politics. There is a question whether Australia should become a republic with an Australian head of state. The debate on the problem started several years ago. Everybody in Australia understands that a change to a republic needs the assent of the Australian people at a referendum. In February 1998, Australia began the process of severing (разъединения) its constitutional link to the Queen. И Your score 5 4 3 2 Your mark 5 4 3 2 CSJ 'c ГЭ В6 3. SPEAKING ^) At а school conference you are making a report about the common features and the differences between the Russian and US political systems. Give a 2-minute talk about the common features and the differences between the Russian and US political systems. Remember to: • name the common features; the political systems, the heads of state; • speak about the institutions that represent the three branches of power; • name the heads of the executive branches in the Russian Federation and in the USA; • explain why the Russian President has more power; • speak about the aims of the system of checks and balances. You have to talk for 2 minutes. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then she/he will ask you some questions. 2) ROLE-PLAY A Russian student is preparing a report about the political system of the United Kingdom. She/he needs a consultation of her/his British friend. STUDENT CARD 1 You are a Russian student. Ask your British friend questions about; * the role of the Queen in the political life of the country; * the aims of the Shadow Cabinet; • the functions of the Non-Cabinet Ministers; • the links with the Commonwealth. You begin the conversation. Remember to: • be active and ask all the questions; * talk for 1-1.5 minutes. STUDENT CARD 2 You are a British student. Remember to: • answer the questions of your Russian friend; • talk for 1.5 minutes. 4. WRITING You’ve got an e-mail letter from your British friend who is getting ready for the quiz ’’Across Russia”. She/he wants to know: 1) what political system Russia belongs to; 2) when the Russian Constitution was adopted; c\j 67 3) where the Government and the President sit; 4) what the origin of the word “Duma” is; 5) if there is any relation between the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council. Write a letter to your British friend with answers to her/his questions (100* 120 words). Remember to write the letter in the correct way. 5. USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY) For questions 1-10, read the text below and decide which answer A, В or C fits best each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). (0) A Prime Minister Tony Blair doesn’t like the fashionable topic about “Cool Britannia”. He guesses that a British politician (1) of “New Britain”. But he doesn’t see it without (2) ________. Some people don’t like this point of view, they think that the leader of the Labour Party (3) _____in the opposition to the monarchy. But Tony Blair has a pragmatic and conservationist view of the monarchy. He thinks that the monarchy is not an institution that stands in the way of his (4) __________ agenda (повестка дня). The Queen (5) _____ the government policies. He doesn’t think that the (6) _____and the Labour Party (7) ________the monarchy to improve the economic situation. The Labourist manifesto reads: The Party (8) _____ no plans to replace the monarchy. In his opinion it is the House of Lords that (9) _______. It will make the (10) ______ branch more democratic. 0. A. — B. The C. A 1. A. will think B. can think C. should think 2. A. the Prime Minister B. the monarchy C. Parliament 3. A. will be B. is C. should be 4. A. government’s B. administration’s C. department’s 5. A. doesn’t determine B. doesn’t approve C. revises 6. A. representatives B. ministers C. secretaries 7. A. will fight B. shall fight C. should fight 8. A. shall have B. will have C. should have 9. A. should be reformed B. will be reformed C. shall be reformed 10. A. judicial B. executive C. legislative 0i Your score 10-9 8-7 6-5 4 Your mark 5 4 3 2 ■SlN’i 68 6. CULTURAL AWARENESS What do you know about the British and US political systems? For statements 1 -I letter. 2. In the USA 4. In the USA 6. In the USA 7. In Great Britain a) 8. In the USA decide which answer is correct. Circle the corresponding a) the Prime Minister is the head of state. b) the Monarch c) the President a) the President is the head of state. b) the Prime Minister c) the Vice President a) the Monarch is the head of govern- b) the Prime Minister ment. c) the President a) the Vice President is the head of govern- b) the Prime Minister ment. c) the President a) the Cabinet represents the legisla- b) the House of Com- tive branch. mons c) Parliament a) the Administration represents the legisla- b) Congress tive branch. c) the Senate a) the Prime Minister with represent(s) the ex- cabinet and non-cabi- ecutive branch. net ministers b) the House of Commons c) the House of Lords a) the Senate represent(s) the ex- b) the President and his ecutive branch. Administration c) Congress Your score 8 6 4 3 Your mark 5 4 3 2 69 7. NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS FROM UNIT 2 How many new words and expressions do you know? 1 to appoint to approve assent bill branch cabinet campaign* ceremonial civil* Commons constitution constitutional to control to coordinate to delay democracy democratic department to determine elected to examine executive government house law legislative life peer* Lords majority minister non-elected to oppose opposition parliament parliamentary policy political power prime minister to represent representative n representative a responsible to/for to revise to rule to sign to vote on administration to balance compromise* Congress court to declare extreme* federal judge* judicial to pass over secretary senate supreme unconstitutional to veto vice president to adopt* assembly basic chairman council deputy to dissolve to guarantee Reading Section agreement* commandment* cause* enemy* equal* essential* excess* hatred* by heart* hypocrisy* lie n to reduce* to reveal* sheet* slavery* unalterable* xenophobia* consistent cunning deceitful hypocritical loyal personality* pliable power-loving prudent ruthless sly strong-willed sympathetic tolerant ambassador How rotten!* Just fancy that! Lord Chancellor, the' order woolsack* You are kidding! CNJ 70 8. SELF-ASSESSMENT Description of achievement I can read and understand • information about political systems of different countries • schemes reflecting political systems of different countries • information about the personality of a politician I can understand • information about political systems of different countries I can • speak about political systems of different countries • speak about personal characteristics of different politi- cians • express my admiration or surprise • ask if someone knows about something • say that I know about something I can • write a constitution, as I understand it Level reached poor fair good excel- lent Grammar checklist Can understand Can use ‘Shall’ as a modal verb ‘Should’ as a modal verb Pupil’s comments Exercise I found most interesting/enjoyable/difficult/boring a* What Is Hot with the Young Generation? 72 How Do Teens Express Their Individuality? 1 . Young people have a particular relationship with the whole world. They want to express their individuality. How do you think they do it? 2. Most young people follow some kind of youth culture. 1) By the mid-1960s, some teenagers in Great Britain had begun to form distinct (отличающиеся) cultural groupings. Read the descriptions of different groups and members of the groups, and find the names of these subcultures in the box. (reading for detail) Punks 76 Why Do Teens Join the Group? 1 . These photos are taken from the exhibition "The Young Generation of Russia*". Why are these young people placed here? These photos show young people v^ho belong to ... and ..I . It seems to me they ... . Besides they ... . 2. Young people like to express themselves. Why do young people • join the group? • join the organisation? • express themselves individually? Choose from the ideas. to achieue so/nething to express their/my own identity to get some skills io Qhoio oj)(f to lllGOtIliJ Oiitll a partiDOlOr oroop t« kn..» »ho iHc»- are to support a ... attitude and lifestyle to solve ... problems TO HELP NATURE to change the world for the best CO 77 Why Do Teens Join the Group? to try out all sort of options to j!?rokst ajamsf the ^arenb to rebel against the society/the older q^eneration to show a rebellion against the regime/society (not) to conjbrm to soddy standards to reject everything to differ from other people | fc to be in a collective 3- Values are the ideas that a person or group has about what things are good, right, and important in life. 1) Here are some opinions of different people about the values and beliefs of some youth groups. Do you agree with these opinions? I think that the values of environmentalists are to help nature, to change the world for the best. They do not protest against their parents but they protest against organisations that pollute nature. They wear certain badges. They are very useful. I think skinheads are extremely nationalistic. They are aggressive. They don't conform to society standards. They reject everything. I think it is dangerous when teenagers are aggressive. 2) Which of the ideas mentioned in exercise 2 are the values and beliefs of members of particular youth groups? Which of them do you think are dangerous and which are very good/useful? a I think that values and beliefs of ... are .... I nai 5 wny iney ... . i think/don't think it is good/danger-ous when ... . They also ..., but they ... . CO 'E ID 78 О Шу Do Teens Join the Group? 3) What do some teens think about Joining a group? (listening for specific information) 4) Some people write letters to newspapers to put their point of view. What would you write in support of or against something? (AB Unit 3, ex. 3) 5) What do you think of the attitude of society (especially grown-ups) towards the members of different youth groups and organisations? It seems to me that some grown-ups don't like/like ... because of their ... . These members are thought to ... . But the attitude towards ... is ... because ... . Д 6) What is YOUR attitude towards the members of different youth groups? Give your reasons. 4. These young people choose different ways to express their identity. 1) Whose lifestyle do you like most? Some people call me a hacker. I like my computer and I can do many things with its help. Tve designed a new game for my brother and I’ve made a programme for my teacher of English. Now we can use computers at our English lessons. Sve^bix I I’ve joined the organisation of Young Agrarians. I’d like to be with those people who think about nature, who help young people in the villages to get higher education and to get a good job. ai I’m not in a group. I don’t care about organisations. I like to wear cool T-shirts and dreadlocks (дреды). I like listening to reggae music. But I don’t like the fact that some people put you into categories according to the way you dress or according to the music you listen to. I also study at art school where I can express myself in my paintings. CO 79 Why Do Teens Join the Group? 2) What do you do • to express yourself? • to develop your own lifestyle? • to change the world for the best? *4 3) IN YOUR CULTURE a) Which groupings/subcultures are popular in your home place? What are their characteristics? Describe the members of some grouping. b) What youth organisations exist in your home place? What are their aims? дХ 4) Are you a member of some youth group or organisation? Why did/didn’t you join it? 5) IN YOUR CULTURE What kinds of teenagers can you meet in Russia nowadays? (AB Unit 3, ex. 4) 5. Music festivals are the events in the youth culture, which are remembered. 1°^ 1) What festivals do you know? (R Unit 3, ex. 5) 2) What music do teens choose now? (R Unit 3, ex. 6) 2\ ppO| 3) What music do you choose? (R Unit 3, ex. 7) G SECTION 80 3 bat Can Your Parents ell You About Their Youth? 1 • Buddy from the story Buddy’s Song by Nigel Hinton liked music and played the guitar. His dad hoped his son would become as famous as Buddy Holly. * Buddy's dad found a group The Hi-Tone Four that needed a vocalist. Now Buddy was In the group. 1) How did his first performance finish? His dad worked hard to find them work and he even got a gig at a pub in a nearby town for a Teddy Boys reunion evening. “They’re all mad music fans,” he told Buddy, “so they’ll love you. There’s a couple of other groups but you lot are top of the bill. It’ll be great.” It should have been great, but it was a disaster. By the time they arrived, the pub was packed with Teddy Boys all dressed up for an evening out. The second group was just coming to the end of their performance and the noise in the pub was incredible. Nobody seemed to be listening to the music; instead, there was a lot of pushing and shouting, and a feeling of violence in the air. Most of the Teddy Boys were old and fat and looked terrible with their big stomachs under their jackets. Buddy was surprised, though, to see quite a number of young people about his age. They seemed to be the ones who were causing most of the trouble, shoving each other around and looking as if all they wanted to do was fight. When the second group finished, they quickly set up their equipment on the tiny stage in the corner. The pub was obviously a regular place where Teds met because the juke-box was filled with old rock’n’roll records, and while they were getting ready Buddy was horrified to hear two of the songs he and the group were going to play. “We can’t sing those,” he said to Paul, as they started to tune up. “We’ll sound awful after the record.” “Nah, it’ll be all right,” Paul said. “OK, boys, ready?” Paul waited for the song to stop on the juke-box then he stepped forward to the mike (microphone). “Right, boys and girls, time for some live music. I’d like to introduce ‘The Hi-Tone Four’ with our young vocalist. Buddy Clark.” He stepped out the beat and they launched into “Good Golly Miss Molly*”. Then, louder than the group, came the sound of the original version of the song by Little Richard.* Somebody had put it on the jukebox. CO EADfNG SECTION 81 What Can Your Parents Tell You About Their Youth? There was a movement in the crowd as people looked round at the juke-box, then back at the group. With the noise of the record in front and the noise of the band behind him, Buddy couldn’t hear anything else but he could see by the jeering faces that everybody was laughing. Then Buddy saw his dad moving towards the juke-box, his face determined and angry. He bent down and pulled the plug out of the socket. The record stopped and the fight started. One of the young boys pushed his dad aside to try to get to the plug, his dad pushed back and the next moment there was the sound of smashing glass as the people dropped their beers and crashed into each other. 2) Why was the first performance not successful? Are the following causes true or false? Find evidence in the story. 1. The performance of ‘The Hi-Tone Four’ was after another group. 2. Most of the visitors were too old. 3. The visitors didn’t pay attention to the performance. 4. The group couldn’t sing well. 5. The stage was very small and uncomfortable. 6. Some visitors wanted to fight and looked for the cause to begin the fight. 2. Sometimes you can guess the meaning of unknown words by the context. 1) Read the LEARNING TO LEARN section. LEARNING TO LEARN Guessing the word by the context Существуют определенные типы отношений между словом и контекстом, которые могут помочь догадаться о значении этого слова. Можно догадаться о значении слова по контексту, если: ^ в тексте упоминается синоним (эквивалент — equivalent). е.д. Techno is developing into a mainstream, global movement, (main, widely accepted — основной, широко распространенный) / в тексте есть антоним или словосочетание, противоположное по значению (контраст — contrast). е.д. The festival was а landmark in the youth culture of the 1960s. Many other festivals were later held, but none was as famous as the Woodstock festival, (an important event — важное событие) v' слово объясняет причину чего-либо, описанного в тексте (причина — cause). G SBC 7Ш 82 What Can Your Parents Tell You About Their Youth? e g. Alternative, rap and country are losing commercial momentum. So record companies are turning to techno, (the quantity of sold things is getting less — теряют темп продаж) •/ слово описывает следствие чего-либо (следствие — consequence). е.д. More than one million fans cro\A/ded into Berlin’s Tiergarten park. For two days a friendly chaos covered the German capital, (a state of complete disorder — полный беспорядок) ^значение слова объясняется или дается пример (объясне-ние/иллюстрация — explanation/iilustration). е.д. Charity events are organised as necessary to help those in need, (events to collect money and help the poor — благотворительные) = 2) Guess the meaning of the highlighted words in the story by the context. 3) Check your answers with the table. Equiva- lent Contrast Cause Consequence Explanation Guessed meaning gig to find work for a group, at a pub, they're all music fans a concert (performance) lot are top of the bill They’ll love you. It will be great ? disaster It will be great 0 incredible the pub was packed; a lot of pushing and shouting noise 7 shoving All they wanted to do was fight 7 juke-box filled with old rock’n’roll records launched into stepped out the beat 7 jeering laughing 7 smashing dropped their beers 7 a CO 83 What Can Your Parents Tell You About Their Youth? 4) Look up the words in a dictionary to check if you guessed right. 3. WORD POWER 1) Find the verbs from the first column of the table in the text. Which particles do they go with in the story? = 2) Match the verbs with their meaning. around into up dress launch shove set tune Meaning to play a few notes to see if an instrument is at the correct pitch to begin eagerly to put things ready to be used to push rudely to wear your best clothes 3) Who is characterised with these verbs? 4) Which of the verbs above will have the following meanings with the particle in? to choose a certain radio station something begins and seems to continue for a long time to interrupt rudely 4. Find out the information about Teddy Boys* in the LCG. Add this informa-tion in exercise 2, Activity Book. Д 5. Did Buddy’s dad belong to some subculture in his youth? Which one? Why do you think so? I think he belonged to ..., as he liked ... . He knew people who ... Their appearance was the following ... . And their behaviour was ... . Z\ 6. IN YOUR CULTURE What subcultures existed in the times when your parents were teens? Ask your parents. Take notes. 7. Do you know how to make a fashionable thing by yourself? (R Unit 3, ex. 8) CO 84 How Much Are Teens in Russia Like Teens in Other Countries? 1 . The life of teenagers is not the same during different periods of history. О N ' T MIX UP to like - to be like - to be alike = 1) What was the teenager of the year 2003 like? According to the report of the Centre of Social Researches of Moscow University, the most trendy young person of the year 2003: Reads a lot. Plays football. Listens to rock or techno like young people in many countries. Is mad about the films “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Matrix” as the teens all over the world are. Is very friendly. Appreciates not only mutual understanding but also trust. Is sure that love can’t exist without friendship, and love is not only the harmony of relations but also is romantic. Falls in love very rarely. Besides the teenager is sure that the most important thing in life is health, freedom and the ability to adapt. a 2) How are teens in Russia and in other countries alike now? Choose the sentences you think are true. • A Russian teenager is sporty as British teens are. • A Russian teenager, like American teenagers, reads a lot. CO ’c ID 85 How Much Are Teens in Russia Like Teens in Other Countries? • A Russian teenager is friendly like teens all over the world. • A Russian teenager considers friendship very important as any European teen does. • A Russian teenager thinks about health as British teens do. • A Russian teenager prefers techno and rock music like teens in Britain and in Germany. GRAMMAR Like and as IN FOCUS (Предлог like и союз as) Говоря о похожих вещах, мы используем предлог like и союз as. Like — это предлог, поэтому он ставится перед именем существительным или местоимением. Russian teens, like British teens, listen to techno music. As — это союз, поэтому он ставится перед придаточным предложением. Russian teens think about love as teens all over the world do. (As также может быть предлогом и иметь значение «в качестве». Не works as а teacher. = Не is а teacher.) GS р. 276 2. When young Russians are bored being alone they choose a group with the same interests as all teenagers do. 1) Is there such an opportunity? (reading for the main idea) In Russia in 2003 there were 62 federal and interregional youth and children organisations which were officially registered. One of them is the Federation of Children Organisations of Russia. (Unlike/Not as) the organisations many years ago this organisation is independent from political parties. The main aim is to protect rights and interests of children and young people, to organise their free time, to help them develop various skills useful in their future life. (Like/As) pioneers many years ago members of this organisation help disabled people, make performances for young children. Besides such organisations there are different groups and subgroups with special interests {like/as) in many countries. a 2) What is similar In the activities of youth organisations in Russia nowadays and some years ago? (AB Unit 3, ex. 5) CO 86 How Much Are Teens in Russia Like Teens in Other Countries? a 3. Different subcultures exist in Russia as they do in other countries, (jigsaw reading) 1) What common features can you find in the corresponding subcultures in Russia and in other countries? (Use exercise 4, Unit 3 in the Reader.) (reading for the main idea) A, Bike subculture appeared in Russia with the appearance of Moscow motorbike club ‘Night Wolves’. Officially it was founded on May 31, 1989. But the core of it appeared in the early 80s. A ‘Night Wolf’ No 1, nicknamed ‘The Surgeon’ got his motorbike from his grandfather. The grandfather got it from the USA by lend-lease.* The motorbike was produced in 1942, but it works well. The Surgeon (he is a real surgeon) together with his friends kept order at the concerts of underground musicians as ‘Hell’s Angels’* did it. Working as guards is classical pastime of bikers. The club is so famous not only in Russia but also all over the world that the first Russian Bike Show, which took place in 1995 attracted a lot of guests from abroad. Among them there were the representatives of subdivisions of ‘Hell’s Angels’ in different countries. A biker in Russia prefers a heavy bike like Harley Davidson* and a leather jacket. But besides a real biker has his own values and beliefs as bikers of the USA have. Some people consider bikers aggressive. But in most cases they have only threatening appearance. B. The good old times for most of our hippies were the 1970s.* Their ideals include love, peace, freedom of self-expression, and nonconformity to society’s rules. Against the background of speeches, reports, slogans, which served as a smokescreen for corruption and moral crisis, hippies showed to young people an alternative to all that. Unfortunately, now the hippie community is becoming a place for really hopeless characters and those without any ideas and principles. It is not so difficult to look like a traditional hippie: a pair of worn-out blue jeans, long hair tied with bit of string and a couple of CO 87 How Much Are Teens in Russia Like Teens in Other Countries? decorative chains. This is often used by drug sellers. They have noticed that if you are wearing your hair long and your jeans are old, you have a much easier time on the road. Remarkably, while in society at large the drug problem is becoming more serious, within the hippie community it has stopped growing. Today hippies are more socially active. They set up environmental groups and join charity projects. “Everything that brings people together is good; everything that draws them apart is evil. Love is the most powerful thing that brings people together.” 2) How are bikers and hippies different in Russia and abroad? GRAMMAR FOR REVISION Degrees of comparison/Auxiliary verbs Hippies in Russia are more socially active than hippies abroad. But bikers are not. GS p. 261, p. 269 Д 3) What are the similarities between ravers here and ravers there? (Use exer-cise 6, Unit 3 in the Reader.) 4) How much does the skinhead movement in Russia differ from the skinhead subculture in Britain? (AB Unit 3, ex. 6) . 5) How much are you like an average Russian teenager? (Use exercise 1.1) on ^ P. 84.) 6) Some people say that punk culture has features of other subcultures. |o^ What are they? (AB Unit 3, ex. 7) 4- It is not good to judge a person according to his appearance. lo^ Render an article about two Russian teenagers. (AB Unit 3, ex. 8) ai 88 Are All the Young 1 . Young people are often considered by older generation bad and violent. Why do you think it is so? young people 2. The media often associates youth with something threatening and violent. 1) Who do these opinions about young people belong to: an elderly person, a middle-aged person, a teenager? A. More violence, more vandalism* exists than it did ten years ago. Many people say that their lives have been made miserable by young people out on the street late at night. Young people are more violent than ever. All those groups or subcultures are awful, because all of their members are violent. They only think about rebellion against society, its laws, they reject everything, they protest against their parents and school. I think they are potential criminals, their groups are like gangs (банды). I think all these groups should be forbidden. B. Violence is the symptom of problems in the society. Teenagers don’t live in a desert. Home, school, and neighbourhoods are part of the individual environment. They play a great role in the expression of violence. A society cannot suggest anything really worthwhile for teens. There are not many organisations that are interesting for teens. There are not enough sports clubs. Besides many hobbies and sports are expensive, and teens can’t afford them. That’s why they are rebellious. Crime for teens is an expression of their inability to join in society. At different levels: social, economic or cultural. Teens don’t think much about their future life. They want to live now. Being in a group is like living a real life for them. To be a fan of something or someone is a hobby, to be a hippie, for example, it’s a life. a C. It seems to me that the media makes the situation worse. The bad image of youth groups is presented by the press. These groups are CO а 89 Are All the Young Bad? not that bad as they are thought to be. Teens want to show off. But at the same time a lot of teens think about changing the world for the best. They help people around them. They help nature. I am sure, teenagers will become good citizens. Some who were punks became editors of famous newspapers. And I know a person who was a hippie and some years later became a president of a big country. A subculture is a way of life. It is not a fan club; it is a real life for teens. Д 2) The opinions above are different. How do the people show that they are totally against youth groups? Ф explain the existence of violence among teens? Ф show that teens are not as bad as they are thought to be? 3) Which arguments do you approve or disapprove of? Some people think that all young people are awful. And I think this opinion is absolutely right./But I think that this opinion is all wrong. Saying you approve ... is very good. ... is quite/absolutely right. ... seems/sounds just right. ... is just what I had in mind. I am all for such opinions. Yes, that's what I think too. Saying you do not approve I don't think ... is very good. It is wrong to think that .... It isn't right to .... I can't approve of .... On the contrary, .... ... is all wrong. 3^ 90 Are All the Young Bad? 3 • The opinion that some groups are dangerous sounds just right. 1) Which group do you approve or disapprove of? Their deeds are tieri} good and useful. think their image is quite right, у Their mime is very good. can’t approve of their clothes. Their behaviour seems just right. I’m all for such groups/organisations. ТЛе/г values and beliefs are all wrong. Q I don't think their attitude towards others is very good. 2) GROUP WORK ^ ^ What is your attitude towards subcultures, fan clubs and organisations for teens? Which ones do you consider threatening? Discuss in groups. Give your reasons. Ask other groups. Asking if someone approves Do you think ... are all right? Do you approve ot ...? Are you for ...? What is your attitude towards ...? Is ... all right, d'you think? Are you for hippies? 3 Hippies юипи just all right, because they believe in peace as the way to resolve differences between people. They are not violent. They accept other people as they are. They want to change the world for the best. CO I don't think being a hippie is very good. They take drugs. Their behaviour differs from social norms. They don't conform to society standards. Their lifestyle is too liberal. 91 Are All the Young Bad? 3) Do you think the mass media somehow influences the violence of teen-~ agers? ^4, What is your attitude towards these different opinions about young peopie? Youth culture is a lot more commercial than it was years ago. Teens are influenced by their peer group {group of people of the same age) much more than by their parents. Older people don’t feel as strong the need to identify with a particular subculture as younger people do. Hippies are sure that the way to peace is through love and tolerance. Youth violence is on the rise. That’s why it is necessary to lower the minimum criminal-trial age. 1 Violence frequently results from the frustration that people feel when they can’t integrate into society. Television has a big influence on the youth violence. Teens often sit glued to the TV hypnotised by the violence shown on the screen. 7 I Drugs and alcohol destroy people. They’ve got that death tag (ярлык) on them. 5) How can one detect that there is a street gang in the area? (R Unit 3, ex. 9) 6) Are youth gangs really dangerous? (R Unit 3, ex. 10) ai 5 92 д. Don’t Think I Can о with You, Actually 1 . Often young people do something not because they want to do it. They do things, because everybody around does it or because they think iVs impolite to refuse. 1) What is offered in the following situations? a — Hello, would you like to go to a dance club? — I don’t really want to go there. Well, you see, I don’t really like that loud music. — Why not visit the club for teenagers? — I’d rather not actually. The reason is that I don’t like crowded places. — A lot of people take this drug, it’s mild. Try it. It’s really exciting. — I don’t really fancy doing it. It’s like this, you see, I know the destroying result of drug usage. — Let’s colour our hair purple. It’s really fantastic. — I’d like to, but the thing is, my parents are against it. Well, I don’t want to argue with them. — Would you, please, tell us about youth gangs in your country? — I’m not really willing to do it. The main reason is that I don’t know much about them. CO 93 I Don’t Think I Can Go with You, Actually [Д 2) Find out in the conversations; Ф how people say they are unwilling to do something; Ф how they give reasons. 3) Guess which conversations took place between friends. Which conversations were between people who do not know each other well? Why do you think so? 2. ROLE-PLAY Imagine yourself in one of the situations described in exercise 1. п-чс ) How would you react? Which phrases would you use in the same situations? Choose from the boxes. (Think about neutral/informal/formal language.) Saying you are unwilling to do something Neutral I'd rather not, actually. I don't really want to ... Well, I think I'd prefer to/prefer not to ... I wish I could, but ... I'm afraid I can't possibly ... Informal I'd like to, but ... I don't really fancy ... Formal I'm not really willing ... (Well,) on the whole, I don't think ... Giving reasons Neutral (Well,) you see, ... The reason was that ... Let me explain. You see. But the point is, ... Informal Well, the thing is, ... It's like this; you see, ... Formal The main reason is that If I could explain ... 2) How does the situation determine the language you use? (AB Unit 3, ex. 9) a CO til 94 / Don^t Think I Can Go with You, Actuatiy 3) Give some other reasons suitable for the situations in exercise 1. 4) Imagine yourself in the following situations. t You are having a conversation with your friend. Ф You are speaking with your teacher. Ф You are talking to a colleague of your parent. When would the following phrases be acceptable? — I don’t really fancy visiting museums. — If I could explain: my parents don’t want rhe to visit clubs. — Well, I think I’d prefer to go to a dance club. 5) PAIR WORK How could you explain that you are unwilling to do the following depending on the situations above? What may be the reasons? You are unwilling: » to go to the art gallery. Ф to try a new dish. Ф to do a project. Ф to come to school on Sunday. Ф to bring your photos to school. Ф to go to the cinema with the class. Ф to wear a uniform. 6) What would you say in the following situations? i student 1 a) Offer to give a lift (подвезти) to your partner. b) Offer to sell a watch cheaper than in a shop. c) Ask to carry a bag through customs on board the plane, explaining that a person will meet this bag on the arrival. d) Ask to exchange money. e) Offer to give to try a drug. CO student 2 Say you are unwilling to do that. Give your reasons. 95 / Don4 Think / Can Go with You, Actually 7) Imagine that your foreign friend is visiting you in your home place. student 1 P Student 2 Say you are unwilling to do it and give reasons why. Suggest going somewhere or doing something. a) Suggest visiting a museum (a park, a club, your school). b) Suggest trying some national dish. c) Suggest buying a souvenir. 3. What youth clubs are often visited in different countries? (R Unit 3, ex, 11) ai 96 Ща1’з Your Idea Of an Ideal Youth Group? 1 ■ Some youth groups appeared at about the same time. Some groups emerged from the others. What are the relations between different groups and organisations? Choose a project you would like to do. Project 'Evolution of Youth Groups in Russia’ 1) Combine all your knowledge about youth groups and organisations in Russia. 2) Try to show the relations between them. (Why and how did they emerge?) Draw a scheme. Find illustrations to make your scheme clearer. 3) Explain your scheme to the classmates. Project *A Youth Group/Organisation I’d Like to Create’ 1) Revise all characteristics of different youth groups and organisations. 2) Choose positive characteristics from your point of view. Discuss them in a group. 3) Combine all positive characteristics (appearance, music, values and beliefs, activities) to design an ideal youth group. Draw a picture or make a collage. 4) Deliver your project to the class. 2. Here are some phrases you can use while presenting and discussing your projects. In my opinion ... As far as I am aware On the other hand Moreover ... a In addition . Furthernnore In conclusion To sum up .. I don’t see what you are getting at. I don’t follow what you are saying about I don’t quite get what you meant ... CO PREPARAT!ON FOR TESTING 97 О 1. LISTENING COMPREHENSION You will hear five teenagers from different countries answering the questions: What is the lifestyle of a teenager in your home place like? How would you describe your style in dress? What kind of music do you like? Listen to the recording. For questions 1-5, choose from the list A-F what each speaker says. Write the corresponding letter next to the speaker. Use each letter only once. There is one extra sentence, which you do not need to use. You will hear the recording twice. Speaker Speaker Speaker Speaker Speaker 1 2 3 4 5 A. This person cannot often go to discos. B. This person dislikes being identified with a group according to the clothes. C. This person likes listening to rap music. D. This person sometimes wears traditional clothes. E. This person likes wearing cool clothes. F. This person can’t wear all fashionable clothes because of the climate. Your score 5 4 3 2 Your mark 5 4 3 2 II 2. READING COMPREHENSION You are going to read a newspaper article about the first Asian pop star who became internationally popular. Five sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-F the one which fits each gap (1-5). Use each letter only once. There is one extra sentence, which you do not need to use. № M Ins to lasSB's rep |T| he Birmingham-born reggae singer moved to the Top of the Pop I 1 I stage in early 1993. Twelve months later, he was coming to the end of a disastrous second tour of India, and thinking of stopping the business. (1) ____ “It took me almost a year to find myself," says Apache Indian, a stage CO РЙЕРАПАТЮЫ Em tESTiHG 98 name for 27-year-old Steve Kapur. In the end, Make Way for the Indian, a powerful record, appeared. Later in the year, he also becomes a deejay with his own weekly show on Radio One. “My music is a reflection of how I grew up — the reggae from the streets, the Indian bhangra sound and language from home, and perhaps the pop from the radio.” Reggae has always been a powerful musical force in Birmingham, producing acts such as Steel Pulse and UB40. Steve Kapur unlike his Asian mates in school followed the music from the age of 13. His parents couldn’t understand this. “My parents came to this country when rock and roll was popular, and they were great fans of Elvis Presley. If I had followed him, there would have been no problem. (2) ____________ Asians tend to have a very negative attitude towards black people, and reggae in particular was associated with gangs.” Steve disapproves violence. “(3) ________I would take my family away and live somewhere else if I thought my children might get mixed up in gangs.” Kapur was an excellent pupil and eventually became the best at school. (4) _______ However when he was 18 he dropped out of college be- cause of some family problems. Kapur joined his father working in the shop and, as he was free from having to study in the evenings, devoted more time to reggae. He bought a van to help a local reggae sound system travel around the country, and finally started deejaying himself. Apache has not, however, forgotten about his roots. (5) ______“It was hard to record the album because I felt a lot of pressure.” But Make Way for the Indian became a socially conscious album. “People are getting shot, kids are on cocaine and crack, and I do address those subjects. I’m not leaving out the Asian people because what you apply to the Indian people, you apply to the white people, you apply to all.” _ A. I live my life in a non-violent way. B. The tour arrangements were chaotic and local politicians tried to use him for their own causes. C. It was harder for my parents to accept my love of Bob Marley, Burning Spear and Misty in Roots. D. After two quick shows I gave up hope and returned to Britain. E. He wanted to be a teacher, passed three A-levels in biology, maths and art, and went to teacher training college. F. All the money from the Indian tours went to different charities such as Blind Association. ai MEPARATIQN FOR TESTING 99 Your score 5 4 3 2 Your mark 5 4 3 2 3. USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY;i 1) For questions 1-11, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D fits best each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). The History of RocK’n’Roll R ock’n’roll started in the USA (0) C the great black rhythm’n’-blues players: Muddy Waters, John Lee Hooker and Chuck Berry. Fifty years ago black and white music were two completely separate things. Chuck Berry was the first black musician (1) __cross the barrier and sell records to (2) ___black and white young peo- ple. His songs were about the lives of teenagers. Jerry Lee Lewis, Elvis Presley and Buddy Holly mixed black music with white ‘country’ music to create rock’n’roll. This was all happening in the United States. But people in Britain were listening to this music (3) ______. The black rhythm’n’blues singers and the best rock’n’roll stars (4) _____ Buddy Holly were (5) ______ popular in Britain than in the States. Then, in the 1960s the British invaded America, (6) _______ the Americans some years before did. The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Kinks, The Who. There were concerts with tens of thousands of fans. The name of the music — rock’n’roll changed to ‘rock’. In the 1960s the style of the musicians changed a lot. The clothes of the musicians became crazy and (7) _______their hair. The guitar became (8) ________ important as the voice. Jimi Hendrix and Eric Clapton were guitarists (9) than singers. In the 1970s rock went in two different directions. (10) Elton John and Rod Stewart, The Sex Pistols, The Stranglers, and a few other bands started to play loud, violent music called ‘punk’. Punk was also important (11) _________a fashion in clothes. 0. A. at B. on C. with D. from 1. A. who B. that C. to D. — 2. A. like B. as C. — D. both 3. A. too B. either C. so D. — ■ A. as B. like C. so D. and 31 PREPARATION FOR TESTiNG 100 5. A. so 6. A. as 7. A. so did 8. A. so 9. A best 10. A. Not as 11. A. like B. as B. like B. so was B. as B. also B. As not B. — C. more C. so C. both was C. too C. more C. Unlike C. than D. much D. also D. as did D. more D. much D. More than D. as Your score 11-10 9-8 7-6 5 Your mark 5 4 3 2 2) For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D fits best each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Yuppies: Who They Are The D ‘yuppie’ is basically an invention of the mass media, yuppies do indeed exist. On the one hand, yuppies are a result of the (1) _______ against the antiestablishment, against the free-minded 1960s’ (2) _______. But on the other hand they are a phenomenon much more complex, tied to the nation’s economy. What is a yuppie? A Young Urban Professional, making a (3) ______in business. Being a yuppie is a (4) ________ of life. Those who want to be yuppies choose the yuppie (5) _________ system. They conform (6) the society standards. They believe that money cures all ills. Yuppies are young: in their late twenties or thirties. Yuppies are urban, and often disapprove (7) ______suburban lifestyle. Most of all, yuppies are professional; they work hard, rise quickly, and stop at nothing. Their behaviour does not (8) _______ social norms, but to most American intellectuals yuppie has negative connotation. 0. A. clich6 1. A. rebel 2. A. youth 1 3. A. culture 4. A. way 5. A. life 6. A. to 7. A. to 8. A. differ from ICO B. idiom B. rebellion B. adults B. way B. sense B. image C. phrase C. behaviour C. children C. career C. behaviour C. fashionable D. term D. react D. generation D. life _ D. simply D. value B. with B. with B. conform C. for C. for D. — D. of C. support D. protest against a: 101 Your score 8 7-6 5-4 3 Your mark 5 4 3 2 4. SPEAKING 1) Tell your foreign friend what opportunities a teenager in your country has to express him/herself. Remember to say: • what teenagers look like; • what music they like; • what groups they can join. You have to talk for 2 minutes. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then she/he will ask you some questions. 2) ROLE-PLAY You are on an exchange tour in a British college. You and your friend have an opportunity to meet with the representatives of one of the following groups. Discuss the options and choose ONE you both like most of all. STUDENT CARD 1 You and your friend have an opportunity to meet with the representatives of one of the following groups. Discuss the options and choose ONE you both like most of all. • Bikers • Scouts • Hippies • Hackers • Environmentalists You begin the conversation. Remember to: • say what your choice is; • give reasons for your choice; • show your attitude towards the group. STUDENT CARD 2 You and your friend have an opportunity to meet with the representatives of one of the following groups. Discuss the options and choose ONE you both like most of all. • Bikers • Scouts • Hippies • Hackers • Environmentalists Listen to your friend. Remember to: • agree or disagree with your friend’s suggestion; • give reasons; • show your attitude towards the group. PREPARATION FOR TESTING 5. WRITING You’ve got a fetter from your British friend (John). He is asking you: • to describe youth organisations of your school/home place; • to describe their activities; • to say if you take part in them. Write a letter to John (about 100 words). 6. CULTURAL AWARENESS Match the youth group and its most distinguishing feature. There is one extra feature you don’t need to use. A member of a youth group/movement Feature 1. Punk 2. Hippie 3. Chelsea girl 4. Biker 5. Raver 6. Hacker 7. Environmentalist 8. Scout A. Brightly coloured hair B. Haircut: short on top and longer around the sides C. Love for all people D. Loyalty and responsibility E. Concern about nature F 2 or 3 wheeled motorised vehicle G. Coats in the style of the beginning of the century H. All-night dancing I. ‘Wizards’ of the computer world Your score 8 7-6 5-4 3 Your mark 5 4 3 2 7. NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS FROM UNIT 3 1) How many new words and expressions do you know? 2) Which words name youth groups? 3) Which words can be used to characterise youth groups? 4) Which words are similar in spelling or pronunciation with the corresponding Russian words? PRBPARATION FOR TESTiNG 103 5) Which words are formed with the help of prefixes, suffixes, which bination of two words? 1-2 value* Reader violent aggressive warehouse* bonehead* biker brotherhood* to conform to cautious* hacker Reading Section Chelsea girl* identity disaster* to dye* improvisation* Qig* graffiti* liberal incredible* landmark* option shove around* mainstream* raver teddy boy seedy* to rebel top of the bill* to shiver* rebellion skinhead* rebellious 3 to sponsor* reggae* to stumble* to reject as tacky* scout JR to take out* subculture 4 to turn off* techno* to approve of vandalism* to try out gang venue* 3 CO PREPARATION FOR TESTING 8. SELF-ASSESSMENT Description of achievement Level reached poor fair good excel- lent I can read and understand information about • the characteristic features of different subcultures • their representatives • youth organisations • music • popular places I can understand • what is said about the representatives of different subcultures • attitude towards these representatives •attitude towards subcultures on the whole • that people are unwilling to do something I can express my attitude towards • representatives of different subcultures • subcultures • I can express unwillingness to do something and give reasons • I can approve or disapprove of something I can write about some features of subcultures Grammar checklist Can understand Can use Structures used for comparing things with like; as Study skills Level reached poor fair good excellent How 1 can guess the meaning of unknown words by the context How 1 can understand the writer’s attitude Pupil’s comments Exercise I found most interesting/enjoyable/difficult/boring V Is It Easy to Be Young? I fo. ■r' ' 106 What Right Is Right for Me? 1 . Everyone has rights, including you. What rights do you have? (anticipating) 2. To protect children's rights the United Nations* has worked out an international agreement called the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. * It gives you different rights. Й 1) What are these rights? (reading for specific information) All children have the right to non-discrimination. (Article 2) Children have the right to life. (Article 6) All children have the right to name and nationality at birth (при рождении). (Article 7) Children have the right to express their views. (Article 12) Children have the right to meet other people. (Article 15) Children have the right to privacy. (Article 16) Children have the right to information. (Article 17) Children have the right to protection. (Articles 19; 32) Disabled children have the right to take a full and active part In everyday life. (Article 23) Children have the right to health and health care. (Article 24) Children have the right to education and development. (Articles 28; 29) Children have the right to leisure. (Article 31) 2) How can you say about your rights in two possible ways? 1 have the right to ... education life get education live 107 What Right Is Right for Me? 3) Which rights didn’t you expect to find in the Convention? И 4) Read how the children’s rights are explained in the Guide to the UN Conven> tion. Match the explanation with the article of the Convention, (reading for detail) WHAT ARE ALL THESE RIGHTS ABOUT? A Guide to the UN Convention 0 All children must get a name when they are born and become a citizen of a particular (определенный) country. 0 The Government must give children good medical care and try to reduce (сократить) the number of deaths in childhood (детская смертность), 0 All children should have the rights whatever (несмотря на) their race, sex, religion, language, disability, opinion or family background (положение). 0 Children should have a chance to live in a safe and unpolluted environment with good food and clean drinking water. 0 Children with disabilities must be helped to be as independent as possible. 0 Children should have the best chance to develop their abilities. 0 Every child can go to school. Different kinds of secondary schools should be available (доступны) for children. 0 School should help children develop their skills, teach them about their own and people’s rights and prepare for adult life. 0 The Government should protect children from harm, cruelty, abuse (оскорбление) and dangerous drugs. 0 Children can join organisations, take part in meetings and peaceful demonstrations which do not affect other people’s rights. 0 Every child should have a chance to rest and play. 0 Children can say what they think. What they say must be listened to carefully. 0 The Government must protect children from exploitation [,ekspbi'teifn] and dangerous work which can harm their health or interfere with (помешать) their education. 0 Children can get information, especially that would make their life better. 0 Nobody can open children’s letters and listen to their phone calls. The Convention prodaims the right to Article ... says that ... It means that ... The right to ... also includes ... I 108 What Right Is Right for Me? 5) Which rights seem most important to you? Why? Put them in order of impor-tance. Compare your list of rights with your classmates’ lists. 6) IN YOUR CULTURE Russia Joined the UN Convention in 1989. What rights do Russian children have? (AB Unit 4, ex. 1) 3. Young people around the world have expressed many different feelings and expectations about the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. 1) What do they think about the rights proclaimed by the UN Convention? (Ns-tening/reading for detail) I can’t but agree that to have the right to life and protection is very important. But in my opinion, the Convention is useless. All adults do is talk; they can’t be forced to put needs of children ahead of their own. V A I’m sure the Convention is great and \«ill bring children more rights. For the first time children have a document with which to work together on their problems. The Convention says that all children have the right to life and protection. But I’m afraid the Convention cannot do anything about war and cruelty. These are the biggest problems that concern young people. S\^j^ The Convention doesn’t interest me; it’s too complicated. I doubt whether it can give children real rights. ’c 109 What Right is Right for Me? 2) Which of these opinions do you agree, partially agree or disagree with? Why? 1 don't think that ... 1 can't agree that ... 1 completely disagree that ... 1 entirely agree 1 can't but agr€ I'm sure that ... that ... ?e that ... 1 douh I'm afi I'm no it whether ... •aid ... t sure that ... It seems to me that ... In my opinion ... Personally, 1 feel that ... 4. IN YOUR CULTURE The Governments of different countries send the UN Committee on the Rights of the iD^Di reports explaining how they put the Convention into practice. 1) What would you write in your report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child? (AB Unit 4, ex. 2) 2) Do you know any organisations that help to protect children’s rights all over the world? What do they do? (R Unit 4, ex. 1; AB Unit 4, ex. 3; English 7, p. 50) 110 Are You of Age? 1 . The British Governrnent joined the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and worked out some documents with age limits for some activities for British children. 1) Look through the leaflet and find at what age young people in Britain can t drive a car; Ф leave school; Ф join the army; Ф buy alcohol; Ф get married, (reading for specific information) At twelve You can buy a pet without your parents’ consent (permission). At thirteen You can get a job. But the law allows you to work only two hours a day on school days. At fourteen You can enter a bar, but you can only buy soft drinks (non-alcoholic). The law forbids you to buy or drink alcohol. The law makes you fully responsible for your criminal actions. Boys (not girls) can be sent to a special prison (тюрьма) for young people. Boys and girls can get their ears pierced (проколоть) without their parents’ consent. At fifteen You can see a category-15 film at the cinema. You can buy a category-15 video. At sixteen You can leave school. But you are entitled (have the right) to receive full-time education until you are 19. The law permits you to work full-time, if you have left school. You can leave home without your parents’ consent. You can apply for (ask for) your own passport. Boys can join the army. ~±i Ill Are You of Age? You can buy cigarettes. The law allows a young person to smoke at any age, but if you are under 16 and caught by the police, they can seize [si:z] (take by law) your cigarettes. You can buy beer or wine. But you are allowed to drink it only in the restaurant or pub. You can buy liqueur [li'kjua] chocolate. You can buy fireworks. You can sell scrap (waste, unwanted) metal. You have to pay full ticket on trains and on buses and the tube in London. You can marry if your parents permit you to do it. At seventeen You can get a licence to drive a car and ride a motorbike. Girls can join the army. You can buy any firearm (guns, pistols) or ammunition |,aernju'ni/n|. At eighteen You are an adult. You do not need your parents’ permission for anything. You can get married, vote, borrow money from a bank and drink alcohol. 2) What other things does the law allow or forbid British teenagers to do? (reading for detail) At ... the law (doesn’t) allow(s) permit(s) (to) let(s) forbid(s) GRAMMAR Complex Object (Сложное дополнение) IN FOCUS V + Object + (to) Infinitive Когда мы хотим выразить желание (want), а также попросить (ask), разрешить (allow, permit, let), запретить (forbid), заставить (force, make) кого-либо что-то сделать, мы используем конструкцию «объектный падеж с инфинитивом». The law allows you to work full-time, if you have left school. После глаголов make, let частица to перед инфинитивом не употребляется. Му parents let me stay out late at the weekends. GS p. 269 112 Are You of Age? 3) Which age limits does the law set for the young people in the pictures? Find the information in the leaflet to support your opinion, (reading for specific information) 4) Are these teenagers of the same age as you are? [Щ ^ 5) What does the British law permit young people of your age to Ы do? \Ш\ Which age limits are rights and which are obligations? (R Unit 4, ex. 2) о 2 ■ In Britain, the 21st birthday traditionally means coming of age. * But young people get many important rights before they become 21. Adults say that children today grow up more quickly, because the law makes it possible. Listen to some British teenagers and complete the chart about what they can or can’t do because of the age limits. Guess their age. (listening for specific information/taking notes) Frank Stacey Denis the law allows . parents allow ... .. to ... to ... the law forbids parents forbid .. .. to ... . to ... age 9 113 Are You of Age? ... says that she/he can(not) The law also ... But the law ... So, I think she/he is ... 3. IN YOUR CULTURE Most of the rights you have depend on your age and are determined by the law. What age limits are there in your country? Compare them with those in the UK. 4. Parents also set a lot of rules which you must obey. Sometimes teenagers complain (жалуются) that he or she is the only person in the class who is not allowed to do something. 1) What do your parents allow or forbid you to do? (AB Unit 4, ex. 4.1)) 2) GROUP WORK your classmates have the same rules at home. Walk round the class and ask your classmates about what their parents let them do. Complete the chart with the information you have got. (AB Unit 4, ex. 4.2)) Make a survey comparing what things you and your classmates are allowed to do. Who has the strictest parents in your opinion? (AB Unit 4, ex. 4.3)) 5 > Rights and laws can differ from country to country. [o^ What is special about the age limits in the USA? (R Unit 4, ex. 3) 114 Young People-Old Problems? 1 . Nowadays, more and more social problems are associated with being young. 1) What teens’ problems are discussed in this magazine article? While reading find the words in the article that can help you to understand the meaning of the highlighted words. Then find the correct meaning of these words in the column on the right, (reading for specific information} WHAT MAKES OUR CHILDREN DO THIS? Today it is fashionable to speak about teenage problems. A few years ago alcohol, fights, killings and other kinds of violence were more problems for adults than for young people. But now, as official reports admit, violence, AIDS,* drugs and alcohol are more and more associated with youngsters. For many children from poor families violence, drinking problems and all that is associated with poverty becomes more real than reality. The Government surveys show that every fifth teenager who was arrested for criminal actions, was younger than 14 and could not be sent to prison. Almost half of teenagers have an experience with drugs, alcohol and sex under age of 16. A lot of teenagers who have drug or alcohol addiction almost never believe that they are dependent. These things are often combined with family and school problems. What has gone wrong? Some specialists explain that the changes of our society, the system of our life force young people to choose their own lifestyle. On the one hand, our society agrees that 15-17-year-old people are old enough to be responsible for what they do and give them quite a lot of freedom and rights. On the other hand, most adults think that teenagers are too young to be taken seriously. This misunderstanding produces many problems. Actually, a lot of teenagers say that their parents let them do anything they want and are quite indifferent to their problems. Many teenagers get a) detective stories b) disagreement c) cruel actions a) problem b) lack of good life c) disease a) place for criminals b) private school c) children’s home a) protection b) dependence c) disability т Young People — Old Problems? upset or depressed when they can’t solve their problems. As a result, it makes them believe that there is only one way out — to stop living and commit suicide. No doubt, the teens’ problems will increase. And young people should teel that they are cared for. 115 a) enjoy oneself b) wait for somebody c) kill oneself 2) What makes young people do these things? How do different people explain the reasons for teenagers’ behaviour? The Government The specialists Adults Teenagers 3) IN YOUR CULTURE say(s) think(s) explain(s) admit(s) that ■ Which problems discussed in the article can be applied to your country? (reading for specific information) Qc» 2. Different experts investigate social problems and try to help young people to cope with their problems. Melanie Stewart is one of them. 1) What does Melanie Stewart do? (listening for specific information/taking notes) 2) Which teenage problems discussed in the article is she speaking about in her interview? 3) What reasons for teens’ problems does she mention? (AB Unit 4, ex. 5) 4) What ways to improve the situation does she suggest? 3. A tot of magazines and newspapers write about teenagers’ life. 1) What do you think about the information given in the charts on p. 116? How many teenagers have drinking problems? How many American children run away from home every day? How do they explain the reasons? How many children die in America every day? It's awful to learn that/about ... I was surprised to know that/about I was shocked to read that/about ... Young People — Old Problems? One Day in the Life of American Teenagers 2,795 teenagers get pregnant. 1,106 teenagers have abortions. 27 children die from poverty. 10 children die from guns. 6 teenagers commit suicide. 135,000 children bring a gun to school. 211 teenagers are arrested for drug addiction, q 437 teenagers are arrested for drinking or drunken driving. 1,512 teenagers drop out of school. 3,288 children run away from home. 1,629 children are in adult jails. (BE: prison) Harvey Aiston educational cwsultant, ^9© Best, Inc. Columtxjs OH regular Britain NUMBER OF YOUTHS (18-21) CONVICTED (осужденных) OR CAUTЮNED (предупрежденных) PER 100 000 IN AGE GROUP 8,000 7 6 5 ARRESTS OF YOUTHS UNOEi AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL ARR 20У, S ^outh arrests 96 97 12-14 15-17 4 3 2 1 0 BOYS 89 90 91 alcohol 9% 31% drinking STREET CHILDREN 40 million children around the world spend their life on city streets. Why are they there? Poverty in the home Treated badly at home Nothing else to do Just followed other children Sent by the family 27% 27% 27% ‘E 117 Young People — Old Problems? 2) What do young people do against the law? What problems does it cause? 3) What children’s rights do you consider to be ignored in all these cases? Use the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child to support your opinion. 4) IN YOUR CULTURE How do mass media reports show the life of teenagers in your country? (AB Unit 4, ex. 6) 5) What problems worry young people in your country? 4- There are a lot of organisations around the world that help children to cope with their problems. What is NSPCC?* (R Unit 4, ex. 4) xt* - ^ лг L.TT -..V 118 Dating or Waiting? 1 . There is no ‘right’ age to begin dating. Dating may begin as young as 13-14 years old, but becomes common around 16-18. WORD POWE / a day a date - an arranged meeting \a person with whom meeting is arranged to date somebody 1) What is similar and what is different in the dating customs of the English-speaking countries and your country? (reading for specific information/extract-ing cultural information/making comparison) IN AMERICA, BRITAIN AND CANADA Young people often start meeting someone of the opposite sex around the age of 14. They do not need an older person to go with them. Teenagers generally date people of their own age, although girls sometimes date boys two or three years older than they are. IN YOUR COUNTRY How old are young people when they start dating? Either a girl or a boy can invite someone on a date. It does not mean that they date regularly only one person. They may go out with one person one week and someone else the next one. Most teenagers go on dates with more than one person. Young people may even date several friends at the same time. Sometimes two couples go together. Who do young people usually date? Parents very rarely choose dates for their children. Young people usually meet and choose their own dates. Sometimes, however, someone arranges a date for two people who do not know each other. How do teenagers choose their dates? fT^ Dating or Waiting? ^I^Boys and girls go to parties together. They go on dates to the cinema, dances, roller skating, etc. A boy often goes to pick up his date at her home. Girls may invite boys to parties or other social events. Hand holding and light kissing in public are common. Anything more than light kissing is not generally approved of in public. i i Dating is often very expensive. Today, even the | simplest date can cost over $20.00. A couple on a date may go to the movies and have a snack after- . wards. Movies now cost S3.00-S5.00 per person, and a snack can easily cost more than $10.00. The ■ boy and girl often share expenses. Sometimes, however, one person pays for both people. 119 Where do young people go on dates? How much does it cost to go on a date? Who is supposed to pay for entertainment when dating? 2) What do these expressions about the dating customs mean? Using the information above explain their meaning, (reading for specific information/learning idioms) blind bate i go Steady go Dutch > 120 Dating or Waiting? 3) These teenagers are speaking about their dating experiences. What dating customs do they mean? (Hstening/reading for the main idea) My friend Melanie and her boyfriend Mark have been dating for six months already. They go to school together, share lunches, meet at Pizza Hut after school and attend all school activities together. Melanie and Mark date no other people and are always seen together. Charlie and I often go on outings together. We both pay for our own movie tickets and hamburgers and soda We don't always have enough money to cover our expenses. And this is the answer to the limited budget. It's a pleasant afternoon what matters more for us, not money. It doesn't always turn out (оказывается) well. I can only imagine what my date will be like. Will we both enjoy the same kinds of food, music, and films? Will she be pretty? I like this exciting experience. 121 Dating or Waiting? 2. Dating etiquette today is quite different from that when your parents were young. 1) Which information refers to the present and which describes dating customs which were common among teenagers 30 years ago? Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form, (reading for detail/anticipating grammatical structures) Dating in the 19..s (be) The dating rules (be) __ very structured. ____firmly established. Boys and girls usually (begin)___________ dating in high school. Of course, they (need) _________their parents’ permission. Many teen- agers (be)_______even chaperoned (accompanied by parents). The boy (meet)_________ his date’s parents and (talk)_______with them for a little while. Then, the young couple usually (leave)________ for a movie, and a soda and snack, which the boy (pay) _________ for. The young people (observe) _________ curfews and (say)________goodnight at the front door. In the 19..s dating (be) casual. Children (begin) far more dating in junior high school, and many youngsters (have) _______steady girlfriends or boyfriends. The younger couples (may be)_________escorted by their parents, but as soon as they (be) ____________ in high school, couples (rebel) _________ at the idea of being chaperoned. Dutch treat dating (be) _______acceptable and because of the teens’ limited finances, it (occur) _______ quite frequently. Girls (call) _______boys and (ask)__________for dates. They even (pay)________for dates. Curfews (be) ____ __observed only in a few families. Today, teenagers (have) __________ more independence in all aspects of dating. 2) Do you agree that today’s teenagers exercise more freedom in dating than the teenagers of the seventies? Prove your opinion. ш 122 Dating or Waiting? 3. All these lines are taken from a poem by Helena from Staffordshire in the Just 17 magazine. In her poem she expresses her ideas about love. 1) Which of them do you agree or disagree with? And which of the statements do you doubt? (evaluating the author*s pomt of view) docvn, /dfa£e^ %0 e/rcdr, s’ee/fr What happens if you set your eyes on a certain person, but he or she doesn't seem to know you exist? While it is true that an especially pretty girl or handsome boy may be asked out more, being ‘datable’ depends on things other than just good looks. Enthusiasm and a good sense of humour are much more important. z\ How can you make him or her notice you? (R Unit 4, ex. 6) ______________________________________________________ш Teenage Years — Do They Bring Luck? Л Ш In the early 90s, British television had a series of discussions on the problems of teenagers in a programme called Crosstalk. Young people shared their opinions on what it means to be young. 1) Which of these teenagers thinks that being young Ф brings a lot of serious problems? Ф allows you to do exciting and wonderful things? Ф is a kind of duty and makes you feel responsible for what you do? (listen-ing/reading for the main idea) Teenagers today have a lot more to worry about than their parents ever did. The world is becoming a very scary place. Violence, teen pregnancy, and AIDS cases are increasing. More and more teens are turning to drugs and alcohol. I’m sure that almost every teenager will at one time or another have an experience with drugs, alcohol or sex. These things combined with personal problems and mates’ influence make being a teenager very difficult. I don’t have a single friend who has never had a drink of alcohol. Some of them don’t drink at all now, but some do. It seems to me that adults are generally quite indifferent to what their children do. Once you reach the age of sixteen or seventeen, your parents think you are old enough to decide for yourself and let you do what you want. ^fte-LLe- It’s true that there are so many problems facing teens today. I go to an all-girls private school which makes my school life easier. I focus more attention on doing my work than on impressing a cute guy. But when I go out on weekends there is a lot of pressure to drink and smoke. There are no teen clubs close to where I live so weekend activities are limited. у My friends and I don’t do anything exciting, but we usu-/ ally have fun just being around each other. We usually talk about humorous things. On the other hand, we also talk about serious things like abortion, sex, and politics. My friends and I try to help each other if we can, because a lot of the time, being a teenager isn’t fun. It’s a chore (duty). You have to go to school and your parents want you to get good grades, which is hard enough in itself, and you have to deal with your own problems too. 125 Teenage Years — Do They Bring Luck? Вл-^ JG Where I live teenagers have few dangers, but even in my town kids can get alcohol easily. I personally do not drink alcohol. I don’t think drinking is exciting. But I know some guys who do. My view is that if they want to, then they can - it’s their life, they are free to decide and nobody can forbid them to do what they want. The people I hang out (слоняться) with don't really put any pressure (оказывать давление) on me or anyone else. Dating is not a big deal {not so important). We usually go out with a bunch (group) of friends, both girls and boys. Social events such as discos and parties are a very popular conversation topic among teenagers. At school, politics are discussed quite a lot but along with this there are conversations about boyfriends, girlfriends, and plans for the weekend ahead. I feel also that the majority of boys are foot-ball-mad and the girls are very conscious of (crazy about) their appearance and clothes. Being a teenager is great fun. Take it easy. 2) How do John, Estelle and Bart feel about the life of today’s teenagers? Do teenage years bring luck to them? What do they say about it? (reading for detaii) 3) What problems facing young people do John, Estelle and Bart usually discuss with their friends? Which of the problems do they find serious? (reading for specific information) 4) Do their mates influence these teens’ lives much? How do they spend time together? 5) Name the reasons that make John call the world “a very scary place”? = 6) Why does Estelle think that being a teenager is “a chore”? 7) What do the teenagers think about adults’ attitude towards teens’ problems? Do they approve of it? 8) Which of these teenagers could say the following? What makes you think so? only bad of Vjt art too уоипз to omy — -н 126 ji Teenage Years — Do They Bring Luck? 9) Whose attitude towards life appeals to you most? And which opinion do you disagree with? Why? ... thinks that being young ... She/He says that ... I (can't) agree that ... It's (not) true that ... 2. While some teens see only problems in growing up, others try to find the ways to cope with them. 1) These two poems are from the Just 17 magazine. What problems do the authors write about? Do they have the same problems as John, Estelle and Bart? (reading for detail) Ф ^ ^ ^ © is nothing ever easy? Why are some hoys so very sleazy (неряшливые)? Why сапЧ I have that brand (фирменное) new dress? Why am I under so much stress? Why don't my parents ever believe me? Why can’t they ever see Why do I feel so often unhappy’? Why do they always wish 1 was still in a nappy (в пеленках)? Why does my face feel like a block of lard (кусок сала)? Why are all these years really hard? There’s a reason for all these problems and tears. I’m going through my TEENAGE YEARS! A frustrated teenager, Scarborough 127 Teenage Years — Do They Bring Luck? НЧ r r>• e ё mm Growing up, doesn't it just suck (поглощает)? It seems to be full of constant bad luck. Zits (прыщи), bad hair days and putting on weight, So many reasons for your self-hate. But hey, you're alive, you're unique, you're so cool, do you always feel such a fool? Be tme to yourself, forget all your faults. Arid you'll soon he thinking much happier thoughts. Live life to the max and paint your town red, Who cares what people think and what they've said? Don't let them win and make you feel bad, 'Cause people like that ar'e really quite sad. So, enjoy your teens and have some fun. Your life has only just begun! Lauren, Romford 2) Which of the authors writes only about the teens’ problems? Who of them suggests the solutions? What are these solutions? Choose the phrases that would introduce problems and the phrases that would introduce solutions. One way out would be ... I tfiing is ... It is too bad that ... tVAaL worries ... is ... The only thing to do is ... The answer could be The trouble is that ... di/jj^biyu/i/i/ij i/Q ... One possibility may be ... г. 128 Л Teenage Years — Do They Bring Luck? ^ 3) Which problems seem to you more important? Why? If.vou ask me. ... Actuallv, I thihk that ... It seems to me that ... ■ 4) Which of the ways to solve the teens’ problems suggested in the poem do you find useful? (evafuatmg the author^s point of view) 5) How do the authors of the poems feel about being young? Who seems to you more optimistic? Why do you think the first poem is signed ’a frustrated (разочарованный) teenager’? (understanding ideas not directly stated) 6) Which of the teens above (John, Estelle or Bart) could write these poems? Give reasons. 7) What is your own attitude towards teenage years? (AB Unit 4, ex, 8) 8) What does growing up mean to you? Share your opinion with your class-mates. Being a teenager is ... / very difficult/scary/ dangerous/hard/... \ great/fun/exciting/ wonderful/... boring/a chore/’" serious/not easy/... ' ' It seems as if/that ... It's true that ... I'm sure that ... But 1 can't agree that ... 1 feel that ... ' What's more ... a I (don't) think that ... My view is that ... I feel (also) that ... 129 Teenage Years — Do They Bring Luck? 3. PROJECT 1) Organise a competition in your class for the best picture book on the topic ‘The Way Teenagers Live’. Interview your classmates about how they feel about being young. V /—\ 2) Organise a competition in your class for the best poet. Write a poem about E_ what growing up means to you. You can use the sentences below. Put the lines into a poem. 7J& eke and tke aion^' k/if?e acifa^ tkat ankc^p^ ^nown Peopde c4fko an^e di^^enent And п-шеткеп tkenes no ne^ to ^nociOn l^ken ^oane ^eedin^ doevn And tk/'ni' 0^ peof)de coot^ee tkan o^ ^oa 7~ke n'dnawa^ anaide to ^o коте And kao-e to pat up aoitk tke sta/*'es 7~kose witk no ^amid^ оп' nedatiu'es to сап-е So wken ^ouW ^eedfnp' doco O^e is ^udd 0^ ups and downs T~kind 0^ tkose witk nowken'e to p^o 3; 130 Anything to Complain About? 1 . Adults often complain that young people do not show proper respect for the laws and rules. While teenagers complain that they are treated like babies and the rules are not fair sometimes. 1) Which things are these teenagers complaining about? (listening/reading for the main idea) Ф going to school Ф being young Ф joining the army Ф having a younger brother Ф getting a Job Ф dealing with parents Ф buying transport tickets Ф having not enough money Ф watching violent films — Well Ken, if you ask me, there is too much to complain about being young. It can really be hard sometimes, especially when your parents hardly ever leave you alone. — You’re telling me! I quite like my Mom and Dad, but they’re always ready to criticise me. “Don’t do this! You can’t do that!” It’s often really hard to put up with. — Oh, it’s really that bad. Frankly, I’m having a big argument with my parents at the moment. I ask them to buy me a motorbike, but they say I can’t ride one. They say, “It’s against the law. Wait till you are 17. You are not an adult yet.” — Although, sometimes it’s just the opposite. See, I’m 17. And I can join the army, right? But I’m not allowed to see war films, because they say they are too violent. — That’s really unfair. Actually, when we go on a train or bus, we are adults. I have to pay full price for the ticket. — I can understand how you feel, Gary. I sure am lucky I can have a part- time job and get some money. My younger brother is only 12. And he can hardly ever afford a new CD. — Hey, don’t talk about money. I don’t even have enough to cover my daily expenses. I can’t wait till I leave school and get a full-time job. — Oh, no. That would really come as a shock for my parents, they want me to study further. Honestly, I have to obey them. I remember, when I was 11, I couldn’t even buy a dog without their permission. — That sounds really bad. J: 131 Anything to Complain About? 2) Ken and Gary are exchanging their complaints about what they are not allowed to do. 1щ Which of them has the following complaints? (reading for specific information) Parents want to continue his education after finishing school. «_________ does not have enough money to buy what he wants. Ф Parents don’t permit to have a motorbike. Parents did not let ♦ The law does not allow Ф Parents always criticise buy a pet six years ago. _____to see war films. 3) How do the teenagers explain their complaints? What language do they use? (reading for specific information) Neutral Formal Informal • I’m sorry, I’m afraid ... • It can really be hard ... • It’s really bad ... • There’s too much to complain about ... • I quite like, but ... • I’m sorry to say this, but ... • I’m not completely satisfied with ... • I wish to complain about ... • I’m not the person who usually complains, but... • I’m sick and tired of...! • I’m fed up with ...! • I can hardly ever ...! • That’s really unfair ...! • It just won’t do! • I’ve just about had enough (of ...)! •... even ... 1 2. People complain about different things. Look at the pictures on pp. 131-132. What are these people complaining about? How do they express their complaints? Where do the conversations take place? (listening for detaii/taking nofes^ 132 Anything to Complain About? 3 > Imagine that you want to complain about the same things as Ken or Gary. How would you express your complaints talking to Ф your foreign friend? Ф your foreign friend’s parents? Ф an adult you do not know very well? 4- Ken and Gary seem to have a lot of things to complain about. HDo they agree with each other? How do they express their agreement or disagreement? (reading for specific information) 5. You can respond to the complaint in different ways. 1) How would you show that you agree or disagree with the complaint? (AB Unit 4, ex. 9) 2) How would you respond to Ф your foreign teacher’s complaint? t your foreign friend’s complaint? S ■ On page 133 you can see some people discussing different problems. 1) Decide if the person is complaining or responding to the complaint. Complete the conversations using the suitable expressions. 133 Anything to Complain About? ___________ the way my Mom always grumbles (ворчит) about what I wear and what I do. Actually, I can't wait till I live alone. But you know it's too late and dangerous to go out after 9 o'clock. And I'm afraid when you go out so late. At least you don't need to think about what to eat and where to live. ___________ I'm not allowed to go out after 9 p.m. A lot of my friends don't have any curfew at all. 2) What was the complaint and what was the response? Decide who they are talking with. Then listen to check if you were right. 134 Anything to Complain About? ■ O 1) I Some adults were asked about what they did not like about today’s teenagers. How would you respond to their complaints? a) It's really bad. The youngsters are much more aggressive today. Most of them are just hooligans. _______________________T___________________ • Responding to the complaint: Agreeing: — I’m afraid, you’re right ... Disagreeing: — That’s not the way I see .. • Expressing opinion: — Personally, I think that ... — In my opinion, ... b) There's too much to complain about today's teenagers. They want to be treated like adults, but they really do nothing. They just sit around and listen to loud music. * • Respond to the complaint. Say that you agree or disagree. • Express your opinion. c) • Respond to the complaint. 2) People even write letters with their complaints to magazines and newspapers. What can they complain about? (AB Unit 4, ex. 10.1), 2)) 135 Anything to Complain About? 3) PAIR WORK Do you have any problems with your parents, sisters or brothers, teachers? Anything to complain about? Discuss it with your classmates. 8. ROLE-PLAY In most Canadian schools, teachers ask parents to come to parents-teacher conferences. The teacher and parents discuss the child's progress in school, as well as any other problems. Role-play the following situations. a) f Teacher Complain about; - the pupil's bad marks, - the recent argument about wearing earrings and make-up to school, - missing 5 classes on your subject. Л Parent Listen to the teacher's complaints. Respond to the complaints. b) К Parent Say that the teacher complained about: - bad marks, - the argument about wearing earrings and make-up to school, - missing the classes. Pupil Listen to your parent about the teacher's complaints. Respond to the complaint. 9. What problems bother young people of your age? How would you com-Ю plain about them to your friends (parents, teachers)? (AB Unit 4, ex. 10.3)) 10. Do the British like to complain? What do they usually complain about? (R Unit 4, ex. 5) 0 Теел Court Щг Not? Guilty 1 . The students from the book Her Honor, Katie Shannon by Betsy Haynes complain about the school rules and sometimes break them. The principle (директор школы) sends them to Teen Court. Make sure you know Ф who is who in Teen Court. Ф what they do in Teen Court. “All right, everyone. In about fifteen minutes we should have our first case, but let’s talk about how we’re going to run our court," Mrs Brenner said. “This is how it’s going to work. Anyone who has had a complaint filed (подано) against him or her by a teacher or administrator will come in with the person who filed (подал) the complaint. The person whom the complaint is against will be the defendant, and the person who filed the complaint is called the plaintiff. Both will tell us their story. You should take notes and ask any questions you feel you need to in order to understand the problem thoroughly. We will discuss the rule that has been broken and how justice can be fairly applied. Being a judge is not easy. Now, we need to appoint a senior judge to control the proceedings.” 2. ROLE-PLAY i: Here is the case for today’s Teen Court discussion: some pupils have been caught smoking several times by the teachers. Teen Court should discuss the problem and make a decision. 1) Divide your class into groups; Plaintiffs, Defendants and Judges. 2) Meet with your group to discuss the problem and your roles. Plaintiffs (Teachersk You have caught some pupils several times smoking in the classroom. Smoking is not allowed anywhere in school. You told them to stop, but they continued. You complained to Teen Court. Make up your complaint to present it to Teen Court. Be ready to answer the questions on the problem. ш 137 Teen Court — Guilty or Not? Defendants (Pupils): You have been caught smoking in the classroom. Smoking is not allo\wed anywhere in school. The teachers asked you, to stop, but you continued. The teachers complained to Teen Court. Disagree to the complaint. Give reasons (all your friends smoke, it’s your body, your parents smoke and they know you smoke and do nothing about it, etc.). Be ready to answer some questions on the problem. Judges: Some pupils have been caught by the teachers smoking in the classroom. Smoking is forbidden everywhere in school. The teachers complained to Teen Court. Think of the questions on the problem to ask Plaintiffs and Defendants. Agree or disagree to the complaint. Give reasons. Choose a senior judge to lead the discussion. 3) After the discussions in groups, organise a meeting to discuss the case in Teen Court. Senior Judge: > Open Teen Court and introduce everyone. > Ask Plaintiffs to explain the complaint. > Ask Defendants to respond to the complaint. > Ask Judges to come out with their questions. > Organise a general discussion on the problem. > Ask Judges for the final decision. 3 a What other problems would you suggest for discussion in Teen Court? 1) Write a list of problems you would like to discuss. 2) Compare your list of problems with your classmates’ lists. 3) Choose a problem and discuss it in Teen Court. i 138 О 1 . LISTENING COMPREHENSION You will hear three teenagers talking about how they left home. While listening complete the chart below with the appropriate information about the teenagers. Write short answers. You will hear the recording twice. Susan Alex Robert 1. At what age did she/he leave home? 2. Where does she/he work now? 3. Where does she/he live now? Your score 9 8-7 6-4 <4 Your mark 5 4 3 2 2. READING COMPREHENSION Everyone wants to be popular. 1) Read a story from the Seventeen magazine about one popular girl. For each question below (1-4), you will find a choice of three answers. Choose the best answer according to the story and circle its letter. Melanie Snapp is a cool girl. She's got long blond hair, blue eyes and an athletic body, trendy clothes and the friends. And, at times, well, she hates it. "I'm just sick of it," says Melanie. Don't get her wrong. She likes being popular — hanging at the country club, dating the cutest guys in school. She just doesn’t always like the popular people. "Sometimes I wish I didn't know any of them," she says. "Sometimes I wish I could tell them, but then it would just cause a fight." No kidding. You see, Melanie's been on the other side of the popularity. "I used to be really short and kind of chubby in the eighth grade," she admits. "They were so snotty. I'd watch them at school assemblies making fun of people." Sometimes, she was the one being made fun of. "They whispered about me, too," she says. 139 But she still wanted to be one of them, "They were cool. But other times, I didn't want to be one of them because they were so aggressive." At the end of her eighth year, Melanie became more athletic, grew her hair long and made friends with some of the popular girls on her field hockey team — her passport to popularity. "It's weird," Melanie says. "My best friend now was the one who gave me a hard time and made me feel stupid," At first it was cool — always doing fun stuff like swimming at people's private pools, going to concerts together. She got into all the "right" parties. "To be popular, you have to be perfect — have the perfect clothes, the perfect hair, the perfect face. Forget having some zit on your face," Melanie complains. "If you don’t look just like them, they rag on you." Plus, the mates' pressure on her about drinking. "When they say, 'Drink, drink, drink,’ I say no ... and they know I mean it," she claims. "Then they say 'Oh, you're so boring. You just come here and sit.' But I feel I can have fun without having to do all of that," she says. "I stay in the group because I like being with them," says Melanie. "But now when they make fun of people, I tell them I don't like it, and they respect me for that." -V T Angie Maximo 1. Which is the most suitable description of Melanie’s character? a) She is a shy person. b) She is ambitious. c) She is specially talented. 2. Which best describes Melanie's friends’ attitude towards her? a) They always make fun of her. b) They like her because of her appearance. c) They respect her. 3. Which is the best summary of Melanie’s life story? a) She does what everyone expects her to do. b) She has disappointed her friends. c) She has become popular despite early unpopularity. 4. Which best explains Melanie’s attitude towards popularity? a) She thinks that to be popular you should work hard. b) She thinks that being popular is always great fun. c) She thinks that being popular does not mean being snobbish. -T' 140 2) Find the words in the story which mean the following. Write the words by the definitions. a) following the latest fashion b) pleasantly fat__________ c) superior, snobbish __________ d) strange, difficult to understand or explain e) play practical jokes________ Your score 9 8-7 6-4 <4 Your mark 5 4 3 2 3. SPEAKING 1) You are telling your foreign friend about how you and your friends spend your free time. Remember to: • say about how often you and your friends see each other and what you do together; • describe the places you and your friends like best in your home town; • explain why you choose these places; • name the problems you and your friends usually discuss; • complain about the things that bother you and your friends. You have to talk for 2 minutes. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then she/he will ask you some questions. 2) ROLE-PLAY You and your foreign friend are exchanging opinions about the rules set by your parents at home. STUDENT CARD 1 Discuss the rules your parents set at home with your foreign friend. Here are some points to help you: • pocket money • watching TV *10 o'clock curfew • clothes • housework • listening to music You begin the conversation. Remember to: • say about the rules you have at home; • complain about the rules you find unreasonable; • give your arguments; • ask your friend about the rules she/he has at home. РЯЕМЯХтМ РОЙ TESTING 141 STUDENT CARD 2 Discuss the rules your parents set at home with your foreign friend. Here are some points to help you: • pocket money • watching TV *10 o’clock curfew • clothes • housework • listening to music Listen to your friend talking about the rules she/he has at home. Remember to: • respond to your friend’s complaints; • ask for the arguments; • compare the rules your friend has at home with the rules your parents set; • express your attitude. 4. CULTURAL AWARENESS For statements 1-7, decide which of them are TRUE and which of them are FALSE. Tick {■У') the necessary box. True False □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ 1. In Britain at the age of 13 you can’t go to prison. 2. In Britain you can get married before you can get a driving licence. 3. In Britain you can’t buy a pet without your parents’ consent if you are under the age of 12. 4. In Britain you can’t get your ears pierced without your parents’ permission if you are 15. 5. In Britain you can smoke at any age. 6. In Britain you can’t buy fireworks until you are 16. 7. In Britain you are considered to be an adult when you are 17. Your score 7 6-5 <5 Your mark 5 4 3 5. USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY) 1) Teenage views of life and their parents' opinions can be in conflict sometimes. Form a word that fits in the blank space from the word in capitals. Fill in each gap with the new word. There is an example at the beginning (0). 142 Some adults admit that teenagers have a great deal of (0) Independence today. Schools, the media and young people themselves place a lot of (1)_________on being independent. The most popular topics for discussion chosen by teenagers are: part-time job, parents’ reaction to boyfriends or girlfriends, and (2)_________. Most British parents say that they \would like to (3)__________their children until they reach 16. A lot of adults (4)______________ about teenage (5)__________and cruelty. Schools and the media should give more information about the danger of alcohol (6)__________. INDEPENDENT IMPORTANT VIOLENT PROTECTION COMPLAINT AGGRESSIVE ADDICT 2) Below are some statements about what the parents forbid the teenagers to do. For questions 1-6, read the following complaints. Choose the word which you think fits best to complete each complaint. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate letters. There is an example at the beginning (0). John’s father (0) g] him not to stay out late again. His parents never allowed him (1)_____________. Deborah’s father won’t (2)_____________ her drive his car. My mum is very strict, so it will be difficult (3)___________ her to buy me a motorbike. She thinks I am too young. My parents want (4)_____________to finish school first. My parents don’t let me (5)______ films are too violent. My parents never allow me (6) horror films. They say horror _ parties at home. 0. a) allows b) orders c) lets 1. a) smoking b) smoked c) to smoke 2. a) permit b) forbid c) let 3. a) to suggest b) to persuade c) to make 4. a) my b) them c) me 5. a) to see b) see c) seen 6. a) to let b) to spend c) to organise Your score 12 11-10 9-7 <7 Your mark 5 4 3 2 143 6. WRITING When touring in Britain you bought a new CD player. But unfortunately it went wrong almost immediately. Here is a form to note down your complaints. Complete the form explaining your problem to the shop manager (25-30 words). COMMENTS Name Date We welcome your comments on services provided. We will give our attention to all comments. 7. NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS FROM UNIT 4 How many new words and expressions do you know? 1 convention demonstration* development discrimination exploitation harm* non-discrimination protection the right to ... view age limits* to allow smb to do smth to forbid smb to do smth to let smb do smth licence* to permit smb to do smth 3 addiction aggressiveness to arrest to commit suicide poverty prison* violence Reading Section blind date* date (n; v) double date* to go Dutch* to go steady^ to complain complaint* defendant* judge* plaintiff* Reader to beat about the bush* to drive smb nuts* to spill the beans* wallflower* 144 8. SELF-ASSESSMENT Description of achievement Level reached poor fair good excel* lent I can read and understand non-fiction articles about • children's rights; • teenage problems: • dating customs I can read and understand poems from teenage magazines about children’s problems I can understand people’s opinions • on teenage rights • on teens’ problems I can understand other people’s complaints I can express my opinion about • children’s rights; • teenage problems: • other people’s complaints I can express my complaints Grammar checklist Can understand Can use Expressing permission (permit, let, allow), prohibition (forbid), order (make, force), wish (want) Study skills Level reached poor fair good excellent • extracting cultural information from texts • interpreting charts and pictures • making comparison • evaluating the author’s point of view • understanding ideas not directly stated Pupil’s comments Problems I found most important/interesting/difficult/boring for discussion Exercise I found most interesting/enjoyable/difficult/boring_____________________ 9. Adrian Mole, a boy from the book by Sue Townsend, has the right to some sort of benefit (пособие). SI Why? (R Unit 5, ex. 1) i Is the System of Social Welfare 1 146 ^yi/hat Benefits Do W^eople Receive? 1 ■ Great Britain is a Welfare State, * a country that has a system of ensuring the welfare (обеспечение благосостояния) of its citizens by means of social services, provided (предоставляемые) by the state. At the national level the Government is responsible for the National Health Service,* National Insurance* and Social Security. * 1) The systems of National Insurance and Social Security provide financial help for different categories of citizens. What categories of citizens are entitled (have rights) to social payments? (//s-tening/reading for specific information) When people work they must pay contributions (взносы) to the National Insurance fund. Contributions are also made by the employer (работодатель) and the Government. National Insurance benefits (payments) are available (доступны) to the unemployed, the sick and the retired. The disabled are also provided with financial help. Financial help is also available to the widowed. Every child is entitled to a child benefit (or allowance*), whatever the parents’ income (доход) may be. Social Security covers a wide range of payments, mainly to people who do not qualify for National Insurance payments. The main social groups who claim social security benefits are: single parents, the long-term unemployed, and pensioners whose pension is too low. People in full-time work whose earnings are below a certain level can claim benefits, too. GRAMMAR The + adjective IN FOCUS (Субстантивированное прилагательное) Мы можем использовать конструкцию the + adjective (без существительного), когда говорим о разных группах людей, особенно таких, как: the retired — retired people - пенсионеры the unemployed — unemployed people — безработные the widowed — widows and widowers — widowed people — вдовствующие sick people — ? elderly people — ? disabled people — ? GS p. 262 147 What Benefits Do People Receive? are provided with In Britain the sick ^ are entitled to ^ can claim Ч social benefits. 2) IN YOUR CULTURE What categories of citizens can claim social benefits in Russia? (AB Unit 5, ex. 1) 3) What types of benefits are available to different categories of people in Britain? 4) Who makes contributory benefits in Britain? (AB Unit 5, ex. 2) 2. The National Insurance and the Social Security benefits paid to different categories of people are known by different names. _ 1) What are some of these names? Who receives these benefits? What do you think? Match the columns, (guessing by context) state/retirement pension widow’s pension maternity pay child benefit unemployment benefit family credit invalidity pension mobility allowance A state pension is paid to the retired. a person who is unable to work after a sickness period families with children who have very low incomes disabled people to pay for transport or to buy a special vehicle women who leave work to have a baby a person who is out of work for up to a year each child until he/she leaves school (at 16) or longer if the child continues education (up to 19) retired people/pensioners women whose husbands die before they retire if they are aged 45 or over IS provided for claimed by . available to . DON'T MIX UP to provide smth for smb to provide smb with smth 148 What Benefits Do People Receive? О 2) Listen to the tape to check if your suggestions are correct and to learn some new information. = 3) What benefits does Adrian’s family receive? (R Unit 5, ex. 1) 3 ■ The chart below shows average social security expenaitures [ik'spcnditfsz] (расходы) in Great Britain. 1) How is financial help distributed? Match the categories of people, the amount of financial help and social benefits to which they are entitled, (predicting) Elderly people/retired people Long-term sick and disabled people Families on low incomes Unemployed people Short-term sick people Widows and others GRAMMAR FOR REVISION 1 % — one per cent 2% — two per cent (The elderly) are provided Among the benefits the elderly with ... receive is ... 1 think ... are entitled to . These benefits include ... Probably two per cent is/are They receive the following bene- available to ... fits ... ... is/are paid to/for ..., 1 guess. They get such benefits as ... Most probably ... receive ... per cent. They can claim ... ... per cent goes/go to They receive ... GS p. 263 О 2) Listen to the information to check if your suggestions are correct. (Ustening for specific information) 4. IN YOUR CULTURE \m\ GROUP WORK/WORD POWER *\0 What benefits are the citizens of Russia entitled to? Replace the highlighted words with their synonyms. LO и 149 What Benefits Do People Receive? There are a few payments, which are paid to the different categories of people in Russia. Student 1: Yes. There are a few benefits, which are paid to the different categories of people in Russia. Student 2: I agree. There are a few benefits, which are provided for the different categories of people in Russia. • Women have a right to a pension at the age of 55 and men at 65. • Women who leave work to have a baby have a right to ask a maternity allowance from the government. • There are allowances paid to elderly people. Retired people can get a salary or a wage and still receive their pension in full. • A wide range of other payments exists. For example, a child allowance is a small monthly payment for each child, usually paid directly to mothers. • People who do not work have the right to a monthly payment, too. Scholarships are paid to young people, college and higher school students, if they do not pay fees (money) for their education. • People who are disabled can receive an invalidity pension. • Widows can get payments for their husbands who died. 5. What benefits are your family members entitled to? Will Go Private!” 1 . Adrian Mole is a boy in the book The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole, Aged 13 3/4 by Sue Townsend. Adrian thinks that *‘he has more than his fair share of problems'’. One day Adrian decided to go to the doctor. This is how he describes it in his diary. 1) Read Adrian’s notes, guess what the underlined words mean and say whether he’s got any of these diseases. Is he just in a normal state of adolescence [,ied3'les3ns] (юность)? (reading for specific information/guessing by analogy) a bout [bam] of Lassa fever [,laesoTi;vo] (приступ лихорадки) acne vulgaris [,зект 'vAlgonsj (teenage spots) a bout (воспаление) of tonsillitis [,tonso'laitis] ^ Saturday January 17th Nigel came round to see if I wanted to go to the pictures but I told him I couldn't, because I was going to the doctor’s about the spot He said he couldn’t see a spot, but he was just being polite because the spot is massive today. Dr Taylor must be one of those overworked CPs* you are always reading about. He didn't examine the spot; he just said I mustn't worry and was everything all right at home. I told him about my bad home life and my poor diet, but he said i was well nourished (упитан). So much for the National Health Service.* I will get a paper-round and go private. = Thursday March 12th Woke up this morninq to find my face covered in huge red spots. My mother said they were caused by nerves but I am still convinced that my diet is madequate. My mother rang Dr Gray's receptionist to make an appointment, but the earliest he can see me is next Monday! I told my mother to say that I was an emergency case (нуждался в скорой помо^ци) but she said I was "overreacting as usual’’... I rang my grandma and she came round in a taxi and took me to her house and put me to bed. “'t Friday March 13th The emergency doctor came to my grandma’s last night at П.30 p.m. He diagnosed that I am suffering from acne vulgaris. He said it was so common that it is regarded as a nor- LO * ^1и ЛИ^1М1и ■ ■■ Г 'I* V “I Will Go Private!” mat state of adolescence. He thought it was highly unlikely that I have got Lassa fever because I have not been to Africa this year. He told grandma to take the disinfected sheets off the doors and windows. Grandma said she would like a second opinion. That was when the doctor lost his temper. He shouted in a very loud voice, "The lad has only got a few teenage spots, for Christ's sake!" Grandma said she would complain to the Medical Council* but the doctor just laughed. Tuesday June 23rd I have got tonsillitis. It is official. I am on antibiotics. ■■(0 Friday October 23rd I have had a letter from the hospital to say that I have got to have my tonsils out on Tuesday the twenty-seventh. This has come as a complete shock to me! My father says I have had to endure (терпеть) an annual bout of tonsillitis for nine years just because the National Health Service is starved of finance (hasn't got money at all)! Monday October 26th II a.m. I did my packing, then went to see Bert. Said goodbye to Pandora. I'm being admitted (я принят) to Ivy Swallow ward (палата) at 2 p.m. Saturday October 31st Halloween 3 a.m. I have been forced to complain about the noise coming from the nurses' home. I am sick of listening to nurses and off-duty policemen cavorting (jumping excitedly) around the grounds dressed as witches and wizards. I am joining BUPA* as soon as they'll have me. 2) What does Adrian Mole mean by saying the following? Choose the correct translation, (/earning to trans/ate) 1. Dr Taylor must be one of those overworked GPs you are always reading about. a) Доктор Тейлор, должно быть, был одним из тех терапевтов, которые работают сверх меры и о которых вы постоянно читаете в газетах. b) Доктор Тейлор должен был много работать, чтобы вы могли прочитать о нем в газете. ш 152 “/ Will Go Private!” 2. So much for the National Health Service. a) Хватит c меня национальной системы здравоохранения! b) Как много сделано для национальной системы здравоохранения! 3. I will get а paper-round and go private. a) Я сложу газету трубочкой и пойду по своим личным делам. b) Я буду разносить газеты по домам и перейду на частное медицинское обслуживание. 3) What do Adrian, his relatives and doctors think about Adrian’s diseases? Use the story to support your opinion, (reading for specific information) Adrian thinks he is sick because of his poor diet. Dr Taylor said Adrian was well nourished. Adrian poor diet Dr Taylor - ? Adrian inadequate diet Mother - ? Adrian an emergency case Mother - ? Granny Lassa fever Dr Taylor - ? Mother Adrian's overreacting Granny - ? 4) Was Adrian Mole seriously ill or was he just “overreacting as usual”? What do you think? Why? 2. Adrian's notes contain a lot of information not only about his family life and problems, but also about the life in Great Britain, about medical service in particular. 1) Which of these questions can you answer after reading Adrian’s diary notes? (extracting cultural information) 9 Si Which doctor was Adrian Mole going to to consult about his spot? What other doctors does Adrian mention in his diary? How good are these specialists? Why does Adrian say that Dr Taylor was one of those overworked doctors papers write about? What does he mean? What is the NHS? Which of the NHS problems does Adrian mention in his notes? What advantages does the private system of health care offer? How is one of the most popular private medical insurance schemes [ski:mz] called? How does the Medical Council operate? What is it for? “/ Will Go Privater 153 2) Which of the good and bad points Adrian sees in the NHS are not more than his opinions? Which are facts? Justify your choice, (distinguishing facts from opinions) Good and Bad Points 1. General Practitioners (GPs) are overworked. 2. Medical examination/diagnosis is not objective. 3. Private health treatment (BUPA, for instance) is better than the NHS. 4. Health care in case of emergency doesn’t work well. 5. People have to wait to be operated on for many years because the National Health Service is starved of finance. 6. Nurses do not behave properly. 7. You can complain to the Medical Council if you are not satisfied with diagnosis or treatment. Facts Adrian’s opinion □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Mole, Aged 13 3/4 A m by Sue Townsend, is an elderly person and a pensioner. What people and organisations look after him? (R Unit 5, ex. 2.1), 2)) Do You Have to Pay for Medical Care? 154 1 . Here are some facts and opinions about the system of health care and medical insurance in Great Britain. 1) Which of these facts and opinions characterise the health care system positively and which negatively? While reading, pay attention to the following conjunctions and prepositions. while/whereas — в to время despite/in spite of — несмотря как на because of — из-за although/though — хотя • In Britain, medical insurance is organised by the Government and is compulsory, while in some other countries it is not. • The country doesn’t spend a lot of money per person on health care, whereas in some other western countries health care systems are much more expensive. • Despite the shortage (недостаток) of money, the system of medical care works well. • The British spend a small proportion of their wealth on health service, because of its simple administration. • In spite of being poor, you can get good medical care in Britain. • The exceptions (исключения) to free medical care are teeth and eyes, though even this care is available to large numbers of people who do not have to pay. • Although Britain has public health care, it has a private sector, too. The biggest is BUPA.* • Because of the central organisation of public health care there is little cooperation between public health care service and the private sector. 2) What happens in Britain’s health care service despite and because of some facts? What happens in Britain’s health care service (al)though there are some other circumstances? What happens in Britain, while/whereas other things happen in other countries? Ln lbs Do You Have to Pay for Medical Care? GRAMMAR Subordinate clauses with conjunctions and prepositions IN FOCUS (Придаточные предложения с союзами и предлогами) Когда мы сравниваем факты, события или действия, не противопоставляя их друг другу, мы используем союзы while/whereas (в то время как). In Britain the NHS provides most health care, while in the USA there is no public health service. Когда мы говорим, что что-либо происходит вопреки, несмотря на или из-за каких-либо других событий или действий, мы используем союзы и предлоги although/though (вопреки/хотя), despite/in spite of (несмотря на), because of (из-за). Because of the crisis, health care reform should be carried out. GS p. 274 3) IN YOUR CULTURE H Which of the statements about Britain’s health care service can be applied to your country’s health care system? 2. Adrian’s and his Granny’s opinions about the Britain’s medical care system do not always reflect the real situation. What is the real situation and which are the opinions? (understanding relations within a sentence/distinguishing facts from opinions} Despite the fact that GPs are considered to be overworked. Although public health care is not bad. Though health care in case of emergency worked well, Because of the financial problems in the National Health Service Because of the nurses’ improper behaviour. In spite of the proper diagnosis While Dr Taylor’s diagnosis was acne vulgaris, |tn Adrian’s Granny was sure it was Lassa fever. people have to wait to be operated on for many years. neither Adrian nor his Granny were satisfied with it. private health treatment (BUPA, for example) is better. Adrian decided to join BUPA. they examine their patients well. Adrian’s Granny decided to complain to the Medical Council. Do You Have to Pay for Medical Care? 156 3> Here are some facts and some people’s opinions about medical care service in the United States of America. 1) Which of the following statements are facts and which are opinions? (distinguishing facts from opinions) • I think that in many ways it is a wonderful system, but in many other ways it is a catastrophe [ka'tasstrafi]. • The USA is one of the most developed countries in the world, but it does not provide health care for all. • Medical care is not free, but many hospitals provide some free or low-cost care for those who cannot pay. • The USA has no public health service, so most people have private health insurance. • America with its private insurance-based system spends 14% of GDP* on health. Britain with its popular state-funded NHS spends only 7%. • There are people who receive medical care through social programmes. They are Medicare* which is intended for people over 65 and the disabled, and Medicaid* which is available to the poor. • They say that when the world’s rich want the best treatment money can buy, they usually go to the USA. Small wonder, most new medical techniques and technologies become available in America before anywhere else. • Self-employed private physicians receive a fee for each patient’s visit, but some medical doctors are on a salary (получают зарплату). LT) 157 Do You Have to Pay for Medical Care? 2) How do all these facts and opinions characterise the US medical care service? (making comparisons) GRAMMAR' Subordinate clauses with prepositions in spite of/ IN FOCUS despite, because of После предлогов in spite of/despite мы используем существительное, местоимение (what/that/this ...); Ving форму или выражение the fact (that). Despite the fact (that) the USA is one of the most developed countries in the \world, it does not provide health care for all. Despite being one of the most developed countries in the world, the USA does not provide health care for all. После предлога because of мы используем существительное или местоимение. Because of all these things some people think that the US medical care system is a catastrophe. GS p. 275 4. IN YOUR CULTURE Health care service in Russia has its own good and bad points. What can you say about the health care service in Russia from your own experience? (understanding relations within a sentence/drawing conclusions) Ю 158 Do You Have to Pay for Medical Care? public health care ■*- private sector Although Russia has a public health care service, we have a private sector, too. the work of the public health service central organisation of the health care systenn central organisation of the health care systenn the quality of the private health care the quality of the public health care physicians who get a fee for each patient's visit the shortage of money cooperation with the private sector compulsory medical insurance high cost free of charge treatment physicians on a salary *4 5. GROUP WORK All systems of medical care have both advantages and disadvantages. Exchange your opinions on the matter. Group 1 Try to convince your partners that there are a lot of disadvantages in health care systems of your country. Great Britain, and the USA. LO Group 2 Say that you partly agree, but in spite of all these disadvantages there are some advantages, too. Do You Have to Pay for Medical Care? S • Here is the article from the Teen magazine (Autumn 2004). The article is about Anthony Leanna from Wisconsin. Anthony, who is only 13, is one of those teenagers who are using ‘their hearts and smarts' to make the world the better place. Read the article and decide where the following subtitles belong. Match the letters (A-D) and numbers (1-3). One subtitle is extra. A) how he’s helped B) dreaming big C) his inspiration D) you can make a difference 1. Three years ago Anthony spent a lot of time in hospitals while his grandmother underwent the treatment for cancer (рак). During his visits, he began to notice the effects of hair loss on the cancer patient’s spirits. To cheer them up, Anthony came up with the idea of donating hats to those going through chemotherapy [,к1;гпэи'0егэр1]. He wants to “put a smile on the faces of people facing such difficult times in their lives”. 2. ___________ Through his Heavenly Hats Foundation, Anthony has delivered more than 25,000 hats to more than 125 hospitals and clinics around the country. He gathers the donated toppers from hat companies, business and individuals. “Several of the patients have told me that the hat was a sign of hope. It made them feel better about themselves and it gave them the courage to fight the cancer,” Anthony says. 3. ___________“It is my hope that someday in the future a cure will be found and my hats will no longer be needed,” he says. “However, until that day, I just want to help any way I can.” Z\ 7■ Write what you know about the medical systems in Britain, the USA and JLJ Russia. Get ready to compare them. (AB Unit 5, ex. 3) 8> Are there any good points in Bert Baxter’s life? (R Unit 5, ex. 2.3)) to 3 160 ^ow Do Elderly People Wive? 1 . How do elderly people live? Is it a private matter or a public matter, in which the elderly themselves should take an active part? 1) What are the good and bad points about being old? What do you think? (anticipating) ■ 2) Read some opinions given in the article ‘The world needs the elderly’ (Arguments and Facts). Compare your opinions with the author’s, (reading for detaii) Bad points Elderly people ... become ill and disabled become a burden (обуза) to children suffer (испытывать) the fear of death have financial problems become incapable of living independently, need regular care and nursing lose friends and spouses live a boring life |LO Good points ^ The elderly ... do not have to go to work have adult children, who are not a burden any more have a lot of time to meet with friends, read, travel, go in for sports, work in their garden get wiser, have more experience and the ability to help with advice 161 How Do Elderly People Live? *4 3) While some elderly people see only bad points in being old, others do not feel any disadvantages. Compare different people’s life circumstances, (interpreting facts) Whlle/whereas some elderly people see only bad points in being old, some other people do not feel any disadvantages. Some elderly people see only bad points in being old, whereas/while some other people do not feel any disadvantages. 2. There are a lot of homes for elderly people in Great Britain. Are all of them good? (AB Unit 5, ex. 4) 3 > On the example of Mr Baxter's life circumstances, one can draw some conclusions how the Government, public organisations and individuals care for elderly people in Britain. 1) Do you agree with the following conclusions? Although social workers help the elderly in different ways, they do not provide home help. Some pensioners are looked after at home. Some other pensioners are offered a place at a home for elderly people. • Social services try to do their best to cheer the old people up, but they don’t have much success in doing it. • When old people are put into homes for elderly people their pets get a place in the RSPCA* hostels. • At the homes for elderly people patients are provided with lots of entertainment. • The Good Samaritans Group members go out into the community to help people, including patients of the homes for elderly people. 2) What conclusions can you draw? (drawing conclusions) LO \r 162 " How Do Elderly People Live? 4. Among the elderly people living in this country there are a lot of war veterans. How does the government care for these people? ■ 1) What privileges do the war veterans have in this country and in Germany? (using dictionary/reading for detail) RUSSIA GERMANY state/retirement pension 1620 roubles I 1800 euro World War II Invalids 1. Retirement pension + invalidity pension. 2. 50% reduced payment for housing, telephone and public utilities (коммунальные услуги). 3. Free medical care, wheelchairs, OKA cars and petrol at a discount (CO скидкой). Free accommodation in a health resort. 4. Free return passage by sea, by air or by railroad once a year. 5. Flousing, telephone, etc. without going on a waiting list. 6. Free of charge assistance about the house for a certain group of people with disabilities (invalids). 1. No special privileges. Ordinary invalidity pensions. No increment Гнзкгэтэпг] (прибавка) to a pension. Retirement is possible at the age of 60 (not at 65). 2. No privileges of this kind. 3. Medical service at a reduced price; mobility allowance; tourist’s pass (проезд) at a reduced price (the amount of discount depends upon the transport company). There are no health resorts in Germany. 4. Air, railroad and other kinds of tickets at a reduced price. (Tickets for those looking after people with disabilities are free of charge.) 5. No privileges of this kind. 6. Free of charge nursing and assistance in entertainment organisations only for people with disabilities living below the poverty level (line). 2) Compare the privileges which the governments of the two countries provide for their disabled war veterans, (drawing condusions/making comparisons) LO On the whole ... In Germany ... In many ways ... In this country ... т 163 How Do Elderiy People Live? H3) Read the paragraphs from the article about Russia’s benefits reform. What do you think about this reform? (R Unit 5, ex. 5) r ^ ^ \ 5. IN YOUR CULTURE PAIR WORK What benefits and privileges do your grandparents have? Do they have any problems? 1) Walk around the class and ask your classmates questions about how their grandmothers and grandfathers live. Then complete the chart below. — Tell me about your Granny and Grandpa, please. Is ...? Does ...? Did ...? Has he/she ever ...? I wonder I’d like to know I’m interested to know if/whether/how where/when ... what/which ... GRAMMAR FOR REVj^dW^, Reported questions I wonder if he’s a pensioner. GS p. 272 Grandparents Living conditions Benefits Privileges Problems good points bad points 1. Nina’s Grandpa Nina’s Grandma 2. 3. 4. 2) Make a report, comparing the benefits, privileges and problems of your and your classmates’ grandparents. G. Getting Used to It is a realistic short story by Douglas Dunn. /\ Read a short passage from the story about Harry Boyle and his wife Vera. What 0-0 П I are they going to get used to? (R Unit 5, ex. 3) ш Where Does Your Granny 1 . Nowadays many children from this country spend their holidays in Great Britain. They usually stay with British families. Tanya Dolgova from Russia is staying with the Brown family. She wants to know more about the family, so she asks Jane Brown a lot of questions. 1) What are Tanya and Jane talking about? (reading for the main idea) — Who is in this photo, Jane? — My Granny. She’s widowed and lives in a home for elderly people. — Does she? I have heard that in Britain many adult children put their parents into old people’s homes. — Sometimes they do. But it doesn’t mean they don’t care. Let’s take our family, for example. After her husband’s death. Granny Molly became much more helpless. She was unable to look after herself properly so we had to put her into a home for elderly people. — Yes, but hold on. What if you bring her into your home and look after her in a proper way? Don’t you miss seeing her every day? — I do. Well, you see, living in a home for elderly people is her own choice. Besides, my parents work, I go to school, so there is no one to look after her full-time. — Yes, but look. Do you really think she enjoys her stay there? I’ve been told that some of these homes are terrible! — Some of them are, but on the whole such homes are very pleasant. My Granny has her own room. She’s always able to call a trained nurse if she has any difficulties. — Well, think of it this way. Families become less close when they don’t take care of one another. They lose their warm relationship (отношения), don’t they? — Perhaps, they do. In fact, this is a problem for many families in Britain and a great number of homes for elderly people speaks for that fact. And you don’t seem to like it, do you? — No, but look at it like this. We all worry about our grandparents when they grow old, but a home for elderly people is not the best solution for the problem, is it? LO 165 Where Does Your Cranny Live? 2) Does the information below correspond to what Tanya has learnt about Jane’s Granny? (reading for specific information) • Jane’s Granny was put into a home for elderly people because of her husband’s death. • Jane’s parents don’t take care of Granny. • Granny Molly became unable to look after herself in a proper way. • Granny has chosen for herself to live in a home for elderly people. • Homes for elderly people in Great Britain are terrible. • Granny lives in the home, which is very pleasant. • At the home she can call a trained nurse if she has any problems. • Jane’s parents were not able to bring Granny into their home, because she needed to be looked after properly. 3) Which of the girls has the following opinions? (reading for detail) ~Тш(^0/ (Ише/ thinks it is possible for Granny to live with the family, doesn’t really think that Granny enjoys her stay at the home for elderly people. is sure that families become less close when they don’t live together and don’t take care of one another, doesn’t seem to like the idea of putting grandparents into homes for elderly people. 4) Look at the chart below. Which of Jane’s opinions does Tanya agree with? Which of Jane’s opinions does Tanya try to change? What dues she say? (recognising functions within a sentence) Tanya tries to change Jane's opinion Tanya agrees with Jane's opinion Jane says about the reaюns of putting their Granny into a home for elderly people. Jane gives some other reasons for putting their Granny into a home for elderly people. Jane says that on the whole homes for elderly people are rather good. Jane says that the problem of elderly people and homes for elderly people is important for many families in Britain. 166 Where Does Your Granny Live? 5) Tanya'S and Jane's opinions on the matter seem to be quite different How is Tanya trying to change Jane's opinion? What does she say? Which expressions does she use? (reading for specific information) Neutral expressions But don't you think ...? (Yes, but) do you really think ...? (Yes, but) surely you don't think/ believe that ... (Yes, but) is/isn't it possible that ...? Surely not, I mean that ... (Yes, but) on the other hand ... Informal expressions Hold on, ... No, but look, ... Well, think of it this way But look at it like this ... Are you kidding? You don't really think ...? ■ 6) Imagine yourself in Tanya's situation talking to Jane’s parents about the same problem. Read the dialogue once more using the appropriate expressions. 2. We can't expect people to have similar opinions about one and the same matter. ^ 1) Which of Tanya's and Jane's opinions expressed in the dialogue do you ' agree or disagree with? Why? 2) IN YOUR CULTURE Read or listen to the statements and say if they are true in respect of your country. Which of them do you agree or disagree with? • Most grandparents live their independent lives and don’t feel like taking care of their grandchildren full-time. • It’s quite rare to find elderly grandparents living together with their adult children. • In most cases elderly parents are put into old people’s homes. • When children grow up they move out of their parents’ houses. • Grandparents living close to their small grandchildren are found much more often in the countryside. • Most grandparents would be horrified at the idea of giving up their independent lives and moving into their children’s homes to look after their grandchildren full-time. LfJ 167 Where Does Your Granny Live? 3) PAIR WORK Imagine that your partner fully agrees with some of the statements you’ve heard. Try to change some of his or her opinions. Your partner may be a) one of your foreign friends who you know quite well or b) an adult who you do not know very well. Say what you know about the problem, express your opinion. Express disagreement. Give reasons. Try to change your partner's opinion. Say that you partly agree or completely disagree. Try to change your partner's opinion. Say that you partly agree or disagree. 3. Another passage from the story Getting Used to It is about Harry Boyle and his fellow Vic Nairn. What does Vic feel about the situation in which he found himself one day? (R Unit 5, ex. 4) ш 168 ^ho Benefits from wBenefits? 1 . Although many people support the idea of a welfare state, there are some people who speak for the necessity of its partial change and there are those who do not support the idea at all. These people are talking about their attitudes towards a welfare state. 1) Say which of these opinions are: a) in favour of the welfare state, b) against the welfare state, c) neither for nor against the welfare state, (reading/tisten-ing for the main idea) Hope In a welfare state you don’t have to be poor in order to receive your pension or your dole money or your child benefit. This blanket distribution of benefits should be modified. Only those people who really need benefits should get them. There are some other problems. • Some people who are entitled to various benefits do not receive them, because they don’t understand the complicated system and they are not able to fill in all the forms. • Some other people do not know what they are entitled to receive. The poor simply don’t know about their rights to receive particular benefits and sometimes don’t claim them. • Others may be too proud to apply (обращаться), so they refuse to accept help. -таю ■'Tp.' .ti ‘ 169 Who Benefits from Benefits? What is one of the most important disadvantages of the welfare state according to Mr Reed? What does he suggest? Do all people who are entitled to benefits receive them? I think the welfare state is ineffective. First of all, it is a waste of money. Besides, it is not selective! What else? The provision of benefits weakens the family. If there was less provision by the state, families would have to cope and this would make the family stronger. Above all, the provision of benefits deprives individuals of their desire to look after themselves. There is no need to help the unemployed or the homeless. They are to be guilty for their being unemployed and homeless and nobody else. People should be responsible for what they do and have. I personally believe that anyone who is willing to work can find a job. The welfare state should help only those who cannot help themselves. c Why is Mr Green against the welfare state? 5 What are the main disadvantages of this system? I Where should people get help from according to Mr Green? In the welfare state, most benefits are available to everybody who is entitled to them and it’s very good. In the welfare state, nobody is allowed to live in poverty. Everybody is to have proper health care and education regardless of their income. The welfare state helps the disabled, people who are unable to work to earn money on their own. The welfare state system provides the elderly with an income that allows them to live to some degree of dignity (достойно). Without financial help, many people would have been reduced to begging. * Why is Mrs Hope for the welfare state? Who does the welfare state I help? j What benefits is Mrs Hope for exactly? I What would happen in case people didn’t get their benefits? ■ 2) Read again what people say about the welfare state and answer the ques- tions below each opinion, (reading for specific information) 2. In the Newsweek magazine one can sometimes find articles, which contain different people’s opinions on the problems of a welfare state. 1) What are some of these opinions? (AB Unit 5, ex. 5) LO c 170 Who Benefits from Benefits? 2) Which of these opinions can be used as examples to support what Mr Reed, Mr Green and Mrs Hope say about the advantages and disadvantages of the welfare state. Mr Reed says, that only those people who really need benefits should get them. Take a child benefit, for example. It is available to everybody in a welfare state, though many middle-class people do not actually need financial help. 3) Which of the opinions do you agree or disagree with? Why? 3. You may have your own opinion about the welfare state and the benefits it provides for its citizens. 1) What is your opinion? Give examples. rather ineffective. The welfare state is .. • effective. effective but (although) ... First of all, ... Let's take ... as an example. For example, ... Above all ... Besides, ... ... such as ... 2) PAIR WORK Exchange opinions with your classmates. Express your opinion. Give an example/examples. Disagree. Give reasons. Try to change your partner's opinion. Explain why you cannot fully agree. Give reasons or examples. in «♦—» Disagree and try to change your partner's opinion. Give your examples. Say that you fully or partly agree. 171 Who Benefits from Benefits? 4 • Fourteen per cent of Americans live below the poverty level, $ 16,700 a year for a family of four. Among the poor there are a lot of homeless people. To ‘fill their empty cups' the homeless bear different signs. 1) What are some of these signs? 2) The homeless asking for money raise difficult questions: To give or not to give? If yes, how much and to whom? Answer these questions and say why you think so. ^/nferpref/ng pictures and captions) Л M 5. IN YOUR CULTURE Do the people of your country live in a welfare state? (AB Unit 5, ex. 6) LO ‘c \Nhat Is an Ideal Welfare State? 1 . ROLE-PLAY ‘Tourists and Guides’. 1) Divide yourselves into two halves: Tourists and Guides. Tourists: Imagine that you know little or nothing about the way social service system is organised in your country. Work in pairs and discuss what you want to find out, take down a number of questions to ask the Guides. Guides: You have the job of giving information about the way social service system is organised in your country. Work in pairs, prepare the information you are going to give the Tourists about the social service system in your country. 2) Together make a list of all the necessary aspects that could be discussed (benefits, employment, health care, etc.). 3) Form groups of four — Tourists and Guides. Guides: Start talking about the topic. Tourists: Put your questions as appropriate during the role-play. 4) Follow up in the whole class by summarising important details of information the tourists found out about the social service system. 2. Do a project *An ideal Welfare State*. s 1) Divide yourselves into groups (committees). Define the aims of each group’s activity (e.g. to develop a social security programme for better functioning of the social security system). Give a name to each group, in accordance with its major aim. Appoint any member of your group/committee as chairperson. 2) Think of all the necessary aspects of your programme, including; • basic principles • major spheres the welfare state operates in (social security/insur-ance/health care) • sources of income/provision • taxation • categories of citizens entitled to various benefits • different types of benefits (major and supplementary) • conditions upon which these benefits can be received • organs of responsibility: government and local authorities Ю 173 What Is an Ideal Welfare State? 3) On the basis of the scheme below make your own detailed scheme and give necessary comments. CATEGORIES OF CITIZENS ENTITLED TO THE BENEFITS CONDITIONS Compensation Eligibility (доступность) t NATIONAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Duration (длительность) of benefits SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS I t t EXPENDITURE (РАСХОДЫ) BY PERCENTAGE t SOURCES OF PROVISION i \ TAXATION DONATIONS (пожертвования) ORGANS OF RESPONSIBILITY Government Local Authorities LO 174 1 . LISTENING COMPREHENSION You will hear the story ‘The Land of the Handout’. For questions 1-3, choose the correct answers. Circle the corresponding letters. You will hear the recording twice. 1. Which of the following organisations is Irene Scott a member of? a) Ted Turner Foundation b) Ford Foundation c) the Philanthropists Club 2. What was there in two envelopes Irene Scott handed to Dr James Hutchinson? a) her payment for her last bill b) her payment for her last bill and a $1,000 check c) her late husband’s pension and a $1,000 check 3. Which per cent of money to charitable causes comes from individuals? a) 70 per cent b) 80 per cent c) 83 per cent Your score 6 4 2 <2 Your mark 5 4 3 2 M 2. READING COMPREHENSION 1) Below are some notes from the book The Secret Diary of Adrian Moie, Aged 13 3/4 by Sue Townsend. a) For statements 1-4, choose the correct variant which you think means the same. Circle the corresponding letter. Monday June 1st My father had a letter that made his face go white: he has been made redundant from his job! He will be on the dole! How can we live on the pittance that the government will give us? The dog will have to go! It costs thirty-five pence a day for dog food, I am a single-parent child whose father is on the dole! Social Security will be buying my shoes! ^ЛЛт t75 Wednesday September 9th My father саи easily spare a hundred poumcls. His redundancy payment must have been huge, so why he is lying on his bed moaning (стонать, охать) I don't know. He is just a mean skinflint! He hasn't paid with real money anyway! He used his American Express card. Wednesday March 3rd I had to lend my father enough money for a gallon of petrol, he had an interview for a job. My mother cut his hair and gave him a shave and told him what to say and how to behave. It is pathetic to see how unemployment has reduced my father to childish dependence on others. He is waiting to hear from Manpower Services. Friday March 5th He got it!!! He starts on Monday... He is in charge of a gang of school-leavers. To celebrate he bought my mother sixty Benson and Hedges* and himself sixty Player's." I got a family pack of Mars bars. Everybody is dead happy for once. 1. How can we live on the pittance that the government will give us? a) How can we live on that small amount of money the government will give us? b) How can we live if the government doesn’t feel pity for us? c) How can we live without having pity on the government? 2. Social Security will be buying my shoes! a) Social workers will be buying shoes for me, because my parents do not have money enough to do it. b) My family will receive money from Social Security and spend it on whatever we like, shoes included. c) Social Security will be buying my shoes in case I don’t want to wear them anymore. 3. He (Adrian’s father) is just a mean skinflint! a) He is skin and bone! b) He is mean! c) He is just! 4. ... unemployment has reduced my father to childish dependence on others. a) My father’s behaviour is not childish anymore because he’s become unemployed. b) My father’s unemployment made him dependent on me. c) My father is unemployed and that’s why he depends a lot on other people like children usually do. — .4 •СЙ-: 176 b) Choose from statements 1-7 those which have evidence in the diary notes. Circle the corresponding numbers. 1. Adrian’s father got a redundancy notice. 2. Adrian’s father will have to queue in the breadline. 3. Adrian’s family are going to get rid of the dog. 4. Adrian’s father’s unemployment benefit must have been huge. 5. Father had to turn to Manpower Services for a job. 6. His future work must be hard and boring. 7. Father will have to work with a gang of school-leavers. c) On the basis of Adrian’s notes one can make some conclusions about the state of things for the unemployed in Great Britain. Choose from generalisations 1-6 those which you think are valid. Circle the corresponding numbers. 1. People who are made redundant from their jobs are entitled to the dole. 2. The unemployed can hardly live on the pittance they get from the government. 3. The organisation, which is in charge of the unemployed, is called Social Security. 4. Manpower Services is the organisation that helps the unemployed to get a new job. 5. Unemployment reduces grown-up people to childish dependence on others. 6. When the unemployed get a job they buy sixty Player’s for themselves and sixty Benson and Hedges for their spouses. 2) Annie Wignal is from Newton, Iowa. Annie is 16 and her dream is to help as many kids as possible. Read the article about her and decide where the following subtitles belong. Match the letters (A-D) and numbers (1-3). One subtitle is extra. A) spreading help B) caring for kids C) mission possible D) having fun 1. Imagine not having your own toothbrush, comb or shampoo? That’s what Annie thought about when her mum. .-ti .H. рнёрайатюм рой testing 177 а child abuse prevention educator, told her children in crisis situation have to leave their homes without any personal belongings. So Annie (then age 11) came up with the idea of Care Bags, which are fabric sacks sewn by volunteers and filled with donated essentials, such as toothpaste, soap and shampoo. There are also new books, stuffed animals and toys. “I love kids and think they all deserve to have the things they need,” she says. 2. ___________The Care Bags Foundation has grown from a small com- munity service project into a large non-profit organisation that fills and distributes more than 100 bags each month. To date it has provided more than 6,000 bags to agencies that hand-deliver them to kids all over the world. Just last spring bags were given to children in the United States, Africa, Chile, Argentina, India and Iraq. Annie says, “I know we can’t help everyone, but with your help we can make a difference, one Care Bag, one child at a time.” 3. ___________Annie wants to help as many children as she can. “I like to make people happy because it makes me happy, too. Knowing I’ve helped to make a child smile is the best reward I could ever get.” She also hopes to encourage others to volunteer. “Even though we’re young, we can make a difference in the world by the little things we do.” Your score 19-18 17-15 14-12 <11 Your mark 5 4 3 2 3. USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY) 1) Benefits for the jobless vary widely from country to country. For questions 1-6, read the statements. Choose the conjunction or preposition, which you think fits best each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). 0. b the lowest rate of unemployment in Europe the British Labour government promised to transform the welfare system. a) In spite b) In spite of c) Because 1. Many people are sure that “six months of joblessness is a career killer” and seek a job,_____some other unemployed people don’t S want to find a job and be paid minimum wage, a) because b) that’s why c) while LO 178 2. there are 3 million unemployed in France, almost all of them believe “they are entitled not just to a job, but to the right kind of a job”. a) Although b) Because c) Thanks to 3. German taxpayers pay tens of billions of euro to finance a lot of benefits_______their ineffectiveness. a) due to b) despite c) because 4. Many unemployed people want something interesting and well paid, (as they say) “there’s life after work”. a) because b) though c) that’s why 5. ______ a married man with two children in Germany gets about 2,800 euro if he’s on the dole, an employed man with an entry-level job in a hotel or restaurant takes home only 1,800 euro. a) Thanks to b) Although c) While 6. In France for some unemployed people any part-time job at minimum wage simply isn’t worth having,____________the pay for this kind of work is almost the same as the welfare. a) because of b) because c) that’s why 2) Read the text below. Use the words in the box to form new words that fit in the same numbered blanks in the text. Fill in each space with the new word. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the USA Social Security is limited mainly to the provision of pensions and Medicare for the (0) retired and elderly. Social Security system is financed through a tax which is paid by employees and their employers during the years of (1)_______. The self-employed, who also pay into the system, are (2)__________ with benefits as well. When (3) _______ retire at the age of 65, they are enti- tled to pensions. To those who retire at the age of 62 or 64, (4) _______pensions are available. (5)_________are also paid to non-working widows and widowers. Children under 18 and (6)_________parents can claim their benefits, too. Unemployment (7)________ is financed through taxes paid by the employer. (0) retire (1) employ (2) provision (3) work (4) reduce (5) pension (6) depend (7) insure Your score 13-12 11-10 9-7 <7 Your mark 5 4 3 2 179 4. SPEAKING 1) You are an exchange student. Your host parents are physicians. They would like to know how the health care system is organised in your country. Remember to: • say what type of health care system you have in your country; • say whether it is good or not; • say if there is private medical care service in your country; • say a few words about its good and bad points; • give some examples of how the medical care service works; • give some examples from your own experience. You have to talk for 2 minutes. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then she/he can ask you some questions. 2) ROLE-PLAY You and your foreign friend are talking about different social benefits people are usually entitled to in a welfare state. STUDENT CARD 1 Discuss the benefits that in your opinion are important and necessary and those that could be excluded from the system of social service. You begin the conversation. Remember to: • name a benefit/benefits that is/are important and necessary; • explain your point of view and give an example; • name a benefit that can be excluded and explain your choice; • agree or disagree with your friend’s point of view. STUDENT CARD 2 Discuss the benefits that in your opinion are important and necessary and those that could be excluded from the system of social service. Listen to your friend’s opinion. Remember to: • agree or disagree with your friend’s opinion; • try to change your friend’s opinion if you do not agree; • give examples of benefits that are important and of those that can be excluded; • explain your choice. 5 . WRITING You Ve got a letter from your American friend David. David has to do a project about the way the system of social service is organised in the USA and abroad. He wants you to help him with the project. 1^0 180 Write David a 100-word letter and answer his questions. • Do you think Russia is a welfare state? Could you give me some facts? • Is there anything special about the way the system of social service works in Russia? • What social benefits do people receive in your country? • What benefits does your family receive? • Do all people who are entitled to benefits receive them? Do you happen to know anything about it? • Do you see any disadvantages in the system of social service in Russia? Could you give me some examples for my project? 6. CULTURAL AWARENESS What do you know about the way the system of social service is organised in Britain? For questions 1-6, read the statements below and choose the word, which you think fits best each space. Circle the corresponding letter, 1. Britain has a system of ensuring the welfare of its citizens by means of social services, which is called ____. a) a Welfare State b) a Security State c) an Insurance State 2. In Britain, at the national level the Government is responsible for_______. a) the National Health Service, National Insurance and Social Security b) the National Health Service and National Insurance c) the National Health Service and Social Security 3. In Britain, an unemployment benefit is known colloquially as_____. a) the welfare b) the dole c) a giro 4. In Britain, private medical insurance scheme is called_____. a) Medicare b) Medicaid c) BUPA 5. In Britain, the exceptions to free medical care are_____. a) teeth b) teeth and eyes c) eyes 6. In Britain, “child benefit” is available to each child until he/she leaves school or longer if the child is continuous in education up to a) 16 b) 18 c) 19 Your score 6 5-4 3 <3 Your mark 5 4 3 2 ШШу ^Ой restiNG 181 7. NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS FROM UNIT 5 How many new words and expressions do you know? allowance available benefit to claim contribution* contributory* employee employer to entitle a fee income (on low insurance invalidity pension maternity allowance mobility allowance pension to provide (with/for) provision (the) retired retirement pension security tax* (the) unemployed welfare state (the) widowed Reading Section acne vulgaris* to be on antibiotics* to be starved of finance* a bout of fever/tonsil-litis* BUPA* to diagnose* disinfected* emergency doctor/ case* to get a paper-round* to go private* GP* (General Practitioner) in to have one’s tonsils out* inadequate* to lose one’s temper massive* NHS* (National Health Service) overreacting* (al)though because of to be on a salary catastrophe* cure despite/in spite of exception* free of charge GDP* high/low-cost insurance-based* loss Medicaid* Medicare* shortage (of money) state-funded* to undergo while/whereas below the poverty level (line) burden* discount* nursing* pass/passage* poverty level* (at) a reduced price* privilege* spouse* suffer smth* utilities* Are you kidding? But look at it like this ... Hold on. Look at it this way ... relationship Surely not, I mean ... Think of it this way ... to apply* blanket* (distribution) to live to some deyiee of dignity* ransom* Reader behind one’s back* to be into smth* to be on short time* to be on the breadline* to be on the dole/to be in a dole queue* to cash a cheque (a giro)* to cheer up* to deprive smb of smth* doughnut* to get roused by smth* to get used to* to go berserk* indignity* it’s getting to smb* to kidnap* lack* livid* to pass* permanently* to phase out* redundancy notice* regime* to sign on social worker spendthrift* 182 8. SELF-ASSESSMENT Description of achievement Level reached poor fair good excel- lent I can read and understand information about • social benefits and categories of people entitled to them • health care services in different countries I can read and understand people’s opinions on • welfare state problems I can understand what foreigners say about • problems welfare states face I can say a few words about • welfare states of Britain, the USA and this country • benefits my family and I are entitled to • good/bad points in health care services in Britain, the USA and in this country I can • express my attitude towards a welfare state • try to change my partner’s opinion • say what an ideal welfare state is like I can write in brief about • the advantages and disadvantages of the medical systems In Great Britain, the USA and Russia Grammar checklist Can understand Can use Statements that balance two contrasting points which do not contradict (while/whereas) Statements that balance two contrasting points which contradict (al)though, despite/in spite of, because of) The + adjective Study skills Level reached poor fair good excellent How 1 • distinguish facts from opinions • extract cultural information from stories • draw conclusions • interpret pictures/captions/charts Pupil’s comments Exercise I found most interesting/enjoyable/difficult/borng 184 What Do You Know about Cinema? о 1 . The twentieth century may be called the century of film making. Cinema and TV films have become an important part of our lives. But not everyone knows when and how cinematography appeared. 1) WHAT DO YOU KNOW? Do you know who made the first film? What was it about? 2) Listen to the information to check if you are right, (listening for specific information) 2. The development of cinematography brought to life the world cinema empire (империя) called Hollywood.* 1) What do you know about Hollywood? 2) What would you like to know about it? Write a list of questions which you would like to ask about Hollywood. 3) Here is a story of Hollywood. ■ Which of your questions does the text help to answer? (reading for specific information) The world capital of filmed entertainment Los Angeles has been a lot of things over the past 100 years. First, it was a little city with orange forest and great weather. But, one day in 1908 a group of people from Chicago came to Los Angeles to shoot (make) a film. Since that day a lot of directors, producers, actors and thousands of other workers have been coming to Los Angeles. In 1911 the first studio* appeared in Hollywood (a part of Los Angeles), g In the 1920s Hollywood made 80% of the world’s films. Silent and black-and-white films*bf those early years starf?ng^ CS Mary Pickford* and CharlieiChaplinJ’ were forced out by sound films in the middle of the 1920s. Full-length films came up to take place of short films. And the first colour film. Gone With the Wind,<^as shot® in1i1939. This film brought a great success to Vivien Leigh* and Clark Gable* who starred^in the film®The number of the studios grew very quickly.’They combined in llfge corporations and now^he biggest film CO 185 What Do You Know about Cinema? companies are MGM,* Paramount,* 20th Century Fox,* Columbia Pictureif* Warner Bros,* and Universal.* The first genres I'sonraz] of American films were melodrama, >^stern and comedy, later appeared adventure and historical films. But now the range of genres is much richer. Hollywood got the name o^the factory of dreams. It is associated with wealth and paradise of sun and palm trees. But it is only a facade (fa'soid] for a darker truth. В 4) What new information have you learnt about Hollywood and film making? 5) Why is Hollywood called the capital of filmed entertainment? (reading for detail/ctassifying) CO Jlr^ 186 What Do You Know about Cinema? 3. There are some names from the film making ir>dustry that are known all over the world. 1) What are these people famous for? Charlie Chaplin is an American actor who starred in a number of silent films. s GRAMMAR FOR REVISION Relative clause Paramount Pictures is a large corporation which consists of several studios. Mary Pickford is an American film star who took part in silent films in the 1920s. CO 187 What Do You Know about Cinema? 2) There are some other famous people and films. What do you know about them? (AB Unit 6, ex. 1) 4. IN YOUR CULTURE Russian cinematography also has a long history. 1) What can you say about the history of Russian cinematography? to be demonstrated the first film found at the end of the 1920s in the USSR, USA and Germany to be opened the first film studio in Moscow 1929 in Leningrad all over the world to shoot A. Rou* May 1896 in St. Petersburg A. Khanzhonkov* the first sound cinema house to appear fairy tale 'Morozko' the first sound film N. Mikhalkov,* A. Konchalovski,* A. Tarkovski* 2) Listen to check if you are right, (listening for specific information) 3) Which films were made by the directors mentioned above? 4) What other information about the Russian film industry can you add? 5) Write a story about the history of Russian film industry. 5. The film industry of other English-speaking countries is not so developed as in * the USA. (o^ What problems does the British film industry face? (R Unit 6, ex, 1) S- Cinema combines different arts. ThaVs why people of different professions are involved in film making. Who are these people? (AB Unit 6, ex. 2) 7> Read a review of the achievements of Australian cinematography. What mi new facts have you learnt? (AB Unit 6, ex. 3) CO _____________________________________________________188 What Films Do You Like Best? 1 . Film making industry developed rapidly and the number of genres of films grew constantly 1) WHAT DO YOU KNOW? What genres do you know? What is associated with these genres? love \ western cowboys О 1У ' T MIX UP a musical ^ a musical film a documentary = a documentary film (2^ 2) What films do you like to watch? (AB Unit 6, ex. 4) 2. Each person has a preference for this or that type of films. 1) What types of films do these people talk about? Use the names of genres instead of dots. Pictures can heip you. {reading/listening for detail) — What do you think of the film? — Oh, it was extremely good! I was kept in uncertainty up to the end. The story line was so mysterious. — Yes, ... always keep audience in suspense. And this one is a really good ... . CO 189 What Films Do You Like Best? — It is a pretty good film. The story line is simple but touching. — Yes, the plot is really very simple but ... don’t need to be complicated and mysterious. Usually they are naive but we like them for it. — Do you like the film? — Oh, yes. It was really good. I like films which are full of fights and adventures. — Oh yes, you do. And this one was really stuffed with fights. I think there were too many of them. — You simply don’t like ... I guess. Щ\ 2) What do the highlighted words mean? 3) Which film got the highest evaluation? How did you guess? GRAMMAR IN FOCUS Adjective modifiers (Наречия меры и степени с прилагательными) Если мы хотим усилить или ослабить свою оценку чего-либо, мы можем использовать следующие слова: It’s ап extremely It’s а really It’s а very It’s a pretty good film. It’s a fairly good film. boring film. stronger weaker Некоторые прилагательные сами по себе несут сильную положительную или отрицательную оценку, например: astonishing, awful, excellent, поэтому с ними нельзя использовать слова very, pretty, fairly. С ними мы можем использовать слова absolutely, really, totally и extremely. The film is absolutely astonishing. GS p. 262 (AB Unit 6. ex. 5) CO If 190 What Films Do You Like Best? 4) What do you think about films of different genres? Westerns Action films pretty Comedies absolutely Horror films totally Thrillers are really Melodramas extremely Documentaries very Musicals fairly Cartoons 3- We often discuss films we’ve seen with our friends. 1) Can you explain what genres you like best and why? (Use the table on p. 191.) 2) What kind of films don’t you like? Why? (Use the table on p. 191.) 3) PAIR WORK Tell about your favourite genre without naming it. Let your classmates guess the genre. 4. PAIR WORK Make a list of films you really like and really dislike. Ask your partner’s opinion about them. 5. IN YOUR CULTURE 1) What Russian films do you like best? 2) What Russian films would you advise your foreign friend to see if he/she is interested in Ф detective stories? t comedies? f historical films? 0 a There are a lot of magazines which write about films. One of these magazines is Entertainment. Look at the reviews of some films. Would you like to see these films? Why? Why not? (R Unit 6, ex. 2) ¥ i Ч CO Jp Unite What is special about such films? They are stuffed with events It is full of special effects realistic/unrealistic true to life full of tears (a) romantic story(ies) (a) story(ies) about love (a) romance(s) for girls They have fights of different types It has a mysterious plot a dynamic story funny/dramatic situations a lot of music/dancing/ singing It is about life of famous people They are about real events travelling to ... adventures in the sea/ space unreal things supernatural things What is positive about such films? It teaches you to defend justice They teach you to defend the weak anc offended love for ... to be kind and patient to find your way in life to believe in love/reality to be proud of something т 1 like... best 1 don’t like i What IS negative about such films? They teach you It teaches you aggression violence to be passive to be indifferent to believe in unreal things How do you feel about such films? They It They are It is keep(s) you in suspense grab(s) (catches) your attention exciting/boring/melanctiolic/ touching/moving/frightening/ funny/serious/entertaining/ educational/informative It makes you 1 couldn’t help laugh/cry/happ) feel calm/sick/^ want to hide/m unhaDpy/nervoL want to scream crying/laughing, 192 What a Marvellous Play It Was! 1 . Another popular way to have a good evening is going to the theatre. There are a lot of different theatres in the UK. They can meet the demands (удовлетворяют требованиям) of millions of people. 1) WHAT DO YOU KNOW? What words come to mind when you pronounce the word ^theatre’? (anticipat- ing) ballet react \ (^performance^ audience theatre \ people parts of the theatre 0 2) Which of the things mentioned above are more important in the theatre than in the cinema? 4) ’ X so? What is the main difference between the theatre and the cinema? What causes more emotions, the theatre or the cinema? Why do you think 2. People have different opinions about different theatrical performances. 1) What performances do these people like and dislike? (reading/listening for specific information) CO What a Marvellous Play It Was! 193 I can't say that I like opera very much. The music is usually marvellous but it is dull to \watch it. Usually it is very complicated and it is difficult to find your way in it. I do like theatre. I prefer comedies. They put me in a joyful mood. Usually I am so involved in the action that I forget that I am watching a play. should say that I enjoy ballet very much. When you watch ballet you understand the beauty of a human body. Some people say that it is a drag but I don’t agree with them. It is the most exciting thing in the world. It does make a great impression. As for me I do enjoy operetta. It is so cheerful, magnificent and splendid. Some people say it is light-minded but I don’t think so. It teaches sincerity and makes me happy. 1=1 2) Why do they like or dislike opera, ballet, operetta? 3) What is your favourite theatrical genre? (Use the table on p. 191.) 4) What theatrical genre don’t you like? (Use the table on p. 191.) ■ 5) Look at the opinions above once more. How do the people show that they really like or dislike theatrical genres? GRAMMAR Emphatic sentences IN FOCUS (Эмфатические предложения) Чтобы подчеркнуть, что нам действительно что-то очень понравилось или не понравилось, мы используем эмфатические предложения. Neutral I love it. I enjoyed myself. The music is marvellous. Emphatic I do love it. I did enjoy myself. The music is marvellous. GS p. 277 CO 194 What a Marvellous Play It Was! n 3. A lot of people like musicals. The Grand Hotel is one of the most popular musicals in the USA. 1) Listen to how the people are discussing ‘The Grand Hotel’ and say who is more emotional. MARTIN BECK THEATRE JAMES H. BINGER CHAIRMAN A JUJAMCYN THEATER ROCCO LANDESMAN PRESIDENT MARTIN RICHARDS MARY LEA JOHNSON SAM CROTHERS SANDER JACOBS KENNETH D. GREENBLATT PARAMOUNT PICTURES JUJAMCYN THEATERS in association with PATTY GRUBMAN and MARVIN A. KRAUSS present Book by LUTHER DAVIS The Company (in alphabetical order) KAREN AKERS JENNIFER LEE ANDREWS KEITH CROWNINGSHIELD GERRIT de BEER PIERRE DULAINE DAVID ELLEDGE BEN GEORGE REX D. HAYS DAVID JACKSON MITCHELL JASON Songs by ROBERT WRIGHT and GEORGE FORREST KEN JENNINGS JANE KRAKOWSKI MICHEL MOINOT LILIANE MONTEVECCHI KATHI MOSS HAL ROBINSON WILLIAM RYALL REX SMITH BOB STILLMAN JOHN Wn\E Based on VICKI BAUM’S “GRAND HOTEL” by arrangement with TURNER ENTERTAINMENT CO., owner of the motion picture “GRAND HOTEL" Additional Music and Lyrics by MAURY YESTON Associate Producers SANDRA GREENBLATT MARTIN R. KAUFMAN KIM POSTER Production Associate KATHLEEN RAITT Casting JULIE HUGHES and BARRY MOSS, CSA Setting Design TONY WALTON Costume Design SANTO LOQUASTO Hair Design WERNER SHERER Ughting Design JULES FISHER General Manager JOEY PARNES Orchestrations PETER MAT2 Sound Design OTTS MUNDERLOH Directed and Choreographed by TOMMY TUNE CO 195 What a Marvellous Play It Was! 2) Another very popular musical is Cats' by Andrew Lloyd Webber." Peoples' opinions about it depend on how emotional people are. = Find the corresponding opinions. The musical is wortdertur I’ve ^tdhed’ft tii^ee fike^aL^ readt- ’ ■ I liked the dancing, tt made me forget ebout^airmy problems. , It makes great impressions. The costumes'^ere splendid. The musical ^pressetSi.^ me greatly. ^ And T haven’t sedn it yeft h ffTclIcI make me forget ab^t \ alt my problems. 43 a rpn e^dlA The costumes WERE spl I have not seen it yet. The musical IS wonderful. The musical did impress greatly., ‘ j Y I have watched it threC’times , already, it d^s Ираке ;^1^al|im I did lik(B the^dancing. ^ns^ ^ 3) What do you think about the following things? Express your opinion emo- tionally. • Russian ballet represents the classical dancing. • D. Khvorostovsky sings magnificently. • The arts help to develop imagination. • Indiana Jones films are popular among kids. • Verdi’s* operas have been popular since the end of the 19th century. • Tsar Peter I built the first theatre in Russia. 4) What would you say in these situations? (AB Unit 6, ex. 6, 7) О 4. There is another way to express your emotions. 1) How do the people do it? Listen to the tape. GRAMMAR Exclamatory sentences IN FOCUS (Восклицательные предложения) Чтобы передать сильные эмоции, мы используем восклицательные предложения. How + adjective What (+ adjective) + noun How beautiful! What a surprise! What strange people! How + adjective/adverb + What + object + subject + verb subject + verb How magnificently she sings! What a marvellous play we saw! GS p. 276 A-- CO ‘E 196 What a Marvellous Play It Was! 2) Here are some extracts from the reviews of a new musical on Broadway. * What did the audience say about it? It is a magnificent performance. It is a fantastic show. I’ve never seen such excellent decorations. /ie sin^s u^onderfud^ ... outstanding actors take part in the musical ... extraordinary costumes excellent sensational musical impressive ... great director... ^CettdccC they dance fantastically 3) Express emotionally your opinion about various things. (AB Unit 6, ex. 8) 4) Imagine that you visited one of the theatres in London. Now you are looking at the posters of the play and remember the performance. What is your opinion about it? 5) Look at the pictures on pp. 3, 39, 71, 105, 145, 183, 219. What do you think about things, places, people that you can see in the pictures? Express your opinion emotionally. 6) What do you think about topics and problems discussed in this coursebook? Express your opinions emotionally. ________________________________________________________________197 What а Marvellous Play It Was! 5. GROUP WORK Speak about your last visit to the theatre. ’* What was your first reaction when you were told that you would go I to the theatre? Where did you go? When was it? What did you see? ^ What was the performance about? Do you know the names of the director and the actors? I What were your impressions? G. Though theatre has been known since early times, in England the first theatre appeared ... |o^ When did the first theatre appear in England? (R Unit 6, ex. 3) V 7. One of the famous plays by G. B. Shaw"' is Pygmalion. * The play was written in 1913 but since that time it has remained very popular all over the world. What are the main characters of the play? (R Unit 6, ex. 4) 8. There are a lot of theatres in Russia but the most famous probably is the Bolshoi Theatre. * Do you know the history of the Bolshoi Theatre? (AB Unit 6, ex. 9) C£> 198 Roles to Die For 1 . Newspapers wrote about this film: ‘Fresh, trembling, exciting — this is Romeo and Juliet as you’ve never seen it before/ Shakespeare's^' classic story has been updated (модернизирована) for the big screen. Here are the questions and the answers from the interview with Claire Danes, the actress who played Juliet. They are mixed. Restore the interview. Begin with the question number 3. (reading for detail/sequencing) 1. — Leonardo is impressive as Romeo — but what is he like in real life? 2. — Juliet deals with love and death and pushes herself to extremes. Was that a challenge (вызов)? 3. — What attracted you to the role of Juliet? 4. — What was it like being one of the only girls of the set? How did you feel about it? 5. — What was the most difficult scene to shoot? A. — The story is about gangs so there were a lot of boys around. I was definitely excluded (исключать) from that. It was like the Wild, Wild West, with 15 crazy boys running around in Mexico (where the film was shot). Things got a little out of control. Thank goodness I had Monica, my best friend, who was also working on the movie. We formed our own little girlie club. CO ш 199 Roles to Die For B. — Juliet is remarkable because she is so determined and mature. At the same time, she has an innocence to her, she’s young and fresh. She also makes her own decisions and takes fate into her own hands. For a woman, this was totally unheard of in Shakespeare’s time. C. — He’s brilliant. Really smart, really talented and extremely funny. He does great impressions and had me rolling around with laughter. That was important, especially when the scenes were intense. No, we didn’t fall in love! It wasn’t meant to be. D. — The ending. I was really scared to go through with that scene. I’ll never forget the feeling of being in that empty church and feeling like I’d lost everything. It’s pretty frightening to play someone who’s facing such a terrible end. Both Leo (Leo DiCaprio) and I wanted to shoot an alternative ending, just so we would know it existed. We couldn’t bear the fact that they were actually dying. It’s just so tragic. E. — It was difficult at times. Baz (the director) and I used to joke about it; we’d talk about an imaginary scene we were going to shoot where Juliet is in a coffee shop, complaining to her best friend about a maths class being such a bore! Juliet’s life is never ‘normal’ like that. She is falling in love or defying (пренебрегать) her parents or taking a sleeping portion or dying. Everything about her is real; it’s just heightened and very dramatic. The trick is never to hide. It was hard, sometimes, but it was a real treat to play. Young Telegraph March 29, 1997 2. How can you understand the following? (learning to translate) 1. For a woman, this was totally unheard of in Shakespeare’s time. a) Женщины были абсолютно не слышны в шекспировские времена. b) Это было неслыханно для женщин шекспировских времен. 2. to be one of the only girls of the set a) быть одной-единственной девушкой в наборе b) быть одной-единственной девушкой в составе 3. It was а real treat to play. a) Это была игра с настоящим угощением. b) Игра доставила мне истинное наслаждение. 4. Не had me rolling around with laughter. a) Oh заставлял меня покатываться от смеха. b) Он заставлял кружиться вокруг со смехом, со 200 Roles to Die For 5. The trick is never to hide. a) Фокусы не спрятать. b) Обман не спрятать. 3> In the text find the English equivalents to the following words. решительный и зрелый юный и неопытный взять судьбу в свои руки другое (альтернативное) окончание выйти из-под контроля напряженный — 4. Do you agree with the following? Use the text to support the right stately ments and to correct the wrong ones. 1. Juliet was an unusual girl for her time. 2. There is a scene in the film where Juliet Is in a coffee shop, complaining to her best friend about a maths class being such a bore! 3. It was rather difficult for Claire to play the role of Juliet. 4. The film has an alternative ending. 5. Claire was the only girl in the film. 6. The action takes place in the Wild West. 7. At the end of the film the actors fell in love. 8. Leonardo DiCaprio is a good actor and a good fellow. 5 ■ Here are some questions about the article ^Wherefore Art Thou Romeo?* («Почему ты, Ромео?»). 1) Can you imagine the answers to them? (previewing) 1. How did the director Baz Luhrmann find the actor to star as Romeo? 2. Who performed the role of Romeo? 3. Did the actor like the role? 4. What did the actor think about his Juliet? [Щ 2) Now read the article and find the actual answers to the questions. Wherefore Art Thou Romeo? Look no further! Stunning, talented with a bad-boy image that makes him a little dangerous — Leonardo DiCaprio was picked out as the perfect Romeo even before the project was started. CO 201 Roles to Die For Director Baz Luhrmann spotted (заметил) Leo’s picture in a magazine, invited him to a week-long reading of the script and offered him the role. Simple as that! “At first, I thought, why do Romeo and Juliet again? It has been done so many times,” says Leo. “But our Romeo is harder and a lot cooler. I wouldn’t have done it if I’d had to jump around in tights.” But he did have to use the original language and admits that wasn’t easy. “There is a lot of beauty in each word. I knew I had to know what I was talking about to do the words justice.” And what did he think of his Juliet? “When we were auditioning (проводили пробы на роль) Juliet’s, Claire w’as the only who came right up and said lines directly to me. It was a little shocking — but it impressed me!” Young Telegraph March 29, 1997 3) Look at the title of the article. What language is it in? Why did the author of the article use this language? 0. What do you think of the film Romeo and Juliet? Would you recommend to watch it? Why? Why not? 7. In the USA there are special rating systems for films. ««I What are main categories of the films? (R Unit 6, ex. 5) C£> 202 Nothing Is So Good but It Might Have Been Better 1 . The MPAA* rating system was introduced to prevent children from too much violence in action films on the screen. [Щ 1) What does the MPAA rating system mean? (R Unit 6, ex. 5) Щ 2) What are the main features of each category of films? 2. Grown-ups think that not all films are suitable for children, especially action films. 1) Who of the teenagers likes and who dislikes action films? (reading/listening for the main idea) Action films? What a bore! Criminals, shooting, explosions. Nothing else. I agree that such films have the right to exist. They have some positive features. They are dynamic, dramatic and full of special effects. But they are unrealistic. Some people watch violence to cool off (успокаиваться) and such films are good for them. But other people can get sick and nervous especially teenagers. There are better ways to cool off, I think. But, I consider it is up to you to decide to watch the film or not. Besides, there is the MPAA rating system. As for me, I prefer to watch a PG-rated film better than going to the cinema with my parents to watch an R-rated film. P I do love action films. Why? They are very dynamic and really exciting. They grab your attention from the first scene. I like films with a mysterious plot. They keep me in suspense. Action films are so various that can suit different tastes. Some people think that action films teach only to fight and to kill. I don’t agree with such opinions. They teach people to defend justice and to be strong and brave. I think it is not bad to want to look like the heroes of action films. If you ask me, there’s too much violence in films. Killing seems normal now. Action films are stuffed with fights of different types. They haven’t even got any plot — only fighting, killing and rough language. I do hate such films. They are horrible and frightful. They make me want to scream. I think they teach violence and aggression. If you keep seeing shooting and fighting, you won’t care if it happens in real life. Such films set a bad example. I don’t like to watch R-rated films, even if my parents take me to the cinema. Б 203 Nothing Is So Good but It Might Have Been Better = 2) Why do these teenagers like or dislike action films? Pros Cons Action films are very dynamic and exciting. 3. Here are some other teenagers' opinions about action films. 1) Which of them are for and which of them are against action films? Action films are rotten. They make you want to hide. They teach you to defend those who are weak and in danger. They are very impressive. You get accustomed to violence very quickly. Action films are a good way to relax. They are full of extraordinary fights. They are stuffed with shooting and killings. If you watch too much violence, you become cruel. They are dangerous for young children. They demonstrate the physical abilities of man. [=1 2) Whose opinion (Pam’s, Gary’s or Sue’s) do they correspond with? 3) What are your arguments for and against action films? 4) What is your opinion about action films? If you ask nne, I do love action films. Action films are ... More than that, they are ... They ... I don't think action films are ... On the one hand ... Besides ... On the other hand ... I do hate action films. They are ... Besides ... More than that ... CD 204 Nothing Is So Good but It Might Have Been Better 4. Another genre which provokes serious discussion is horror films. What is your opinion about horror films? 5. Should children watch action and horror films? G. The title of the lesson is an English proverb. 1) Find what this proverb means. Nothing is so good but it might hove been better. He TO золото, что блестит. Пот худа боа добра. Не так стришен черт, как его малюют. НА редкую ^еду есть худшая. На хорошее всегда найдется лучшее. 2) How сап you interpret the title of the lesson? 3) What genres might have been better than horror and action films? ■ 4) Match the following English proverbs with the Russian equivalents. (See ex. 6.1).) All is not gold that glitters. Mo ^reat loss without some small ^ains. The devil is not so black as it Is painted. Nothing is so bad but it might have been worse. 5) What other title can this lesson have? Explain why. 7. Here are some opinions of British teenagers about film certificates and rating system. Щ Are you of the same opinion? Explain your point of view. CO Nothing Is So Good but It Might Have Been Better 205 Film certificates are a good idea because if a film is very rude a certificate would prevent very young children from seeing it. But I do think some films are given high certificates when they shouldn’t be. They are good because they can stop younger children seeing violent films. But they’re also useful to us all. They give you an idea of what kind of film you are likely to see. Let’s face it, we all want to watch films that we’re not really allowed to. But if we could actually see a violent or horror film, there would probably be lots of scare children around. 8. There are special reviews of children's films in American magazines. [opo] What rating do they have? (R Unit 6, ex. 6) CO -jtL. 206 How Did You Feel About ...? 1 . When we go out to the cinema or to the theatre with friends we usually discuss the film or the play we've seen. 1) What film are Marie and Ken discussing? {reading/listening for specific information) — How did you feel about the film? — It was wonderful. I really enjoyed it. It is such a splendid romantic story. And you? — Me too. At first I thought it was going to be a drag, but then it really got good. — I’ve always liked such films. They are marvellous. — What did you like best? — The scene that grabbed me the most was one of sinking (погружение) of the Titanic.* It is so true to life, magnificent and horrible at the same time. And what did you find exciting? — I’ve always liked love stories and melodramas. I did like the scene in the ocean. It was so touching in fact, I couldn’t help crying. — Isn’t it a great film? — Oh, yes! — I want to watch it once again! — Do you? 2) What are their impressions? 3) How do they ask each other about their impressions after watching the film? = How do they express their likes? О 2. Louis and Catherine also visited the cinema last night. 1) Did they enjoy the film? (listening for the main idea) 2) How do they ask about the impressions about the film? Choose the phrases from the box. (listening for specific information) CO 207 How Did You Feel About ...? Asking about someone's feelings and impressions Neutral How did you feel about ...? What were you feeling about Did you like that ...? Did you enjoy ...? Informal What about that ...? Liked/enjoyed didn't you? How did ... grab you? Formal Did you find ... exciting/worthwhile? Did you find that enjoyable? Can I ask what your reactions were to = 3) How do they express their likes? Choose the phrases from the box. Expressing likes Informal I'nn (absolutely) crazy/nnad about ... is (really) terrific/great. Neutral I'm very keen on ... I (really) enjoy ... Formal I've always liked/loved ... ' ^ particular fondness for ... I do like/love '^У favourite pastimes. There's nothing I like/enjoy more than ... I adore ... \щ\ 4) How do they express their dislikes? Expressing dislikes Neutral I've never liked ... ... is not one of my favourite ... I (really) hate ... I can't work up any enthusiasm for ... There's nothing I like less. Formal I must say I'm not too fond of I'm not over-enthusiastic about Informal I can't stand ... is rubbish. CO 208 How Did You Feel About ...? 5) PAIR WORK How would the language style change if the teenagers discussed the film dur-ing the lesson with their teacher? 6) What can you say in the following situations? (AB Unit 6, ex. 10) 0*\ 7) PAIR WORK Listen to the conversations that take place in different situations. Do the speakers use the appropriate language? If the language is not appropriate, replace some phrases using the expressions from the boxes on p. 207. 3. Titanic* is a film by James Cameron, an American director. As soon as it appeared on the screens, it became extremely popular. Here is the opinion of an 18-year-old girl about it [Ш 1) Did she and her friend like it? I've seen it four times. The first time we saw it, we got out of the theatre and we were ю overwhelmed at how sad it was, that we couldn't stop crying. 2) PAIR WORK Imagine what conversation might take place between the girl and her friend. asking about someone's feelings and impressions expressing likes giving reasons expressing likes giving reasons asking about someone's feelings and impressions 3) Think of your own conversations that suit the chart above. (AB Unit 6, ex. 11) 4. ROLE-PLAY You are at the international summer camp. You are having an excursion to the nearest city. You are discussing what to do in the evening. Role-play the following situations. CO How Did You Feel About ...? 209 i Student 1 You invite your friend to go to the cinema to watch one of E. Ryazanov's* comedies. You like his comedies very much. Explain why. i Student 1 You invite your friend to go to the theatre to watch Pygmalion. Ask how she/he feels about it. Student 2 Your friend invites you to watch one of E. Ryazanov's old films. Agree to go to the cinema because you like Ryazanov's films. Student 2 Refuse the invitation. Explain that you have already seen it. Give your opinion about it. 5. GROUP WORK A ES Make a list of films/plays you like and dislike. Find someone who feels the same about these films/plays and someone who feels differently. Discuss a film/play you both like/both dislike/one of you likes or dislikes. G. The article Юиг Titanic Love Affair* published in Newsweek from February 23, 1998 is devoted to James Cameron’s film Titanic. Why was James Cameron a little bit mystified? (R Unit 6, ex. 7) s CO 210 I Want to Be a Critic 1 . /s it difficult to be a critic? A lot of people think that it is very easy. You simply watch a film or play and say why you like it or not. Do you want to be a critic? Choose and do one of the projects. PROJECT ‘Rating System in Russia’ 1) Explain why we need a rating system. 2) Decide how many categories there will be in your system. 3) What are the main features of the categories? 4) What are the signs of your categories? 5) Choose some films you*ve watched lately. Decide which categories they match according to your rating system. 6) Explain your rating system to your classmates. 7) Be ready to answer their questions. PROJECT ‘A Theatre Critic’ 1) Choose any performance you’ve seen lately. 2) Decide what you can tell your readers to encourage them to watch the performance. 3) Be honest if there is anything you don’t like about the play (the ballet, efc.). Choose your words carefully and check that you have included something on: • the story • the setting • the main characters • the actors • the director • the music • the dancing 4) Be enthusiastic! cr> а 211 I Want to Be a Critic PROJECT ‘Making a Remake’ 1) Choose an old film you’d like to remake. 2) Choose a director. Explain why he/she is a perfect person to be a director. 3) Decide what actors you need. Hold auditions (проведите пробы). 4) Describe and prepare costumes. 5) Write a script. 6) Act out a scene from the film. 7) Make an advertisement. 2. Discuss all the projects and choose the best one. 7^ CO 212 О 1 . LISTENING COMPREHENSION 1) You will hear four people discussing films and plays they like and dislike. Listen to the recording. Match the statements (1-4) with the names of the genres. There are three extra genres, which you do not need to use. You will hear the recording twice. 1. A. musical E. science fiction 2. B. tragedy F. thriller 3. C. opera G. ballet 4. D. detective 2) Listen to the people’s opinions about the films they saw. For statements 1-4, decide which ending A, В or C fits best each opinion. You will hear the recording twice. 1. A What a bore! В What a frightful film! C What a wonderful film! 3. A It makes me happy. В It makes me nervous. C It makes me want to hide. 2. A What a horrible film! В What a boring film! C What a fantastic film! 4. A It is wonderful. В It is sensational. C It is nothing to write home about. Your score 8 7-6 4 Your mark 5 4 2 2. READING COMPREHENSION 1) You are going to read an article from Playbill about the play Prelude to a Kiss. a) First put the paragraphs (A-D) in the correct order. 1._______ 2.________ 3._______ 4.________ A TYPICAL LOVE STORY Prelude to a Kiss examines romance in a most unusual way. A It’s taken a few years and many revisions to get that way. Prelude opened at the Helen Hayes Theatre in May with Timothy Hutton and Mary-Louise Parker. Earlier the play was produced at South Coast CO 213 Repertory and Berkeley Rep in 1988 and, earlier this year, Off-Broadway at Circle Repertory Company, where it was “the most sought-after ticket in Manhattan,” according to The New York Times. The limited run at Circle Rep generated so much excitement that it prepared Broadway. В In Prelude to a Kiss, Craig Lucas’s modern romantic fairy tale, a sleepless beauty asks her groom (жених) on their wedding day whether he will love her when she’s “a hundred years old with a moustache and yellow teeth.” He assures her that he will. It’s only a matter of days before he gets the chance to prove it. C Prelude examines love and responsibility, all the while thinking over if we ever really know anyone. The characters may journey through never-never land in the process, but their thoughts and emotions are so funny, touching and true that the play moves easily from reality to fantasy without a hint of artifice (выдумка). D Unlike such traditional fairy tales as The Sleeping Beauty, in which a kiss breaks a spell (заклинание) and provides the story with its resolution, the kiss in Prelude casts a spell (накладывать заклятие) of sorts and is the transforming moment in the play. An old man comes into the wedding reception, gives a kiss to the bride and, in so doing, exchanges souls (душа) with her. The newlyweds, Rita and Peter, go off on their honeymoon, but within 24 hours Peter is staring at his wife and wondering aloud, “Who the hell is she, anyway?” She looks like she never sleeps, but he senses something is very wrong. And it isn’t long before he discovers that Rita and the old man have switched bodies. by Sheryl Flatow adapted from Playbill b) Decide which statements (1-6) match with the paragraphs (A-D). Write the appropriate ietter. 1. The idea that runs through Prelude is “Do we ever know anybody?” ___________ 2. Prelude was the most popular play in New York. __________ 3. Peter had to prove that he would love his wife even when she was very old. _______ 4. In Prelude a kiss is the beginning of all the adventures. __________ 5. The play tells about real and unreal life situations. _______ 6. Rita is a girl who never sleeps. ________,_________ CO 214 2) For film reviews (1-5) write down the titles of the films (A-F). Use each letter only once. There is one extra title. A. Darkness B. The Phantom of the Opera C. National Treasure D. The Aviator E. The Polar Express F. Meet the Peckers 1. Having given permission to male nurse Greg (Stiller) to wed his daughter Pam (Polo), ex-CIA man Jack Byrnes (De Niro) and his wife (Danner) travel to Detroit to “meet the parents”, who this time around are Mr and Mrs Focker (Hoffman and Streisand), who are as different from them as can be. 2. ________A teenage girl (Paquin) moves into a remote countryside house with her family, only to discover that their gloomy new home has a horrifying past that threatens to destroy the family. 3. ________Believing in Santa Claus isn’t easy when all of your friends and family insist that he’s just make-believe. A boy’s faith is rewarded one Christmas Eve when he’s awakened by a steam train that pulls up in front of his house and takes him and other children to the North to meet Santa. It’s all CGI (Computer Generated Images), based upon live-action motion-capture actors. 4. ________ The film is directed by Martin Scorsese and written by John Logan, tells the story of aviation pioneer Howard Hughes (Leonardo DiCaprio), the eccentric millionaire industrialist and Hollywood film mogul, famous for romancing some of the world’s most beautiful women. The drama recounts the years of his life from the late 1920s through the 1940s, an epoch when Hughes was directing and producing Hollywood movies and test flying innovative aircrafts he designed and created. 5. ________ He is a masked man who roams around the Paris Opera House, haunts the actors and actresses. He falls for a young soprano named Christine (Emmy Possum) and tutors her so well that she passes another soprano (Minnie Driver) as the city’s best. He’s smitten and wants Christine for his own, but she still has feelings for a childhood love, Raoul (Patrick Wilson). Feeling betrayed, the Phantom kidnaps Christine with plans to make her his eternal bride. Your score 15-14 13-12 11-9 <8 Your mark 5 4 3 2 CD 215 3. USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARYl 1) What does the audience think about it? Write down exclamatory sentences. There is an example at the beginning (0). 0. Norton Rene is a talented director. Whfit Q tQieflted director! 1. The play is very touching. 2. The creators are wise. 3. It is so true to life. 4. Craig Lucas is an outstanding playwright. 5. The thoughts and emotions are so tunny. 6. The play is their first great success. 7. The play was really funny. 8. It is a romantic story. 9. The actors are fantastic. 10. It was a magnificent performance. 2) Make the opinions sound more convincing and emphatic. Write down emphatic sentences. There is an example at the beginning (0). 0. I like opera. ( do like operal 1. My friend hates operetta. 2. I enjoyed the performance. 3. It was funny. 4. It made me cry. 5. It is extraordinary. 6. I prefer staying at home. 7. Louis loves action films. 8. I find it exciting. 9. I have already seen this film. 10. We loved fairy tales when we were younger. 3) People’s opinions of one and the same film can be different. Read the opinions and use the word in capital letters to form the word that fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). 0. The film is so dramatic (DRAMA). 1. It is a good _________ (HISTORY) film. 2. How___________ (FRIGHT) the film is! _______(SENSATION). I’ve never thought it can be so 3. It is really_____ interesting. 4. The film is so_________(MYSTERY). It keeps you in suspense from the beginning up to the end. 5. I can’t say anything. It is________(ABSOLUTE) fantastic! CO РЙВРАВАТЮЫ FOR TESTING 216 6. To my mind the film is (EXCITE). I enjoy watching it. 7. And I think that it is nothing to talk about. To my mind it is rather (LOUSE). Your score 27-25 24-20 19-16 <15 Your mark 5 4 3 2 4. SPEAKING 1) You are at the international canrtp. You are talking with your foreign friend about your favourite genres of films/plays. Remember to: • tell about your favourite genres of the films/plays; • say why you like to watch such films/plays, what is special about them; • name some of your favourite films/plays; • say who your favourite actors/actresses are. You have to talk for 2 minutes. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then she/he will ask you some questions. 2) ROLE-PLAY You and your friend are exchanging opinions about the film/play you’ve watched at the international camp. STUDENT CARD 1 Ask your friend’s opinion about the film/play you’ve watched. You begin the conversation. Remember to: • ask his/her opinion about the work of the actors/actresses, the director; • ask his/her opinion about the setting; • ask what his/her impressions of the film/play are. Say what you think about the film/play. STUDENT CARD 2 You liked the film/play you’ve watched. Answer your partner’s questions. Remember to; • explain why you liked the film/play; • give your opinion about the work of the actors/actresses; • give your opinion about the setting. Ask about your friend’s impression of the film/play. Рл 217 5. WRITING VbuVe got a letter from your foreign friend John. He wants to know: • Do you often go to the cinema? • Do you like watching video films? • What are your favourite films? • Who are your favourite actors/actresses? • What was the last film you watched? How did you like it? Write a letter to John (80-100 words) to answer his questions. Remember to write a letter in the correct way. 6. CULTURAL AWARENESS 1. What are the biggest film corporations in the USA? 2. What was the first film demonstrated to the audience about? 3. What was the name of the first theatre in London? 4. What categories are there in the MPAA rating system? 5. What genres of films were the first ones shot in America? 7. NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS FROM UNIT 6 1) How many new words and expressions do you know? 2) Which words are the names of professions? 3) Which words are used for positive or negative evaluation? 1 drag to yawn 4 director dynamic 3 to cool off genre feature film decoration* 5 melodrama to grab dramatic enthusiasm to shoot lousy operetta fondness silent* moving sincerity worthwhile studio plot stage* stunt man* rotten splendid tragedy Reader backstage* 2 to stuff Reading Section nudity* action film superb cruel objectionable adaptation* suspense exhausting* rate* aggression tear innocence* scene* astonishing totally mature* stage* documentary touching tragic* unroofed* CO 218 8. SELF-ASSESSMENT Description of achievement Level reached poor fair good excel- lent I can read and understand • stories about history of film making/theatre • interviews with actors • opinions about films of different genres • reviews of new films • a play • articles from film magazines • non-fiction articles about rating system I can understand information • about history of film making • opinions about films/plays I can speak about • history of film making • my favourite film/play • my favourite genre of films/plays 1 can • express my opinion about different film genres and theatrical genres • ask about someone’s impressions • express my impressions I can write • a summary about history of film making in Russia • about history of theatre in England Grammar checklist Can understand Can use 1 can express strong emotions with the help of • exclamatory sentences • emphatic sentences Pupil’s comments Exercise I found most interesting/enjoyable/difficult/boring CD J' s>. ^ ' " Shook •:QrN'.-/i 220 Do You Use Modern Inventions in Everyday Life7 1 ■ Wonderful inventions have been made in science and technology recently. These advances are changing the lifestyle of millions of people all over the world. These are some opinions of the things that modern technology can offer us. 1) What things are the members of the family talking about? Can you identify these things in the tables on pp. 221 and 225? (reading/listening for detail) I’m a couch potato — and I’m proud of it. Every time I have a spare minute you can always find me on my couch. From there I switch from channel to channel until I find ^ my favourite soaps. I really enjoy writing programs. It sounds difficult. But even an 11-year-old can write a simple program. One of my programs can play chess. It can beat me, but it can’t beat my dad. He’s an excellent chess player. They are magic. I also do roller-skating and ice-skating. But these are a mixture of both. It’s like ice-skating in the street! So fast! 7 I think this is the most useful invention that I can imagine. I can take it anywhere I like. I have to keep in touch with my office whenever I travel. It’s fantastic to be able to call them up as you’re driving up the motorway. And they can even get in contact with me if they want! If we feel like eating a hot meal, I just get our favourite pre-prepared food and put it into the machine, set the dial and it’s ready in minutes! I’m excited about this bit of technology. When I speak I cannot only hear but also see the other person! Do You Use Modern Inventions in Everyday Life? 2) Why do the members of the family like to have these things in the home? 2. Here are some of the modern inventions that are used in everyday life. WHAT GADGETS & MACHINES DO PEOPLE USE? a camera a microwave oven [,maikr3weiv'AV3n] a mobile telephone an electronic game a video recorder/player a TV set a vacuum cleaner a videophone a cordless phone a talking alarm clock a sewing machine ['sauio ma,Ji:n| a computer a solar powered calculator a TV remote-control unit a mower a body building machine a fax machine roller blades a dishwasher WHy DO PEOPLE USE THEM? to cut and collect the grass to build up one’s strength to wash the dishes to take photographs to cook, defrost, reheat pre-prepared food to receive or make calls around the home, etc. to perform everyday cleaning tasks from vacuuming to cleaning up liquids, dust and waste and shampooing carpets to not only sew but do embroidery (вышивать) and аррИдиё and sew on buttons to wake up people and to tell the time to watch pre-recorded videos to record a programme even when watching another on a different channel to have fun and to entertain to send and receive urgent messages to operate the TV set from a distance to write programs, play games, find and use information, etc. to do calculations in sunlight or daylight 222 н*\ Do You Use Modem Inventions in Everyday Life? 1) What are they called? How often are they used? I think ... is/are seldom used. ... is used more often than And ... is/are used very often. 2) Why do people use all these things? We can ... more easily/quickly/efficiently with it. 3) Which things are the most or least useful in the home from your point of view? Why do you think so? I think that ... is the most important thing in the home. We can ... Some of the inventions, for example ... is/are less important. We do not often ... And I'm sure we can do without ... We never ... 4) PAIR WORK Think of any gadget or machine that can be used in the home or office. Let your Classmates ask ‘yes/no’ questions to guess its name. GRAMMAR FOR REVISION V-ing form Can we use it for cooking? Is it used for grass cutting? 3. Here is a conversation that takes place in a shop. 1) What problem does this customer have? (listening/reading for the main idea) — Excuse me. I don’t speak English very well. I need ... a thing for opening cans. What do you call it? — A can opener. — A can opener. OK. Do you have any? — Yes, we do. с. 223 Do You Use Modem Inventions in Everyday Life? 2) How does the customer explain to the salesperson what he needs? (listen-ing/reading for detail) 3) ROLE-PLAY imagine you are in a shop. student 1 Student 2 You are a salesperson. Help the customer. You want to buy some of the things in the pictures on pages 221 and 225. You don't know the exact word for these things. Explain to the salesperson what you need. 4. Which of the things have you got at home? Which ones do you think you ' need? What for? 5. What gadgets and machines are often found in the home and office? (AB a.a П I Unit 7, exercises 1-3) S. Different people have different opinions about gadgets. (q^ What’s Carol’s opinion about them? (R Unit 7, ex. 1) 224 It’s the Thing You Need! 1 . TV, radio, magazines, and newspapers advertise a lot of products. Here are some pages from the Argos catalogue which offers a great variety of quality products. 1) What things are being advertised? CANON Helping you to take better pictures Memories. That’s what photography is about. And there is no surer way to keep your memories alive than with a Canon camera. Whether you want to capture special family moments, or record exciting holiday events, a Canon camera will help you to shoot sharp, colourful pictures. The new generation of compact cameras Despite their small size and light weight. Canon compact cameras are packed with features. They all offer automatic film loading and film advance, plus built-in flash. And they are all made to the high standard you expect from Canon. Everything you need The Canon Sureshot Mega Zoom 105 camera has everything you need to produce pictures you will treasure. It is easy to use. Multigyms are the best fitness and body building machines. Free-standing, compact home gyms providing up to 35 exercises. Completely safe and allow the user to exercise all body parts. Our multigyms will suit everyone, whatever your age, sex or level of ability. Easy to assemble. With illustrated training instructions. Size 52-64-34 inch. Free home delivery. И 225 It’s the Thing You Need! = 2) Which good reasons are given to buy these things? WHY PEOPLE (don't) LIKE TO HAVE MODERN INVENTIONS IN EVERYDAY LIFE is easy (un)pleasant to operate. dull boring are difficult to use. Life is easy unusual enjoyable exciting without it. with it. saves a lot of time, is a waste of time (money), allows you to ... makes it possible/easy to ... offers a lot of possibilities/ a few advantages, suits everyone whatever your age. bad for your ... useful/reliable. is no use at all. are more trouble than it’s worth. a necessity rather than a luxury ['кк/эп] (роскошь). The main benefit is disadvantage the speed with which we can ... the price. It’s reasonable/low/high. that it is expensive/cheap. the design. It’s modern/good/first-class. that it needs batteries. I don’t worry about washing the dishes. My dishwasher can take care of that. Using ... leaves me more time to enjoy myself I can’t live without ... ... brightens my life. О 3) Listen to one of the commercials. What thing is being advertised? (listening for the main idea) tVs the Thing You Ne^ n *4 226 4) Which characteristics of the thing are highlighted in the commercial? (listening for detail) 5) Which features that are highlighted in the advertisements are essential for customers? Why? I think that I don’t think that the price the design the functions of is the product are the size the weight essential. absolutely essential, not essential at all. useful but not essential, no use at all. 2. On p. 225 there are some arguments people take into consideration when they buy things. 1) Which of the arguments are positive and which are negative? 2) Which of the arguments would you give for or against the advertised things? 3) Would you buy the advertised things? Why? Why not? У 3. What gadgets and machines have you got in your home? When did you buy them? What’s your opinion about them? We've got a vacuum cleaner. We've used it since 2003 (for two years). Or: We bought it in 2003. It....... GRAMMAR FOR REVISION Past Simple and Present Perfect We bought it in 2003. We’ve used it since 2003 (for two years). GS p. 265 4. You think that some of the household equipment would be useful in your home. What arguments would you give to convince your parents to buy it? _ 5 a What electrical or electronic goods would you never like to have in the home? Explain why. If^ U\i 227 ft’s the Thing You Need! Ga Is there anything that you would like to have but it hasn’t been invented yet? What would you use this thing for? 1^ 7. IN YOUR CULTURE Write a script for a 15 seconds radio or TV commercial for a product that is produced in your home town. Do not name it. Get ready to perform your commercial for the class. Let your classmates guess its name. 8. Do a word puz2le. (AB Unit 7, ex. 4) 3 a Do you think it’s a good idea to have this thing? Why? Why not? жаш. This colour television is small enough to carry in your hand or fit in your pocket. The 2-inch diagonal screen is virtually unbreakable, making this TV ideal for travel and recreational use. AC or DC operation; runs on batteries. Height: 3 1 /8 inches. Width; 6 3/8 inches. Weight (with batteries): 1 pound. /\ 10. Modern inventions are also used in class. What are they? (R Unit 7, ex. 2) ffi 228 , It’s Difficult to Imagine It as an Invention 1 . Nowadays most of the inventions made in the past seem to be commonplace (обычным явлением). It is difficult to imagine them as inventions. ^ Have a look at the pictures and captions and say what inventions were made in the 19th and 20th centuries. Who were they made by? When were they made? What countries were the inventions made in? GRAMMAR FOR REVISION Past Simple Passive ... was invented by ., in ... in ... . ... and ... were invented by ... in ... in ... . GS p. 266 In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell, an American engineer, invented telephone. i /^kito Morita (Japan^ developed the first IM'i-soiial stereo — Sony Walkman. In 1908 James M. Spangler from the USA built the first vacuum cleaner. It’s Difficult to Imsgine It as an Invention 229 John Losie Baird from Scotland invented television - in 1926. I In 1885 the Lumlere broth ers patented their cinematography and opened the world’s first cinema in Paris. Micephore liiepce from France Pioneered photography in 1829. In 1981 Bill Gates (USB) aeoted Microsoft-DOS (Disk Operating ^учГет) Wilbur and Orville Wright built the first airplane in 1903 (USA). Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut developed the idea of cloning in 1997. Karl Benz produced the world’s first petrol-driven motorcar in Germany in 1885. Sergei Korolyev (Russia) designed the first artificial satellite in 1957. 41 It’s Difficult to Imagine It as an Invention 2 • Important inventions were made in different countries. 1) What are some of these inventions? Who invented them and where? 1. The first Russia’s automobile was designed by R A. Frez and E. A. Yakovlev. By May 1896 the car had been built. 2. In 1945 the Nobel Prize was given to Alexander Fleming for penicillin [,penTsilin] that had been discovered in 1928. 3. The first gas stove had been made long before the first electric stove appeared. 4. In the middle of the 19th century, although it had been tested, the sewing machine did not interest very many people. 5. In 1928 Richard Drew perfected the Scotch tape, which had been invented by Jim Kirst from the USA in 1923. 6. The first ballpoint pen was produced in 1940 though it had been invented by L. Biro, a Hungarian artist and journalist, in 1905. 7. In 1996, Japanese scientists created a solar powered car called Dream. To create it they used solar cells, which had been developed in the middle of 20th century. 2) Which pieces of information about the time the things were invented are true? Which are not true? GRAMMAR Past Perfect Passive IN FOCUS (Прошедшее совершенное время в пассивном залоге) Когда мы говорим о том, что было сделано до определенного момента или какого-то действия в прошлом, мы используем прошедшее совершенное время в пассивном залоге. VCRs* were first produced in the United States in the early 1970s. By the mid-1980s, two types of home VCR had been developed — Beta and VHS. The American Isaac Merritt Singer made some improvements to the sewing machine that had been invented by Elias Howe. GS p. 267 3) The American scientist Thomas Edison was one of the greatest inventors ever. What inventions did he make and when? (AB Unit 7, ex. 5) И1 4) What inventions had been made by the end of the 20th century? 231 It’s Difficult to Imagine It as an Invention By the end of the 20th century invented tested improved made discovered pioneered built developed produced found created introduced designed perfected patented 3 • Different inventions were made in different periods of human history. X 1) In what sequence were the following inventions made? What do you think? I think that first ... was invented. ... was invented later. So .......... by the time ... was invented. photocopier/the first electric cell (батарейка) Kodak camera/laser telegraph/telescope tyres (iuMHbi)/typewriter Lego bricks/trainers frozen food/canned food steam engine/diesel digital stereo sound system/video cassette tape recorder match/dynamite hamburger/instant coffee colour TV/helicopter 232 IVs Difficult to Imagine It as an Invention 2) GROUP WORK When, where and by whom were the enlisted inventions made exactly? Walk around the class and ask your classmates questions to find out the necessary information. Who Where When was designed invented made by? I don't know I'm afraid. Probably ... or ... . 3) Represent the inventions on the time line and tell the class about your findings. 1800 1850 1900 1950 4) Compare your guesses with the facts. Did you guess right? A typewriter was invented by ... in ... in 1829. A telegraph was invented by ... in ... in 1794. So a telegraph .......... long before a typewriter. 4. IN YOUR CULTURE A lot of inventions have been made by Russian scientists. —^ 1) What important inventions were made in Russia? When were they made? Do you know the names of the inventors? (AB Unit 7, ex. 6) 2) What fads (вымыслы, которым люди верят как фактам) did you learn about? mj\ ... is said/believed/thought/supposed to be ... by ... in ... But actually it ... .... by ... long/shortly before that time in ... . ^.V.'is thought/supposed to be ... by ... in ... . In fact ........ ... by ... long/shortly before that time in ... . 233 !Vs Difficult to Imagine It as an Invention 5. Which of the world’s inventions had been made shortly before your birth? What do you think about these inventions? I was born in ... By the time I was born ... I think ... G > For centuries the means of communication at a distance remained primitive. People made many efforts to change the situation. What efforts were made? (R Unit 7, ex. 3) Л ' ffi о You Know to Organise the Household? WORD BOX 1 • Here is a story from the book Belles on Their Toes («Решительные красавицы») by Frank Bunker Gilbreth and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey. Ernestine's father Frank Bunker Gilbreth died leaving Ernestine's mother with eleven children. 1) Did the children’s life change after their father’s death? (reading for the main idea) “Each of us is going to sacrifice a little,” Anne continued. She called out the amounts on the checks and what they were for. Food and clothes. We had to cut down on them. Doctors’ bills. We didn’t intend to have any. Tobacco. Certainly not. Gasoline. We had already sold Dad’s car. Dancing school was abandoned. Also abandoned were music lessons. We drew the line at cutting allowances. But we did institute a series of fines that would reduce our take-home pay. Leaving on an electric light or the cold water would cost the offender two cents; hot water, four cents; failure to do any of the things on the process charts, five cents. Dad had the household organised on an efficiency basis, just as he organised a factory. He believed that what worked in a household would work in a factory, and what worked in a factory would work in a household — especially if the household happened to have eleven children. The process charts, first developed for industry, were an example. They told each of us what we were supposed to do, and when we were supposed to do it. The charts were in the boys’ and girls’ bathrooms, upstairs. They listed duties such as washing the dishes, making the beds, combing hair, brushing teeth, weighing ourselves, listening for fifteen minutes a day to French and German language records on the phonograph, sweeping, and dusting. We decided we could eat much more cheaply if we cut out roasts and steaks, except perhaps on Sundays. Ernestine was a good shopper, so she would plan the meals, and she would do most an institute to institute - ? take home pay take-home pay - ? efficient efficiency - ? £AD(NG SECTION 235 Do You Know How to Organise the Household? of the buying. We already got our canned goods, so we couldn’t save there. Ernestine would also try to teach Tom the necessity of putting such ingredients as baking powder into the corn muffins, and of adding water to fresh vegetables before placing them on the stove. Martha, who was the most efficient of all of us and could keep her money the longest, was put in charge of the budget. By the time that Tom announced lunch was ready, all of the duties had been allocated and the new economy budget was in balance. It was Ernestine’s turn to bring in the food. She looked at a leg of lamb that she carried in from the kitchen. It was burnt almost black and tomato halves looked as if they had become a part of the lamb — a part that needed bandages. Without saying anything Ernestine placed the platter in front of Anne. “What is that?” shouted Anne. “Get it out of here quickly.” “It is supposed to be a leg of lamb,” said Ernestine. Anne turned the platter around. “Any lamb with a leg like that had better see a veterinarian.” “I’m beginning to think we should have kept the cook and get rid of that man,” Ernestine announced. 2) Did the children have the foliowing things? Read out the sentences to justify your opinion, (guessing words by definitions) • a mixture for making bubbles of gas in cakes to cause them to be light • a road vehicle with an engine and usually four wheels for carrying three or four passengers • a device for cooking, baking and roasting • liquid for filling up cars with to make them move • a machine for producing music, voices and other sounds from records • a basis for organising a factory or a household • a strip of material used for tying round and protecting a wound • a means of payment given and accepted in buying and selling 2. Ernestine’s father used the process charts that could help to organise the household. The chart on p. 236 can help you to guess the meaning of the words in the story. 0^ Copy out the chart and fill it in. Use a dictionary to check if you’ve guessed right. Pfl Unit? Synonym Consequence Explanation Genet to sacrifice to allocate to abandon to reduce to cut down a fine Leaving on an electric light or the cold water — two cents; hot water — four cents. a process chart an offender in charge of ашш!ш 237 Do You Know How to Organise the Household? 3 ■ The children had to do something to survive after their Dad’s death. Do these notes reflect what they intended to do? Read out the sentences to justify your opinions, (reading for detail) to rrdtfce doctors’ bf//s food and clothes to instffyfe fines to abandon tobacco gasoline dancing school mask lessons roasts and steaks canned food Ernestine — to plan meals; to do most of the Ьир-inp; to teach Tom hoio to cook; ddartha - to pat In charpe of the bndpet; Tom - to pet nd of him H 4. Did these events in the story happen in the following sequence? GRAMMAR IN FOCUS Past Perfect Passive (Прошедшее совершенное время в пассивном залоге) She brought in the platter with the leg of lamb, which had been cooked by Tom. Она внесла блюдо с бараньей ногой, которую приготовил Том. GS р. 267 • The children didn’t have to cut down on gasoline, because their Dad’s car had been already sold. • They instituted a series of fines after the line at cutting allowances had been drawn. • The family used the process charts, which first had been developed for a factory by their father. • Their canned goods had been already delivered, that’s why they couldn’t save there. £A0im SBCTiOfit^ 238 Do You Know How to Organise the Household? • Before the time Tom announced lunch was ready, all of the duties had been allocated. • The leg of lamb was all black because it had been burnt. IB 5 • What country did the family live in? (extracting cultural information) i corn phonograph canned goods gas(oline) check platter it BE sweet corn/maize gramophone tinned goods petrol cheque (large) dish ©. Sometimes ordinary people have to invent something for their households. They do this for different reasons. What did Mr Frank B. Gilbreth invent? Why did he do that? (reading for specific information) 7m Ernestine’s mother, after her husband’s death took over his business. Her idea\ was to apply time-saving methods to the kitchen. So she planned, on paper, ‘an effi- = ciency-type kitchen’. Read about the kitchen the family used and say why it was called 'a model of inefficiency’. Deduce the meaning of the highlighted words, (guessing words by context/using a dictionary) Our kitchen, the one Tom used, was a model of inefficiency. Not that there was a hand pump over the sink or a spit to roast fowls on, but it was almost that bad. Our house had been built when the stress was on spaciousness and the original owner had planned the kitchen to accommodate three or four servants. When Tom baked a cake, or baked what he said was* a cake, he had to walk about half a mile. The distance from the sink which was at back-breaking level, to the old-fashioned gas stove was a good twenty feet. The food was kept in a pantry twenty feet from the stove and forty from the sink. And the dishes were in another pantry, about the same distance away but in the opposite direction. The refrigerator was in an alcove by itself. To get to it, you had to ш 239 Do You Know How to Organise the Household? walk around a stand holding the bird’s cage; around a table holding Tom’s tools, western story magazines, and back copies of The Newark Star-Eagle, pump n 1) a light soft shoe worn for dancing, sport, etc. 2) (esp. in compounds) a machine for forcing liquid, gas or air into, out of or through smth spit n 1) along thin metal rod pushed through meat, etc. to hold and turn It while it is cooked over a fire 2) a small narrow point of land that extends Into the sea or lake pantry n 1) a small room close to a kitchen for keeping food, etc. in 2) a room in a big house where glasses, dishes, etc. are kept alcove n 1) partially enclosed space in a room often occupied by a bed or by seats 2) similar space within a garden enclosure (беседка) i*\ 8> What household appliances did the family use? Read out the sentences from both passages to confirm your suggestions. 9. What period of time did the family live at? Why do you think so? (understanding unstated ideas/extracting cultural information) the 1890S the 1920s the 1990s Probably the family lived in the because by that time They couldn't live in the because by that time ... yet. They can't live in ..., because ... 10. What other appliances could the children buy and use in their household? Why? (applying background knowledge) The children could .... because ... by that time. They could use ... for ... Besides, ... 11. We use a lot of appliances and gadgets in our everyday life. (olal Do they help in organising the household? (R Unit 7, ex. 4) 240 High-Tech Life. What Are Pros & Cons? 1 • Some people think that technology will save the world and make it better, some others think that technology will ruin the society because we are too dependent on electric and electronic gadgets and machines. GROUP WORK Which inventions that you^ve learned about are invaluable (extremely useful) for you and which are junk (really useless), according to your opinion? 1) Work in a group of about five persons. Name three things that you can hardly live vbfithout and three things that you can sacrifice without too much reluctance. 2) Compare your list with the lists of your classmates. Which things were named most often in the first category? And in the second category? 2. Some pieces of technology are more important for us than others. 1) What piece of technology couldn’t people below live without? Why are they important for these people? (reading/listening for specific information) I couldn’t live without my computer at home. I use it all the time. It is like a typewriter and address book for me and it is also used for checking my spelling. Besides I can go on the Internet* and discover everything about anything, it’s a brilliant source of information. I’ve designed my own website and I’m getting loads of information for school. Besides some websites are packed with quizzes, games and competitions, it’s all you need for hours of fun on your computer. You can play and learn on it. It is absolutely essential. I don’t know how I ever managed without it. But my elder sister thinks people are getting a bit too dependent on computers. She thinks that we rely on them too much. My sister says, ‘You can’t rely on all the information, you don’t know who it has been written by or where it’s coming from. To be dependent on anything, especially a lifeless machine, that can quite easily break down, is not good. Besides computers shouldn’t replace seeing your friends.” И 241 А High-Tech Life. What Are Pros & Cons? I couldn’t possibly live without my car. Convenience seems to be the most common and most logical answer: cars take you where you want to go and when you want to go there. I can travel freely and comfortably wherever I want. Besides it allows me to live where I want as I can easily get to the place I need with the help of the car. Besides a car is a way of self-expression. I really hate to be without it. I think a car is a necessity rather than a luxury. But my wife thinks there are too many cars in our cities. Some people use them in cases when they could go on foot for example when going to buy a newspaper in a kiosk. It’s necessary to give thought to problems caused by cars. Pollution, accidents and so on. She says that cars are useful but not essential and it’s nice when cars are banned from the central shopping areas. I don’t agree with such situation but I have to accept it. My wife prefers to go to work using intercity transportation system. She says that during the rush hour, a trip from our home to her work by car takes much more time than a trip on foot. But I prefer to use my car. It suits me. I couldn’t imagine my life without my phone or I should say phones because I’ve got a mobile, too. I need a telephone to get in touch with my friends or to call the police or an ambulance. It is almost impossible for me to live without my phones. At home I’ve got a cordless telephone, I think it saves time when you have a receiver just at hand. But my mum was against buying a cordless phone because if there is some problem with electricity it won’t work and you’ll be totally lost. She also thinks that it is a luxury to have a mobile, it is too expensive, it is more trouble than it’s worth. Besides she says that mobiles are dangerous for health. The rays may cause headaches and even more dangerous diseases. I don’t believe her. For me my telephones are really invaluable. 2) Are the statements below true or false? 1. Kate uses her PC for typing and keeping information. 2. Kate uses her computer to get information from the Internet. 3. Kate’s sister thinks it’s not clever to believe all facts stored on the Internet. 4. Kate’s sister considers electronic devices not reliable. 5. John doesn’t like his car but he needs it. El 242 A High-Tech Life. What Are Pros & Cons? 6. John’s wife most probably goes to work by bus than by car. 7. John doesn’t like the situation when he can’t use his car for going shopping. 8. John’s wife spends less time to get to her work when she walks than when she goes by car. 9. Ann doesn’t agree to have one phone. 10. Ann’s mum thinks that telephones are more trouble than profit. 11. There are some problems with computers, cars and telephones. 3) What arguments are given for and against the computer, the car and the phone? Organise the information in the table, (reading/tistening for specific information) Device For Against computer car phone ^ 4) Which of the arguments do you agree or disagree with? (agreeing/disagree- ing) It is said that ... I also think so. It is said that ... I don't agree. On the one hand it is ..., but on the other hand ... Moreover ... I think ...'s opinion is absolutely nonsense because As far as I'm aware ... In addition, ... И 5) GROUP WORK What are your arguments for and against the computer, the car and the phone? Work in a group of three persons (one piece of technology for a person). Make your lists of arguments, (giving arguments) frJ ^ 243 А High-Tech Life. What Are Pros i Cons? Discuss your arguments with other groupmates. Let them agree or disagree with you. (agreeing/disagreeing) Agreement That'5 right. I also think so. I nnust agree that ... You are quite right. Disagreement On the contrary, it is ... I think it's absolutely wrong to ... On the one hand ... , but on the other hand ... Don't forget about the other side of the problem. You don't seem to understand that ... I think you're being rather optimistic/unrealistic saying that 6) Look back at the list of things you compiled while doing exercise 1 on page 240. Why has your group chosen these three invaluable things and these three totally useless? Give your arguments. 3. There are some things that we couldn’t live without Some other things we consider useless. 1) What thing couldn’t YOU live without? What thing is totally useless for you? Describe the thing without mentioning It. Let your classmates guess what it is. [71 244 Are You Sure You Can Use the Unit? 1 . Mankind has created so many electric appliances (приборов). Shops in many countries are filled with appliances designed and produced by different firms. |=] 1) What do you think you should know buying electric appliances abroad? voltage I'vaulticfe] — ? the operating voltage — ? the local power system — ? an adapter — ? a plug — штепсельная вилка a voltage selector — ? 2) In what country do you think Roman is doing the shopping? (reading/Usten-ing for specific information) — Can I help you? — Oh, yes, please. I’d like to buy a small hairdryer for my mother. — Which firm would you prefer? — Well, just let me get this right ... There are so many popular firms ... I think I’d buy a hairdryer made by an American firm. I want to buy something American for my mother. — Where are you from? — Russia. — Really? Let me think. I guess you’ll like the firm ‘Black and Decker’. It’s a very good name. — Fine. I like this one. — Be ready for a different voltage in your country. — What shall I do? — Find the voltage selector and make sure if the unit’s operating voltage corresponds to the voltage of the local power system. — Oh, yes, I will. What is it? I’ve never seen such a small plug. — Yes, we use plugs of the kind. Mind you have an adapter for the local power system. — Thank you very much. — You are welcome. Please read the operating instructions before using the unit. H3) What difficulties will Roman experience using a new electric unit? Find the correct answer. 1. a) The voltage of the power system in Russia is different from that of the American one. Are You Sure You Can Use the Unit? b) The voltage of the power systems is the same everywhere. 2. a) American plugs can be used anywhere. b) American plugs can’t be used in Russia because they are of a different size. 3. a) American electric appliances can’t be used anywhere except the USA. b) A user should follow operating instructions to use American electric appliances. 4) How do Roman and the shop assistant t give themselves time to think? ^ ask about preferences? Ф warn someone? Ф respond to thanks? 5) Does the dialogue chart fit the conversation of Roman and the shop assistant? (AB Unit 7, ex. 8) 6) What are some other ways of giving oneself time to think; asking about preferences; warning someone; responding to thanks? Match the mentioned functions with the phrases below. Let me see. Just let me think about this/ that a moment. Well, er, you see/you know ... In no circumstances you should Whatever you do, don't ... It's a pleasure. My pleasure. I'm glad I was able to help. You can ... or ... What do you say? Do you like ... better? Which seems better/the best? 7) Which phrases in the conversation of Roman and the shop assistant can be replaced by the phrases above without changing the idea? 2. These are warning notes for some things that you see in the pictures. 1) Which units do the instructions belong to? (reading for specific information) ■ Avoid touching the hot metal parts of the unit. ■ Slices of bread in the unit may burn. For this reason, do not use the unit near flammable (воспламеняющийся) objects. ■ Do not operate the unit lying on its side — this could cause a fire! ■ Place the appliance in a clear space to allow the necessary air to circulate. Unplug (отключить от сети) the unit before filling it with water. When you finish the work, unplug the unit and empty out (вылейте) any remaining water in tank. Avoid any contacts with the steam jet (струя пара) to prevent burns. Do not use the unit if you have wet hands or bare (босые) feet. Never move the unit while it is in use. Unplug the unit or remove it from its base (cordless model) when filling it or cleaning after use. Fit the appropriate plug according to the instructions. 0! 247 Are You Sure You Can Use the Unit? 2) ROLE-PLAY It is a good tradition to bring souvenirs for relatives from the places we visit. What would you buy as a souvenir for your family? i student 1 You are a Russian student who is looking for a souvenir at a shop in Britain. Student 2 You are a shop assistant at a British shop. Act out the conversation. Use the chart below. saying what you want giving yourself time to think offering help asking about preferences advising what to choose saying what your choice is and saying the reason for your choice expressing surprise and asking for advice warning giving advice thanking responding to thanks 3. Sometimes instruction notes can help people to solve a mystery. j/\ What mystery did the characters of The Invisible Man («Человек-невидимка») Q«a £□ by H.G. Wells* try to solve with the help of the three books? (R Unit 7, ex. 6) r- 3 248 What Would You Like to Invent? 1 ■ People have invented a lot of useful things to make their life more comfortable. Almost every day a new technique or product appears in the world. But they always need something more useful, more effective, more comfortable. Listen to what British children would like to invent. Why do they need these things? Fill in the table, (listening for detail) Name What? What for? 2. GROUP WORK PROJECT ‘What Would You Like to Invent?’ If you could invent anything you like what would it be? Make groups of three or four pupils. One group will be technical experts. All the other groups will be inventors. Choose a group you would like to join. Inventors 1) Invent a new thing you like. 2) Draw a picture, a blueprint (чертеж) or a plan. 3) Think about a name for your invention. 4) Think how you can use it. What do people need it for? 5) Advertise your inventions. Make a poster and advertisement for a radio programme. 6) Be ready to present your invention to the experts. Experts 1) Be ready to ask inventors about their creations. How is it called? How does it work? What is it for? And so on. / 249 What Would You Like to Invent? 2) Interview all the groups of inventors. 3) Choose the most useful inventions and explain your choice. 4) You may use the following phrases while discussing the inventions. Ti о 1 . LISTENING COMPREHENSION ^) A fax machine is one of the latest inventions of the man. You’ll hear the explanations of how it works. Listen to the recording. Mark the statements 1-5 with T if the information is TRUE and with F if the information is FALSE. You will hear the recording twice. 1. A fax machine doesn’t send the original sheet of paper. 2. The message is sent word by word. ! 3. The piece of paper is put inside the machine in small pieces. j j i 4. The machine scans the page with a stream of light. 5. The fax machine sends signals to another fax machine by telegraph. 2) You will hear four people talking about different electric devices. Listen to the recording. Choose from the list A-E what each of them says. Write the corresponding letter next to the speaker. Use each letter only once. There is one extra sentence, which you do not need to use. You will hear the record-' ing twice. Speaker 1 speaker 2 Speaker 3 Speaker 4 A. Mum takes the stereo away. B. A music-minded person. C. Is good for sleepy persons. D. Mum thinks that it is more trouble than it’s worth E. The device helps to save time. Your score 9 8-7 6-5 4 Your mark 5 4 3 2 2. READING COMPREHENSION 1) One of the interesting inventions is the invention of the striped toothpaste. Read how it is made, choose the picture that illustrates the story and give captions. How are the stripes put into striped toothpaste? The toothpaste i^ not striped when it is put into the tube, as some people imagine. A^ the factory, red paste and white paste are put into the tube separatel\n / № FOR TESimO 251 with the red paste completely filling the part near the cap. A short hollow pipe is also put into the toothpaste tube. When the toothpaste tube is squeezed, the white paste is pushed down the inside of the small pipe, while the red paste is pushed into five grooves on the outside. In this way, stripes of red paste are mixed into the white paste as it comes out of the tube. 2) Phones are very popular and often improved. Read the advertisement and mark the statements 1 -5 with T if the information is TRUE or with F if the information is FALSE. 1. It’s possible to see the other person while talking with him/her._ 2. You have to have an answering machine in your pocket if you go somewhere. _____ 3. You needn’t answer at once if you don’t want to. _____ 4. Ericsson provides a lot of options. ___ 5. Ericsson is one of the leading companies in the world. ____ "YOU \-\fWE TO СаММиМ1СПТ£ TO 5TFIY 1П BU5IME55. BUT YOU оапт MBVE TO 5TBY in TMB агпсв. Bo Hedfors, President & CCO, Cricssoe Inc., Texos, USA Fast decisions sharpen your company’s competitive edse. Out of reach can easily mean out of the picture - but an Ericsson mobile phone lets you respond quickly to your customers and keep in touch with your colleasues. РЙЕРАЙАТЮМ РОЙ TESTING 252 Ericsson makes it possible to communicate with anyone, anywhere, anytime - yet still respects people’s need to divert calls or use an answering service to create pockets of orivacy. Ericsson’s systems provide these advanced features because Ericsson is a world leader in the development and implementation of systems for mobile phones, sen/ing more than 40% of the world’s cellular subscribers. Ericsson’s 80,000 employees are active in more than 100 countries. Their combined expertise in switching, radio and networking makes Ericsson a world leader in telecommunications. It's about communication between peopie. The rest is technoiosy. 3) Special conferences are held to explore the full range of CD-ROM solutions. Read the descriptions of CD-ROM options for different markets. Choose the most suitable title (A-E) for each (1-4) description. There is one extra title which you do not need to use. A. Business Resources B. Home Entertainment C. Cross Platform Development D. Licensing Strategies: Copyrights and CD-ROM E. Education and Reference Session 1 __________ The wide range of different CD-ROM platforms — including Apple, DOS, Windows, CDTV, CD-I and UNIX — creates a challenge for developers. For which platform should a product be developed first, and how can development resources be given to create as wide a market for a product? This session will examine the possibility of development and review the obvious and hidden expenses that occur as products are ported to different systems. Learn about techniques that can simplify data conversion. Find out about the challenges — and solutions — for porting software, sound, graphics and video to different platforms. Session 2 _________ This session will examine those CD-ROM products that have demonstrated success in the areas such as encyclopedias, electronic books, references and classroom study aids and review the important content and design issues for new applications. The potential — as well as the costs — for disc-based textbooks and multimedia classroom learning will be examined — along with the practical issue of whether CD-ROM and multimedia technology can replace textbooks in the near future. Session 3 __________ CD-ROM provides a new way of presenting and distributing information resources. When presented as a highly-interactive database or multimedia format, the value of this information is quite different than traditional print media. This session will focus on those “mission critical” products that have become popular business research tools. A range of different CD-ROM product categories will be covered, including those relating to competitive research, directories, programming resources, desktop publishing tools, mapping, electronic periodicals and financial statistics. Session 4___________ This session will also cover key content issues, software, computing platforms, installed base, and the potential for use of multimedia features. This session will examine a variety of existing and new applications on major platforms, including CD-ROM, CD-ROM XA, CD-I and CD-V. See how the use of images, sound, animation and full motion video will affect home computing platforms. Learn how themes relating to music, art, travel, games and home references can be integrated with entertainment and home education needs. Your score 14-13 12-11 10-8 <7 Your mark 5 4 3 2 3. USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMARA/OCABULARY) 1) For questions 1-13, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D fits best each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Where Does Medicine Come From? In the green jungle a jaguar crouched on a tree limb. (0)_______ leaves and vines it watched two hunters. When the hunters (1) ______ close, the jaguar got ready to jump. The man with the gun looked up and saw the jaguar too late. There (2) no time to lift his gun and (3) ______. But amazingly the jaguar didn’t come biting at him through the air. The fierce animal just fell (4) ____ the tree and (5) ______ helpless on the ground. What (6) _____the jaguar fall? The hunters’ guide (7) ___the animal down with a blowgun. He (8) the blowgun to his lips and (9) a dart at the jaguar. But how could a little dart stop such a big, fierce animal? The tip of the dart (10) _____in a poison called curare made from certain trees in the jungle. Curare poison paralyses the muscles in the body so that they do not work. & 254 When scientists heard about this remarkable poison that (11) ____ in (12) ____ Amazon jungle in (13) ________ South America, they got some and experimented with it. They discovered that when used in big doses, curare will kill. But when it’s used in very small doses, it is a good medicine. 0. A. Through B. Across C. In D. Among 1. A. come B. came C. had come D. are coming 2. A. is B. was C. were D. had been 3. A. shoot B. shot C. was shot D. could shoot 4. A. at B. down C. of D. off 5. A. lie B. lay C. laid D. lain 6. A. forced B. let C. made D. had 7. A. brought B. had brought C. made D. had made 8. A. puts B. was putting C. had put D. had been put 9. A. blow B. blew C. blown D. was blown 10. A. dipped B. was dipped C. had dipped D. had been dipped 11. A. used B. was used C. had used D. had been used 12. A. an B. the C. some D. — 13. A. a B. an C. the D. — Your score 13-12 11-10 9-7 6 Your mark 5 4 3 2 2) For questions 1-9, read the text below. Use the words in the box to form new words that fit in the same numbered space in the text. There is an example at the beginning (0). Tele-Shopping Computers are playing a rather big role in the twenty-first century shopping. As a matter of fact, with (0) ' ^ - > ‘tele-shopping’ you can buy goods without even leaving home. For some people this opportunity seems (1) ________, because they are always pressed for time. Here’s how it works ... • You turn to the (2) ___________ to call a shop you need. There are supermarkets where you can buy (3)_________things from (4)________phones, (5) ovens and (6) ______________ machines to (7) food and (8) vegetables. ffi You order the goods you need. You give the shop your credit card number. (0) computer (1) value (2) net (3) vary (4) cord (5) wave (6) sew (7) can (8) freeze (9) electronic гзут- • Money is taken (9)_____ • The goods are delivered to your home. from your bank account to pay the bill. Your score 9-8 7-6 5-4 3 Your mark 5 4 3 2 4. SPEAKING 1) You are in a student hostel. Convince your friends to buy one of the following things. Say how it will be useful. Explain how the invention of this thing has changed the life of people. a vacuum cleaner, a dishwasher, a body building machine, a talking alarm clock You have to talk for 2 minutes. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then she/he will ask you some questions. 2) ROLE-PLAY You are on an exchange tour. You and your foreign friend have an opportunity to buy one of these things as a present. Choose ONE you both like most of all. STUDENT CARD 1 You and your foreign friend have an opportunity to buy one of these things as a present Choose ONE you both like most of all. Remember to: • say what your choice is; • discuss the positive and negative features of these things; • give reasons for your choice; • listen to the arguments of your friend. STUDENT CARD 2 You and your foreign friend have an opportunity to buy one of these things as a present Choose ONE you both like most of all Listen to your friend. Agree or disagree with your friend’s choice, giving reasons. Say about positive and negative features of these things. РйВРАЙкТМ Ш сэ> 5. WRITING You’ve got a new computer mouse as a present from your foreign friend. Write a thank-you postcard. Thank for the present. Say it is very useful for you.^ (50 words) 6. CULTURAL AWARENESS 1) You know that a lot of great inventions were made along the same line by Russian] scientists and foreign scientists. Match the invention and the inventors. Russian inventors Inventions Foreign inventors I ! A. Alexander Mozhaisky 1. incandescent lamp D. Wright brothers 1 B. Alexander Lodygin 2. steam locomotive E. Thomas Edison C. the Cherepanovs 3. aeroplane F George Stephenson 2) Match the country, the thing, the name of the inventor and the year of the] invention. Inventions Inventors Countries Years diesel the BBC Japan 1939 helicopter \ МезИё Switzerland 1955 J telegraph \ O.K. Christiansen У Germany . 1939 Lego bricks \ S.F.B. Morse / the USA \ 1837 digital stereo sound system ^ R. Diesel Russia 1 1975 instant coffee 1. Sykorsky Great Britain y^1990 1892 video cassette recorder Sony Denmark Your score 12-11 10-8 7-6 <5 Your mark 5 4 3 2 /■ PREPARATION FOR TESTiNQ 257 7. NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS FROM UNIT 7 1) How many new words and expressions do you know? 2) Which words mean inventions? 3) Which words can be used to characterise inventions? 4) Which words are similar in spelling (pronunciation) with the Russian words? 5) Which words are formed with the help of prefixes and suffixes, which are combinations of two words? 1 digital stereo sound fine* (n) cordless system gasoline* gadget dynamite to institute* to keep in touch electric cell offender* with helicopter platter* microwave oven improvement* process charts* mobile instant (coffee) to reduce* mower laser to sacrifice* remote-control unit manufacturer* take-home pay* sewing machine match (спичка) Microsoft* 4 2 to patent intercity* automatic penicillin* the Internet to brighten to perfect Invaluable compact photocopier* junk essential to pioneer to store satellite* luxury* to operate Scotch tape* 5 steam engine to save telegraph adapter 3 telescope appliance typewriter bacterial* apparatus* tyre circumstance ballpoint pen hairdryer (Lego) bricks Reading Section plug canned/frozen (food) abandon* power system car assembly line allocate* selector to clone* baking powder* to unplug* diesel efficiency* voltage 258 8. SELF-ASSESSMENT Description of achievement Level reached poor fair good excel- lent I can read and understand • ads • historical facts about inventions • stories about life in the past I can understand • what is said about different household devices • the attitude of a person towards some device I can • express my attitude towards some device • speak about inventions and inventors • explain what I want even though I don’t know the name of the thing I can write about • some gadgets and machines and their importance Grammar checklist | Can understand Can use Structures showing actions that had been done before some other actions in the past (Past Perfect Passive) Study skills Level reached poor fair good excellent How 1 can make a report How 1 participate in a group work How 1 guess meanings of words • by context • by definition • by analogy • by word building Pupil’s comments Exercise I found most interesting/enjoyable/difficult/boring \ Section / г" \ \ 1 \ 'I \ \ \ \ \ RAMMAR SUPPORT THE ARTICLE (Артикль) В английском языке многие существительные употребляются с артиклями a/an/the. ARTICLE WITH GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES (Артикль с географическими названиями) Артикль the не употребляется с названиями р континентов (South America) ^ городов (New York) ► отдельных горных вершин (Mt. Everest) ► островов (Jamaica) ^ озер (Lake Union) ► большинства стран (France, Russia) Артикль the употребляется с названиями горных цепей (the Alps) ► групп островов (the Hawaiian Islands) групп озер (the Great Lakes) - рек, каналов, заливов, проливов (the Volga, the Panama Canal, the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Gibraltar) p- пустынь (the Gobi Desert) ^ океанов и морей (the Atlantic Ocean, the Caspian Sea) ^ регионов (the Midwest) ► стран, в которые входят слова союз, федерация, королевство, штат (the UK, the USA, the Russian Federation) ^ стран, имеющих форму множественного числа (the Netherlands) ARTICLE WITH THE WORDS THAT DEFINE A POST THAT CAN BE HELD BY ONE PERSON AT A TIME (Артикль CO словами, обозначающими должность или положение, занимаемое только одним человеком) 1. Если слова president, prime minister, queen или king и т. п. используются после слов to elect и to appoint, то артикль с ними не употребляется: Clinton was elected president in 1992. (Клинтон был избран президентом в 1992 году.) 2. Если слова president, prime minister, queen или king и т. п. используются после слов to be и to become, то возможно как употребление определенного артикля, так и отсутствие артикля: Elizabeth II became (the) queen in 1952. (Елизавета II стала королевой в 1952 году.) Elizabeth II is (the) queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (Елизавета II — королева Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии.) StfPPORT 261 THE ADJECTIVE (Имя прилагательнм) Именем прилагательным называется часть речи, которая обозначает признак предмета и отвечает на вопрос какой?. THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Степени сравнения прилагательных) 1. Степени сравнения образуются следующим образом. Adjective Comparative Superlative Односложные прилагательные Заканчивающиеся на -е wide wider widest Заканчивающиеся на гласную + согласную буквы big bigger biggest Все другие young younger youngest Двусложные прилагательные Заканчивающиеся на -у happy happier happiest Некоторые другие clever cleverer cleverest Многосложные прилагательные aggressive more aggressive most aggressive less aggressive least aggressive Прилагательные, образующие степени сравнения не по правилам good better best bad worse worst far farther farthest Перед сочетанием прилагательного в превосходной степени с существительным употребляется определенный артикль. 2. При сравнении двух человек или предметов одинакового качества употребляется as ... as (такой же ... как). Не is as young as my brother. (Он такой же молодой, как мой брат.) В отрицательных структурах используется not so ... as. В данных структурах после второй части в разговорной речи может использоваться объектное местоимение (те, him, etc.). She is not so clever as him. (Она не такая умная, как он.) В официальной речи предпочтительнее структура subject + verb. She is not so clever as he is. (Она не такая умная, как он.) THE + ADJECTIVE (Субстантивированное прилагательное) Для обозначения определенных групп людей употребляется конструкция the + прилагательное. the young the injured the unemployed the disabled the rich the old the dead the homeless the elderly the sick the poor Сочетание определенного артикля с прилагательным употребляется без последующего существительного и переводится прилагательным во множественном числе: молодые, богатые, пожилые, раненые, старые, больные, безработные, мертвые, бедные, инвалиды, бездомные. Нельзя сказать а young или ап elderly. Нужно говорить а young man, ап elderly person и т. д. Следует говорить the poor (бедные), а не the poors, the sick (больные), a не the sicks и т. д. ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS (Наречия меры и степени с прилагательными) Для того чтобы усилить или ослабить значение прилагательного, используются наречия fairly, pretty, very, really, extremely и т. д. It is a pretty good film, (Это довольно хороший фильм.) It is a really interesting film. (Это действительно интересный фильм.) Некоторые прилагательные сами несут сильную положительную или отрицательную оценку, например: marvellous, outstanding, sensational, superb, terrible и другие. Такие прилагательные не могут быть использованы с наречиями very, pretty, fairly. С ними могут быть использованы наречия absolutely, extremely, totally, realty, awfully и т. д. Не is an absolutely superb actor. (Он абсолютно великолепный актер.) It is a totally dreadful film. (Это совершенно отвратительный фильм.) THE NUMERAL (Числительное) 1. Перед числительными hundred, thousand, million ставится артикль а или числительное one. а/опе thousand а) Эти числительные не принимают окончание -s, когда перед ними стоят другие числительные. two hundred eight thousand twenty-five million б) Они могут принимать окончание -s. когда выражают неопределенное количество сотен, тысяч, миллионов. AR SUPPORT I’ve told you that hundreds of times. (Я говорил это тебе сотни раз.) 2. В составных числительных перед десятками (если их нет, то перед единицами) ставится союз and. 375 three hundred and seventy-five 305 three hundred and five 2,375 tv/o thousand three hundred and seventy-five 3. Ha английский язык родительный падеж существительных после количественных числительных переводится существительным без предлога of. три тысячи подростков — three thousand teenagers 4. В дробных числительных числитель выражается количественным числительным, а знаменатель — порядковым числительным. 1/3 — а/опе third 1/8 — an/one eighth Однако 1/2 читается а/опе half, 1/4 —а/опе quarter. Когда числитель больше единицы, знаменатель принимает окончание -s. 2/3 — tv^^o-thirds 3/4 — three-quarters (реже: three-fourths) 13 3/4 — thirteen and three-quarters 5. При чтении десятичных дробей каждая цифра читается отдельно. Точка, отделяющая целое число от дроби, читается point. Нуль читается nought [no:t] (АЕ: zero). Если целое число равно нулю, то оно часто не читается. 0.1 — nought point one/point one 2.35 — two point three five 32.305 — thirty-two point three nought five 6. Per cent (процент) произошло от латинского выражения pro centum (за сто). В русском языке это выражение соединилось в одно слово и стало существительным. Оно употребляется как в единственном, так и во множественном числе. В английском языке cent не принимает окончание -s. 1 % = one per cent 20 % = twenty per cent THE VERB (Глагол) Глаголом называется часть речи, которая обозначает действие или состояние лица или предмета. ACTIVE TENSES (Видо-временные формы глаголов в действительном залоге) 1.В английском языке глаголы употребляются в различных формах в действительном залоге. Они выражают действия, относящиеся к настоящему, прошлому и будущему времени. я SUPPORT 264 а) Expressing а present meaning (Способы выражения настоящего действия) Видо-временные формы Функции Примеры Present Simple Tense Выражает обычное, регулярно повторяющееся действие в настоящем времени. On Sundays 1 go to the swimming pool. Present Progressive Tense Выражает действие, которое находится в развитии в определенный момент в настоящем. — Where is Bill? — He is playing football with his friends now. Present Perfect Progressive Tense Выражает действие, которое началось какое-то время назад и в настоящий момент еще не закончилось, а находится в развитии. 1 have been working hard today. б) Expressing а future meaning (Способы выражения будущего действия) Видо-временные формы Функции Примеры Present Simple Tense 1) Выражает будущее действие в придаточных предложениях времени и условия. 2) Выражает действие, которое произойдет в будущем в соответствии с расписанием или программой Г11 phone you when (as soon as) 1 get home. I’ll phone you if 1 get home early. The train for Moscow leaves at 10.50. Present Progressive Tense Выражает будущее действие, которое заранее спланировано и организовано. — What are you doing tonight? — 1 am going to the theatre. Оборот to be going to 1) Выражает намерение сделать что-либо в будущем. 2) Выражает будущее действие, которое можно спрогнозировать в силу существующих обстоятельств. 1 am going to repair the bike in the evening. There are dark clouds in the sky. It is going to rain. Future Simple Tense Выражает действие, которое только в момент говорения решено совершить в будущем. — Can you repair my iron? — Yes. 1 will repair it tomorrow. Future Progressive Tense Выражает действие, которое будет находиться в развитии в определенный момент в будущем. 1 will be watching TV in the evening. Future Perfect Tense Выражает действие, которое завершится к определенному моменту в будущем. He will have finished the work by Saturday. RAMMAR SUPPORT b) Expressing a past meaning (Способы выражения прошедшего действия) Видо-временные формы Функции Примеры Past Simple Tense Выражает действие, которое произошло в прошлом. 1 saw the film yesterday. Оборот used to Выражает прошедшее действие, которое уже не совершается в настоящем. — Do you go to the disco? — No, 1 have no time. But 1 used to go there when 1 was a student. Present Perfect Tense 1) Выражает завершенное действие, но не уточняется, когда оно произошло. 1 have seen the film many times. 2) Выражает завершенное действие, но промежуток времени, в который оно произошло, еще не закончился. 1 have been to St Petersburg this year. Past Perfect Tense Выражает прошедшее действие, которое произошло раньше другого прошедшего действия. When 1 came home my parents had already gone to the countryside. Past Progressive Tense Выражает действие, которое находилось в развитии в определенный момент 8 прошлом. When 1 came home my parents were watching TV. Past Perfect Progressive Tense Выражает действие, которое началось в прошлом и еще не закончилось к определенному моменту в прошлом, а находилось в развитии. He was tired. Me had been working hard. Would + V Выражает повторяющиеся действия в прошлом. In my childhood we would celebrate Thanksgivings on the farm. г) WOULD Для выражения повторяющихся действий в прошлом употребляется would + infinitive со всеми лицами единственного и множественного числа. Глагол would в этом случае приближается по значению к used to и переводится бывало. When Rusty lived in America her family and she would spend time in their summer cottage. (Когда Расти жила в Америке, ее семья и она, бывало, проводили время в летнем коттедже.) Следует иметь в виду, что в разговорной речи used to употребляется гораздо чаще, чем would. 266 PASSIVE TENSES (Видо-временные формы глаголов в страдательном залоге) Пассивный залог образуется с помощью глагола to be в соответствующей временной форме и причастия основного глагола. TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE Tenses in Passive Voice Видо-временные формы глаголов в страдательном залоге Structures Структуры Examples Примеры Present Simple Tense am/is/are + V3 Inventions are made in different countries. (Изобретения создаются в разных странах.) Present Progressive Tense am/is/are being + V3 Look! An experiment Is being made in here. (Посмотри! Здесь проводится какой-то эксперимент.) Past Simple Tense was/were + V3 Dynamite was discovered by Alfred Nobel in 1867. (Динамит был открыт Альфредом Нобелем в 1867 году.) Past Progressive Tense was/were being + V3 While Т. Edison was experimenting with his apparatus he was being watched by his assistants. (B to время как Т. Эдисон экспериментировал со своим аппаратом, его ассистенты наблюдали за ним.) Present Perfect Tense has/have been + V3 А lot of inventions have been made in the 21st century. (Много изобретений было сделано в 21 веке.) Past Perfect Tense had been + V3 The first gas stove had been made long before the first electric stove appeared. (Первая газовая плита была создана задолго до появления электроплиты.) Future Simple Tense will be + V3 Soon computers will be used in most institutions. (B скором времени компьютеры будут использоваться в большинстве учреждений.) Future Perfect Tense will have been + V3 By next year this program will have been developed. (K следующему году эта программа будет разработана.) 267 PAST PERFECT PASSIVE (Прошедшее совершенное время в страдательном залоге) 1. Для описания событий или действий, которые были совершены до определенного действия или момента в прошлом, используется Past Perfect Passive. Past Perfect Passive образуется c помощью had been + past participle основного глагола. In 1945 A. Fleming got the Nobel Prize for penicillin which had been discovered by him in 1928. By the end of the 19th century famous KODAK camera had been created in the USA. 2. В предложении со сказуемым-глаголом в действительном залоге дополнение соответствует подлежащему в предложении со сказуемым-глаголом в страдательном залоге. Past Perfect Active Предложение со сказуемым-глаголом в действительном залоге By 1928 penicillin (подлежащее) had been discovered by Alexander Fleming. Past Perfect Passive Предложение со сказуемым-глаголом в страдательном залоге By 1928 Alexander Fleming had discovered penicillin (дополнение). Для того чтобы указать исполнителя действия, можно использовать косвенное дополнение, выраженное существительным с предлогом by. 3. Для того чтобы показать, что какое-либо действие было полностью завершено, используется Past Perfect Passive в придаточных предложениях после союзов when/after. When the apparatus had been built, T. Edison started experimenting with It. (Когда аппарат был построен, Т Эдисон начал проводить с ним эксперименты.) After the apparatus had been built, T. Edison started experimenting with it. (После того как аппарат был построен, Т Эдисон начал проводить с ним эксперименты.) MODAL VERBS (Модальные глаголы) 1. Модальные глаголы выражают не действие, а отношение к нему, а именно: обозначают возможность, способность, вероятность, необходимость совершения действия, выраженного смысловым глаголом. Инфинитив, следующий за модальными глаголами сап, could, may, might, shall, should, had better, must, употребляется без частицы to. Инфинитив, следующий за модальными глаголами have, have got, ought, употребляется q частицей to. RAMMAR SUPPORT Модальные глаголы Функции Примеры Сап. could Выражают возможность или способность совершить действие. 1 сап swim. (Я могу (умею) плавать.) Му grandfather couldn’t swim. (Мой дедушка не мог (не умел) плавать.) May, might Выражают возможность совершить действие. Не may (might) come to my place. i (Oh может прийти ко мне.) May, can Выражают разрешение совершить действие. You can (may) use my telephone if . you want. ] (Вы можете воспользоваться моим телефоном, если хотите.) Must Вырс1жает осознанную говорящим необходимость совершить действие. 1 must visit my grandmother. 1 haven’t i seen her for ages. 1 (Я должен побывать у бабушки. Я сто Н лет ее не видел.) 3 Must not Выражает запрещение совершать действие. You must not (mustn’t) tell anybody Щ about it. |l (Ты не должен никому об этом рас- ■ сказывать.) 1 Have to Выражает необходимость совершить действие в силу определенных обстоятельств. 1 have so much to do. 1 have to work 1 late every day. ^ 1 (У меня так много работы. Мне при- 1 ходится (я должен) работать допоздна 1 каждый день.) ■ Should Выражает совет совершить действие. You should not (shouldn’t) work so hard. Щ (Тебе не следует так усиленно рабо- П тать.) Ц Needn’t Выражает отсутствие необходимости совершать действие. You needn’t apologise. 1 (Вам не надо извиняться.) 1 Shall Выражает обязанность или обязательство совершать действие в силу установленных законов или договоренностей. Every citizen shall have the right to use 1 his or her native language, (an article Щ from a constitution) Ш (Каждый гражданин должен иметь пра- Ш во использовать свой родной язык.)Я {статья из конституции) Я 2. Should Выражает совет совершить действие. Используется, когда в предложени!^ говорится о том, что правильно или целесообразно поступить так, а не иначе] В соответствующем русском предложении используется сочетание глаголо^ должен и следует с инфинитивом. RAMMAR SUPPORT A politician should not jump to a conclusion. (Политику не следует делать поспешных выводов./Политик не должен делать поспешных выводов.) 3. Shall с местоимениями you/he/she/it/they Выражает обязанность или обязательство совершать действие в силу установленных законов или договоренностей и используется в официальных документах (контрактах, юридических документах). В соответствующем русском предложении употребляется сочетание глагола должен с инфинитивом. No one shall inform about the private life of any citizen. (Никто не должен давать информацию о личной жизни любого гражданина.) AUXILIARY VERBS WITHOUT MAIN VERBS (Вспомогательные глаголы) 1.При выражении сходного мнения о чем-либо в кратких ответах используются вспомогательные глаголы. I like reading. (Я люблю читать.) So do I. (И я тоже {люблю).) — I сапЧ sing. (Я не умею петь.) — Neither сап I. (И я тоже (не умею).) 2. Для выражения удивления, если мнение отличается от предыдущего, используются вспомогательные глаголы в кратких вопросах и ответах. — I like reading. (Я люблю читать.) — 1 can’t sing. (Я не умею петь.) -- Do you? I don’t. (A я нет.) — Can’t you? I can. (A я умею.) 3. При выражении сходного мнения с утвердительным предложением употребляется so, с отрицательным neither. — I like it. — I don’t like it. — So do I. (И я тоже (люблю).) — Neither do I. (И я тоже (не люблю).) После so и neither употребляется особый порядок слов: вспомогательный глагол стоит перед подлежащим. — I don’t like reading. — Neither do /. — I like reading. — So do /. В кратком ответе употребляется тот же вспомогательный глагол, что и в предыдущем предложении. Если в предложении нет вспомогательного глагола, в кратком ответе употребляется глагол do. — I can’t stand it. I don’t like it. — I like it. — Neither can I. — Neither do I. — So do I. COMPLEX OBJECT (Verb + Object + Infinitive) (Сложите дополнение) В английском языке для выражения желания (want, wish, would like), приказания (order, make, force), просьбы (ask), совета (advise, recommend, persuade), разрешения (allow, permit, let), запрещения (forbid), a также предполо- 270 жения (expect, suppose) по отношению к другому лицу используется структура Object + Infinitive. Не asked John to help him. (Он попросил Джона помочь ему.) Эта структура в предложении выполняет функцию сложного дополнения (Complex Object) и представляет собой сочетание местоимения в объектном падеже или существительного с неопределенной формой глагола (Infinitive). John’s father never allov^s him to stay out late. (Отец Джона не разрешает ему возвращаться домой поздно.) После глаголов таке, let неопределенная форма глагола в структуре Object + Infinitive употребляется без частицы to. Му parents don’t Ы me wear jeans. (= don’t allow me to wear) (Мои родители не разрешают мне носить джинсы.) These clothes make me feel uncomfortable. (= cause me to fee!) (Эта одежда доставляет мне чувство неудобства.) В русском языке нет оборота, соответствующего данной структуре, и обычно она переводится на русский язык дополнительным придаточным предложением. Му mom wants me to study further. (Моя мама хочет, чтобы я продолжил (а) образование.) We expected you to come back earlier. (Мы ожидали, что вы вернетесь раньше.) REPORTED SPEECH (Косвенная речь) Для передачи чужой речи в английском языке служит косвенная речь. Не says, ‘I am well today.’ (прямая речь) (Он сказал: «Я хорошо себя чувствую сегодня».) Не says that he is well today, (косвенная речь) (Он сказал, что он хорошо себя чувствует сегодня.) 1. Личные и указательные местоимения заменяются в косвенной речи по смыслу, как и в русском языке. She said, ‘I like it here.’ She said that she liked it there. 2. Наиболее часто при переводе прямой речи в косвенную используются глаголы say, tell, think, explain, admit и др. 3. Если глагол, вводящий косвенную речь, стоит в настоящем времени, то форма глагола, передающего прямую речь, не изменяется. She says, *Му friend was having a She says that her friend was having great time in New York.’ a great time in New York. (Она говорит: «Моя подруга замена- (Она говорит, что ее подруга замечательно провела время в Нью-Йорке».) тельно провела время в Нью-Йорке.) AR SUPPORT 271 4. При использовании косвенной речи особое внимание следует обращать на изменение формы глагола, если глагол, вводящий косвенную речь, стоит в прошедшем времени. прямая речь Косвенная речь /. Present Tenses 1. Present Simple He said, ‘1 get up at 8 o’clock.’ (Oh сказал: «Я просыпаюсь в 8 часов».) 1. Past Simple Не said that he got up at 8 o’clock. (Oh сказал, что просыпается в 8 часов.) 2. Present Progressive He said, '1 am reading a newspaper.’ (Oh сказал: «Я читаю газету».) 2. Past Progressive Не said that he was reading a newspaper. (Oh сказал, что читает газету.) Не said, ‘1 have spoken to the teacher.’ (Oh сказал: «Я поговорил с учителем».) 3. Past Perfect He said that he had spoken to the teacher (Oh сказал, что поговорил с учителем.) 4. Present Perfect Progressive ^ He said, ‘1 have been waiting for you since 10 o’clock.’ (Oh сказал: «Я жду вас с 10 часов».) 4. Past Perfect Progressive He said that he had been waiting for me since 10 o’clock. (Oh сказал, что ждет меня с 10 часов.) //. Past Tenses 1. Past Simple He said, ‘1 had 6 lessons.’ (Oh сказал: «У меня было 6 уроков».) 1. Past Perfect Не said that he had had 6 lessons. (Oh сказал, что у него было 6 уроков.) 2. Past Progressive He said, ‘1 was working at 2 o’clock.’ (Oh сказал: «В 2 часа я работал».) 2. Past Perfect Progressive Не said that he had been working at 2 o’clock. (Oh сказал, что в 2 часа он работал.) 3. Past Perfect : v Ii-t:. Vx He said, ‘We had finished our work by 4 o’clock.’ (Oh сказал: «Мы закончили работу к 4 часам».) 3. Past Perfect Не said that they had finished their work by 4 o’clock. (Oh сказал, что они закончили работу к (4 часам.) ///. Future Tenses 1. Future Simple -He said, We will sign the documents in the evening.’ (Oh сказал: «Мы подпишем документы вечером».) 1. Future-in-the-Past Не said that they would sign the documents in the evening. (Oh сказал, что они подпишут документы вечером.) 2. Future Perfect He said, We will have finished the work by 5 o’clock.’ (Oh сказал: «Мы закончим работу к 5 часам».) ■2. Future-in-the-Past Perfect Не said that they would have finished the work by 5 o’clock. (Oh сказан, что они закончат работу к 5 часам.) RAMMAR SUPPORT M 5. Можно не изменять форму сказуемого, если в предложении говорится о действии или событии, которые являются общеизвестной истиной или все еще актуальны. The earth goes round the sun. (Земля вращается вокруг Солнца.) Galileo proved that the earth goes round the sun. (Галилей доказал, что Земля вращается вокруг Солнца.) 6. Наречия времени и места в косвенной речи изменяются следующим образом. Прямая речь Косвенная речь today ------- yesterday---- tomorrow----- two days ago last week---- next month — three years ago -► -► “► that day the day before the following day two days before the week before the following month three years before He said, M went to London yesterday.' (Oh сказал: «Я ездил в Лондон вчера».) Не said that he went to London the day before. (Oh сказал, что ездил в Лондон накануне.) 7. Если прямая речь является вопросительным предложением, то в косвенной речи она становится косвенным вопросом. a) Если в косвенной речи передается общий вопрос, то он присоединяется к словам автора при помощи союзов if и whether и имеет прямой порядок слов. Не asks, ‘Is it possible to buy a package tour to London?’ He asks if it Is possible to buy a package tour to London. 6) Специальный вопрос присоединяется к словам автора при помощи того вопросительного слова, которое используется в прямом вопросе. Не asked, ‘What language do Australian people speak?’ He asked what language Australian people speak. b) Если прямой вопрос содержит глагол to be, то порядок слов в косвенном вопросе строго не соблюдается. Where is the station? Could you tell me where the station is, please? Could you tell me where is the station, please? r) Когда спрашивают о чем-то в более вежливой форме, употребляют вопросительные предложения, начинающиеся с Do you know..., Can/Could you tell me— Вопросы, которые следуют за такими фразами, имеют прямой порядок слов Сравните: \ Where does Ann live? Do you know where Ann lives? РИШ'Ш 8. Когда прямая речь представляет собой повелительное предложение, то глагол в повелительном наклонении заменяется инфинитивом. Не invited me, ‘Come to my place.’ The doctor advised me, ‘Don’t smoke.’ He invited me to come to his place. The doctor advised me not to smoke. CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONS (Причинно-следственные связи) 1. Когда указывается причина каких-то событий, действий, явлений, используются следующие союзы и выражения. а) Союз because {потому что), который соединяет придаточное предложение с главным. We didn’t go to the countryside because it was raining. (Мы не поехали за город, потому что шел дождь.) Когда большее внимание обращается на причину, по которой кто-то совершает какое-то действие или из-за которой что-то происходит, придаточное предложение ставится перед главным и тогда союз because переводится как так как. Because Australia is situated south of the Equator, the seasons are the other way round there. (Так как Австралия находится к югу от экватора, времена года там следуют в обратном порядке.) б) Выражения thanks to (the fact that) (благодаря (тому, что), due to (the fact that) (из-за, благодаря (тому, что), за которыми могут следовать как отдельные фразы, так и придаточные предложения. Thanks to its geographical position Australia is called the Land Down Under. (Благодаря географическому положению Австралию называют страной на другом конце света.) Thanks to the fact that Australia is situated south of the Equator it is sometimes called the Land Down Under. (Благодаря тому, что Австралия находится к югу от экватора, ее иногда называют страной на другом конце света.) Due to а mild climate it is never very cold or very hot in Britain. (Из-за мягкого климата погода в Британии не бывает ни очень холодной, ни очень жаркой.) It is never very cold or very hot in Britain due to the fact that it has a mild climate. (B Британии не бывает ни очень холодно, ни очень жарко из-за того, что там мягкий климат.) 2. Если показывается следствие каких-то событий, действий, явлений, используются следующие союзы и выражения. а) Союз so that (так что, таким образом). В разговорной речи часто употребляются so и and so. Most of Australia is covered by four Great Deserts, so life is not easy there. (Большая часть Австралии покрыта четырьмя Великими пустынями, так что жизнь там не легкая.) 274 б) Выражение that’s why (поэтому). Australia is cut off from the rest of the world, that’s why its wildlife is so unique. (Австралия отрезана от всего мира, поэтому ее растительный и животный мир такой уникальный.) So и that’s why могут стоять в начале самостоятельного предложения. Most of Australia is covered by four Great Deserts. So life is not easy there. Australia is cut off from the rest of the world. That’s why its wildlife is so unique. CONJUMCTIOniS AND PREPOSITIONS (Союзы и предлоги) Conjunctions while and whereas 1. Для того чтобы уравновесить два факта или идеи, которые контрастируют, но не противоречат друг другу, употребляются союзы while и whereas (s то время как). Some elder people like living Independent lives, while/whereas some others prefer living at homes for elderly people. (Некоторые пожилые люди любят жить своей независимой жизнью, в то время как другие предпочитают жить в домах для престарелых.) 2. Придаточные предложения с союзами while и whereas могут употребляться как после главного предложения, так и перед ним. И в том и в другом случае придаточное предложение отделяется от главного предложения запятой, так же как и в русском языке. While/whereas some elder people like living independent lives, some others prefer living at homes for elderly people. Conjunctions although and though 1. Для того чтобы сказать, что одно из двух явлений существует вопреки наличию другого, используются сложноподчиненные предложения с придаточными уступительными, вводящимися союзами although/though (хотя, даже если). Although Bert Baxter was rather old, he decided to get married. (Хотя Берт Бакстер был довольно стар, он (все же) решил жениться.) 2. Придаточные предложения с союзами although/though могут употребляться как после главного предложения, так и перед ним. В первом и втором случаях придаточное предложение отделяется от главного предложения запятой. Bert Baxter decided to get married, although he was rather old. (Берт Бакстер решил жениться, хотя он был уже довольно стар.) 3. Though чаще используется в разговорной речи. В разговорной речи though можно также использовать в конце предложения. The home for elderly people is not very good. She liked her stay there, though. (But she liked her stay there.) 275 Prepositions in spite of/despite 1. Для того чтобы указать на то, что одно из двух явлений существует вопреки наличию другого, используются предлоги in spite of/despite {несмотря на то, что; вопреки), которые также имеют значение уступительности. После предлогов in spite of/despite обычно используются существительное (а noun), местоимение (а pronoun — what/that/this ...) или причастие настоящего времени (V + ing). Despite his old age Bert Baxter decided to get married. (Несмотря на свой преклонный возраст, Берт Бакстер решил жениться.) Bert Baxter was rather old, but in spite of this he decided to get married. (Берт Бакстер был довольно стар, но несмотря на это он (все же) решил жениться.) Bert Baxter didn’t have anyone to look after him in spite of having four daughters. (3a Бертом Бакстером некому было ухаживать несмотря на то, что у него было четыре дочери.) 2. Употребление despite по сравнению с in spite of более характерно для формальной речи, нежели для разговорной. 3. Предлоги in spite of и despite имеют практически одно и то же значение. Следует говорить in spite of, но despite (без of). In spite of this he lived at the home for elderly people. (Несмотря на это, он жил в доме для престарелых.) 4. Можно также использовать такие сочетания с предлогами: in spite of the fact (that)... и despite the fact (that)... . He didn’t receive a child benefit^ in spite of the fact (that) he was entitled to it. ^ despite the fact (that) he was entitled to it. (Oh не получал детское пособие несмотря на то, что оно ему полагалось.) 5. Сочетания in spite of + noun/pronoun/V + ing означают примерно то же, что и сложноподчиненные предложения с придаточными, вводимыми союзом although. Сравните: Although he was old, Despite being old----------Bert Baxter drank and smoked a lot. In spite of being old (Хотя OH был стар/Несмотря на свой преклонный возраст, Берт Бакстер пил и много курил.) Preposition because of Для того чтобы указать причину того или иного действия, используется предлог because of (из-за, по причине). Предлог because of используется перед существительным или местоимением. Не retired because of his age. (Oh ушел в отставку по возрасту (из-за возраста).) ШШЛАЙ SUPPORT Ш Prepositions in spite of and because of Предлоги in spite of и because of противоположны no значению. Сравните: He didn't retire in spite of (despite) his old age. (Oh не ушел на пенсию, несмотря на преклонный возраст.) Не retired because of his old age. (Oh ушел на пенсию из-за своего преклонного возраста.) LIKE AND AS (Предлог like и союз as) Для того чтобы указать, что люди, предметы, действия или события похожи, используются структуры с like или as. 1. Like — это предлог, поэтому like используется перед именем существительным или местоимением. Не was а hippie like all his friends. (Oh был хиппи, как и все его друзья.) 2. As — это союз, поэтому as используется перед придаточным предложением. Russian teenagers prefer bright clothes nowadays as British teens do. (Российские подростки предпочитают яркую одежду, как и британские подростки.) 3. As также используется, чтобы сообщить, какую роль или функцию выполняет человек или предмет: какую профессию имеет человек, для какой цели использу-' ется предмет, к какой категории они принадлежат. ] They worked as guards. (Они работали охранниками.) EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES (Восклицательные предложения) 1 Восклицательные предложения используются для выражения каких-либо сильных чувств: радости, печали, восторга, страха и т, д. What а marvellous play! (Какая чудесная пьеса!) How beautiful! (Как красиво!) Восклицательные предложения начинаются с местоимения what {какой, что за) или наречия how (как), за которыми следуют существительное (с относящимися к нему прилагательными) или наречие с прилагательным. How + Adjective! How wonderful! (Как замечательно!) What + Adjective + Noun! What a boring film! (Какой скучный фильм!) г В восклицательных предложениях сохраняется порядок слов повествователь-^ ного предложения. '\RAMMAR SUPPORT 277 What + Adjective + Object + Subject + Verb! What a wonderful film we saw yesterday! (Какой замечательный фильм мы смотрели вчера!) How + Adverb + Subject + Verb! How terribly he sings! ' (Как ужасно он noei!) В восклицательных предложениях, начинающихся с what, перед именами существительными в единственном числе употребляется неопределенный артикль а (ап). What а talented actor! (Какой талантливый актер!) Артикль не употребляется перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе и перед неисчисляемыми существительными. What talented actors! (Какие талантливые актеры!) What wonderful time we had! (Какое замечательное мы провели время!) EMPHATIC SENTENCES (Эмфатические предложения) 1. Чтобы подчеркнуть значимость действия, о котором идет речь в предложении, используются эмфатические конструкции. Для этого в предложении используется вспомогательный глагол, соответствующий данной видо-временной форме. После вспомогательного глагола используется начальная форма смыслового глагола. I love theatre. (Я люблю театр.) I enjoyed the performance yesterday. (Я наслаждался вчерашним представлением.) Не likes it. (Он любит это.) I do love theatre. (Я ЛЮБЛЮ театр.) I did enjoy the performance yesterday. (Я НАСЛАЖДАЛСЯ вчерашним представлением.) Не does like it. (Он ЛЮБИТ это.) 2. Если в предложении уже есть вспомогательный глагол, то в эмфатическом предложении он становится ударным, второй вспомогательный глагол не добавляется. She has already done it. She HAS already done it. 278 Adam ['eedamj Адам (in the Bible) the first man created by God from the dust. With Eve he lived in the Garden of Eden until they disobeyed (ослушались) God by eating the fruit of the Tree of Knovy/ledge, for which God expelled (изгнал) them into the world. AIDS [eidz] (also Aids) (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) СПИД a very serious disease caused by a virus which breaks down the body’s natural defence against infections. allowance (yiausnsj child allowance (also child benefit) детское пособие a weekly allowance is paid in respect of every child, whatever the parents’ income may be. There are also special allowances for single parents, payable on proof of need. But in 1987 and 1988 the general children’s allowance was not increased to keep up with inflation, so its real value declined. There were signs that the Government was considering the possibility of ending the unconditional allowances for children, on the ground that money handed out to rich parents would be better spent on increased payments to the poor. Several benefits for children were ended long ago, such as free milk and orange juice. In the 1980s children had to pay more for lunch at school, and for school buses, unless their parents had very low incomes. alternative [э:Г1з:пэиу| альтернативный anything different or non-traditional. The term appeared in the 1980s. Australia’s coat of arms, the lo'streiliaz ,кэш 3v 'a;mz] герб Австралии Australia’s native animals and plants are on the country’s coat of arms: the kangaroo [Даеодэ'ш:] and the emu ['i:mju:| and a twig of wattle ['wml] (веточка акации). Benson and Hedges [,bensn and 'hecfeiz] «Бенсон энд Хеджез» (a British company which makes) a kind of cigarette. Berry [Ъеп], Chuck (1926- ) Чак Берри ‘rhythm and blues’ black musician. His energy, guitar style and humour were all of important influence on later rock’n’roll stars. Big Ben |,big 'ben) Биг Бэн the bell that strikes the hours inside the great clock of the Houses of Parliament (see Houses of Parliament, the) in London. bill of rights [,bil av 'raits] билль о правах a statement of basic human rights. In British history, the Bill of Rights of 1689 was concerned with establishing Parliament as the most important power In government and making William and Mary constitutional monarchs. The American Bill of Rights, passed in 1791, forms the first ten amendments (поправок) of the Constitution (see US Constitution, the) of the USA. They are concerned with the rights of the citizens, the States and the federal government. AND CULTURAL GUIDE Bolshoi Theatre, the [,bDlJoi '0i9t3| Большой театр theatre of opera and ballet in Moscow, one of the biggest centres of the world musical culture. It was founded in 1776. At present it is situated in the building built by the architect O. Bovet In 1825. Bombay [,bDm'bei| Бомбей the largest city in India. British constitution, the [,britij ,kDnsti'tju:Jn| Британская конституция the British constitution is often called the unwritten constitution because, unlike the constitutions of most other countries, it is not set out in a single document. It is made up of a combination of laws and conventions. Conventions are rules and practices which are not legally enforceable (под угрозой применить силу), but which are regarded as vital (жизненно важные) to the working government. British Empire, the [,bnti/ 'empaioj Британская империя Great Britain and its colonies that united one-fourth of the world population. The territory of the Empire was so large that the British said, “The sun never sets on the British Empire.” Officially the name came into use in the 1870s. The British Empire seized to exist (прекратила свое существование) in the 20th century. The United Kingdom and its former (бывшие) colonies formed the Commonwealth of Nations (see Commonwealth of Nations, the). broadsheet 1'Ьго:с1Дч| широкополосный something (such as a newspaper or advertisement) printed on a large sheet of paper. Broadway ['broidwei) Бродвей major avenue in New York running from the tip of Manhattan NW and crossing Times Square at 42nd Street, at the heart of the theatre district where Broadway is known as ‘the Great White Way’. New York theatres situated outside this area are described as off-Broadway, those even smaller and farther away are off-off Broadway. Bronx, the [brooks] Бронкс a county, and one of the five boroughs of New York City. The Bronx is a poor area of New York, but contains the zoo. BUPA ['bu:p3j (British United Provident Association) Объединенная Британская Ассоциация частного медицинского страхования the largest private health insurance company. It was formed in 1945. About three million people, 5 per cent of the population, use BUPA. Burbage |'b3:bi(fe|, Richard (1567-1619) Ричард Бербич an English actor. He is thought to have been Shakespeare’s original Hamlet, Othello, and Lear. His father James Burbage (1530-1597) built the first English playhouse, known as ‘the Theatre’. Bykov ['ЫкэП, Rolan Anatolyevich (1929-1998) Ролан Анатольевич Быков a Russian actor and director well-known for his films for children. Among them are INGUISTfC AND CULTURAL GUIDE Wi Attention! The Tortoise (1970, the first Prize of Moscow Film Festival in 1971), A Car, a Violin and Dog Klyaksa (1975), Chuchelo (1984) and others. Canadian flag, the [ko,ncidi3n 'Пгед| флаг Канады Canada is situated between the two oceans and the red stripes on the flag symbolise the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The white colour reminds of the arctic snow in the north of the country, the maple leaf — of its forests. Cannes [ksen] Film Festival Каннский фестиваль an international film festival. It has been held since 1946 every year in April or May. The first prize of the festival is The Big Palm Branch’. Capitol, the I'kiepitl] Капитолий the building in Washington, where the United States Congress meets. Cats (kaetsl the musical written by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on the book by TS. Eliot Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats. It is about the life от cats that love and suffer like people. Celtic cross [,seltik 'kros] кельтский крест cross with a circle around the central crossing point of the two arms. Chaplin ['tfaeplmj, Charlie (Charles Spencer) (1889-1977) Чарли Чаплин an English film actor and director. He made his reputation as a tramp with a small black moustache, bowler hat, and twirling cane in silent comedies from the mid-1910s, including The Rink (1916), The Kid (1920), and The Gold Rush (1925). Chemical Brothers, the [,kemikl Ъглдэг] Кемикал Бразерз a popular British group. Music style is techno. Christie ['knsti], Agatha ('аедэОэ] (1890-1976) Агата Кристи an English detective novelist who created the characters of Hercule Poirot and Miss Jane Marple. She wrote more than 70 novels including The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (1926) and Ten Little Indians (1939). Chunnel, the ['тГлп1] = Channel Tunnel туннель под Ламаншем a tunnel linking Britain and France under the English Channel. Churchill I'tfsitfil], Sir Winston ['winstn] (1874-1965) сэр Уинстон Черчилль an English statesman, who held several ministerial posts between 1911 and 1929. After warning of the threat (угрозы) of German military expansion in the 1930s, he became First Lord of the Admiralty, and then Conservative party Prime Minister and war leader in May 1940. A powerful orator, he symbolised British resistance (сопротивление) during the war, and served until 1945, when he was defeated (потерпел поражение) In the general (всеобщие) election. He served again as Prime Minister from 1951 to 1955. He also wrote several books on history, and was awarded the Nobel prize (see Nobel prize, the) for literature. fNGUiSTfC AND CULTURAL GUIDE 281 Clash, the [klaeJl Клэш one of the most popular British punk music groups formed in the 1970s whose success continued even when punk went out of fashion. Cleopatra [,к1Ь'рэеГгэ1 Клеопатра (68-30 ВС) a Queen of Egypt famous for her beauty. Clinton ['klintan), Bill (William Jefferson) (1946- ) Билл Клинтон the 42nd President of the USA from 1992 to 2001, a Democrat. Cockney I'kokni] кокни dialect spoken by Cockneys. Cold War, the the political struggle between the USA and the Soviet Union after the Second World War, which was most severe in the 1950s but in the 1970s gave way to detente (разрядка международной напряженности). It is considered to be over. Columbia Pictures [кэЛлтЫэ 'piktfaz] Коламбиа Пикчерз a US film production and distribution company founded In 1924. It grew out of a smaller company founded in 1920 by Harry Cohn, Columbia became a major studio by the 1940s. coming of age [,кл1тшэ 3v 'eicfe] совершеннолетие the 18th birthday of a person, when they become legally an adult. At 18 British people are allowed to vote in election, get married without the permission of their parents, and buy and drink alcohol in a pub. In the US, either the 18th or 21st birthday might be thought of as a coming of age; at 18 people are allowed to vote and get married, but in many states you cannot buy alcohol until you are 21. Commonwealth of Nations, the |,komdnwel0 9v 'neijnz] Содружество Наций the association that consists of the United Kingdom and various independent states (previously subject to Great Britain) and dependencies (зависимые страны). There are currently 49 members. The reigning (царствующий) British monarch is recognised as the head of the Commonwealth and its leaders meet for a conference every two years. Confederate flag, the [k^njedrit 'flseg] флаг Конфедерации the flag of the Confederacy (the southern states that fought and lost against the northern states in the American Civil War). Today it is still used and is generally thought to stand for racism against blacks. Connecticut Ika'netikat] Коннектикут a state on the east coast of the USA, one of the smallest in the country. It was one of the 13 original states. Although it has modern industry, much of it is still covered by forest. Connery ('копэп], Sean [fo:n] (1930- ) Шон Коннери a Scottish film actor. He Is famous esp. for playing the character of James Bond in several films. AND CULTURAL GUIDE Cromwell ['kromwel], Oliver ['nlivdl (1599-1658) Оливер Кромвель an English general and politician. He was a Puritan and member of Parliament and became the leader of the Parliamentarian army in the English Civil War. After the trial and execution (казнь) of Charles I he continued to crush the opposition in Ireland and the Scottish supporters of Charles II with considerable cruelty (жестокость). In 1653 he dissolved Parliament, took the title of Lord Protector of England and ruled the country as a virtual (фактический) dictator until his death. Dargomyzhski [dArg^'misski], Alexandr Sergeevich (1813-1869) Александр Cepre-; евич Даргомыжский a Russian composer. His best works are Stone Guest] (1872, finished by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov and I Kui) and Esmeralda (1841). DiCapho [di'kaeprouj, Leonardo (1974- ) Леонардо Ди Каприо a US film actor] famous for his roles in Romeo and Juliet and Titanic. Dickens ('dikinz], Charles (1812-1870) Чарльз Диккенс an English novelist whose! high reputation rests on his creation of a range of memorable and often odd] characters (e.g. Scrooge and Mr Pickwick), on his descriptions of the bad con-j ditions in which poor people lived in the 19th-century Britain (which helped to] bring about social reforms), and perhaps above on his ability as a storyteller to] make his readers laugh and cry. His novels include The Pickwick Papers, David] Copperfield, Oliver Twist, Bleak House, Great Expectations and others. Dicken^ was very popular during his lifetime, and frequently he gave public readings from] his books. Disney ['diznij, Walt(er) Elias (1901-1966) Уолт Дисней a US film maker and ani? mator, a pioneer of family entertainment. He established his own studio im Hollywood in 1923, and his first Mickey Mouse cartoons appeared in 1928. Irv addition to short cartoons, the studio made feature-length animated films, includ;1 ing Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1938), Pinocchio (1940), and Dumb^ (1941). Disney's cartoon figures, for example Donald Duck, also appeared in] comic books worldwide. In 1955, Disney opened the first theme park, Disneyland] in California. Domingo (da'miggau), Placido ['plaesidsu) (1941- ) Пласидо Доминго an outstand-* ing Spanish singer, tenor (see tenor). Doyle [dDilJ, Sir Arthur Conan (1859-1930) Конан Дойл a British writei', the uie-1 ator of the detective Sherlock Holmes and his assistant Dr Watson, who featured] in a number of stories, including The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902). driving licence ['draivig ,laisns| водительские права BE 11 driver’s license AE —J a paper giving official permission to drive a motor vehicle, given after success] in a driving test. In Britain, a person can get a driving licence at the age of 17. In the US, the age is 15 or 16, depending on the state. Most people in Britain] learn through taking driving lessons from a private instructor, but in the US many] people learn to drive at school. шситю AND CULTURAL GUIDE ecstasy ('ekstssi] экстази illegal drug in increasing use from the 1980s. Ecstasy was first synthesised in 1914 by the Merck pharmaceutical company in Germany, and was one of the eight psychedelics tested by the US army in 1953, but was forgotten until the mid-1970s. education [,edju'keijnl образование schools in Britain are of two types: state schools, which charge no fees, and independent (or private) schools, which are fee-paying. State schools are funded by the government through the Local Education Authority (LEA) (see also allowance and Thatcher, Margaret). Eisenhower ['aiznhaus], Dwight David (1890-1969) Дуайт Эйзенхауэр the president of the US from 1953 to 1961. He was a general in the American army during the Second World War. Eisenstein ['aiznstain], Sergei Mikhailovich (1898-1948) Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн a Russian film director, screenwriter, theorist of art, Honoured Art Worker (1935), Professor of Art. His films, articles, scripts determined the development of cinematography all over the world. Elizabethan [i,hz9'bi:0n] елизаветинский (an English person) of or living in the period of Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603). family allowance (in the story = child benefit) детское пособие the main social security payment for children, paid tax free and usually to the mother; family credit is paid to families with children who have very low incomes. It is paid In addition to child benefit. Florida ['flonda) Флорида Florida’s nicknames are the Alligator State (because numerous alligators are found in its various streams and swamps (болото); the Everglade State (because vast numbers of everglades (болотистая низменность) are prevalent throughout the greater part of the state); the Flower State or the Land of Flowers; the Mocking Bird State (from birds having an aptitude for mimicry (имитирование) and found chiefly in the eastern and southern parts of the USA; the Orange State (because it has great number of orange groves, in which it competes with California). flying doctor [,flani] 'doktal service, the (in Australia and other countries) санитарная авиация a doctor who goes by aircraft to visit the sick in distant lonely places, in answer to radio messages. formal language [,Гэ:т1 'laeggwicfel формальная речь this type of speech may be used, for example, at official functions, and in debates and ceremonies. Friends of the Earth [,frendz 9v дэ 'з:0] Друзья Земли an environmental pressure group. Founded in the UK in 1971. The aim of the group is to protect the environment. The main concerns are air, sea, river, and land pollution; recycling, etc. FoE has branches in 30 countries. ШСШСТ/С AND CULTURAL GIMDE 284 frontier, the [Тглтю] граница the border between settled and wild country, esp. that in the US in the past. The American frontier — an imaginary line dividing areas with more than two people per square mile from those with fewer. As people acquired new territories, it was moving from east to west and in 1890 it was finally and officially declared ‘closed’. Gable Tgeibll, (William) Clark (1901-1960) Кларк Гейбл an American film actor. A star for more than 30 years in 90 films, he was celebrated for his romantic roles such as Rhett Butler in Gone with the Wind (1939). Gaidai [gai'dai], Leonid lovich (1923-1993) Леонид Иович Гайдай a Russian film director. People’s Artist of the USSR (1989). He is famous for his comedies The Caucasian Prisoner (1967), The Diamond Arm (1969), Ivan Vasilyevich Changes His Job (1973) and others. GDP, the [,c^i: di: 'pi:] (the Gross Domestic Product) валовой национальный ДОХОД. Glinka ['gliQkaj, Mikhail Ivanovich (1804-1857) Михаил Иванович Глинка a Russian composer, he is considered to be a founder of the Russian national symphonic music. His most famous operas are Ruslan and Ludmilla (1842). Ivan Susanin (1836). Goliath [gs'laiaG] Голиаф Goliath was a Philistine giant, according to legend killed by the boy David (later King of Israel in the 10th century BC). Good Golly Miss Molly a song by Little Richard (1957) (see Little Richard). 4 OP [,(fei: 'pi:| (general practitioner) терапевт, семейный доктор a doctor in general medicine (a family doctor). There are about 30,000 GPs (family doctors),^ They work in practices, a partnership of several GPs, and offer general health care. Patients can visit surgery, the GP’s office, for two or three hours in the morning and evening. GPs also make home visits. GPs are paid fees by the National Health Service (NHS) for each visit or for the number of patients on their list. j Grand Hotel l.grasnd hau'tei] «Гранд отель» a musical written by Robert Wright and George Forrest, based on Vicki Baum’s Grand Hotel directed by Tommy Tune. Greenpeace ['gri:npi:sj Гринпис an international environmental pressure group, start-] ed in the 1960s in Canada. Has a policy of non-violent (ненасильственные) direct actions. Greenpeace message is “When the last tree is cut down and the last fish killed, the last river poisoned, then you will see that you can’t eat moneys Hall lho:l], Sir Benjamin I'benctsdmmj сэр Бенджамин Холл the bell in the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament (see Houses of Parliament, the), Big Ben INGUISTIC AND CULTURAL GUIDE (see Big Ben) is supposed to be nicknamed after Benjamin Hall who was the Chief Commissioner of Works when the bell was cast in 1856. Hamlet I'haemlit) «Гамлет» a tragedy by William Shakespeare, first performed in 1602. Hamlet, after much hesitation, avenges the murder of his father, the king of Denmark, by the king’s brother Claudius, who has married Hamlet’s mother. The play ends with the death of all three. Harley-Davidson (,ho:]i 'deividsnj харлей дэвидсон a large, heavy, expensive American motorcycle. Hawthorne |'Нэ:0э:п], Nathaniel |па'0агпю1| (1804-1864) Натаниель Готорн an American writer of novels and short stories whose most famous novel is The Scarlet Letter, Hell’s Angels |,helz 'eincfealz] Ангелы Ада a notorious motor club in the USA. Appeared in California after the World War II. Henry VIII l,henri дэ 'eit0] (1491-1547) Генрих VIII the king of England in 1509-1547. His efforts to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, led to a break with the Roman Catholic Church, the abolition (упразднение) of all monasteries, and the establishment of Protestantism in England. He was married five more times. He was an impressively large man, fond of sport and hunting in his youth. Holiday I'hDlidi], Billie (1915-1959) Билли Холидей an American jazz singer, often considered the greatest jazz singer ever, with an easily recognisable style. She came from a poor background and her early death was caused by drugs. Holly ['holi]. Buddy (1936-1959) Бадди Холли the stage name of Charles Hardin Holley. A US popular music singer, guitarist, and songwriter, born in Lubbock, Texas. Holly had a distinctive, hiccuping vocal style and was an early experimenter with recording techniques. Many of his hits with his band, the Crickets, such as That’s Be the Day (1957), Peggy Sue (1957), and Maybe Baby (1958), have become classics. He died in a plane crash. Hollywood I'hDliwudj Голливуд a district in the city of Los Angeles, California; the centre of the US film industry from 1911. Home of legendary film studios such as 20th Century Fox, MGM, Paramount, Columbia Pictures, United Artists, Disney, and Warner Bros. Although Hollywood lost its commanding position with the decline of the studio system in the late 1950s, the rise of independent producers and the needs of television studios made use of the soundstage facilities there. MGM Studios had become a major theme park and tourist attraction. Homer I'hsumaJ Гомер a Greek poet who lived in the 8th century BC, reputed author of the Iliad and Odyssey. INGUISTIC AND CULTURAL GUIDE 286 Homeric task |Нэи,тепк 'ta:sk] of heroic dimensions, grand (see Homer). Houses of Parliament, the [,hausiz av 'pabmantj дома парламента the group of buildings in London where the House of Commons and the House of Lords meet. indie (music) ['indi ,mju:zik] инди popular music recordings produced by a small independent company. The British music papers publish separate charts of independent record sales. informal language |ш,Гэ:т1 'laeogwic^^l неформальная речь this type of speech is used in Informal situations with friends, fellow workers, and members of the family. Internet, the I'intanet] Интернет a global network of linked computers that pass information back and forth. IQ [,ai 'kju:| (intelligence quotient) ай кью a comparative measure of a person’s intelligence. jeopardy game [,^epadi 'geim| Своя игра a game played in two teams. Team 1 chooses a category and a dollar amount (for example: Animals for $20). One person in the class is the host of the game and reads the questions under the CATEGORIES column aloud. Team 1 has one minute to think of the answer. If the answer is correct, they ‘win’ the amount of money they have chosen. If the answer is incorrect, Team 2 gets a chance to answer and win the money. If their answer is incorrect, nobody gets the money. Then it’s Team 2’s turn and they j choose a category and a dollar amount. The team with the most money at the end of the game wins. John [cfeon] (also John the Lackland [Maeklasnd] (1167-1216) Иоанн (Иоанн Безземельный) the king of England in 1199-1216. The youngest son of Henry II, he succeeded (наследовал престол) his brother Richard 1 the Lionheart (Ричард I Львиное Сердце) on his death, having previously tried to take the throne from him. He was an unpopular and unsuccessful king: he lost most of the English territory in France, and his methods of raising large amounts of money by taxation annoyed (раздражали) the barons so much that they forced him to sign Magna Carta (see Magna Carta), which limited royal powers. Khanzhonkov [Ьлп'зэ:пкэП, Alexandr Alexeevich (1877-1945) Александр Алексеевич Ханжонков a Russian cinema worker. The owner of the first Russian film studio. The Studio shot feature films in 1907-1908 and in 1911-1912 he organised a research department which made newsreels, ethnographic films and cartoons. He founded ‘Joint-stock company A. Khanzhonkov’ in Moscow and shot the first Russian full-length film The Defense of Sevastopol (director V. Goncharov) in 1911. INGmSTIC AND CULTURAL GUIDE Kholixdnaya В^рл Хппс\лняо one of the most popular Russian actresses of the pre-revolutionary cinematography. King Lear [,kir) Mis] «Король Лир» a play by William Shakespeare about an old king who divides his kingdom among his three daiighters according to how much each says she loves him. Deceived by their words, he gives all the kingdom to the two who do not love him at all, leading to sad and terrible events. Konchalovski [kantfa'lDfski], Andron (1937- ) Андрон Кончаловский (настоящее имя Андрей Сергеевич Михалков) а Russian film director and screenwriter. Among his films are Sibiriada (1979) and Uncle Vanya (1971). Kraftwerk, the ['kroiftwerk] Крафтверк the German band (formed in 1970), was one of the first who played techno music. Land of Cakes, the [Axnd dv 'keiks] страна пирогов a name sometimes given to Scotland, which is famous for its oatmeal cakes. From this also, has come the term ‘Cake Day’, meaning New Year’s Eve (the official name of New Year’s Eve in Scotland is Hogmanay). Leigh [li:], Vivien ['vivionj (1913-1967) Вивьен Ли the stage name of Vivien Mary Hartley. Indian-born English actress. She appeared on the stage in London and New York, and won Academy Awards for her performances as Scarlett O’Hara in Gone with the Wind (1939) and as Blanche du Bois in A Streetcar Named Desire (1951). Her other films include Lady Hamilton (1941), Anna Karenina (1948). lend-lease ['Iendli:s] ленд-лиз arrangement made during the Second World War, by which the USA supplied military equipment to its allies (союзники) in return for the use of some of their naval bases. Liepa [li'jeps], Maris Rudolf (1936-1989) Марис Лиепа a Soviet ballet dancer. His first performance in the Bolshoi Theatre took place in 1956. life peer (,laif 'ргэ] пожизненный пэр a Briton who has the rank of peer (see peer) but is not allowed to pass it on to a son or daughter after death. Until 1950 all members of the House of Lords were the sons or daughters of lords. Life peers were introduced in an attempt to improve the House of Lords. They are chosen by the government, with suggestions from the opposition parties, for their legal, political or social experience. Little Richard |,IitI 'ntfsd] (1932- ) Литтл Ричард the stage name of Richard Penniman. US rock singer and pianist. He was one of the creators of rock’n’roll with his wildly uninhibited renditions of Tutti Fruitti (1956), Good Golly Miss Molly (1957). INGUISTIC AND CULTURAL GUIDE m Lloyd Webber \,bid 'weba], Sir Andrew (1948- ) Андрю Ллойд Веббер an English composer of very successful musicals including Cats, The Phantom of the Opera and Sunset Boulevard. Lord Chancellor, the [,b:d 'tfoinsla] лорд-канцлер a political official who is the head of the legal (правовой) system in England and Wales, the Speaker of the House of Lords and also usually a member of the Cabinet. The responsibilities of the Lord Chancellor include appointing new judges and deciding if laws need to be changed. Magna Carta [,таедпэ 'koiuj (also Magna Charta) Великая хартия вольностей the political charter that King John (see John] was forced to accept in 1215, granting certain political and civil freedoms which have been fundamental principles of the British constitution ever since. Maksimov [mo'ksimdf]. Vladimir Vasilyevich (1880-1937) Владимир Васильевич Максимов a Soviet actor which is best known for his roles in pre-revolutionary cinematography. The Honoured Artist of the Republic (1925). Manpower Services |,таепраиэ 's3:visiz] Бюро no трудоустройству безработных ^ j Maiiey I'maii], Bob (1945-1981) Боб Марли a Jamaican singer and songwriter who, \ with the group The Wa/7ers, made reggae music popular in many countries of the : world. He was an exciting performer and his music often carried a social and i political message. He was a rastafarian. Medicaid |'medikeid| медицинская помощь a US government scheme providing ^ medical care, esp. for poor people. Medical Council [,medik] 'kaunsi] медицинский совет an organisation which deals with medical and health matters. Medicare I'medikea] медицинское обслуживание a US government scheme pro- ’ viding medical care, esp. for old people. Mediterranean Sea, the [,meditdreinidn 'si:J Средиземное море the sea between southern Europe and N Africa, connected with the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar and with the Red Sea by the Suez Canal. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer [,metr9U ,g3uldwin 'meia] {abbr. MGM) Метро Голдвин Майер a US film-production company. One of the most powerful Hollywood studios of the 1930s-1950s, It produced such prestige films as David Copperfield (1935) and The Wizard of Oz (1939). Among its stars were Greta Garbo, James Stewart, and Elizabeth Taylor. Metropolitan Museum of Art, the |,metr9pDlitn mju^zbm 3v 'at] the most important art museum in the USA, in New York City. INGUISTIC AND CULTURAL GUIDE 289 Microsoft |'maikrdu,SDit| Disc Operating System (abbr. MS-DOS) Микрософт ДОС operating system produced by the Microsoft Corporation. MS-DOS first appeared in the early 1980 and was based on an earlier system for computers with 8-bit microprocessor. Mikhalkov |т|ЬлГкаП, Nikita Sergeevich (1945- ) Никита Сергеевич Михалков a Russian film actor, director, screenwriter. He first appeared as an actor in the film / am walking along Moscow. Among his works as a director are such films as Urga and Burnt in the Sun. More |тэ:|, Sir Thomas (1478-1535) сэр Томас Mop an English statesman and writer. He was a brilliant scholar and writer, esp. on religious matters; his most famous work, Utopia (see Utopia) describes an Ideal society. He was the first lawyer (законовед) and layman (непрофессионал) to become Lord Chancellor (see Lord Chancellor, the) of England, but his opposition to Henry Vlll’s (see Henry VIII) claims (притязания) to be head of the English Church lod to hie execution (казнь). MPAA, the (,em pi: ei 'ei| (the Motion Picture Association of America) Кинематографическая ассоциация Америки the organisation which determines to which age groups films may be shown. Murphy |'m3:fi], Eddie (1961- ) Эдди Мерфи an American actor and comedian who first became known for his work on the television programme Saturday Night Live but now is known mostly for his films, such as Trading Places and Beverly Hills Cop. National Health Service, the |,пае/пэ1 'heI0 ,s3:vis] {abbr. NHS) Система национального здравоохранения (in Britain) a public service providing medical care, paid for by taxes. The services provided by NHS include family doctors, dentists, opticians, health centres, ante- and post-natal clinics, health education, day centres for the mentally and physically handicapped, ambulance services and others. Everybody has the right to use the medical services. National insurance (^naejnsl in'Jusrans] {abbr. N1) Национальная система страхования (in Britain) a system of compulsory payments made by employees and employers to enable the State to provide assistance to people who are ill, unemployed or retired: National Insurance contributions. National Statuary Hall, the [,п£е/пэ1 .ststfusn 'hal] Национальный скульптурный зал a hall in the Capitol (see Capitol, the) where the House of Representatives met in the 19th century. In 1864 Congress invited each state to contribute two statues (статуи) of marble (мрамор) or bronze of most honoured and distinguished citizens. By 1933 the statues had become so numerous that Congress determined the collection could be displayed in other parts of the Capitol as well. 290 New Wave [,nju: 'werv] новая волна a conscious effort to change the style in the popular music of the late 1970s, using a strong beat and expressing strong social opinions. New World, the |,nju: 'w3:ld] Новый Свет North and South America. Nirvana [nia'voina] Нирвана rock group that appeared in 1988 in the USA. The music style of the group is grunge rock (a branch of punk rock). The members are Kurt Cobain (died in 1994), Chris Novoselic, David Grohl. Nobel prize, the [пэи,Ье1 'praiz] Нобелевская премия each of six international prizes awarded each year (since 1901) for outstanding achievements in the fields of science, literature and the promotion of world peace. The prizes are named after the Swedish chemist and philanthropist (see philanthropist) Alfred Nobel. Non-cabinet ministers [поп,каеЬшэ1 'ministdz] министры, не являющиеся членами Кабинета ministers who are not members of the Cabinet, the senior group which takes major policy decisions, but they collectively responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for their own departments. Normans, the ['пэ:тэпг] норманны (or north men) descendants (потомки) of the Vikings who had invaded the northern coast of France in the ancient times. Over the years, they adopted many French ways. They had become Christians. They had accustomed themselves to speaking a dialect of the French language. They had also organised themselves according to the French political and economic system of the times - feudalism. In 1066 the Normans took control of England invading its southern territories. The reason for the Normans’ arrival was the claim (притязание) of William (Вильгельм), the Duke of Normandy (герцог Нормандский) (see William the Conqueror), to become king of England. That was the fifth and the last invasion of England. NSPCC, the [,en es ,pi: si: 'si:] (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children) Национальное общество защиты детей от жестокости а British organisation which looks after the interests of children who are being badly treated or are in danger of being harmed. Obraztsova [эЬглгЧ$о:уэ], Elena Vasilyevna (1939- ) Елена Васильевна Образцова a Russian singer (mezzo-soprano). She has been an actress of the Bolshoi Theatre since 1964. Old World, the [,эи1с1 Vsild] Старый Свет Europe, Asia and Africa. Orwell ['Dwell, George (1903-1950) Джордж Оруэлл the real name is Eric Blair. A British novelist, essayist and journalist. Much of his early work describes the conditions in which working people lived {Down and Out in Paris and London and The Road to Wigan Pier). His two best known novels, Animal Farm and 1984, Е INQU/ST/C AND CULTURAL GUIDE m attack totalitarianism. He warned against the manipulation of people's actions and thoughts by an all-powerful states. Othello [э'0е1эи] «Отелло» a tragedy by William Shakespeare, first performed in 1604-1605. Othello, a Moorish commander in the Venetian army killed his wife Desdemona, because he was made to believe that she had a lover. outback ['ambaek] аутбэк (in Australia and other countries) the part of the country far away from cities. package tour ('paekicts tua) a completely planned holiday arranged by a company at a fixed price, which includes travel, hotels, meals, etc. Paramount I'paeramauntj Pictures Парамаунт Пикчерз a US film production and distribution company, founded in 1912. A major studio from the silent days of the cinema, Paramount was adept at discovering new talents and Cecil B. DeMille made many films for the studio. Pearl Jam [,рз:1 'cfeaem] Перл Джем a popular group (established in 1989 in San Diego, the USA), playing grunge rock. The roots are in such groups as Green River, Mother Love Bone. peer [pi3| пэр (in Britain) a member of any of five noble ranks, baron (барон), viscount (виконт), earl (граф), marquis (маркиз), and duke (герцог), who has the right to sit in the House of Lords. Pennsylvania [,pensl'veini3] Пенсильвания a state in the NE of the US, it has the following nicknames: the Gold State, the Oil State and the Steel State. They are suggestive of the three greatest industries of the large state. The name the Keystone State is accounted for its role in the War of Independence. The nickname the Quacker State commemorates the fact that W. Penn, a member of the Society of Quackers, was made proprietor of the colony in 1680, and was instrumental in causing many Quackers settle there. philanthropist [fi'Iaenerapist] филантроп a person who is concerned for the welfare or benefit of others and who supports good causes, esp. by giving money. phreak (fri:k] фрик someone, who breaks Into the telephone system of other people or companies and does clever things with the phone network. Pickford ['pikfad], Mary (1893-1979) Мери Пикфорд the stage name of Gladys Mary Smith. A Canadian-born US actress. The first star of the silent films, she was known as ‘America’s Sweetheart’, and played the roles of innocent girls into her thirties. Pink Floyd [,piok ^floid] Пинк Флойд a British rock music group which appeared in 1965 in London. The musicians were the first to use light effects, slide projec- л tors at their performances. The group was the favourite of London underground. Their performances were great shows with gigantic screens, light effects, taking off planes and the like. Pirogov |р1гУдэ:Г|. Alexandr Stepanovich (1899-1964) Александр Степанович Пирогов a Soviet singer (bass singer). He worked in the Bolshoi Theatre in 1924-1954. Player’s ('pleiaz) «Плейера» the name of a kind of cigarette. Plisetskaya [pli'setskAjs], Maya Mikhailovna (1925- ) Майя Михайловна Плисецкая a Russian ballet dancer. She danced in the Bolshoi Theatre. Polonski Ips'lonski], Vitold Alfonsovich (1879-1919) Витольд Альфонсович Полонский a Russian actor best known for his roles in pre-revolutionary films. Ponce de Le6n |,pons da 'Ibn] (1460-1521) Понс де Лион a Spanish explorer, noted for his discovery (1512) of Florida while supposedly searching for the legendary ‘fountain of youth* (a flow of water which was supposed to make people young forever). Presley ['prezli), Elvis (1935-1977) Элвис Пресли an American singer. He was the leading figure of early rock’n’roll. Prodigy ['prodicfeil Продиджи the British group playing techno music, taking the top places in many charts. psychedelic rock [,saik9delik 'rok] психоделический рок music, having intensely vivid sounds like those experienced while hallucinating, usually involves advanced electronic equipment. punk (рлок] (also punk rock) панк type of loud and violent rock music popular since the late 1970s and associated with protest against conventional attitudes. Pygmalion Ipig'meilisn] Пигмалион in Greek legend, a king of Cyprus who fell in love with an ivory statue he had carved. When Aphrodite brought it to life as a woman, Galatea, he married her. rap [raep] рэп music style which appeared in black disco clubs in New York in the middle 1970s. Its characteristic features are short musical phrases, torn rhythm. Such black groups and singers as Public Enemy, Run MDC, Ice Tea added something new to this music style. rastafarianism |,гае$гэТеэпэтгт] растафарианизм religion of a Jamaican sect regarding black West Indians as a people chosen by God for salvation. Rastafarians worship the former Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia as God. INGUiSTfCAND reggae rregei] регги type of West Indian popular music and dance with strong rhythms. Richard IN Lritjod дэ '03:dl «Ричард III» a play by William Shakespeare about the life of Richard III, the king of England from 1483 to 1485. rockabilly I'rokabihl рокабилли a mixture of country and blues, which was used by Elvis Presley for making rock’n’roll. Classic rockabilly was played by Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Jerry Lee Louis. rock’n’roll |,п5коп'гэи1) рок-н-ролл earlier and usually simpler form of rock music, which appeared in the early 1950s in the USA. Instead of playing the pop music disc jockey Alan Freed started playing the rhythm and blues music that derived from jazz, combined with aspects of country and western music. The music is based on electric guitar and drums. Romeo and Juliet [дэигшэи and 'cfeuJiai) «Ромео и Джульетта» a play by William Shakespeare about the love of two people, Romeo and Juliet, from families who are enemies. They marry secretly, but they are prevented from being together and they both kill themselves. Rou |rau|, Alexandr Arturovich (1906-1973) Александр Артурович Роу a Soviet film director best known for his fairy tales. His first film was By a Wave of the Wand («По щучьему велению»). His other works: Morozko (1965), Fire, Water, and Copper Trumpets (1968) and others. RSPCA, the |,u:r es pi: si: 'ei| (the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) Королевское общество по предотвращению жестокости по отношению к животным (in Britain) the society which was founded in 1824 to stop cruel treatment of animals. It campaigned throughout the nineteenth century for government action and this resulted in the Protection of Animals Act, 1911. RSPCA inspectors have the right to enter property if they think there is cruelty or if somebody has made a report to them. They can take people to court for offences against animals. The charity depends mainly on donations and has an income of £ 21 million a year. Ryazanov [дл'го:пэГ|> Eldar Alexandrovich (1927- ) Эльдар Александрович Рязанов a Russian film director, screenwriter and playwright. A People’s Artist of the USSR (1984). He is one of the best masters of comedy. His well-known films are The Night of Carnival (1956), Hussars' Ballad (1962), Zigzag of Luck (1968) and Irony of Fate (1975). Samaritan [sa'msentn] самаритянин/самаритянка 1. the Samaritans, an organisation devoted to giving help and friendship to people in despair, esp. over the telephone; 2, good Samaritan a person who gives sympathy and help to people in trouble. The name comes from the Bible, a Samaritan was a character of one of the parables (притчи) told by Jesus Christ. 294 1970s, the [,nainti:n 'sevntirz] семидесятые (годы) in the Soviet Union the peak of what is now universally called as ‘the period of stagnation’ (период застоя). It was in those years that the hippie community, their infrastructure as well as their code emerged and took a more or less definite shape. Serpentine, the ['ssipaniain] Серпантин a lake in Hyde Park in London. It's a custom for some people to swim in it on Christmas Day. Sex Pistols, the ['seks ,pistlz] Секс Пистолз one of Britain’s first and most important punk bands. They exploded onto the mid-’70s pop scene with a series of totally original hit singles. Angry, rude, loud, energetic, anti-social ... they started revolutions in both music and fashion. Shadow Cabinet, the [ Jaedau 'kaebmit] теневой кабинет the Cabinet formed by the opposition party. The members of the Shadow Cabinet would probably be Cabinet ministers if their party became the Government, Shakespeare ['Jeikspis], William (1564-1616) Уильям Шекспир an English writer of plays, one of the most famous ever, born in Stratford-upon-Avon in England. Among the most famous of his plays are tragedies of Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth, the historical plays Richard III and Henry V. He also wrote some very good poetry, esp. the Sonnets, and worked as an actor at the Globe Theatre in London. He is buried at Stratford-upon Avon, and houses connected with him and his family can be visited there. Shaw [/d:]. George Bernard (1856-1950) Бернард Шоу an Irish dramatist. He was also a critic and novelist. His plays combine comedy with political, philosophical, and polemic aspects. They include Arms and the Man (1894), Pygmalion (1913). Nobel prize winner (1925). sheltered house [Jeltsd 'haus] приют designed for people, esp. old people, to live fairly independently in, but with staff always available to help or look after them if necessary: sheltered housing/accommodation for the elderly/disabled. Sinatra Isi'natra], Frank (1915-1998) Фрэнк Синатра an American singer and film actor. His distinctive style of singing made him famous as a performer all over the world, and he also starred in several successful films and musicals. skinhead ['skmhedl скинхед someone who cuts his hair shorter than others do. The majority of them are working class, patriotic, reggae and football fanatics, and very uninterested in politics. Most wear tight trousers and heavy boots (Doc Martens) and are usually regarded as violent and aggressive. social security [^sdufsl sd'kjudnti] (Brit.) (US welfare) система социального обеспечения the system of welfare payments to people for unemployment, illness, housing and old age pensions. The Labour government of 1945-51 created it. Payments are made by the Department of Social Security (DSS). The social IMOWSTIC AND CULTURAL GUIDE 295 security budget is the largest in the government — it makes up one-third of all its spending. The system was reformed in 1988. One of the main changes was the introduction of the Social Fund for emergency needs, such as buying new furniture after a fire or robbery. This fund has a limited budget and some people may not get help If the fund cannot afford it. Some benefits are no longer available to sixteen- and eighteen-year-olds and this has caused difficulties for young people who cannot live at home, but cannot find a job. social services, the (,8эиГэ1 's3:visiz| служба no оказанию социальной помощи organised government services providing help and advice to the community, esp. concerning health, education, and housing. social welfare [,s3uf^l 'welfedj (US) (see social security). social work ('sdujdl W3:k] патронаж (социальная/общественно-полезная работа с благотворительными или воспитательными целями) work done to help people in the community with special needs, e.g. because of poverty or bad housing. social worker ('saujal ,w3:k9] работник патронажа a person trained to do social work. soul music I'saul ,mju:zjk] соул a type of popular modern black American music, derived from gospel, blues and jazz, that express strong emotion. Spielberg ('spi:lb3:g|, Steven (1946- ) Стивен Спилберг a US film director, writer and producer. His credits include such phenomenal box-office successes as Jaws (1975). Jurassic Park (1993). He also directed Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), Hook (1991) and totally different Schindler's List (1993) for which he received Academy Awards for Best Film and Best Director. stereotype ['stenaiaipj стереотип (someone or something that represents) a fixed set of ideas about what a particular type of person or thing is like, which is (wrongly) believed to be true in all cases. student card |,stju:dant 'kad] студенческая карта a discount card which provides young people of 16-23 and full-time students of any age with certain discounts while travelling, visiting museums, buying clothes, etc. subculture ('sAb,kAltf3] субкультура any group within a larger complex culture who have interests that vary from those of the mainstream (or dominant) culture, often a group whose behaviour is disapproved of by most people. In a more specific sense, a subculture is a group with a distinct style and identity. Different subcultures have their own beliefs, value systems, fashion, and favourite music. swastika ['swDstiks] (also swazzie) свастика an ancient symbol in the form of a cross with its ends bent at right angles, used in the 20th century as a Nazi emblem. Swift [swiAj, Jonathan ['фопэбп] (1667-1745) Джонатан Свифт an Irish satirical writer and cleric (духовное лицо), who wrote Gulliver’s Travels as well as many other works attacking corruption (продажность) in religion and education. Tarkovski [ur'lcDifskil, Andrei Arsenyevich (1932-1986) Андрей Арсеньевич Тарковский a Soviet film director and screenwriter. His Pest known works are Solyaris (1972) (special prize of Cannes Film Festival in 1972) and Stalker (1980). Taylor rteib). Elizabeth (1932- ) Элизабет Тейлор an American film actress, born in London. She began making films at the age of ten, but is perhaps at least as well-known for her marriages, of which there have been eight. Tchaikovsky (tfai'kofskij, Peter Ilyich (1840-1893) Петр Ильич Чайковский a Russian composer, best known for his symphonies, operas and ballets. Among his works are Evgeniy Onegin (1878), The Queen of Spades (1887), The Swan Lake (1876). techno ['teknau] техно dance music played on electronic instruments, created with extensive use of studio technology for a futuristic, machine-made sound, sometimes with sampled soul vocals. The German band Kraftwerk (formed in 1970) is an early example. teddy boy |4edi boi] (or teddy girl) (also ted) Тедди бой someone who dresses in a style similar to that of the early 20th century, became popular in the 1950s. They were associated with early rock*n’roll music and were often regarded as bad or violent. Teds were called this after the coats they wore, adopted from a style that was popular in Britain during Edward VM’s reign (1901-1910). tenor ['tens] тенор (usually a man with) a high male (мужской) singing voice. Thames, the |temz] Темза river in southern England, length 338 km. Thatcher ('Оае^э], Margaret ('maigrat) (1925- ) Маргарет Тэтчер the leader of the Conservative party in 1976-1990, and Prime Minister in 1979-1990. Thatcher caused strong feelings during her years of power. Many of her opponents hated her and said she was destroying the country. Her supporters loved her strong personality and the way she spoke simply and kept her beliefs even when they were unpopular. It was Thatcher’s intention ‘to destroy socialism'. She certainly destroyed the political power of the trade unions (профсоюзы). She privatised many of the industries nationalised by Labour governments and introduced changes into the education system and National Health Service and the system of welfare payments. (Under her, Britain had the lowest state pension and social security payments in the European Union.) Thatcher had a great impact on Britain in the final decades of the 20th century. Titanic, the [tai'taenik| Титаник 1) a British passenger liner, supposedly unsinkable, that struck an iceberg and sank off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland on its Ut 297 first voyage on 14-15 April 1912; 1,513 lives were lost. In 1985 it was located by robot submarine 4 km/2.5 ml down in an ocean canyon, preserved by the cold environment. In 1987 salvage operation began; 2) a well-known film with the same name was devoted to the catastrophe. The film was made by James Cameron and got 11 Oscars in 1998. Twentieth Century Fox [,twenti30 sentfan 'foks] Двадцатый век Фокс a US film production company, formed in 1935. The company made high-quality films and it is still a major studio. Recent successes include the Star Wars trilogy (1977-1983). tyranny of distance, the btironi 3v 'distns] тирания расстояния a phrase that reflects the influence of large distances of Australia on the life of the people. This phrase became popular when the book The Tyranny of Distance by Blaincy G. was published in New York in 1968. This book begins with the words, “Distances characterise Australia as mountains characterise bwitzeriand." Ulanova [и'1а:пэуэ], Galina Sergeevna (1910-1998J Галина Сергеевна Уланова a Soviet ballet dancer. She danced in the Bolshoi Theatre in 1944-1960. Union Jack, the [Jurnjan 'фек] (also the Union Flag) Юнион Джек the national flag of the United Kingdom. It contains the intersecting crosses of three of Britain’s patron saints: St George’s cross, red on white, for England, St Andrew’s cross, white on blue, for Scotland, and St Patrick’s cross, red on white, for Ireland. The patron saint of Wales, St David, is not represented in the Union Jack. United Nations Convention [kan'venjn] on the Rights of the Child, the конвенция ООН по правам ребенка sets out in a number of statements called articles, the rights which all children and young people up to the age of 18 should have. The rights should apply to young people everywhere whether they live in rich or poor countries. United Nations Organisation, the (the UN [Ju: 'en]) ООН (Организация Объединенных Наций) an international organisation to which nearly all the countries in the world belong. Its head offices are In New York City. The UN tries to make sure there is peace in the world and that all countries work together to deal with international problems. Universal [,ju:ni'v3:sll Юниверсал a US film studio founded in 1915. In the 1970s and 1980s Universal became one of the industry’s leaders with box-office hits from the producer and director Steven Spielberg such as ET (1982) and Back to the Future (1985). US Constitution, the [Ju: es 'kDnsti,tju:/9n] Конституция США the document which sets the basic form of government and specifies the powers and duties of each federal branch of government, with all other powers and duties belonging to the states. The first ten Constitutional Amendments (поправок) are known to- INGUiSTtC AND CULTURAL GUIDE 298 gether as the Bill of Rights (see bill of rights). The US Constitution was adopted In 1791. Utopia [ju:'t3upi9l Утопия an imaginary island described by Thomas More (see More, Thomas) in a book of the same name which appeared in 1516. He criticised the political systems of France and England and went on to describe life in Utopia, where there was a system of idealised communism and all its citizens prospered (благоденствовали) and were happy. Now an imaginary place or state of things in which everything Is perfect is called utopia. vandal ['vjendl] вандал 1) a person who wilfully destroys or damages works of art, public and private property, the beauties of nature; 2) a member of a Germanic people who conquered parts of Europe in the 4th-5th centuries AD. They established kingdoms in Gaul and Spain and destroyed Rome in 455. vandalism ['vaendslizm] вандализм intentional and needless damage or destruction, esp. of public buildings and other public property. Behaviour characteristic of vandals. Vasilyev IvA'siljdf], Vladimir Victorovich (1940- ) Владимир Викторович Васильев a Russian ballet dancer. He was the first to perform the role of Spartak in Khachaturyan’s ballet Spartak. Vatican, the ['vsetikanj Ватикан Pope’s (Папы Римского) residence in Rome. VCR [,vi: si: 'a:| (a video cassette recorder) видеомагнитофон Warner Bros ['woins ,Ьглдэг] Уорнер Бразерз a US film production company, founded in 1923 by Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack Warner. It became one of the major Hollywood studios after releasing the first talking film, The Jazz Singer (1927). welfare state [,welfe9 'sieit] (often the Welfare State) 1) система обеспечения благосостояния граждан а system of caring for the citizens of a country through a range of services. The WS operates in five main areas: education; social security; community care; health; housing. The services provided by the WS are divided into those looked after nationally by central government and those looked after at a local level by local authorities. At the national level the Government is responsible for the National Health Service, National Insurance and social security. The local government authority is responsible for housing, social services, education, public health and planning; 2) государство всеобщего благосостояния a country that has such a system. Wells |weiz], Herbert [Ъз:Ьэ1] (1866-1946) Герберт Уэллс an English writer and social thinker whose books include The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds and Outline of History. JNGUISTIC AND CULTURAL GUIDE m William the Conqueror [^wiljam дэ 'коо^^эгэ] (also William I) (1027-1087) Вильгельм Завоеватель the king of England in 1066-1087. As Duke of Normandy (герцог Нормандский) (see Normans, the) he claimed (предъявил претензии) the English throne on the death of the childless Edward the Confessor (Эдуард Исповедник), stating that Edward had promised it to him. He invaded England and established Norman rule in England. Woodstock ['wudstok] Вудсток a farm in New York state where the biggest rock festival took place in 1969. woolsack, the ('wulsaekj мешок c шерстью the seat in the British Parliament on which the Lord Chancellor sits in the House of Lords. At present this is a large square cushion (диванная подушка) of wool, without back (спинка) or arms (подлокотники), covered with red cloth. Originally there were four sacks of wool on which the monarch’s counsellor (советник) sat in medieval (средневековый) times. It was considered in medieval times that the wealth of England was based on wool. xenophobia [,гепэ'ГэиЬ1э] ксенофобия an intense dislike or fear of foreigners or strangers. A a abandon [d'bxnd^n] v отказываться ability [D'bilali] n способность able ['eibl] a 1) способный, умелый 2) be ~ to... мочь, быть в состоянии abortion [э'Ьэ:/п] п аборт above [э'Ьлу] prep 1) над 2) выше abroad [э'Ьгэ;с1] adv за границей absolutely ['aebsolaili] adv совершенно abstain [ab'stein] v воздерживаться abuse [s'bjuis] n оскорбление accent [ak'senl] v делать ударение accept [ak'sept] v 1) принимать 2) допускать acceptable [sk'scptobl] a подходящий accessory [ok'sesan] a добавочный, дополнительный, вспомогательный accident ['aeksidant] n несчастный случай, авария accommodation [d,kDmd'deiJn] n приют, стол и ночлег; hotel ^ номер в гостинице accordance [^'kordans] п 1) согласие, гармония 2) предоставление according [3'kD:dio] Qdv: to согласно, в соответствии с account [d'kaunt] п счет; take into * брать в расчет accustomed [^'kASOmd] а привыкший асе [eis] п очко; ас achievement [o'^^vmoni] п достижение acid ['sesid] п кислота acne ['sekni) п угорь, прыщ; -- vulgaris обыкновенный прыщ acquire [a'kwai?] v приобретать, овладевать acre ['cika] п акр across [o'kros] 1. adv поперек 2. prep через, сквозь act [seki] v 1) действовать, поступать 2) театр, играть action ['зск/эп] п действие active ['aektiv] а активный, энергичный activity [a;k'tiv3ti] п деятельность actual ['£ск^иэ1] а действительный adapt [a'd^ept] v приспосабливать adaptation [,£edaep'iei/n) n адаптация, приспособление adapter [a'daeplo] n адаптер, переходное устройство add [ied] v прибавлять, присоединять: up складывать, подсчитывать addiction (d'dikjn] n привыкание additional [s'di/ndl] a дополнительный administration [3d,mini'streijn] n 1) администрация 2) правительство 3) министерство admiration [,£cdmd'reijn] n восхищение admit (ad'mii] v допускать, принимать adolescence (,3cdd'lcsns] n юность adopt [a'dDpi] v 1) усыновлять 2) принимать adore [a'do:] v обожать, поклоняться adult ['aedAlt] n взрослый advance [sd'vans] 1. n продвижение вперед; in -- заранее 2. v продвигаться advantage [iHl'vamitfe] n {(реимущество adventure [ad'vent/o] n приключение advertise ['sedvdtaiz] v рекламировать advertisement [ad'v3:tism3m] n реклама advice [ad'vais] n совет advise [ad'vaiz] v советовать advisor [sd'vaiza] n советник, консультант affair [эТеэ] n дело affect [a'fekt] v влиять affirmative [р'Гзгтэт] a утвердительный afford [a'fad] v иметь возможность, быть в состоянии сделать, позволить себе afraid [УГгскД] а испуганный afterwards ['aftawodz] adv впоследствии again [э'деп] adv снова, опять against [s'gcnsi] prep против age [егф] n 1) возраст 2) век agency ['eicfeansi] n агентство agenda [d'c^ends] n повестка дня agent ('ci(fe9nt] n агент, представитель aggressive [^gresiv] a агрессивный aggressiveness [d'grcsivnis] n агр>ессивнис1Ь ago [э'дэи] adv тому назад agreement [a'giiimsnt] n 1) (взаимное) согласие 2) договор, соглашение agricultural [.ajgn'kAltfml] a сельскохозяйственный ahead [d'hed] adv вперед aim [cim) 1. n цель 2. v стремиться air [еэ] n воздух, атмосфера aircraft ['eokraft] n самолет alarm [У1о:т] n 1) сигнал тревоги 2) страх ale [eil] n пиво alike [d'laik] 1. a одинаковый, похожий 2. adv точно так же, подобно, одинаково alive [o'laiv] а живой alligator ['asligeita] п аллигатор allocate ['aelakeit] 1. п ассигнование, дотация 2. V распределять, ассигновать allow [э'1аи] v позволять, разрешать allowance [s'laums] п денежное пособие almost ('э:1тэц51] adv почти, едва не alone [эМэип] а predic 1) один, одинокий 2) сам, без посторонней помощи along [э'1в1э] adv дальше, вперед aloud [sMaud] adv громко, вслух also ['d;Is3u] adv тоже, также although [э:Гдэи] су хотя, если бы даже amazing [ymeizio] а удивительный ambassador [aem'baesdds] п посол ambition [aem'bijn] п 1) честолюбие 2) цель ambitious [sem'bijds] а честолюбивый ammunition [,aemju'nijn] п боеприпасы, снаряжение among [э'тло] ргер среди, между, из amount [э'таит] п количество analogy [э'пзе1эс(51] п аналогия, сходство angry ['aeogn] а сердитый, гневный animalism ['aenimdlizm] п 1) анимализм 2) сатир, система взглядов и уклад в стране, где правят животные announce [a'nauns] v объявлять, заявлять annual ['senjusi] а ежегодный another [э'плбо] ргоп другой antibiotic (,£entibai'mik] п антибиотик; be on ^s принимать антибиотики anticipate [aen'tisipeit] v предвидеть anyway ['eniwei] adv во всяком случае anywhere ['eniwea] adv везде, всюду Apache [d'pae^i] n апач (индеец племени апачей) apart [э'ро:1] adv в отдалении, в стороне apparatus [,герэ'гепэ5] п (р/ без изменений) прибор, инструмент, аппарат appeal [э'р!:1] v обращаться, взывать appear [э'р1э] v показываться, появляться appearance [э'р1эгэп$] п вид, наружность appliance [a'plaians] п 1) приспособление, устройство 2) бытовой электроприбор аррИдиё [d'plirkei] п аппликация apply [s'plai] V 1) обращаться 2) применять appoint [o'point] V назначать, утверждать appointment [э'рэшсшэт] п назначение, должность; таке ап - записаться на прием appreciate [d'prir/ieit] v ценить, оценивать по достоинству, понимать ценность appropriate [э'ргэирпэ!] а 1) подходящий, соответствующий 2) свойственный approve [э'рги.*у] v одобрять arc [ак] п арка, свод, изгиб architect ['crkiiekt] п архитектор area ('еэпэ] п 1) площадь, пространство 2) район, зона, край, область argue ['o:gju:] v спорить argument ['orgjumant) n 1) доказательство, аргумент 2) ссоря arise [s'raiz] v (arose, arisen) возникать, появляться aristocratic [^senstd'krsetik] a аристократический around [a'raund] 1. adv кругом, вокруг 2, prep вокруг, по arrival [yraivl] n приезд, прибытие arrive [s'raiv] v прибывать, приезжать arrow ['аегэи] n стрела art [o:t] Г7 искусство; Academy of Arts Академия художеств article ['u:tikl] n статья artifice ['atifis] n изобретение, выдумка artificial a искусственный artist ['a:tist] n художник as [aez] adv как; as... as... так же... как; as well также aside [s'said] adv в сторону, в стороне assemble [У$етЫ] v 1) созывать, собирать 2) собираться assembly [o'sembli] п собрание assent [a'sent] п 1) согласие 2) разрешение, санкция assessment [s'sesmom] п оценка assistance [d'sistsns] п помощь, содействие assistant (3'sistDnt) п помощник, ассистент associate [a'saujieit] v связываться, ассоциироваться association [3,sousi'eiJn] п общество, ассоциация, объединение assure [э'/э:] v уверять, заверять VCABULARY astonishing [d'ston^o] ^ изумительный atmosphere ['sctmdsfid] n обстановка, атмосфера attendant [s'tendont] n сопровождающее лицо, спутник attention [d'tcn/n] n внимание attitude ['setitjird] n отношение attract [a'traekt] v привлекать attraction (эЧггек/п] n привлекательность attractive [s'tracktiv] a привлекательный audience ['ordisns] n публика, зрители audio ['3:di9u] a слуховой, звуковой audition [3:'dijn] v устраивать пробу, прослушивать author ['э:0э] n автор authority [э/вогэп] n власть automatic [,этэ'тжик] a автоматический automobile ['элэтэиЫ:!] л автомобиль auxiliary [org'zilidn] а вспомогательный available [d'veibbl] а доступный average ['эеуэпф] а 1) средний 2) обычный avoid [a'void] v избегать awareness [s'weanas] n осознание away [a'wei] adv прочь awful ['э;Я] a разг. ужасный В b background ['baekgraund] n происхождение backstage [,bsek'steids] 1. a закулисный, тайный 2. adv за кулисами bacterial [Ьаек'пэпэ!] a бактериальный bad [baed] a (worse, worst) плохой, дурной bake [beik] v печь(ся) balance ['baelsns] 1. n равновесие, баланс 2. V балансировать ballet ['baelei] n балет balloon [ЬэЧи:п] n воздушный шар ballot ['baebt] 1. n избирательный бюллетень 2. V проводить голосование ballpoint pen [Ъэ:1рэ1т pen] n шариковая авторучка ballroom ['ba:lru:m] n бальный, танцевальный зал band [bsend] n оркестр bandage ['baendid;} n бинт, повязка bank [Ьгеок] n банк bar [bo:] n 1) брусок; * of chocolate плитка шоколада 2) муз. тактовая черта; такт bare [Ьеэ] а голый, обнаженный baron [Ъгегэп] п барон base [bcis] v (on) базировать, основывать basic ['beisikj a основной basis ['beisis] n (p/ bases [-si:z]) основание battery ['bastan] n батарея battle ['bxtlj n битва beach [bk^ n пляж, морюкой берег bean [bi:n] n боб beat [bLt] n 1) ритм, размер 2) такт beauty ['bjaii] n красота because [bi'koz] cj потому что, так как become [Ы'клш] v (became, become) делаться, становиться bedsitter [,bed'sito] л разг. ночлежка beer (Ыэ) л пиво before [bi'fo:] 1. adv раньше, прежде 2. prep перед beg [beg] v просить, умолять begin [bi'gin] v (began, begun) начинать(ся) behave [bi'heiv] v поступать, вести себя behaviour [bi'heivjd] n поведение, манеры; AE behavior behind [bi'haind] adv сзади belief [biMi:f] л 1) вера 2) убеждение believe [bi'lL'v] v верить belle [bel] л устар. красавица belong [bi'loo] v (to) принадлежать belongings [bi'InoiDz] л pi принадлежности, вещи below [bi'bu] 1. adv внизу 2. prep ниже, под bend [bend] v (bent) гнуть(ся) benefit ('bemfit] n 1) выгода, польза, прибыль 2) пенсия, пособие bequest [bi'kwest] л завещательный отказ недвижимости besides [bi'saidz] adv кроме того between [bi4wi:n] prep между bhangra ['Ьгеддгэ] л бхангра (язык в Индии) bike [baik] л сокр. разг. от bicycle велосипед biker ['baika] л байкер bill [bil] л 1) законопроект 2) счет billion ['biljan] пит 1) биллион 2) АЕ миллиард bird [b3:d] л птица 303 Biro (pen) ('baiareu] n шариковая ручка (торговая марка) birth [Ьз:0] п рождение bit [bit] п кусочек; частица; а немного black [Ыгек] а черный, темный, мрачный blade [bleid] п лезвие blame [bleim] v порицать, считать виновным blank [Ыгеок] п 1) пустое, свободное место 2) АЕ бланк blanket ['biaeQkit] а общий, полный, всеобъемлющий blazer ['bleizo] п яркая (фланелевая) спортивная куртка blind [blaind] а слепой; date АЕ разг. свидание с незнакомым человеком blueprint [Ъ1и;рпт] п 1) светокопия 2) проект, план board [bad] л 1) доска 2) борт (самолета, корабля и т. п.) boat [bdut] п лодка, корабль body ['bodij п тело bone [Ьэип] п кость bonehead ['bsunhed] п разг. бритоголовый boo [bu:] int. восклицание неодобрения boom [bu:m] п бум, резкий подъем деловой активности boot [bu:t] п 1) ботинок, сапог 2) р/ спорт бутсы bore [Ьэ:] п скучное занятие, скука bored [bad] а скучающий boredom ['bo:d3m] п скука boring [Ъапо] а надоедливый, скучный born [ban] past participle от bear; be -- родиться borrow [Ъогэи] V занимать, брать на время bossy ['bosi] а надменный both [Ьэи0] ргоп оба bother ['Ьодэ] 1. п беспокойство, хлопоты 2. V надоедать, беспокоить boundary ['baundori] п граница bout [baut] п приступ; of Lassa fever приступ тропической лихорадки; -- of tonsillitis воспаление миндалин bracket [Ъгаеки] п скобка branch [bro:nin п ветвь brave [breiv] а храбрый, смелый breadline ['bredlain] п очередь безработных за бесплатным питанием break [breik] v (broke, broken) ломать; --away убежать, вырваться; down 1) разбивать 2) разрушать(ся) brick [bnk] л кирпич bride [braid] л невеста bridge [bncfe] v 1) наводить мост 2) прсодо левать препятствие brief [bn;f] а краткий, сжатый; лаконичный bright [brait] а 1) яркий 2) смышленый brighten ['braitn] v улучшать brilliant ['bnljant] a блестящий bring [bno] V (brought) приносить brotherhood ['brAdahud] n братство brovm [braun] 1. a коричневый 2. v поджаривать, подрумянивать brush [ЬглЛ V чистить щеткой bubble [ЪлЫ] л пузырь bucket ['Ьлкп] л ведро budge [Ьлф] v(b отриц. предл.) шевелиться budget ['Ьлфп] л бюджет build [bild] V (built) строить bulb [Ьл1Ь] л электрическая лампа bunch [Ьлп1(] л разг. группа, компания burden ['b3:dn] л 1) ноша, тяжесть 2) бремя, обуза bureau ['Ь]и9гэи] л (р/ bureaux [-гэиг]) бюро burn [Ьз:п] V (burnt) жечь, гореть bush [buj] л 1) куст 2) большие пространства некультивированной земли 3) чаща buy [bai] V (bought) покупать С с cabinet ['kasbinst] л кабинет министров calculate ['kaelkjuleit] v вычислять, подсчитывать calculation [,k£elkju'lcijn] л вычисление calculator ['kselkjuleito] л калькулятор call [ко:1] 1- л эяонпк пп телефону 2. v 1) (по)звать, окликать 2) звонить по телефону 3) звать; - out называть (по спис-ку) calm [кат] а спокойный, тихий, мирный camera ['кжтэгэ] л фотоаппарат camp [кгетр] л лагерь campaign [ksem'pein] л кампания сап [кжп] л жестяная коробка, банка cancer ['кжпвэ] л мед. рак canyon ['kaenjan] л каньон, глубокое ущелье с 304 capacity [ko'paesoti] n способность capital ['ktepitl] n столица caption ['kaep/n] n заголовок (статьи, главы) capture ['кжруЪ] у захватывать, брать в плен carbon ['ка:Ьэп] п хим. углерод card [ka:d] п 1) билет 2) карточка саге [кеэ] 1. п забота, попечение; take ^ of заботиться о 2, v (for, of, about) заботиться career [кэ'пэ] n карьера careful ['кеэП) a 1) заботливый 2) осторожный 3) точный, аккуратный carpet ['ktrpit] п ковер carry ['кэеп) v 1) везти 2) нести; -- out выполнять cartoon [ka'tu:n] п мультфильм cash [k£ej] п деньги cassette (ka'set) п кассета cast [ka.st] v (cast) распределять (роли) catatog(ue) ['кж1э1|>д] п каталог catastrophe [ko'tajstrofi] п катастрофа catch [kaetj] v (caught) ловить, схватывать categorical [,кш1э'длпк1] а 1) категоричный 2) решительный category ['калэдэп] п категория; разряд cause [ko:z] 1, п причина 2. v быть причиной cautious ['koijas) а осторожный, предусмотрительный cavort [ka'vDit] v разг. прыгать, скакать CD [,si: 'di:] п компакт-диск celebrate ['selsbreit] v праздновать cell [sel] n электрическая батарейка Celsius ['selsias) n термометр Цельсия Celtic ('keink, 'selnk] a кельтский cent [sent] n цент centre ['senlsj 1, n центр, середина 2. v no-мещать(ся) в центре century ['sentfsn] n век ceremonial [,sen'mDuni3l] a формальный, официальный certain ['s3:tn] a 1) attr определенный; один, некий, некоторый 2) predic уверенный chain [tjein] n цепь; цепочка chairman ['^еэтэп] n {pi chairmen) председатель challenge ['^геЬпф] v 1) вызывать, бросать вызов 2) подвергать сомнению chamber ['tfeimbo] п палата champagne [I'aem'pein] п шампанское chance [ifa:ns] п 1) случай 2) шанс chancellor ['tfoinsals] п канцлер change [tfeincfe] 1. п изменение, перемена 2. V менять(ся), изменять(ся) channel ['tfaeni] п пролив chaos ['keiDs] п хаос chaperone ['Гжрогэип] v сопровождать character ['kaenkta] п 1) характер 2) тип, персонаж characterise ['kaenktaraiz] v характеризовать characteristic [.kasnkta'ristik] 1. a (of) характерный 2. n характерная черта charge [l/a:d5] n забота; free of - бесплатный; in of в ответе за что-л. charity ['tfienii] n благотворительность chart [ya:t] n таблица; схема cheap [^i:p] a дешевый check [yek] 1. n контроль, проверка 2. v проверять, контролировать cheer [Ую] v приветствовать громкими возгласами; - up подбадривать, утешать cheerful ['У'юА] а бодрый, веселый chemical ['kemikl] а химический cheque (ifek) п банковский чек cherry ['Уеп] п вишня chess [fes] п шахматы chew [tfu:] v жевать childhood ('yaildhud] n детство childish ['ifaildij] a детский, ребяческий chimney ['tfimnij n труба chocolate ('tfnklrt] n шоколад choice [tfois] n выбор choose Itfxxiz] v (chose, chosen) 1) выбирать 2) предпочитать chore [tfo:] n домашняя работа Christ [kraisi] n Христос; for sake ради Бога church [1/з:У] n церковь cigarette [.sigo'ret] n папироса, сигарета cinematography [,sinim3'tDgrofi] n кинематография circle ['s3:kl] n 1) круг 2) группа circumstance ['s3:kDmsta;ns] n обстоятельство, случай; under •'•s при обстоятельствах OCABULARY citizen ['sitizn] n гражданин citizenship ['sitiznjip] n гражданство civil ['sivl] a гражданский claim [kleim] v требовать clan [Risen] n клан, род clash [к1жЛ ^ сталкиваться, стукаться classify ['klsesifai] v классифицировать clear [klio] a 1) ясный 2) прозрачный clerk [klo:k] n клерк, чиновник clever ['klevo] a 1) умный 2) способный climate ['klaimit] n климат climatic [klai'msetik] a климатический climb [klaim] v взбираться, карабкаться clock [kink] n часы (стенные, настольные) clone [к1эип] V клонировать close 1, V [kl3i;z] закрывать 2. a [kbus] 1) близкий 2) тесный cloth [klD0] n ткань, сукно clothes [kisudz] n pi одежда clumsy ['kKmzi] a неуклюжий coach potato [,кэи^ рэЧепэи] n лентяй coalition [,kdnaMi/n] n коалиция, союз coast [koust] n морской берег, побережье coat [кэтп] V покрывать (слоем чего-л.) cocaine [кэи'кеш] п кокаин cold [kauld] а холодный collage [кпЧа'з] п коллаж collect [ka'lekt] v собирать collective [kd'lektrv] a коллективный college ['knlicfe] n колледж colloquial [ks'lsukwidl] a разговорный colony ['knloni] n колония colossal [ko'lnsl] a колоссальный, грандиозный colour ['кл1э] n цвет colourful ['кл1эЛ] a красочный, яркий column ['кп1эт] n 1) столбик 2) графа comb [кэит] v расчесывать combine [кэт'Ьаш] v 1) объединять(ся) 2) комбинировать, сочетать(ся) combustible [knm'bAst^bl] а горючий соте [клт] v (came, come) приходить, подходить; - round заходить к кому-л.; -- up выступать comfort ['клтГэ1] п 1) утешение 2) покой 3) комфорт comfortable ['клтЛэЬ!] а удобный, комфортабельный, уютный command [k?'ma*nd] п 1) команда, приказ 2) командование commandment [ko'mandmdnt] п заповедь comment ['knment] 1. п комментарий 2. v (on, upon) комментировать что-л. commercial [k;)'m:5:Jl] 1. а юр1ивый, коммерческий 2. п разг. радио- или телереклама commercialisation [ko^mai/alai'zeijn] п коммерциализация commit [ka'mit] v: ^ suicide покончить жизнь самоубийством committee [кэ'тП|] п комитет common ['кптэп] 1. а обычный, обыкновенный 2, п: in совместно commonplace ['kDmsnpIcis] 1. п общее место, банальность 2. а банальный Commonwealth ['komanwelO] п содружество communalism ['komjunolizm] п общинность, коллективность, коммунализм communication [k9,mju:ni'kei/n] п 1) передача, сообщение 2) общение community [кэ'т]и:пэ11] п 1) община, общество 2) местность compact 1. п ['knmpseki] соглашение 2. а [kam'paeki] компактный company ['клтрэш] п компания, общество compare [кэш'реэ] v сравнивать comparison [kdm'pscrisn] п сравнение compensation [^kompan'sei/n] п возмещение, компенсация competition [,kompi4i/n] п соревнование complain [kam'plein] v жаловаться complaint [kdm'plcmt] n жалоба complete [кэт'рИл] v заканчивать, завершать completely [kom'piLtii] ac/v совершенно, полностью complex ['knmpleksj a 1) сложный, составной 2) трудный complicated ['komplikeitid] a запутанный, сложный comprehension [,knmpn'henjn] n понимание compromise ['knmpramaiz] 1. n компромисс 2. V пойти на компромисс compulsory [кэт'рлкэп] а обязательный comrade ['knmrid] п товарищ, компаньон con [кэп, коп] п {сокр. от contra): the pros and ^s за и против 306 concentration |,kDns3n'treiJn] n концентрация, сосредоточение concern [кэп'$з:п] v 1) касаться, иметь отношение 2) заботиться, беспокоиться concerned [кэп'$з:пс1] а 1) занятый (чем-л.), имеющий отношение к чему-л. 2) озабоченный concerning [кэп'$з:шо] ргер о, относительно, касательно concert ['konsot] п концерт conclusion [кэп'Ыизп] п заключение condition [kan'dijn] п условие confirm [кэп'Гз:т] v подтверждать conform [кэп'Гэ:т] v подчиняться conformity [кэп'Гэгтш] п подчинение confuse [kdn'fjucz] v 1) смущать, приводить в замешательство 2) смешивать, спутывать confusing [kan'Quizio] з запутывающий Congress ('koogres] п АЕ Конгресс conquer ['коокэ] v завоевывать conscious ['konjds] а 1) осознающий, понимающий 2) ощущающий consequence ['konsikwsns] п следствие conservationist [,kDns3'veiJmst] п человек, охраняющий природу conservative [kan'ssrvotiv] а 1) консервативный 2) умеренный consider [ksn'sidd] v 1) обдумывать, обсуждать 2) полагать considerable [ksn'sidrsbl] а 1) значительный, большой 2) важный consideration [ksn^sids'rei/n] п 1) рассмотрение 2) соображение; take into принять во внимание consist [kan'sist] v состоять (of из) consistent [kan'sistsnt] a 1) совместимый, согласующийся 2) последовательный consolidation [kdn,sDli'dei/n] n объединение, консолидация constantly ['konstdntli] adv постоянно construction [кэп'5!глк/п] n строительство consult [kan'sAlt] v советоваться contact ['kontaekt] n контакт contain [кэпЧеш] v содержать в себе contemporary [кэпЧетргэп] 1, л 1) современник 2) сверстник 2. а современный context ['komekst) п 1) контекст 2) ситуация continent ['китшэт] п материк, континент continue [kdn'tinju:] v продолжать(ся) contradict [^kontrs'dikt] v противоречить, возражать contrary ['котгэп] a противоположный; on the наоборот contrast ['koniroist] n противоположность contribution [ДотпЪ]и:/п] n взнос, пожертвование contributory [kan'lnbjutn] a делающий пожертвование, взнос control [kon'traul] v контролировать convenience [kan'virnians] n удобство convention [kdn'venjn] n соглашение conversation [,kDnvd'seiJn] n разговор, беседа convertible [kdn'vsitibl] 1. n автомобиль c откидным верхом 2. a обратимый, превращаемый convince [kan'vms] v убеждать, уверять cook [кик] V готовить, варить cool [кш]] 1. а 1) прохладный, свежий 2) спокойный, невозмутимый 3) разг. классный 2. v: ^ off успокаиваться, остывать cooperate [кэи'орэгеп] v сотрудничать cooperation [кэи,орэ'ге1/п] п сотрудничество cooperative [кэи'орзгэну] а совместный, объединенный coordinate [ksu'Didineit] v координировать соре [кэир] V справиться сору ['kopi] V переписывать; копировать cordless ['koidlds] а без провода core [кэ;] п сердцевина, ядро corn [ко:п] п 1) зерно 2) АЕ кукуруза, маис corner ['кэ:пэ] п угол correct [ks'rekt] 1. а правильный, точный 2. V исправлять correspond [,kon4pDnd] v соответствовать corruption [кэ'глр/п] п продажность, коррупция cost [kost] 1. п цена, стоимость 2. v (cost) стоить couch [каи^ п кушетка council ['kaunsl] п совет counterpart ['каишэро:!] п 1) двойник 2) копия 307 countryside ['kAntnsaid] n сельская местность couple ['клр1] n пара courageous [кэ'ге|фэ8] a смелый, отважный course (ka:s) n: of - конечно court [кол] n суд; Supreme C. Верховный Суд cover ('клуэ] 1. л 1) обложка 2) покрывало 2. V покрывать, закрывать cowboy ('kauboi] п АЕ ковбой crack [кпек] п 1} треск 2) трещина cracker ['кгшкэ] п разг. взломщик компьютерных сетей crash [кгэеЛ v 1) падать, валиться 2) потерпеть аварию crazy ['kreizi] а сумасшедший: разг. помешанный на чем-л. creamy ['kitmi] а 1) сливочный 2) кремовый create [kn'eit] v творить, создавать creation [kn'ei/n] п 1) созидание 2) создание, творение credit ['kredit] п 1) вера, доверие 2) кредит crew [kiu] п экипаж, команда crime [kraim] п преступление criminal ['knmini) 1. а преступный 2, п преступник criminal trial ['knminl Дга1э1] п суд по уголовным делам criticise ['kntisaiz] v критиковать cross [kros] n крест crosstalk ['krostoik] n 1) помеха, вмешательство в телефонный разговор 2) вопрос-ответ crowd [kraud] 1. п толпа 2. v толпиться cruel ['кги:э1] а жестокий cruelty ['kruialli] п жестокость crush [кглЛ 1. п раздавливание, дробление 2. V 1) давить, дробить 2) уничтожать cry [krai] V 1) кричать 2) плакать cucumber ['к]и:клтЬэ] п огурец cunning ['клшо] а коварный, хитрый cure [kjus] п 1) лекарство 2) лечение 3) излечение curfew ['кз:би;] п воем, комендантский час curiosity [,kju3n'os9ti] п любопытство customer ['кльитэ] п покупатель, клиент customs fkAStdmz] п р1 таможня cut [кл1] V (cut) резать, разрезать, срезать; -- down рубить; ^ off отрезать, сокращать: out вырезать cute [kju:t] а 1) умный, сообразительный 2) привлекательный cycle ['saikl] п разг {иикр. oi bicycle) велосипед cyclone ['saikidun] п циклон D d daily ['deili] a ежедневный dain [dein] n разг. зловоние damage ['damicfe) v вредить, портить dance [da:ns] 1. n танец 2. v танцевать danger ['deincfea] n 1) опасность 2) угроза dangerous ['deinc^rds] a опасный dark [do:k] a темный date [deit] 1. л 1) дата, число; up to ~ стоящий на уровне современных требований; современный 2) разг. свидание; тот. кому назначают свидание 2. v 1) датировать 2) АЕ разг. назначать свидание day [dci] л день, сутки; *' off выходной день daylight ['deilait] л дневной свет day-to-day [^deio'dei] а повседневный dead [ded] 1. а мертвый 2. adv эмоц.-усил. дб смерти, крайне; ~ happy очень счастливый deal [di:l] 1. л количество; а great (а good) of много 2. V (dealt) 1) распр>еделять 2) (in, with) заниматься (чем-л.) dear [dis] а дорогой, милый, любезный death [de0] л смерть debate [di'beit] 1. л дискуссия 2. v обсуждать deceitful [di'silfl] а 1) лживый, предательский 2) обманчивый decide [di'^aid] v решать decision [di'sisn] л решение decker ['deka] л палубное судно declare [di'kles] v заявлять, провозглашать decode [,di:'k3ud] v расшифровывать decoration [,dek3'reijn] л украшение decorative ['dekrotiv] a декоративный deduction [di'dAk/n] n 1) удержание 2) скидка deejay ['di:cfeci] л диктор, ведущий программу, составленную из звукозаписей 308 deep [di:p] a 1) глубокий 2) серьезный defence [diTens] n оборона, защита defend [di'fend] v оборонять(ся) defendant [di'fendsnt] n юр. ответчик, подсудимый define [diTain] v 1) определять 2) характеризовать definitely ['defnatli] adv определенно, ясно, несомненно definition (,def3'ni/n] n определение defrost [,di:'frost] v размораживать, таять defy [diTai] v 1) вызывать, бросать вызов 2) пренебрегать degree [di'gri:] n степень deliver [diMivs] v 1) передавать, вручать 2) доставлять (почту, товары) delivery [di'livn] п доставка, разноска delve [delv] v погружаться в изучение demand [di'nia:nd] v требовать demonstrate ['demsnstreit] v демонстрировать, показывать demonstration [^demsn'streijn] n 1) демонстрация, манифестация 2) доказательство denote [di'nout] v 1) указывать, показывать 2) обозначать department [di'pixtmarn] n отдел depend [di'pend] v (on, upon) зависеть от dependence [di'pendsns] n зависимость dependent [di'pendant] a зависимый, обусловленный depict [di'pikt] v рисовать, изображать depressed [di'prest] a угнетенный, унылый deputy ['depjuti] n депутат descendant [di'sendam] a происходящий, ведущий свое происхождение describe [di'skraib] v описывать, изображать description [di'skripjn] n описание desert ['dezai] n пустыня design [di'zain] 1. n проект, план, набросок 2, V конструировать, составлять desire [di'zais] 1. п сильное желание 2. v желать, хотеть desk [desk] п 1) письменный стол 2) парта despite [di'spait] prep несмотря на destroy [di'stroi] v уничтожать, разрушать detail ['di:teil] n подробность, деталь detect [di'tekt] v обнаруживать, открывать detective [drtcktiv] 1, n сыщик, детектив 2, a детективный detention [di'tenjn] n школ, оставление после уроков в качестве наказания develop [di'velap] v развивать(ся), совершенствовать development [di'vetspmdnt] п развитие device [di'vais] п устройство, приспособление devil ['devl] п дьявол, бес devote [di'vaut] v посвящать, уделять diagnose ['daisgnauz] v мед. ставить диагноз diagnosis [,dai3g'ndu$is] п {pi diagnoses [-i:z]) диагноз dial ['daidt] v набирать номер diary ['daianj n дневник die [dai] v умирать (for за что-л.; of, from от чего-л.) diesel ['di:zl] n тех. дизель diet ['daiat] 1, n диета 2. v быть на диете differ ['difa] v различаться, отличаться difference ['difrans] n разница, различие different ['difront] a 1) другой 2) разный difficult ['difikit] a трудный, тяжелый difficulty ['difiklti] n трудность digital ['didsrtl] a цифровой dignity ['dignm] n достоинство; live to some degree of жить достойно dioxide [dai'nksaid] n хим. двуокись direct [di'rekt] 1, a 1) прямой 2) непосредственный 2. V 1) руководить 2) режиссировать, ставить кинофильм direction [di'rek/n] п 1) направление 2) р/ директивы, инструкция director [di'rckta] п 1) директор 2) режиссер dirigible ['бтф|Ь1] п дирижабль dirty ['d3:ti] а грязный, испачканный disability [^disD'bilm] п нетрудоспособность disabled [dis'eibid] а искалеченный disadvantage [,dis3d'vantic^] п 1) невыгодное, неблагоприятное положение 2) вред disagree [^disa'gri:] v не соглашаться disagreement [,dis3'gri:m3nt] п разногласие disappear [.diss'pid] v исчезать, пропадать, скрываться CABULA 309 disappoint [,dis3'p3int] v разочаровывать disapprove [,dis3'pru^'] v не одобрять disaster [di'zaista] n бедствие, катастрофа discipline ['disiplm] v 1) дисциплинировать 2) обучать disco ['dtskau] n {сокр. от discotheque) дискотека discount ['diskaunt] n скидка discover [dis'kAvs] v делать открытие discovery [dis'kAvari] n открытие discrimination [di,sknmi'neijn] n дискриминация discuss [di'skAs] v обсуждать discussion [di'skAjn] n обсуждение disease [di'zkz] n болезнь dish [dij] n 1) блюдо, тарелка 2) pi посуда 3) кушанье dishwasher ['dij^wpfs] n посудомоечная машина disinfect [,dism'fekt] v дезинфицировать disinfected [,disin'fektid] a дезинфицирующий dislike [dis'laik] 1. n нелюбовь, неприязнь 2, V не любить, испытывать неприязнь disorder [dis'ords] п беспорядок dispose [di'spouz] v располагать, размещать disputable [di'spju:tobl] а спорный, неясный dissolve [di'znlv] v распускать distance ['distons] n расстояние distinct [di'stiokt] a 1) ясный, отчетливый 2) разный, различный 3) отличающийся distinguish [di'stiogwi^ v отличать, различать distribute [di'stnbju:t] v распределять distribution [,distn'bju:Jn] n распределение district ['distnkt] n округ, участок divide [di'vaid] v делить(ся); разделять(ся) divine [di'vain] a божественный DJ [,di: 'cfeei] n cm. deejay do [du;] n 1) участие, доля 2) поступок; dos and don’ts правила поведения documentary [^dokju'menlsn] n документальный фильм dole [daul] n пособие no безработице donation [dau'neijn] n пожертвование, дар dot [dm] n точка double [МлЫ] 1. V удваивать(ся) 2. a двойной; date двойное (парное) свидание doubt [dam] 1. n сомнение; no -- несомненно, вне сомнения 2. v сомневаться, иметь сомнения down [daun] 1. adv 1) вниз 2) внизу 2. prep 1) вниз 2) no downstairs [,daun'steoz] adv 1) вниз 2) внизу, в нижнем этаже drag [draeg] 1. п бремя, обуза; be а - быть скучным, нудным 2. V тащить, волочить drama ['drama] п драма dramatic [dra'msetik] а 1) драматический 2) драматичный draw [dro;] v (drew, drawn) 1) тащить, волочить 2) привлекать (внимание, интерес); ^ back отступать, выходить из дела, игры drawback ['drabask] п недостаток dreadful ['dredfl] а 1) ужасный, страшный 2) разг. очень плохой dream [dri:m] 1, п 1) сон 2) мечта 2. v (dreamt) 1) видеть сон 2) мечтать dress [dres] 1, п платье, одежда 2. v одеваться; ~ up наряжать(ся) drink [dnok] 1. п питье, напиток; soft -s безалкогольные напитки 2. v (drank, drunk) пить, выпивать drive [draiv] v (drove, driven) вести (автомобиль), ехать (в автомобиле); - smb nuts сводить с ума drop [drop] V 1) ронять 2) капать; out (of) перестать (посещать) drought [dram] п засуха drug [dr\g] п 1) лекарство 2) наркотик drum [drAm] п барабан dry [drai] 1. а 1) сухой 2) скучный 2. v су-шить(ся) due [dju;] а 1) должный, обязанный 2) - to благодаря, из-за duke [djuik] п герцог dull [с1л1] а 1) тупой, глупый 2) тусклый, неяркий Duma ['dams] п Дума dumb [dUm] а 1) немой 2) глупый duration [dju'reijn] п продолжительность during ['djusno] prep в течение, во время dust [dASt] п пыль Dutch [dAt(] а голландский; до платить свою часть за угощение, устроить складчину 310 duty ['djiui] n долг, обязанность dwell [dwel] v (dwelt) 1) обитать, жить 2) (on) подробно останавливаться (на чем-л.) dye [dai] 1. п краска, краситель 2. v красить, окрашивать dynamic [dai'naemik] а 1) динамический 2) динамичный, активный dynamite ['dainamait] п динамит Е е each [i:^] ргоп каждый; ~ other друг друга eager ['гдэ] а страстно стремящийся, нетерпеливый; be - гореть желанием ear [id] п ухо early ['3:Ii] 1. а ранний 2. adv рано earn [з:п] v зарабатывать earring ['idno] п серьга earth [з:6] п земля, земной шар ease [i:z] v облегчать, успокаивать east [i:st] 1. п восток 2. а восточный easy ['i:zi] 1. а легкий, нетрудный 2. adv легко eat [i:t] v (ate, eaten) есть, поедать, питаться echo ['екэи] п эхо economic [,екэ'попик] а экономический economy [I'konsmi] п экономика editor ['edits] п редактор education [,edju'keijn] п образование educational [^edju'kei/nsl] а образовательный; воспитательный; учебный educator f'edjukeitd] п воспитатель effect [I'fekt] п результат, следствие effective [I'fektiv] а эффективный efficiency [I'fijnsi] п 1) эффективность 2) умение efficient [I'fi/nt] а 1) эффективный, действенный 2) целесообразный effort ['efdt] п усилие, напряжение either ['aidd] 1. ргоп один из двух, оба, и тот и другой 2. а тот или другой, любой (из двух) 3. су или; ... or ... или ... или elderly ['eldsli] а пожилой elders ['elddz] п р1 старшие election [I'lek/n] п выборы; general ~ всеобщие выборы electronic [i,lek'tn)nik] а электронный eligibility [,elic^'biliti] п право на избрание, доступность eloquent ['eldkwdntj а красноречивый else [els] adv 1) (с ргоп indef и ргоп inter) еще, кроме 2) {обыкн. после or) иначе, или же embroidery [im'broidn] п вышивка emerge [i'm3:d5] v появляться, показываться emergency [i'm3:c|3dnsi] п 1) непредвиденный случай; крайняя необходимость 2) чрезвычайные обстоятельства; case экстренный случай; ^ doctor врач скорой помощи emission [I'mijn] п 1) распространение, излучение 2) выпуск, эмиссия emotion [rmdufn] п 1) волнение, возбуждение 2) эмоция, чувство emotional [I'mdufndl] а 1) эмоциональный 2) волнующий emphatic [im'faetik] а выразительный, подчеркнутый empire ['empais] п 1) империя 2) верховная власть employ [im'pbi] v нанимать на работу employee [im'pbii:] п служащий employer [im'pbid] п работодатель empty ['empti] а пустой enable [I'neibl] v давать возможность или право (сделать что-л.) encourage [in'kAncfe] v 1) ободрять 2) поощрять, поддерживать encyclopedia [in,saikb'pi:did] п энциклопедия end [end] 1. п конец 2. v кончать(ся) ending ['endio] п окончание endless ['endlds] а 1) бесконечный, нескончаемый 2) бесчисленный endure [m'djud] v терпеть, переносить enemy ['endmi] п враг energy ['endc^j п энергия, сила engine ['епфп] п двигатель engineer [,enctp'nid] п инженер enjoy [in'cfeoi] V получать удовольствие enjoyable [т'фэ1эЫ] а приятный, доставляющий удовольствие enlist [[n'list] V 1) поступать на военную службу 2) вступать в члены ш 311 enough (iWi] 1. a достаточный 2. adv достаточно ensure [ш'/иэ] v обеспечивать, гарантировать enter ['ешэ] v 1) входить 2) поступать (в учебм. заведение) entertain [,enta'tein] v 1) принимать гостей 2) развлекать, занимать (гостей) entertainment [,етэЧе1птэт] п 1) зрелище, представление 2) развлечение, увеселение enthusiasm [m'0ju:zi£ezm] п энтузиазм enthusiastic [in,0ju:zraestik] а 1) восторженный, полный энтузиазма 2) увлеченный entirely [in'taisli] adv всецело, вполне entitle [m'taitl] v 1) озаглавливать, называть 2) (to) давать право на что-л. envelop [in'vebp] v окутывать, покрывать envelope ['envaloup] п конверт; обертка environment [шЧаюгэптэт] п окружающая среда, окружение environmental [m,vaidrdn'mentl] а относящийся к окружающей среде equal ['i:kwdl] а равный equality [I'kwDliti] п 1) равенство 2) равноправие equator [I'kweita] п экватор equipment [I'kwipmdnt] п оборудование equivalence [I'kwivlsns] п экьивален1нос1ь, равноценность equivalent [I'kwivbnl] п эквивалент escort ['eskat] v сопровождать especially [I'spepi] adv особенно essay ['esei] n очерк, эссе essential [I'senjl] a 1) существенный 2) необходимый establish [I'staebliJ] v основывать, учреждать establishment [I'staebhjmani] n 1) установление, основание, создание 2) учреждение etc [ct'setre] adv и т. д., и т. п. etiquette ['eiikel] п этикет, церемониал evacuation (i,vaekju'eijn] п эвакуация evaluate [I'vseljueit] v оценивать evaluation [i,v2elju'eij3n] n оценка, определение (количества, качества и т. п.) even ('i:vn] adv даже event [I'vent] n случай, событие eventually [I'ventfusli] adv в конечном счете, в конце концов, со временем ever ['evo] adv когда-либо everglade ['evsgleid] n болотистая равнина, местами поросшая высокой травой everybody ['cvribudi] pron indef каждый (человек) everyday ['evndei] a ежедневный everyone ['evriWAii] pron indef = everybody everything ('evriGio] pron indef всё everywhere ['evnvved] adv всюду, везде evidence ['evidns] n 1) очевидность 2) основание; данные признаки evil ['i:vl| 1. n зло 2. a зловещий evolution [,i:v3'lu:Jn] n 1) развитие, процесс роста 2) эволюция ex [eks] n разг. бывшая жена, бывший муж exact [ig'ziekt] а точный examination [ig^z^emi'neijh] п экзамен examine [ig'z£min] v 1) рассматривать 2) проверять 3) экзаменовать example [ig'zanipl] п пример excel [ik'sel] v превосходить, выделяться excellent ['eksldnt] а превосходный, великолепный, отличный except [ik'sept] prep кроме exception [ik'sepjn] n исключение excess [ik'ses] n избыток, излишек; to ^ слишком много exchange [iks'tjeinc^] v менять(ся) excited [ik'saitid] a взволнованный excitement [ik'saitmant] n волнение exciting [ik'saitio] a увлекательный, волнующий exclamation [.ekskls'meijn] n восклицание exclude [ik'sklird] v не допускать, исключать excursion [ik'sksijn] n экскурсия excuse [ik'skju:z] 1. n 1) извинение 2) оправдание 2. V извинять, прощать executive [ig'zekjuiiv] a исполнительный exhausting [ig'zo:slio] a утомительный exist [ig'zist] v 1) быть, существовать 2) жить existence [ig'zistns] n существование expect [ik'spekt] v 1) ожидать 2) рассчитывать, надеяться expectation [,ekspek4eijn] n ожидание, надежда expenditure [ik'spenditfd] n расход 'OCABULARY 312 expense [ik'spens] n расход, трата expensive [ik'spensw] a дорогостоящий experience [ik'spisnans] n 1) опыт 2) случай experiment [ik'spenmsnt] 1. n опыт, эксперимент 2, V проводить эксперимент expert ['екьрзи] п специалист explain [ik'splein] v объяснять explanation [,ekspld'neijn] n объяснение exploitation [,ekspbi'tei/n] n эксплуатация explosion [ik'spl3U3n] n взрыв export 1. n ['ekspo:t] экспорт 2. v [ik'spDn] экспортировать exposure [ik'sp3U3o] n 1) выставление ^лод дождь, солнце и т. п.) 2) разоблачение express [ik'spres] v выражать expression [ik'sprejn] n выражение extra ['ekstra] a дополнительный extract ['ekstraekt] n отрывок extracting [ik'straektio] a извлекающий, добывающий extraordinary [ik'strordnn] a 1) необычайный 2) чрезвычайный extreme [ik'strirni] a крайний, предельный eye [ai] n глаз F f fabric ['fajbrik] n материя, ткань facade [Гэ'зсис!] n внешняя сторона face [feis] 1. л 1) лицо 2) поверхность 2. v сталкиваться (с чем-л.) facility [fo'sihii] л (обыкн. р1) возможности, благоприятные условия facsimile [fsek'simili] л факсимиле, фототелеграф factor [Таек1э] л фактор, движущая сила factory ['faektn] л фабрика, завод fad [fed] л причуда, преходящее увлечение Fahrenheit [Taeranhait] л термометр Фаренгейта failure [Teilja] л неудача fair [Геэ] а 1) уст. прекрасный, красивый 2) белокурый 3) честный fairly [Teali] adv 1) справедливо 2) довольно, в известной степени fairy [Теэп] 1. л фея, волшебница 2. а волшебный, сказочный fall [Гэ:1] 1. л (обыкн. р1) водопад 2, v (fell, fallen) падать; ^ in love влюбиться false [fals] a ложный, неверный familiar [fa'milia] a хорошо знакомый famous [Tcinids] a знаменитый, известный fan [faen] л болельщик, фанат fanatic [fo'nsetik] л фанатик fancy [Ticnsi] 1 ■ a 1) причудливый 2) фантастический 2. V нравиться fantastic [faen'taestik] a фантастический fantasy ['fasntasi] л воображение, фантазия far [fa;) adv (farther, further; farthest, furthest) гораздо, намного fashion ['faejn] л стиль, мода; be in быть в моде; out of -- вышедший из моды fashionable [Тзе/пэЫ] а модный fast [farst] а быстрый fat [fset] 1. а тучный, толстый 2. п жир, сало fate [feu] л судьба, рок favour I'feivo] л одолжение, любезность favourite ['feivnt] а любимый fax [fa;ks] л = facsimile fear [fi3] 1. л страх, боязнь 2, v бояться feature [Tiitfo] 1. л attr: ^ film художественный фильм 2. V изображать federal [Tcdrsl] а федеральный federation [,feda'rei/n] л федерация, союз fee [fi;] л взнос, плата feed [fi:d] v (fed) кормить; fed up разг. сытый по горло feel [fi:l] v (felt) чувствовать feeling [Tulio] л чувство, ощущение, сознание fellow [Те1эи] л устар. человек, парень fertile ['f3:tail) а 1) плодородный 2) плодовитый, насыщенный festival [Testivl] л фестиваль, празднество few [fju;] а немного, немногие, несколько (тж. а - ) fiction [Tikjn] л 1) художественная литература 2) вымысел field [ftld] л поле; большое пространство fight [fail] 1. л драка, борьба 2, v (fought) драться, сргокаться, бороться fill [fil] V наполнять(ся), заполнять(ся); in заполнять filling ['filiol л заправка горючим; АЕ ^ station [Tilio ,stcijn] бензоколонка film [film] 1- n 1) пленка 2) фильм, кино 2. V снимать кино finally ['fainli] adv в конце, в заключение finance [Tainaens] п 1) финансовое дело 2) р/ финансы, доходы find [faind] v (found) находи 1ь, out узнать, разузнать, выяснить findings [Taindioz] п р1 полученные данные fine [fain] а 1) прекрасный 2) ясный (о погоде) 3) нежный, изящный fine [fain] 1. л штраф 2. v штрафовать finish [TimJ] 1. п конец 2. v 1) кончать(ся) 2) завершать 3) прекращать; up заканчивать начатое fire [Таю] 1. л 1) огонь 2) пожар 2. v зажигать firearm [Таюгсгт] л (обыкн. р1) огнестрельное оружие fireworks [Taiswsiks] л р1 фейерверк firm [f3:m] 1. а крепкий, твердый 2. adv твердо, крепко firstly ['f3:stli) adv во-первых fishing [TiJiq] л рыбная ловля fit [fit] 1. а здоровый 2. v соответствовать fitness [Titnis] л хорошая физическая форма fix [fiks] V 1) укреплять, закреплять, устанавливать 2) АЕ приводить в порядок, чинить flash [flaej] л вспышка, сверкание flat [flaet] 1. л 1) квартира 2) плоскость 3) равнина 2. а плоский, ровный flight [flait] л 1) полет 2) ав. рейс flood [flAd] 1. л наводнение 2. v затоплять flower ['Яаиэ] л цветок fly [flai] 1. л полет 2, v (flew, flown) летать folk [fauk] л 1) (употр. во мн. ч.) люди 2) attr народный follow ['1Ыэи] V следовать following ['fblauin] а следующий fond [tbnd] а любящий; be of smb, smth любить кого-л., что-л. fondness ['fbndnas] л нежность, любовь football-mad ['futbo:l,maed] а помешанный на футболе forbid [fs'bid] V (forbade, forbidden) запрещать, не позволять force [fxs] 1. л сила 2. v заставлять forecast ['fo:kast] 1. л прогноз 2. v {past tense & past participle forecast or forecasted) предвидеть, предсказывать foreigner ['fbnna] n иностранец, иностранка forest ['fbrist] Л 1) лес 2) attr лесной forever [for'eva] adv навсегда, навеки forget [fa'get] v (forgot, forgotten) забывать formality [fo/mseliti] n 1) соблюденир угтя-новленных норм 2) формальность formally [Тэ:тэ11] adv официально fortunately ['fo:^i3tli] adv к счастью fortune [TD:tfn] л удача, счастливый случай forward [Towsd] adv вперед, дальше found [faund] v основывать, учреждать foundation [faun'deijn] л 1) фундамент, основание 2) р1 основы, устои 3) фонд foundry [Taundn] л литейный цех framework ['freimw3:k] л 1) структура 2) рамки; within the ~ of в рамках, в пределах frank [fraeok] а искренний frankly I'fneokii] adv искренне, откровенно free [fri:] 1, а 1) свободный 2) бесплатный 2. adv 1) свободно 2) бесплатно freedom ['fri:dam] л свобода freely ['fri:li] adv свободно, вольно freeman ['Гп:тэп] л полноправный гражданин freeze [fri:z] v (froze, frozen) замерзать, превращаться в лед frequent ['friikwani] а частый fresh [ГгеЛ з свежий freshwater ['fre/woita] а пресноводный friendliness ['frendlinas] л дружелюбие friendly [Trendli] а дружеский, дружелюбный frightening [Traitmo] а пугающий frightful [Traitfl] а страшный, ужасный fro [Ггэи] adv. to and взад и вперед; туда и сюда front [frAnt] л фасад, передняя сторона frontier ['Гглшю] л 1) граница 2)АЕ ист. граница продвижения переселенцев в США frontiersman [Тглшюгтэп] л 1) житель пограничной зоны 2) АЕ ист. переселенец 'OCABULARY 314 frost [frost] n мороз frown [fraun] n хмурый, недовольный вид frozen [Trouzn] a замороженный frustrated [frA'strertid] a 1) расстроенный 2) разочарованный frustration [frA'sirei/n] n 1) расстройство (планов) 2) разочарование fry [frai] V жарить(ся) full [ful] a полный, целый; In полностью, в полной мере full-length [,[Ы'!еов] а полный, без сокращений; film полнометражный фильм full-time [^furtaim] а занимающий полный рабочий день; work - работать полный рабочий день fully [Tull] adv вполне, совершенно, полностью fund [Глпс1] п 1) запас 2) фонд, капитал fundamental [jAnda'mentl] а основной funny [Тлт] а забавный, смешной further [Тз:дэ] 1. а 1) (сравн. ст. от far) более далекий 2) дальнейший; ~ education дальнейшее образование (исключая университетское) 2. adv {сравн. ст. от far) дальше fuss [f\s] 1. п суета, суматоха; таке а суетиться 2. v волноваться по пустякам futuristic [,fju:tfynsiik] а футуристический с 9 gadget ['джфп] п 1) приспособление, принадлежность (преим. техническая новинка) 2) пренебр. безделушка; ерунда gain [gem] 1. л 1) прибыль, выгода 2) р1 доходы; заработок 2. v получать, приобретать; weight увеличиваться в весе gallon ('дж1эп] л галлон (мера жидких и сыпучих тел) gang [gaeo] л 1) группировка 2) банда дар [даер] л 1) брешь, пролом, щель 2) промежуток, интервал garbage ['goibict;] л мусор gardening ['gacdnt^] л садоводство gas [gses] 1. л 1) газ 2) АЕ бензин, горючее 2. V АЕ заправляться горючим gasoline ['gaesdlirn] л АЕ бензин gate [geit] л ворота gather ('даедэ] v собирать gathering ['gaednol л собрание, встреча general ['фепгЫ] а 1) общий 2) обычный generalisation [,фепгэ1а1'ге1/п] л 1) обобщение 2) общее правило generally ['фепгэИ] adv обычно, как правило generate ['фепдгеп] v производить generation [,фепэТе1/п] л поколение generous ['efeenras] а 1) великодушный, благородный 2) щедрый genre ['зопгэ] л 1) жанр, манера 2) литературный стиль geographic [^фЬ'дгхПк] а = geographical geographical [^cfeb'graefikl] а географический geographic relief [c^i;d,gr£efik n'li:f] географический рельеф geography [(fei'ografi] л география get [gel] v (got) 1) получать; доставать 2) разг. понимать, постигать: ~ through справиться с чем-л.; up вставать giant ['(fear^nt] 1. л великан, гигант 2. а гигантский, громадный gifted ['giftid] а одаренный, талантливый gig [gtg] л разг. концерт, представление girlie ['дз:11] л {уменьш. от girl) девочка, девчушка give [gtv] v (gave, given) давать, отдавать; up оставить, отказаться glad [glaed] a 1) predic довольный 2) радостный glass [gla:s] л 1) стекло 2) стеклянная посуда 3) стакан glitter ['gilts] v блестеть, сверкать global warming [,glsubl 'wnimig] глобальное потепление glue [glu:] v клеить, приклеивать go [дэи] V (went, gone) идти, ходить; ~ on продолжать: ^ steady иметь постоянно-го(ую) возлюбленного(ую) goal [g?ul] л цель, задача God [god] л Бог gold [gsuld] а золотой gonna ['допэ] = going to собираться что-л. делать goodness ['gudnis] л доброта; великодушие; любезность; ^ gracious! Господи! (восклицание удивления или возмущения) goods [gudz] л р/ товар, товары V ’.V Ч ■/;-/ 4’t/2 Gothic ['goOik] a 1) готский 2) варварский. грубый, жестокий 3) готический (о стиле) government ['gAvnmsnt] п правительство grab [дггеЬ] v схватывать, хватать grade [greid] п АЕ ^} класс 2) отметка gradually ['дггес^эИ] adv постепенно graffiti [grse'flii] п граффити, рисунок или надпись на стене gramophone ['дгаетэГэип] п граммофон, патефон grand [graend] а грандиозный, большой, величественный grandma ['дгжпто:] п разг. бабушка grandmother ['дгэеп,тлдэ] п бабушка; great -- прабабушка grandpa ['graenpa] п разг. дедушка granite ['graenit] п 1) гранит 2) attr гранитный granny ['graeni] п разг. бабушка grant [gro:m] п 1) дотация, безвозмездная ссуда 2) стипендия greatly ['greitli] adv 1) очень, значительно, весьма 2) возвышенно, благородно greedy ['gri:di] а жадный Greek [gri:k] а греческий; it is ^ to me это для меня совершенно непонятно greenhouse ['grlnhaus] п теплица grid [gnd] п 1) решетка 2) радио, тле. модулятор 3) ЭЛ. энергетическая система 4) таблица groom [gru:m] п жених groove [дги.-у] п желобок, паз ground [graund] п 1) почва, земля 2) основание, мотив grouping ('gni:pio] п группировка grow [дгэи] v (grew, grown) расти, произрастать; up становиться взрослым growth [дгэив] п рост, развитие grumble ['дглтЫ] v ворчать guarantee [,даегэп'1к] v гарантировать guard [gad] 1. п охрана, стража 2. v охранять, сторожить, караулить guess [ges] v 1) угадывать, отгадывать 2) АЕ считать, полагать; I -- я думаю guest [gest] п гость, гостья guide [gaid] 1. п 1) экскурсовод 2) путеводитель 2. V быть чьим-л. гидом guilty ['giltij а виновный guitar [gi'ta] п гитара gum [длт] п сокр. от chewing gum жевательная резинка gun [длп] п АЕ разг револьвер, пистолет guy [gai] п разг парень 9Уп^ [dym] п сокр. разг от gymnasium или gymnastics gymnasium [фгт'петэт] п 1) гимнастический зал 2) гимназия gymnastics [c^ini'naestiks] п гимнастика Н h hacker ['haeka] п разг «хакер*», человек, хорошо владеющий компьютером hair [hea] п 1) волосы 2) волос, волосок haircut ['ЬеэклО п С1рижка hairdryer ['hed,draia] п фен half [hcd] п (р/ halves [-vz]) половина hall [Ьэ:1] п 1) зал 2) вестибюль, приемная hand [haend] 1. п рука; on the one ~ ... on the other - c одной стороны ... с другой стороны 2. V 1) передавать, вручать 2) посылать; ^ out выдавать, раздавать handle ['haendl] 1. п ручка, рукоятка 2. v управлять, регулировать hang [h£ol ^ (hung) 1) вешать 2) висеть; about {АЕ ^ around) шляться, слоняться happen ['Ьгерэп] v случаться, происходить happiness ['hsepmis] п счастье hard [had] 1. а твердый, жесткий 2. adv усердно, упорно hardly I'hadli] adv едва hardship ['hadjip] n 1) лишение, нужда 2) тяжелое испытание 3) трудность, неудобство hard-working [,had'w3:kig] а трудолюбивый harm [ha:m] 1. п вред. yutep6 2. v вредить, наносить ущерб harmony ['hamani] п 1) гармония 2) согласие harsh [haj] а 1) грубый, жесткий 2) резкий 3) суровый; - truth горькая правда harvest ['havist] 1. п жатва, уборка хлеба; сбор (яблок и т. п.) 2. V собирать урожай hate [heit] v ненавидеть hatred ['heitnd] n ненависть head [hed] n 1) голова 2) глава, руководитель 316 health [helO] n здоровье health care ['hel0 кеэ] забота о здоровье heap [hi:p] n куча, груда hear [hid] v (heard) 1) слышать 2) слушать heart [hurt] n сердце; by -- наизусть heat [hill] 1. n жара, жар 2. v нагревать(ся) heavily ['hevili] adv 1) тяжело 2) сильно heavy ['hevi] a тяжелый hedge [hed3] n (живая) изгородь heighten ['haitn] v повышать(ся) helicopter ['hclikopta] n вертолет hell [hel] n ад help [help] 1. n помощь 2. v помогать helpless ['helpids] a беспомощный here [hid] adv здесь, тут hero ['hidfdu] n герой herself [hs'self] pron себя, себе, собой (о 3-м лице ед. ч. женск. рода) hey [hei] int эй! ну! (оклик; тж. выражает вопрос, радость, изумление) hide [haid] v(hid, hidden) прятать(ся), скры-вать(ся) high [hat] 1. а 1) высокий 2) высший, главный 2. adv высоко high-altitude [,hai'£ltitju:d] п attr расположенный на большой высоте highlight ['hailait] 1. п самое главное событие 2. V 1) ярко освещать 2) придавать большое значение highlighted ['hailaitid] а зд. выделенный highly ['haili] adv очень, весьма, чрезвычайно, сильно high-tech [,hai'tek] а высокотехнологичный hill [hil] п холм, возвышение himself [him'self] pron себя, себе, собой (о 3-м лице ед. ч. мужск. рода) Hindi ['hindi] п язык хинди hint [hint] п 1) намек 2) совет hip [hip] п 1) бедро, бок 2) плод или ягода шиповника hippie ['hipi] п хиппи historian [hi'stDinan] п историк historic [hi'stonk] а исторический; имеющий историческое значение historical [hi'stnnkl] а исторический: исторически установленный: относящийся к истории history ['histn] п история hobby [’hobi] п излюбленное занятие, увлечение hold [hould] V (held) 1) держать 2) проводить; - on (а minute)! подожди (минутку)! holiday ['holidi] п 1) праздник, день отдыха, нерабочий день 2) р1 каникулы hollow ['holdu] 1. п пустота; впадина 2. а пустой, полый home [hdum] п 1) дом; at дома 2) домашний очаг, родные, семья; old people’s дом престарелых homegrown [,hdum'grdun] а 1) отечественного производства, местный 2) доморощенный home-leaver ['hdumluva] п ушедший из дома homeless ['haumlDs] а бездомный honest ['onist] а 1) честный 2) правдивый honestly ['onistli] adv 1) честно 2) искренне, правдиво Ьопеупгюоп ['Ьлтти:п] п медовый месяц honour ('опэ] 1. п {АЕ honor) честь, слава 2. V почитать, чтить hoodlum ['hu:dl3m] п разе, хулиган, громила hope [hdup] v надеяться hopeless ['houpbs] a 1) безнадежный 2) отчаявшийся horrible ['hunbl] a страшный, ужасающий horrified ['horifaid] a в ужасе horror ['hord] n 1) ужас 2) attr: - film фильм ужасов hospital ('hospitl] n больница hospitality [,hDspi'taelili] n гостеприимство, радушие host [hdost] n хозяин hostel ['hostl] n общежитие (особ, студенческое) hot [hm] a горячий, жаркий hotel [hdu'iel] n гостиница hour ['aud] n час household ['haushould] 1. n домашнее хозяйство 2. a домашний, семейный housing ['hauziol n жилищные условия however [hau'evd] adv как бы ни huge [hju:^] a огромный, громадный human ['hjirmdnj a человеческий humankind [,hju:mdn'kamd] n человечество я 317 humorous ['hju:mdrds] a забавный, юмористический humour ['hjucma] n юмор hundred ['hAndrid] num сто Hungarian [Нло'деэпэп] a венгерский hungry ['Ьло^п] в голодный husband ['hAzbsnd] n муж hush [HaJ] 1. n тишина 2. v водворять тишину 3. int тише! тс! hypnotise ['hipnstaiz] v гипнотизировать hypocrisy [hi'pDkr^si] n лицемерие hypocritical [,hip3'kritikl] a лицемерный I i ice-skating ['aisskeitio] n катание на коньках idea [ai'did] n идея, мысль ideal [,ai'didl] 1. n идеал 2. a идеальный identify [ai'dentifai] v 1) (with) устанавливать тождество 2) опознавать identity [ai'dentiti] n тождественность, идентичность idiom ['idism] n идиома, идиоматическое выражение ignore [ig'no:] v игнорировать ill [il] a predic больной, нездоровый; be -быть больным illustration [,il3'streijn] n иллюстрация image ['пшф] n образ image-maker ('imictsmeikd] n имиджмейкер, специалист, корректирующий образ человека (политика, артиста и т. п.) imaginary [1'тзефпп] а воображаемый imagination [i,maed;i'neijn] п воображение imagine [I'maecfein] v представлять себе, воображать immediately [i'mi:di3tli] adv немедленно immigrant ['imigrant) n иммигрант impolite [дтрэМак] a невежливый, неучтивый import 1. n [im'port] импорт, ввоз 2. v ['impD:t] импортировать, ввозить importance [im'poitdns] n важность important [im'po:t9nt] a важный impossible [im'posibl] a невозможный impress [im'pres] v производить впечатление, поражать impression [im'prejn] n впечатление impressive [im'presiv] a производящий глубокое впечатление; впечатляющий improper [im'prDpa] a 1) неподходящий 2) неправильный improve [im'pru:v] v улучшать(ся) improvement [im'pru:vm3nt] n улучшение, усовершенствование improvisation [,impr3vai'zeijnj n импровизация inability [,ind'biliti] n неспособность, невозможность inactive [m'aektiv] a бездеятельный inadequate [m'aedikwit] a не отвечающий требованиям; недостаточный; несоразмерный inappropriate [дпэ'ргзирпи] а неуместный, неподходящий, несоответствующий incandescent [,ink£en'desnt] а раскаленный incapable [in'keipsbl] а неспособный inch [inlf] п дюйм (= 2,5 см) include [in'kluid] v 1) заключать, содержать в себе 2) включать income ['щкАш] п доход; заработок increase [in'kriis] v возрастать, увеличи-вать(ся) incredible [m'kredibl] а 1) неправдоподобный, невероятный 2) разг. потрясающий independence [,indi'pend3ns] п независимость Indian ['mdian] а 1) индийский (относящийся к Индии) 2) индейский (относящийся к американским индейцам) indifference [in'difrsns] п равнодушие indifferent [in'difront] а безразличный individual [,indi'vi(^udl] 1. а личный, индивидуальный 2. п личность, человек individuality [^indivic^u'scliti] п индивидуальность industrial [in'dAStndl] а 1) промышленный 2) производственный industrialised [in'dAStnolaizd] а индустриальный industry ['indostn] п промышленность ineffective [,ini'fekiiv] а 1) безрезультатный 2) неспособный, неумелый infant ['infant] п младенец, ребенок influence ['influans] v (по)влиять influx ['inflAks] n 1) приток, прилив 2) наплыв, внезапное появление 318 informative [inTotmoiiv] a информационный ingredient [in'gitdidiu] n составная часть inhabited [in'hsebitsd] a населенный innocence ('masns] n 1) невинность, чистота 2) невиновность innovation [,m3'veijn] n нововведение, новшество inside [in'said] n внутренняя сторона или поверхность instance ['instans] n пример: for * например instant ['instant] a 1) немедленный 2) растворимый instead [in'sted] adv вместо institute ['institjal] 1. n институт 2, v устанавливать, вводить; учреждать, основывать institution [,insti'tju:Jn] n 1) учреждение, введение 2) общество, организация instruction [in'stFAkfn] п 1) образование; обучение 2) обыкн. pt указания, директивы insurance [m'Juarans] п страхование integral ['mtigral] а неотъемлемый integrate ['intigreil] v объединять intend [in'tend] v намереваться interact [,intar'£ekt] v взаимодействовать intercity [,inta'siti] a междугородный Interested ['intristid] a заинтересованный interfere [^intsTia] v вмешиваться, мешать internal [in'ta.nl] a внутренний internationally [^inu'naejnsli] adv всемирно Internet ['intanet] n Интернет interpret [in'taipnt] v 1) объяснять, толковать 2) переводить interrupt [,1тэ'глр1] v прерывать introduce [,inir3'dju;s] v представлять, знакомить invalid ['mvsikd] 1. n больной; инвалид 2. a больной; нетрудоспособный invalid [in'vselid] a не имеющий законной силы, недействительный invalidity [,mv3'liditi] п инвалидность invaluable [in'vaeljudbl] а неоценимый, бесценный invent [in'vent] v изобретать invention [in'venjn] n изобрютение inventor (in'ventd) n изобретатель investigate [in'vestigeit] v 1) расследовать 2) исследовать, изучать invisible [m'vizibl] a невидимый invitation [,invi'teijn] n приглашение invite [in'vait] v приглашать, звать, просить involve [in'vDlv] v вовлекать Irish ['aianj] 1. n 1) the pi собир. ирландцы, ирландский народ 2) ирландский язык 2. а ирландский iron ['aian] п 1) железо 2) утюг island ['aildnd] п остров issue ['i/u:] 1. п выпуск, издание 2. v 1) выходить (об издании) 2) выпускать, издавать: пускать в обращение (деньги и т. п.) item ['апэт] п 1) пункт, параграф 2) отдельный предмет (в списке) 3) вопрос ivy ['arvij п бот. плющ J J jacket ['фаекп] п куртка jail [фс11] п АЕ тюрьма jam [ф2ет] 1. п 1) сжатие 2) защемление 2. V зажимать, сжимать Jamaican [фэ'те1кп] а ямайский jeer [фэ] V насмехаться, глумиться, высмеивать. зло подшучивать jet [(feet] п 1) реактивный двигатель 2) разг. реактивный самолет jev/ellery ['cfeuisln] п драгоценности, ювелирные изделия jigsaw ['cfeigso:] л составная картинка-загадка job [ф)Ь] п работа, труд jobless ['cfeobbs] а безработный joblessness ['cfenbldsnss] п безработица join [cfeoin] V соединять(ся), присоединять! ся) joke [cfeduk] v шутить, подшучивать journalist [' n потенциал 2. a возможный, потенциальный pound (paundj n 1) фунт (= 453,6 г) 2) фунт стерлингов poverty ['povati] n бедность; below the --level/line за чертой бедности powder ['pauda] n 1) порошок, пыль 2) пуд-pa power ['раиэ] n 1) сила 2) власть powerful ['pauafl] a сильный, мощный practically ['pirektikli] adv практически practice ['praekiis] n практика practitioner [ргаек'п/пэ] n практикующий врач pragmatic [prseg'maetik] a филос. прагматический prairie ['ргеэп] n прерия, степь predict [pn'dikt] v предсказывать predictability [pn^diktd'bilsti] n способность предсказывать prefer [pn'fa;] v предпочитать preference ['prefrans] n предпочтение pregnancy ['pregnansi] n беременность pregnant ['pregnant] a беременная prelude ['prcljitd] n мул. прелюдия preparation [,prepa'reijn] n приготовление; make -^s (for) готовиться (к чему-л.) prepare [рп'реэ] v 1) готовить, подготавливать 2) готовиться pre-recorded [,pri:n'ko:didl а кино предварительно записанный present 1, п ['preznt] подарок 2, v [pn'zent] дарить president ['prezidnt] п президент presidential [,prezi'denjl] а президентский press [pres] 1. п пресса, печать 2, v 1) нажимать 2) давить pressure ['preja] п давление pretend [pn'tend] v притворяться, делать вид pretty [фпи] 1. а 1) хорошенький, приятный 2) разг. значительный 2. adv разг. довольно, достаточно, в значительной степени prevent [pn'vem] v предотвращать prevention [pn'venjn] n предотвращение, предупреждение, предохранение price [prais] n цена; at a ~ по высокой цене primitive ['pnmitiv] a 1) примитивный 2) первобытный principle ['pnnsipl] n принцип, закон print [pnni] V печатать priority [prai'nnti] n 1) старшинство, приоритет 2) очередность prison ['pnzn] n тюрьма prisoner ['pnznaj n заключенный privacy ['pnvasi] n уединение, одиночество private ['praivit] a частный; личный; go ~ перейти на частное медицинское обслуживание privilege ['pnvilicfe] п привилегия prize [praiz] п награда, приз OCABULARY pro [ргэи] п {сокр. от professional) профессионал pro and con [,ргэо and 'коп] adv за и против process ['prsuses] п 1) процесс 2) метод, технологический процесс 3) ** chart график, расписание proclaim [pro'kleim] v провозглашать proclamation [^prokb'mei/n] n 1) объявление 2) провозглашение produce [prs'dju^] v производить producer [prd'dju:s9] n режиссер-постановщик, продюсер profit ['profit] 1. n польза, выгода 2, v 1) приносить пользу 2) извлекать пользу programme ['ргэидгает] л {АЕ program) программа prohibition [,prduhi'bijn] л запрет project ['pnxfeekt] л проект, план promise ['promis] л обещание; keep one's * сдержать обещание pronounce [prs'nauns] v произносить pronunciation [ргэ,плп$1'е1|п] л произношение proof [pruif] л доказательство proper ['ргорэ] а правильный, подходящий property ['ргорэи] л 1) свойство 2) имущество proportion [pr^'pajnj л пропорция propose [pro'pwz] V предложить, предлагать protect [ргэЧекг] v защищать (against против чего-л.; from от чего-л.) protection [prs'tek/n] л защита, оборона protest [pra'tesi] v протестовать, возражать proud [praud] а гордый prove [piu*v] V доказывать proverb ['prov3:b] л пословица provide [pro'vaid] v 1) обеспечивать, снабжать 2) предоставлять provision [ргэ\1зп] 1. л 1) заготовление, заготовка 2) снабжение, обеспечение 2. v снабжать продовольствием provoke [ргэ'уэик] v 1) вызывать, возбуждать 2) провоцировать public ['рлЬЬк] а общественный publish ['рлЬЬЛ V 1) публиковать 2) издавать pull [pul] V 1) тянуть, тащить 2) дергать pump [рлшр] л насос punish ['рлшЛ V наказывать purple ['рз:р1] а пурпурный purpose ['рз:рэ5] л намерение, цель push (риЛ 1- п толчок, удар 2, v толкать put [put] V (put) класть, положить puzzle ['рл7.1] л загадка, головоломка Q Ч qualify ['kwnlifai] v квалифицировать, определять quality ['kwDhti] л качество quantity ['kwontiti] л количество quarry ['kwon] л каменоломня, карьер quarter ['kwDia] л четверть queue [kju:] 1. л очередь 2. v стоять в очереди quick [kwik] а быстрый, скорый quiet ['kwaiat] а 1) спокойный, тихий, бесшумный 2) мирный, спокойный quite [kwait] adv вполне, совершенно quote [kwaut] 1. л разг. цитата 2. v цитировать, ссылаться (на кого-л., что-л.) R г race [reis] л состязание в беге racist ['reisist] л расист radio ['reidiau] л радио railroad ['rcilraud] л АЕ 1) железная дорога 2) attr железнодорожный railway ['reilwei] п BE ^) железная дорога 2) attr железнодорожный rainfall ['reinfo:!] л метеор. 1) ливень 2) количество осадков raise [reiz] v поднимать range [reincfe] 1. л ряд, линия; цепь 2. v 1) выстраивать(ся) в ряд, ставить в порядке 2) классифицировать rank [ггеок] v строить в шеренгу ransom ['rsenssm] 1. л выкуп 2. v 1) освобождать за выкуп 2) требовать выкупа rapidly ('reepidli] adv быстро rare [res] a редкий rate [ren] 1. л разряд, класс, сорт 2. v оценивать, устанавливать стоимость rather ['raids] adv скорее, лучше; - than предпочтительнее, чем ... rave [reiv] л танцевальная вечеринка, длящаяся всю ночь ОСАВииШ 329 reach [ri:ij] v 1) достигать, доходить 2) настигнуть react [n'aekt] ^ реагировать read [ri:d] у (read [red]) читать ready ['redi] a готовый, приготовленный reality [n'seliti] n действи1ельнои1ь, реальность reason ['ri:zn] n причина, повод, основание reasonable ['гйгпэЫ] a 1) (благо)разумный 2) умеренный; приемлемый rebel [n'bel] v протестовать rebellion [n'beljsn] n восстание rebellious [n'belj^s] a бунтарский receive [ri'sL'v] v получать, принимать recent ['ri:snt] a недавний, последний, новый reception [n'sepjn] n прием receptionist [n'sepjnist] n секретарь в приемной recognise ['rekagnaiz) v 1) узнавать 2) признавать record 1. n ['rekotdj граммофонная пластинка 2. V [n'ko:d] записывать на пластинку, на пленку reduce [n'dju:s] v уменьшать, сокращать redundancy [n'dAnddnsi] п сокращение рабочих или служащих, сокращение штатов redundant [n'dAndsm] а уволенный по сокращению штаюв redwood ['redwud] п красное дерево refer [пТз:] у посылать, отсылать referendum [,ref9'rend3m] п полит, референдум refinery [пТашэп] п очистительный завод reflect [n'flekt] у отражать(ся) reflection [n'flekjn] п отражение, отблеск reform [n'foim] 1, п реформа, преобразование 2. у преобразовывать, улучшать refuse [n'fju:z] у отказывать(ся), отвергать regard [n'goid] у считать, рассматривать: --with считаться с regardless [n'gadbs] ady не обращая внимания, не думая; of невзирая на, не считаясь с regime [rei'skm] п режим, строй region ['п:с[5п] п страна, край, область regional ['ri;cfenl] а областной, местный registered ['reo] а 1) сильный 2) здоровый 3) прочный study ('stAdi] 1. п учение 2. v изучать stuff [suf] V набивать, заполнять; начинять, фаршировать; ^ed toy мягкая игрушка stumble ['stAmbl] 1. п спотыкание; запинка 2. V 1) спотыкаться 2) запинаться stunt man ['stAnt msen] n каскадер subject ['sAbcfeikt] n предмет, дисциплина submission [sdb'mijn] n 1) подчинение 2) повиновение, покорность UMY success [sdk'ses] n успех successful [sdk'sesfl] a успешный, удачливый such [sAtJl a такой, подобный suck [$лк] V поглощать; засасывать suffer ['$лГэ] V 1) страдать: терпеть; - from страдать от чего-л. 2) переживать suggest [sa'cfeest] v предлагать, советовать suggestion [sa'c^stjn] п совет, предложение suicide ['su:isaid) п самоубийство; commit покончить жизнь самоубийством suit [su:t] 1. п костюм 2. v 1) быть к лицу 2) подходить, соответствовать suitable [ЧачэЫ] а подходящий, соответствующий sunlight ['sAnlait] п солнечный свет super [Чшрэ] а разг. превосходный superb [$Ju/p3:b] а великолепный, роскошный, прекрасный supplementary [,SApli'menin] а дополнительный support [$э'рэ:1] 1. V поддерживать 2. п поддержка suppose [sd'pduz] v предполагать supposition [,SAp3'ziJn] n предположение supreme [su:'pri:m] a верховный sure LTd;] 1. a уверенный 2. adv AE конечно, непременно surgeon ['s3:^i] n хирург surprise [sa'praizj v удивлять survey ['s3:vei) n обозрение, осмотр, обзор survive [so'vaiv] v 1) пережить 2) остаться в живых suspense [ss'spens] n неопределенность; беспокойство, тревога swallow ['swdIqu] v глотать sweep [swi:p] v (swept) мести, подметать sweet [swi;t] 1. a 1) сладкий 2) милый 2. n леденец, конфета swim [swim] v(swam, swum) плавать, плыть switch [switj] V переключать; * off выключать; on включать sympathise ['simpoGaiz] v сочувствовать sympathy ['simpaGi] n сочувствие T t table ['teibl] n 1) стол 2) таблица tacky [Чгек!] a 1) липкий 2) разг. низкого класса taint [teint] 1. п зараза 2, v заражать(ся) take [leik] v (took, taken) брать; off снимать; -- out вынимать; part принимать участие; - a photo фотографировать tale [teil] n рассказ, повесть talk [io:k] 1. n разговор; беседа 2. v говорить; разговаривать; - about, of говорить 0 чем-л.; with говорить с кем-л. tall [1э:1] а высокий tape [te;p] п магнитофонная лента taste [teist] 1. п вкус (чувство) 2. v (по)про-бовать (на вкус) tax [taeks] п налог; —free освобожденный от налогов taxation [taek'seijn] п взимание налога teach v (taught) учить, обучать team [tlm] n спортивная команда tear [tiaj n слеза tear [tea] v (tore, torn) рвать technical [4ekmkl] a технический technology [1ек'по1эф1] n технология teen [ii:n] n AE разг подросток teenager ['limeKfea] n подросток tell [tel] V (told) 1) рассказывать 2) говорить 3) сказать temper [Четрэ] n 1) нрав, характер 2) настроение; in а good (bad) в хорошем (плохом) настроении; lose one’s ^ выйти из себя tend [tend] v иметь тенденцию (к чему-л.) tendency ['tendansi) п тенденция term [t3:m] п 1) срок; long (short) ^ sick длительно (кратковременно) болеющий 2) семестр, четверть terrible [ЧепЫ] а ужасный, страшный terrific [ta'nfik] а 1) ужасающий 2) разг (с усил. знач.) огромный, необычайный than [daen] cj чем thank [Gseok] v благодарить; ^s to благодаря чему-л. that [daet] pron demonstr [pi those [dwz]) TOT, та, TO themselves [dam'selvz] pron refl себя, себе, -ся then [den] adv 1) тогда 2) потом, затем there [деэ] adv 1) там 2) туда therefore ['деэГэ:] adv поэтому, следовательно 335 thick [0ik] a 1) толстый 2) густой thin [Oin] a тонкий think [6iQk] V (thought) думать this [dis] pron demonstr (p/these [di;z)) этот, эта, это though [dw] cj хотя, несмотря на thought [Oort] n 1) мысль 2) мышление thousand ['Oauznd] num card тысяча threaten ['Oretn] v грозить, угрожать threatening ['OretniQ] a угрожающий thriller ['Onloj n книга или фильм, рассчитанные на то, чтобы взволновать, захватить читателя, зрителя; триллер through [0га] ргер через, сквозь, по throughout [Orur'aut] prep через, по всей площади, длине thus [дл5] adv так, таким образом tick [tik] 1. п отметка, галочка 2. сделать отметку, помечать ticket [4ikit] п билет tight [lait] adv 1) тесно 2) плотно 3) крепко till [III] cj до тех пор; пока (не) time [taim] п 1) время 2) раз tinfoil ['tinfail] а покрытый фольгой tiny [4ami] а крошечный tip [tip] п 1) совет 2) чаевые tired ['laiad] а усталый title ['taitl] 1. п 1) заглавие 2) звание 2. v называть, давать заглавие toe [tau] п палец ноги; on one's '-s быть решительным, предприимчивым together [ta'geda] adv вместе; get ^ соби-рать(ся) tolerance ['tolarans] п терпимость tolerant [ЧЫэгэт] а терпимый tonsil ['tons!] п миндалевидная железа; have '-S out удалять миндалины tonsillitis [.mnsi'laitis] о мед. воспаление миндалин, тонзиллит tool [turl] п рабочий (ручной) инструмент tooth [tu:0] п (р/ teeth) зуб top [шр] п верх topic ['tDpik] п тема, предмет обсуждения touch [tAtJ] 1. п прикосновение; be in держать связь 2. v прикасаться, трогать touching ['utjio] а трогательный tough [tAf] а жесткий; плотный; упругий tour [tiw] п путешествие, поездка towards [is'wordz] prep к, по направлению к trace [ireis] п след tragedy [4rse(feidi] п трагедия tragic [Чгаефк] а трагический trail [treii] п след trained [treind] а выученный; обученный trait [treit] n характерная черта trash [traej] п 1) ерунда, вздор 2) хлам, мусор treasure [Чгезэ] п сокровище treat [tri.i] V 1) обращаться, относиться 2) лечить treatment [Чпптэш] п лечение, уход trembling [ЧгетЫщ] п 1) дрожь 2) страх, трепет trendy [4rendi] а разг. модный, стильный trick [tnk] п хитрость, обман trip [tnp] п путешествие, поездка troop [tru:p] V двигаться толпой; down идти строем trouble [ЧглЫ] 1. п беспокойство 2. v бес-покоить(ся) trousers [4rauz3z] п р! брюки true [tni:] а 1) верный, правильный 2) верный, преданный trust [tr\st] V доверять(ся), полагаться truth [iru:0] п правда try [irai] V пробовать, пытаться; ** off (по)пробовать tsar [za] п царь T-shirt [ЧцГз:1] п тенниска, футболка tube [iju;b] п 1) труба 2) туннель 3) (the *') метрополитен (в Лондоне) tug [t\g] V 1) тащить с усилием 2) (at) дергать изо всех сил 3) буксировать tune [tjurn] 1, п мелодия 2. v настраивать: ^ in настраивать радиоприемник (телевизор); up настраивать (инструмент) turn [t3:n] 1. n очередь 2. v вращать(ся), вертеть(ся): off выключать; - out ока- заться, оказываться: up сделать громче turntable [43:n,teibl] л 1) диск ^лагефона) 2) проигрыватель (для пластинок) type [taip] л 1) тип, типичный образец 2) модель, образец tyranny [Ч1ГЭП1] л 1) тирания, деспотизм 2) тиранство, жестокость tyre [Ча1э] л шина 336 и u under ['лпс1э] prep под undergo [,лпс1э'дэи] v (underwent, undergone) испытывать, переносить underground ['Andagraund] n 1) метрополитен 2) разг. андерграунд understand [^Ands'stsend] v (understood) понимать unemployed [,Anim'ploid] 1. a безработный 2. n (the ^) pi собир. безработные unemployment [,лтт'р1э1тэт] n безработица union ['juinjan] n союз unique [ju:'ni:k] a уникальный universal [Ju:ni'v3;sl] a 1) всеобщий; всемирный 2) универсальный university [,ju:ni'v3;siii] n университет until [An'til] cj до тех пор; пока (не) unwilling [aii'wiIii}] а не желающий делать что-л. up [лр] adv указывает на нахождение наверху или на более высокое положение наверху updated [Ap'deiud] а современный upset [Ap'set] а расстроенный urgent ['3:(fenl] а 1) срочный 2) крайне необходимый usage ['jiusidj] п употребление use [ju:z] v употреблять used [ju:st] a привыкший; get - to привыкать useful ['juisfl] a полезный useless ['ju:sl3s] a бесполезный usual [']и:зиэ1] a обыкновенный, обычный utility [ju:4iiiti] n 1) полезность, выгодность 2) pf {тж. public utilities) коммунальные услуги V V vacation [vs'keijn] n AE каникулы vacuum cleaner ['vaekjuam ,к1кпэ] n пылесос vague [veig] a неопределенный, неясный valley ['vaeli] n долина value ['vselju:] 1. n ценность 2. v оценивать vampire ['vsempais] n вампир van [vaen] n 1) фургон 2) вагон vanguard ['vaenga;d] n воен. головной отряд, авангард variety [va'raiati] n разнообразие vary ['veari] v менять(ся) vast [vo:sl] a 1) обширный, громадный: безбрежный 2) многочисленный vegetable ['vecfetsbl] n овощ vehicle [Virikl] n средство передвижения veranda(h) [va'raenda] n веранда, терраса version ['v3:/n] n версия; вариант veteran ['vetran] n ветеран veterinarian [деш'пеэпэп] n {разг. vet) ветеринарный врач veto ('vi:t3u] 1. n вето 2. v налагать вето view [vju:] 1. n вид, пейзаж 2. v осматривать violence ['vaialsns] n жестокость, насилие violent I'vaidbnt] a насильственный vocalist ['vauklist] n вокалист; певец; певица voice [vDis] n голос volcano [vDl'kemau] n {pi -oes) вулкан voltage ['vaultufe] n эл. напряжение volunteer [^voian'lia] n доброволец vote [vam] 1. n (избирательный) голос 2. v голосовать W w wage [weicfe] n (обыкн. pi) заработная плата wait [wen] v (for) ждать wake [weik] v (woke, woken) 1) просыпаться 2) будить walk [wo:k] 1. n 1) ходьба 2) прогулка пешком 2. V 1) ходить 2) идти пешком wall [wal] n стена wallflower ['wD:l,flauo] n шутл. дама, оставшаяся без кавалера (на вечеринке) war [wd:] п война ward [wD:d] п 1) опека; in под опекой 2) больничная палата warehouse ['weohaus] п 1) большой магазин 2) склад warm [worm] 1. а теплый; согретый, подогретый 2. V греть(ся); нагревать(ся) warn [wDin] V предупреждать wash [wDj] V 1) мыть(ся) 2) стирать; up мыть посуду washboard ['wDjbD:d] л стиральная доска 337 waste [weisi] 1. n 1) пустыня 2) потери, убыль, ущерб 3) излишняя трата 2, v терять (время)-, тратить впустую watch [wDtJ] V наблюдать, смотреть wave [weiv] п волна wax [wa^kb] п воск way [wei] п 1) путь; дорога 2) способ; in а (proper) -- наилучшим способом; the other round наоборот; the - I see it так, как я это себе представляю weak [wi:k] а слабый weaken ['wiiksn] v делать слабым wealth [wel0] п богатство wear [wea] v (wore, worn) носить (одежду и т. п.) weather ['weds] п погода web [web] п паутина wedding ['wedio] п свадьба weight [wen] п вес welcome ['welkam] v приветствовать welfare ['welfea] n социальное обеспечение well [wel] adv (better, best) хорошо werewolf [Veawulf] n оборотень west [west] n запад western ['westan] 1, a западный 2. n вестерн, ковбойский фильм wet [wet] a мокрый, влажный whatever [wot'eva] a какой бы ни, любой wheel [wi:l] n колесо whenever [wen'eva] cj всякий раз когда; когда бы ни whereas [wear'aez] cj 1) тогда, как 2) несмотря на то, что 3) принимая во внимание, поскольку whether ['weda] cj ли which [witfl pron inter который? какой? кто? (подразумевается выбор) while [wail] 1. п время, промежуток времени 2. cj 1) пока, в то время как 2) несмотря на то, что whistle ['wisl] 1. п свист 2. v свистеть whole [haul] а целый, весь wide [waid] а широкий widow ['widau] п вдова; be '-ed овдоветь widower ['widaua] п вдовец wife [waif] п {pi wives [-vz]) жена wild [waild] a дикий; in the на воле win [win] V (won) выигрывать; победить wind [wind] n ветер wing [wiij] n крыло wise [waiz] a мудрый wish [wi^ 1. n желание 2. v желать, хотеть witch [wit^ n колдунья, ведьма within [wid'in] prep в. в пределах without [wid'aut] prep без wizard ['wizad] n волшебник, колдун woman ['woman] n {pi women ['wimm]) женщина wonder ['wAnda] 1. n удивление; no -- ; small ~ неудивительно 2. v 1) удивляться 2) интересоваться wood [wud] n лес; роща wool [wul] n шерсть work [w3:k] 1, n работа 2. v работать; - out разрабатывать worry ['wAn] V беспокоить(ся) worth [w3:0] a predic стоящий worthwhile [,w3:0'wail] a стоящий wound [wu:nd] 1. л 1) рана 2) обида, оскорбление 2. V 1) ранить 2) причинить боль write [гаи] v (wrote, written) писать wrong [roi}] a неправильный X X X-ray ['eksrei] 1. n (обыкн. pi) рентгеновы лучи; attr рентгеновский 2. v исследовать рентгеновыми лучами Yy yard [jo:d] n двор yawn [jocn] 1. n зевота 2, v зевать yet [jet] adv еще; все еще young [|ло] a молодой, юный youngster ['jAQsts] л юнец yours иэ2] pron poss (абсолютная форма) ваш; твой yourself [j^'self] pron refi {pi yourselves) себя, себе; -ся, -сь youth []ш0] л юность; молодость г ж zit [zit] п прыщ 338 Some personal names Adams ['aedamz], John Quincy (,фоп 'kwinsi) Annie Wignal |,aeni 'wignsl] Anthony Leanna (,аетэш 'liina] Apache Indian (9,paetfi 'mdisn] Baird (bedd), John Logie [,cfeDn 'laugi) Bart Naik (,bat 'neik| Benz [benz], Karl (ko:l] Bert Baxter [,Ьз:1 'baeksts] Biro I'bairaul, L. (el) Bolo I'bsulau], Yami ('jami) Cameron ('каетгэп], James ((feeimz) Christiansen ['knstfsnsan] Clark [klakl, Buddy ('bAdi] Danes |deinz], Claire [к1еэ| Drew (dm;], Richard ['ntfsd] Dunn |(1лп], Douglas ('dAglss] Estelle Hammersley |i,stel 'haernszli] Flatow I'flsetsul, Sheryl I'Jenl] Ford |fo:d], Henry ('henn) Gilbreth Carey [,gilbr90 'кеэп], Ernestine [,3:ni'sti:n] Gilbreth ['gilbr^l, Frank Bunker [,Ггжок 'Ьлокэ] Harvey Alston (,ha;vi 'aisin| Hayes (heizl, Helen ['helan) Haynes I'heims]. Betsy ('betsi] Hedfords I'hedfordz], Bo [Ьзи] Hewitt ['hjiril], Karen ['каегэп) Hinton I'hintan], Nigel ['naicfel) Hughes ['hjirz], Barnard [bs'moid] Hutton I'hAtn], Timothy ['timaGi] Irene Scott [,airi:n 'skot) James Hutchinson (^cfeeimz 'hAtfinsn) John McCarthy [,